Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Boland Nazar, Ali Reza
Background Scrophularia striata (Scrophulariaceae family) is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used for treatment of microbial infections. Objectives Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of different extracts (methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate) from S. striata aerial parts was evaluated. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity of different extracts from S. striata was evaluated against a large number of bacteria and fungi by micro broth dilution. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and their antioxidant activities evaluated by DPPH assay and beta carotene linoleic acid test. Results Antimicrobial screening exhibited the positive relation between the total phenolic content and its antimicrobial activity but their antioxidant activity had a negative relation. Conclusions Further studies are recommended against clinical isolate of sensitive bacteria and deep investigation on flavonoid and phenolic compounds of S. striata and detecting the antioxidant portion in aqueous extract. PMID:24624181
Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia
Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3.
Amensour, Mahassine; Sendra, Esther; Abrini, Jamal; Bouhdid, Samira; Pérez-Alvarez, José Angel; Fernández-López, Juana
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaves and berries were measured to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, the reducing antioxidant power assay and beta-carotene linoleic acid assay. The total phenol content of myrtle extracts ranged between 9.0 and 35.6 mg GAE per g extract. For each solvent, leaf extracts contained significantly higher amount of total phenolic compounds than berry extracts. All of the extracts presented antioxidant capacity assessed by the three methods, but at different levels depending on the concentration, the extraction solvent and the part of the plant used. Generally, leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than berry extracts, while the overall antioxidant strength was in the order methanol > water > ethanol in leaf extracts and methanol > ethanol > water in berry extracts. The phenolic content exhibited a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity: DPPH assay showed the highest correlation (r = 0.949), followed by the reducing power assay (r = 0.914) and the lowest for the beta-carotene linoleic acid assay (r = 0.722).
Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Gow-Chin
Epidemiology studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Induction of cellular phase II detoxifying enzymes is associated with cancer preventive potential. Phenolsulfotransferases (PSTs) are traditionally known as phase II drug-metabolizing or detoxifying enzymes that facilitate the removal of drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. Phenolic acids are known to increase the activities of PSTs. In the present study, human HepG2 cells were used as model to investigate the influence of twenty vegetables on human PST activity and to evaluate the relationships to their antioxidant activity and total phenolics content. The result showed that PST-P activity was significantly (p < 0.01) induced by asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, celery and eggplant, whereas PST-M activity was induced by asparagus, broccoli, carrot, eggplant and potato at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The vegetable extracts that induced both forms of PSTs activities were found to have higher antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The major polyphenols in broccoli, the most potential inducer in both forms of PSTs activities, was antioxidant phenolic acids. HPLC retention times and standard spiked indicated the presence of gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, gentisic acid and ferulic acid in broccoli. The overall effect of vegetables tested on the activity of PST-P was well correlated to their ORAC value and total phenolics content (r= 0.82, p < 0.05 and r = 0.78, p < 0.05). These results imply that vegetables have a capability of inducing PST activity, and the PST induction may be possibly ascribed to antioxidant phenolic acids in vegetable extracts.
Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á
Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.
Mohamed, Norhidayu; Abdullah, Aminah
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii obtained from Langkawi, Kedah and Semporna, Sabah were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were determined according to the Folin Ciocalteau method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by three methods namely Free Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). Both of the TPC and FRAP assays showed that seaweed from Semporna, Sabah significantly (p<0.05) had higher antioxidant activities compared to Langkawi, Kedah one (Semporna's seaweed: 73.25 mg GAE/100g and 16.94 µmol TE/100g, Langkawi's seaweed: 54.35 mg GAE/100g and 10.01 µmol TE/100 g). However, the seaweed from Langkawi (60.93 µmol TE/100g) show higher TEAC value compared to seaweed from Semporna (36.36 µmol TE/100g) but for DPPH assay there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the samples. Pearson coefficient correlation test, showed that there was a positive correlation (p<0.01) between TPC and antioxidant activity (FRAP assay) (r=0.980) and thus it can be concluded that the phenolic compounds was a contributor of the antioxidant activity in Kappaphycus alvarezii.
Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Aslam, Maryam; Ijaz, Sidra
The present work explores antimutagenic and antioxidant potential as well as total phenolics of aqueous and acidified methanol extractable components from clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) seed. The magnitude of antimutagenic activity of clove seed extracts (CSE) against two mutant bacterial strains: S. typhimurium TA98 and S. typhimurium TA100 (Ames bacterial test) ranged from 34.11-79.74%. Antioxidant activity in terms of measurement of DPPH radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation was noted to be 71.16-94.58% and 54.96-86.89%, respectively. CSE also exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics with contribution between 22.80 and 115.33 GAE mg/100g. A strong correlation between total phenolics and tested biological activities were recorded. The results of this study advocate that clove seed can be explored as a viable source of bioactives for the development of chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer in addition to acting as nutraceutical and functional food ingredient.
Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Inkėnienė, Asta Marija; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Briedis, Vitalis
The manufacture of ethanol-free propolis solutions offers a broader application. A few trials with Lithuanian propolis have been conducted. The aims of the study are to manufacture propolis water and water-free solutions and evaluate the quality and antimicrobial activity of these solutions. The studied solutions containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% propolis are prepared. As solvents, purified water, 70% v/v ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, propylene glycol, and their systems were used. Determination of total levels of phenolic compounds (FAE mg/g) is based on colour oxidation-reduction reaction using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent under alkaline conditions and performed at 765 nm wavelength using UV spectrophotometer. The highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in solutions containing 10% propolis extracts, and the lowest amounts in 2.5% propolis extracts. The water extracted the lowest amount of phenolic compounds from crude propolis, ethanol extracted the highest amount, and propylene glycol ranked the middle position. It is determined that technological parameters (stirring, temperature) contribute to content of phenolic compounds. During microbiological study, MICs were determined. The studies showed that water extracted propolis solutions and solvents mixture did not inhibit the growth of the studied microorganisms, and propolis solutions in propylene glycol were found to have antimicrobial activity. PMID:23573156
Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Inkėnienė, Asta Marija; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Briedis, Vitalis
The manufacture of ethanol-free propolis solutions offers a broader application. A few trials with Lithuanian propolis have been conducted. The aims of the study are to manufacture propolis water and water-free solutions and evaluate the quality and antimicrobial activity of these solutions. The studied solutions containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% propolis are prepared. As solvents, purified water, 70% v/v ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, propylene glycol, and their systems were used. Determination of total levels of phenolic compounds (FAE mg/g) is based on colour oxidation-reduction reaction using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent under alkaline conditions and performed at 765 nm wavelength using UV spectrophotometer. The highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in solutions containing 10% propolis extracts, and the lowest amounts in 2.5% propolis extracts. The water extracted the lowest amount of phenolic compounds from crude propolis, ethanol extracted the highest amount, and propylene glycol ranked the middle position. It is determined that technological parameters (stirring, temperature) contribute to content of phenolic compounds. During microbiological study, MICs were determined. The studies showed that water extracted propolis solutions and solvents mixture did not inhibit the growth of the studied microorganisms, and propolis solutions in propylene glycol were found to have antimicrobial activity.
de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria
The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.
Sadeghi, Zahra; Valizadeh, Jafar; Azyzian Shermeh, Omid; Akaberi, Maryam
Objective: Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant property of B. elegans species for the first time. Materials and Methods: Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85 ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts. Conclusion: The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements. PMID:25767751
de Oliveira, Adriana Maria Fernandes; Pinheiro, Lilian Sousa; Pereira, Charlane Kelly Souto; Matias, Wemerson Neves; Gomes, Roosevelt Albuquerque; Chaves, Otemberg Souza; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Assis, Temilce Simões
The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L.) E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky)) were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) glucopyranoside (tiliroside) was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF) phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF) phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL); whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL) compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay. PMID:26787614
Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah
This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses.
Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah
This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673
Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja
In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.
Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra
Objective(s): Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae. PMID:27081460
Background Alpinia pahangensis, a wild ginger distributed in the lowlands of Pahang, Malaysia, is used by the locals to treat flatulence. In this study, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the crude aqueous methanol and fractionated extracts of Alpinia pahangensis against five different cancer and one normal cell lines were investigated. The total phenolic content of each extract and its fractions were also quantified. This is the first report on the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Alpinia pahangensis extract. Methods In the current study, the crude methanol and fractionated extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis were investigated for their antioxidant activity using four different assays namely, the DPPH scavenging activity, superoxide anion scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays whilst their phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method. In vitro neutral red cytotoxicity assay was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity against five different cancer cell lines, colon cancer (HCT 116 and HT-29), cervical cancer (Ca Ski), breast cancer (MCF7) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines, and one normal cell line (MRC-5). The extract that showed high cytotoxic activity was further investigated for its chemical constituents by GC-MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis. Results The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging (0.35 ± 0.094 mg/ml) and SOD activities (51.77 ± 4.9%) whilst the methanol extract showed the highest reducing power and also the strongest antioxidant activity in the β-carotene bleaching assays in comparison to other fractions. The highest phenolic content was found in the ethyl acetate fraction, followed by the crude methanol extract, hexane and water fractions. The results showed a positive correlation between total phenolic content with DPPH radical scavenging capacities and SOD activities. The hexane fraction showed potent cytotoxic
Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi
Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394
Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia; Pereira, José Alberto
The total phenols content and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were studied in walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks aqueous extracts of five different cultivars (Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne). Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount ranged from 32.61 mg/g of GAE (cv. Mellanaise) to 74.08 mg/g of GAE t (cv. Franquette). The antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts was assessed through reducing power assay, scavenging effects on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in reducing power and DPPH assays, with EC50 values lower than 1 mg/mL for all the tested extracts. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. All the extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being Staphylococcus aureus the most susceptible one with MIC of 0.1 mg/mL for all the extracts. The results obtained indicate that walnut green husks may become important in the obtainment of a noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and antimicrobial activity.
Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Cengiz, Mustafa; Solak, M Halil
Seven Morchella species were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, chelating effect and scavenging effect (%) on the stable ABTS*(+), in addition to their heavy metals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid system, the most active mushrooms were M. esculenta var. umbrina and M.angusticeps. In the case of DPPH, methanol extract of M. conica showed high antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the methanol extracts of mushrooms increased with concentration. Chelating capacity of the extracts was also increased with the concentration. On the other hand, in 40 microg ml(-1) concentration, methanol extract of M. conica, exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (78.66+/-2.07%) when reacted with the ABTS*(+) radical. Amounts of seven elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Al) were also determined in all species. M. conica was found to have the highest phenolic content among the samples. Flavonoid content of M. rotunda was also found superior (0.59+/-0.01 microg QEs/mg extract).
Formagio, Anelise Samara Nazari; Volobuff, Carla Roberta Ferreira; Santiago, Matheus; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Zefa Valdevina
The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae) extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD) method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid). This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts. PMID:26785238
Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward
Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed.
Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli
A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity.
Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Bajpai, Vivek K; Shukla, Savita
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93-68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of ethanolic extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 93.46 and 26.75 microg/ml, respectively. The ethanolic extract was also found to scavenge the superoxide generated by EDTA/NBT system. Measurement of total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 61.50 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 93.46, 132.05 and 81.08 microg/ml, respectively. However, the IC(50) values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 26.75, 66.01 and 71.41 microg/ml respectively. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that S. rebaudiana has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent.
Prakash, Dhan; Suri, Samiksha; Upadhyay, Garima; Singh, Brahma N
Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources, extracts of some plants were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA) by different methods at multiple concentrations followed by specific phenolic composition. The amount of TPC varied from 2.8 mg/g (Withania somnifera, roots) to 107.8 mg/g (Cassia fistula, fruits) and the AOA from 24.2% (Curcuma zeoderia, leaves) to 96.9% (Trewia nudiflora, leaves). Bark of Azadirachta indica, fruits of C. fistula, and leaves and fruits of T. nudiflora were found to have high TPC (89.8- 107.8 mg/g) and high AOA (84.8-96.9%). Promising plant parts were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP), where the bark of A. indica, Casuarina equisetifolia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum, flowers of Indigofera tinctoria, fruits of Lawsonia inermis, and fruits and leaves of T. nudiflora showed a very low inhibitory concentration value ranging from 0.14 to 0.26 mg/ml, efficiency concentration value from 6.1 to 11.6 mg/mg DPPH and reducing power value from 0.6 to 2.8 ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE/ml), and reasonably high values (8.5 -16.2) of anti-radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA. They also showed better inhibition of hydroxyl radical induced deoxyribose degradation than that of reference standard. Fruits of C. fistula with high phenols (107.8 mg/g) showed poor reducing power (5.9 ASE/ml) and ARP (4.7); in contrast, the bark of C. equisetifolia and fruits of L. inermis were with comparatively lower phenols (72.1 and 75.8 mg/g) but exhibited good ARP (16.2 and 14.4) and reducing power (0.7 and 0.6 ASE/ ml, respectively). Some of the plants were also found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton's reaction. They were further assayed for their specific phenolic composition through
Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra
Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.
Sumczynski, Daniela; Bubelova, Zuzana; Sneyd, Jan; Erb-Weber, Susanne; Mlcek, Jiri
The five different types of muesli composed of non-traditional wheat flakes were prepared and analysed. Dickkopf wheat, red wheat, kamut and spelt were compared with commercial wheat flakes. Wheat flakes and muesli were assessed for basic analyses (dry matter, ash, protein, starch and fat content), total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH assays), crude fibre content and in vitro digestibility. Furthermore, sensory evaluation of muesli involving scale and ranking preference tests was provided. Flakes and muesli made from Dickkopf wheat and red wheat showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content and, consequently, the highest antioxidant activity. Moreover, these cereals were high in crude fibre and thus were less digestible. On the other hand, the lowest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity were determined in commercial flakes and muesli produced from these flakes. The flakes made from non-traditional wheat were sensorially comparable to commercial products.
Kiewning, Daniela; Wollseifen, Rainer; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela
The most important apple allergen in Central Europe and North America is Mal d 1. Apples are a very important source of secondary plant metabolites like polyphenols in human nutrition. It is known that oxidised phenols can bind proteins. These irreversible bindings can lead to a reduced allergenicity. The most important phenols in apple are epicatechin, catechin and their polymeric structures, which have been identified as substrates of the polyphenoloxidase (PPO). The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of naturally occurring catechin and epicatechin contents in apple on the allergenicity of apple fruits. Fruits of the cultivars 'Elstar', 'Diwa' and 'Boskoop' were harvested and stored for 8 and 12 weeks in a cold-chamber at 2 °C. Mal d 1-, catechin-, epicatechin- and total phenol content as well as the activity of PPO were determined. Correlation analysis showed that naturally occurring catechin as well as epicatechin has no impact on the Mal d 1 content of the tested cultivars: correlation coefficient ranged from -0.203 to 0.501 for the correlation between Mal d 1 and catechin. The results further indicated that the activity of PPO is more important than the content of total phenols to reduce the Mal d 1 level. If there is a high PPO activity, Mal d 1 could be reduced even if the total phenol concentration is low.
Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
Mihalev, Kiril; Bečić, Ivana; Polović, Ivana; Georgieva, Mariya; Djaković, Senka; Kurtanjek, Želimir
Summary This study evaluates the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and environmentally friendly technique for validation and prediction of the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) indices (as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, inhibition time (IT) of the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC)) of berry fruit extracts. The analysed berry samples originated from Croatia (blackberries, wild blueberries, raspberries, red currants and strawberries) and Bulgaria (wild blueberries, raspberries and strawberries). Principal component analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression were used from the set of chemometric tools in distinguishing and validating the measured berry fruit extract. ANOVA and PCA showed no significant impact of the origin and freshness of the samples. PLS models were developed to validate the relationship of NIR spectra with TPC and AOA of berry fruits. Representativeness of the models was expressed with the R2 and the ratio of performance to deviation. Calculated R2 values were above 0.84 and the ratio of performance to deviation was between 1.8 and 3.1, indicating adequacy of the PLS models. PMID:27904414
Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar
Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively.
Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained. PMID:26784876
Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Babaeian, Mohammad
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus caramanicus, Zataria multiflora, Ziziphora clinopodioides and Ziziphora tenuior against four foodborne and four other bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA and Pseudomona aeruginosa and measuring the amount of total phenolics of the plants. The extracts were prepared by maceration method. Pre-evaluation of the antimicrobial effect was utilized by cup-plate technique and then Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was determined by agar dilution method according to NCCLS. The total phenolics as a possible cause of antibacterial effect, was measured by Folin-Ciocalteucolorimetry. The results showed that T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were the most effective ones with MIC values between 0.78-3.125 mg/mL against all of the Bactria and Z. tenuior and Z. clinopodioides had the minimum antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic contents of these five plants were different and followed the general pattern of the antimicrobial effect. The antibacterial effects and the total phenolic content of T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were remarkable and should be investigated more in future studies. PMID:25237351
Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.
Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.
Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Aston, D Eric; Rasco, Barbara A
The total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of garlics from California, Oregon, Washington, and New York were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The total phenolic content was quantified [Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC)] and three antioxidant activity assays, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were employed for reference measurements. Four independent partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed with spectra from 25 extracts and their corresponding FC, DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP with values for 20 additional extracts predicted (R > 0.95). The standard errors of calibration and standard error of cross-validation were <1.45 (TEAC), 0.36 (FRAP), and 0.33 μmol Trolox/g FW (DPPH) and 0.55 mg gallic acid/g FW (FC). Cluster and dendrogram analyses could segregate garlic grown at different locations. Hydroxyl and phenolic functional groups most closely correlated with garlic antioxidant activity.
Castro-López, C; Sánchez-Alejo, E J; Saucedo-Pompa, S; Rojas, R; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Avila, G C G
Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C) during the product shelf-life (20 days) was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH• assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL(-1)), total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL(-1)), and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL(-1)); while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL(-1)). The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.
Jugran, Arun K; Bahukhandi, Amit; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer S; Nandi, Shyamal K
The changes in total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity were assessed in 25 populations of Valeriana jatamansi sampled from 1200 to 2775 m asl and four habitat types of Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. Significant (p < 0.05) variations in total phenolics, flavonoids, valerenic acid, and antioxidant activity in aerial and root portions and across the populations were observed. Antioxidant activity measured by three in vitro antioxidant assays, i.e., 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across the populations. However, no clear pattern was found in phytochemicals across the altitudinal range. Among habitat types, (pine, oak, mixed forest, and grassy land), variation in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity were observed. Equal class ranking, neighbor-joining cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) identified Talwari, Jaberkhet, Manjkhali, and Khirshu populations as promising sources with higher phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. The results recommended that the identified populations with higher value of phytochemicals and antioxidants can be utilized for mass multiplication and breeding program to meet the domestic as well as commercial demand.
Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.
Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani
Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500
Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C
The effects of soaking, boiling and steaming processes on the total phenolic components and antioxidant activity in commonly consumed cool season food legumes (CSFL's), including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea and lentil were investigated. As compared to original unprocessed legumes, all processing steps caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) in all tested CSFL's. All soaking and atmospheric boiling treatments caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). However, pressure boiling and pressure steaming caused significant (p<0.05) increases in ORAC values. Steaming treatments resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, and ORAC values in all tested CSFL's as compared to boiling treatments. To obtain cooked legumes with similar palatability and firmness, pressure boiling shortened processing time as compared to atmospheric boiling, resulted in insignificant differences in TPC, DPPH for green and yellow pea. However, TPC and DPPH in cooked lentils differed significantly between atmospheric and pressure boiling. As compared to atmospheric processes, pressure processes significantly increased ORAC values in both boiled and steamed CSFL's. Greater TPC, DPPH and ORAC values were detected in boiling water than that in soaking and steaming water. Boiling also caused more solid loss than steaming. Steam processing exhibited several advantages in retaining the integrity of the legume appearance and texture of the cooked product, shortening process time, and greater retention of antioxidant components and activities.
Three phenolic acids, (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin, were identified and quantified in mamaki leaves (Pipturus albidus) using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique. Concentrations of (+) catechins, chlorogenic acid, and rutin varied from 1.1 mg to 5.0 mg per gram of mamaki...
Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials.
Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308
Olszewska, Monika A
The antioxidant potential of 70% methanolic extracts from the inflorescences, leaves and fruits of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz was evaluated using three in vitro test systems: the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) and the ABTS [2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] free radical scavenging assays, and the AAPH [2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride]-induced [corrected] linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation test. The results were compared with the activity of the extracts obtained from the model antioxidant Sorbus species (Sorbus aucuparia L.), and also with the activity of phenolic standards such as quercetin, Trolox [(+/-)-6-hydroxy-2,2,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid], BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and TBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone). The radical scavenging capacities of the S. torminalis extracts towards the DPPH radical were in the range of 62.0-244.1 micromolar Trolox equivalents/g d.w. of plant material. They were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the results of the ABTS test (r = 0.8535), and with the chain-breaking activities determined in the LA-peroxidation test (r = 0.9831). In comparison with the synthetic standards, the free radical scavenging capacity of the Sorbus extracts was remarkably higher than their chain-breaking activity. Both kinds of antioxidant effects of the extracts were significantly (R2 > 0.8097, p < 0.05) influenced by the total phenolic content (TPC) as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The plant tissues derived from S. torminalis exhibited lower antioxidant potentials than those of S. aucuparia by a factor of 1.5-3.2, partially due to the lower TPC levels (multiplicity factors of 1.2-1.9). After the original antioxidant capacities of the extracts were recalculated according to the TPC levels, the resulting antioxidant capacities of the phenolic fractions in the S. torminalis extracts were lower than those from S. aucuparia by a factor of 1
Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough
The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.
Bao, Yan-Fang; Li, Ji-Yu; Zheng, Li-Fang; Li, Hong-Yu
Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine.
Mohammadi, A.; Sani, T. Ahmadzadeh; Ameri, A. A.; Imani, M.; Golmakani, E.; Kamali, H.
Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering) from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene). Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC50. Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium. PMID:26692746
Teoh, Li Shing; Lasekan, Ola; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hashim, Norhashila
In this work, potato slices were exposed to different doses of UV-C irradiation (i.e. 2.28, 6.84, 11.41, and 13.68 kJ m(-2)) with or without pretreatment [i.e. ascorbic acid and calcium chloride (AACCl) dip] and stored at 4 ± 1 °C. Changes in enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), as well as total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated after 0, 3, 7 and 10 days of storage. Results showed that untreated and UV-C treated potato slices at 13.68 kJ m(-2) dosage level showed significantly higher PPO, POD and PAL activities. Conversely, untreated potato slices showed the lowest TPC during storage period. Potato slices subjected to AACCl dip plus UV-C at 6.84 kJ m(-2) produced lower PPO, POD and PAL activities, as well as maintained a high TPC during storage.
Perales-Sánchez, Janitzio X K; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez-Favela, Mario A; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto
The aim of this study was to optimize the germination conditions of amaranth seeds that would maximize the antioxidant activity (AoxA), total phenolic (TPC), and flavonoid (TFC) contents. To optimize the germination bioprocess, response surface methodology was applied over three response variables (AoxA, TPC, TFC). A central composite rotable experimental design with two factors [germination temperature (GT), 20-45 ºC; germination time (Gt), 14-120 h] in five levels was used; 13 treatments were generated. The amaranth seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C/6 h) before germination. The sprouts from each treatment were dried (50 °C/8 h), cooled, and ground to obtain germinated amaranth flours (GAF). The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized GAF with the highest AoxA [21.56 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample, dw], TPC [247.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g sample, dw], and TFC [81.39 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/100 g sample, dw] was GT = 30 ºC/Gt = 78 h. The germination bioprocess increased AoxA, TPC, and TFC in 300-470, 829, and 213%, respectively. The germination is an effective strategy to increase the TPC and TFC of amaranth seeds for enhancing functionality with improved antioxidant activity.
Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R
Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.
Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc
Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.
Santos-Zea, Liliana; Gutierrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O
The phenolic, flavonoid, and antioxidant contents of methanol extracts of nine samples of Mexican cactus ( Opuntia spp.) cladodes processed into flours were studied. Opuntia undulata contained the highest amount of phenols [905.08 ± 64.51 μg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g]. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the cladode flour extracts indicated that Opuntia robusta var. Gavia [738.8 ± 89.9 μmol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g] contained the highest antioxidant capacity. ORAC values significantly correlated to total phenols but not to flavonoid contents and were comparable to cranberries and blackberries. Glycosidic forms of isorhamnetin and kaempferol were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS), with isorhamnetin being the most abundant flavonol in all samples, except for Opuntia lindheimeri . The effectiveness of acid hydrolysis varied among species because of the different flavonol profiles. For some varieties, the triglycosidic forms were partially acid-hydrolyzed, giving an increase in the content of diglycosides. Optimization of hydrolysis for each species is required to estimate the total amount of each flavonol.
Mat Taha, Rosna; Banisalam, Behrooz
In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract. PMID:26064936
Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater
Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.
Tohidi, Behnaz; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Arzani, Ahmad
In this study, the essential oil (EO) composition, flavonoid and phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of fourteen Thymus accessions belonging to ten species were evaluated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 38 compounds with the major constituents including thymol (12.4-79.74%), carvacrol (4.37-42.14%), geraniol (0.3-22.44%), and p-cymene (0.8-12.86%). Cluster analysis identified three groups of high thymol, geraniol/linalool, and high carvacrol. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in T. daenensis-1 (70.6mg tannic acid equivalents (TAE) g(-1) DW) and T. vulgaris (8.55mg quercetin equivalents (QE) g(-1) DW), respectively. The antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. The results demonstrated that T. daenensis-3 (IC50=273.36), T. vulgaris (IC50=289.3), and T. fedtschenkoi-3 (IC50=339.22) possessed higher antioxidant activities than the others. Finally, the Thymus species with high bioactive compounds may be recommended for further food applications.
Chen, Yu-Fei; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chou, Cheng-Chun
A solid fermentation was performed on black soybeans with Aspergillus awamori. The effects of fermentation on the contents of total phenolics and amino nitrogen and on the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation of black soybeans were examined. Results revealed that fermentation significantly enhanced the LDL oxidation inhibitory activity and total phenolics and amino nitrogen contents of black soybeans. The increased content of amino nitrogen was closely related to the enhanced LDL oxidation inhibitory activity of fermented black soybeans and its water extract. Fermentation temperature and length affected the LDL oxidation inhibitory effect exerted by the prepared fermented black soybeans. The A. awamori-fermented black soybean prepared at 30 °C for 3 days exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation. The bioactive principles related to the inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation in black soybeans, regardless of fermentation, could be most efficiently extracted with water rather than 80% methanol or 80% ethanol.
da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198
da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline
Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.
Chua, Lee Suan; Yap, Ken Choy; Jaganath, Indu Bala
The total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Andrographis paniculata has been investigated to estimate the amount of phenolic compounds and diterpene lactones, respectively in the plant extracts. The stem extracts exhibited higher total phenolic content and scavenging activity than those of the leaf extracts from both young and mature plants. A range of 19.6-47.8 mg extract of A. paniculata from different parts of the plant is equivalent to the scavenging activity exhibited by one mg of standard Trolox. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was also used to identify simultaneously the phytochemicals from the leaves and stems of both young and mature plant samples. Of the identified compounds, seven of the sixteen diterpene lactones, three of the six flavonoids, five of the six phenolic acids and two cyclic acids are reported here for the first time for this species. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Hierarchiral Component Analysis (HCA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have clustered the plant extracts into the leaf and stem groups, regardless of plant age. Further classification based on the phytochemical profiles revealed that mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids were from the young leaf extracts, and diterpenoids and their glycosides from the mature leaf extracts. However, the phytochemical profiles for the stems of both young and mature plants were not significantly different as presented in the dendrogram of HCA and the score plot of PCA. The marker for mature plants might be the m/z 557 ion (dihydroxyl dimethyl 19-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-19-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide), whereas the m/z 521 ion (propyl neoandrographolide) could be the marker for leaf extracts.
Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun
In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively.
Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine
The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.
Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa
Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.
Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.
Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel
Fruit pulp and seeds from the jujube plant possess nutritional and medicinal properties. The bioactive components have been shown to vary both with cultivar and with growing conditions. Most studies report the components of varieties from China. We measured free amino acid, individual phenolic, and total phenolic content, and antioxidative activities in three jujube fruit pulp extracts from Boeun-deachu, Mechu, and Sanzoin cultivars and two seed extracts (Mechu and Sanzoin) from plants grown in Korea. In g/100 g dry weight, total free amino acid content measured by ion-exchange chromatography ranged from 5.2 to 9.8 in the pulp and from 4.0 to 5.3 in the seed. Total phenolic content measured by Folin-Ciocalteu ranged from 1.1 to 2.4 in the pulp and from 3.6 to 4.6 in the seed. Flavonoids were measured by HPLC and ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 in the pulp and from 3.2 to 4.0 in the seed. Flavonoids were identified by HPLC elution position and UV/vis and mass spectra. Fruits contained the following flavonoids: procyanidin B2, epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q-3-R), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-G), kaempferol-glucosyl-rhamnoside (K-G-R), and two unidentified compounds. Seeds contained the following flavonoids: saponarin, spinosin, vitexin, swertish, 6'''-hydroxybenzoylspinosin (6'''-HBS), 6'''-feruloylspinosin (6'''-FS), and one unidentified substance. Dimensions and weights of the fresh fruit samples affected phenolic content. The distribution of the individual flavonoids among the different samples varied widely. Data determined by the FRAP antioxidative assay were well correlated with total phenolic content. In a departure from other studies, data from the DPPH free radical assay were not correlated with FRAP or with any of the measured compositional parameters. Because individual jujube flavonoids are reported to exhibit different health-promoting effects, knowledge of the composition and concentration of bioactive compounds of jujube products can benefit
Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan
Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration (X₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time (X₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature (X₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve extraction yield
Marichali, Ahmed; Dallali, Sana; Ouerghemmi, Saloua; Sebei, Houcine; Casabianca, Hervé; Hosni, Karim
A comprehensive analysis of the responses of Nigella sativa L. to elevated zinc concentrations was assessed in pot experiments. Zn excess supply did not affect the germination but drastically reduced radicle elongation. A concentration-dependent reduction in all growth parameters, yield, and yield components was observed. With the increasing Zn concentrations, total lipid contents decreased and changes in fatty composition toward the production of saturated ones were underscored. Despite the reduction in the seeds essential oil yield, a redirection of the terpene metabolism toward the synthesis of oxygenated compounds has been evidenced. A significant increase in the total phenols and flavonoids contents concomitant with improved antioxidant activities has also been found. Collectively, these results highlight the possible use of N. sativa L. in phytoremediation applications, on the one hand, and that Zn excess could represent an excellent alternative to improve the nutritional attributes of this important species, on the other hand.
Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd
Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.
Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia
Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines.
Samad, Muhammad Azizan; Hashim, Siti Hajar; Simarani, Khanom; Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati
Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.
Kowalczyk, A.; Ruszkiewicz, M.; Biskup, I.
The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated. PMID:26798183
Kowalczyk, A; Ruszkiewicz, M; Biskup, I
The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.
Estupiñan, D.C.; Schwartz, S.J.; Garzón, G.A.
The stability of anthocyanin (ACN) freeze-dried powders from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) as affected by storage, addition of maltodextrin as a carrier agent, and illumination was evaluated in isotonic model beverages. The ethanolic ACN extract was freeze dried with and without maltodextrin DE 20. Isotonic model beverages were colored with freeze-dried ACN powder (FDA), freeze-dried ACN powder with maltodextrin (MFDA), and red nr 40. Beverages were stored in the dark and under the effect of illumination. Half life of the ACNs, changes in color, total phenolics content (TPC), and antioxidant activity were analyzed for 71 d. Addition of maltodextrin and absence of light stabilized the color of beverages and improved ACN and TPC stability during storage. The antioxidant activity of the beverages was higher when they were colored with MFDA and highly correlated with ACN content. There was no correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC. It is concluded that addition of maltodextrin DE 20 as a carrier agent during freeze-drying improves the color and stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in Andes berry extract. This suggests a protective enclosing of ACNs within a maltodextrin matrix with a resulting powder that could serve as a supplement or additive to naturally color and to enhance the antioxidant capacity of isotonic beverages. PMID:21535712
D'Acunzo, Francesca; Giannino, Donato; Longo, Vincenzo; Ciardi, Marco; Testone, Giulio; Mele, Giovanni; Nicolodi, Chiara; Gonnella, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Arnesi, Giuseppe; Schiappa, Alessandro; Ursini, Ornella
Chicories produce a wide range of vegetables with important nutritional value. We determined the variation of sterol, total polyphenol, nitrate contents and antioxidant capacity (SC, TPC, NC, AC) in endive leaves and stem-chicory novel vegetables, cultivated in two Italian regions. Within a given area, the SC was similar in smooth- and curly leafed endives (106.3-176.0 mg/kg FW); sitosterol and stigmasterol were major fractions (45-56 versus 38-43%). The stem SC was independent of landrace (101.5-118.6 mg/kg FW); sitosterol prevailed on stigmasterol and fucosterol (73-76 versus 12-14% versus 8-9%); the latter reached 15.7 mg/kg FW, conferring value as potential antidiabetes food. The planting site affected the AC and TPC of endives (893.1-1571.4 μmTE/100 g FW, 30.8-76.1 GAE100/g FW) and chicory stems (729.8-1152.5 μmTE/100 g FW; 56.2-124.4 GAE100/g FW), while the NC was recurrently below dangerous thresholds. PCA showed that environment was the major cause of variation, though it modestly affected these parameters.
Sánchez-Magaña, Luis Martin; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Ayala-Rodríguez, Ana Edith; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc
The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of time during solid state bioconversion (SSB) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of chickpea. Chickpea cotyledons were inoculated with a suspension of Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 35 °C for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 108 h. The best time to produce bioprocessed chickpea (added with seed coats) flour with the highest AoxA was 108 h. SSB substantially increased TPC and AoxA of chickpea extracts in 2.78 and 1.80-1.94 times, respectively. At 36 and 96 h of fermentation, the SSB process improved in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (AI and GI indexes) activities of chickpea extracts in 83 and 370%, respectively. SSB is a good strategy to enhance health-linked functionality of chickpea, due to improved TPC, AoxA and content of strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes.
Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen
Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).
Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa
The physical and chemical properties of the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seeds from seven date samples (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated. Energy values of dried and ground seeds were found between 4340 kcal/kg (Barhi cv) and 4795 kcal/kg (Rozaiz cv). Also, while crude oil content of seeds were established between 4.68% (Khulas cv) and 7.96% (Monaif cv), crude protein contents were found at the levels between 3.71% (Soulag cv) and 5.47% (Barhi cv). The antioxidant activity of seeds obtained from different date fruits changed between 78.03 (mg/ml) (Monaif cv) and 79.94 (mg/ml) (Barhi cv). In addition, the total phenol contents of seeds were found between 1.98 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g (Barhi cv) and 4.65 mg GAE/100 g (Soughi cv). The most abundant fatty acids of the date seed oils were oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Ca, Mg, K and P contents of date seeds were found at the high concentrations.
Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kopec, Rachel E; Barry, Andrew M; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J
The fruit of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh) native to the Colombian Amazon is considered a potentially economically valuable fruit for the Andean economy due to its novel and unique taste. The fruit has an intense yellow color, but its chemical composition and properties have not been well studied. Here we report the identification and quantitation of carotenoids in the ripe fruit using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The qualitative carotenoid profile of the fruit according to maturity stage was also observed. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of the peel and pulp were assessed using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, in addition to chemical indexes and total phenolic content. Multiple carotenoids were identified in the peel and pulp including four xanthophylls (free and esterified as their mono and diesters) and two carotenes. One of the xanthophylls was tentatively identified as zeinoxanthin, while the others were identified as lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenes included α-carotene and β-carotene. The total carotenoid content was significantly higher in the peel (2484 ± 421 μg/100 g FW) than in the pulp (806 ± 348 μg/100 g FW) with lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin as the major carotenoid components. The unique carotenoid composition of this fruit can differentiate it from other carotenoid-rich fruits and perhaps be useful in authentication procedures. Overall, results from this study suggest that Colombian Arazá may be a good edible source of carotenoids important in retinal health as well as carotenoids with provitamin A activity. Therefore, Arazá fruit can be used as a nutraceutical ingredient and in production of functional foods in the Colombian diet.
Song, Feng-Lin; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xiao, Qin; Kuang, Lei; Li, Hua-Bin
Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20640157
Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C
The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the phenolic components and antioxidant activities of whole yellow (with yellow seed coat and yellow cotyledon) and black (with black seed coat and green cotyledon) soybeans were investigated. As compared to the raw soybeans, all processing methods caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), condensed tannin content (CTC), monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) in black soybeans. Pressure steaming caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in TPC, CTC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC in yellow soybeans. The steaming resulted in a greater retention of TPC, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC values in both yellow and black soybeans as compared to the boiling treatments. To further investigate the effect of processing on phenolic compounds and elucidate the contribution of these compounds to changes of antioxidant activities, phenolic acids, isoflavones, and anthocyanins were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The pressure steaming treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in gallic acid and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas all treatments caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in two predominant phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid), and total phenolic acids for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in aglucones and beta-glucosides of isoflavones, but caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in malonylglucosides of isoflavones for both yellow and black soybeans. All thermal processing caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases of cyanidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside in black soybeans. Significant correlations existed between selected phenolic compositions, isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, and antioxidant properties of cooked soybeans.
Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo
Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes.
Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).
Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc
The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective.
de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Marais, Johann; Manley, Marena
The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and phenolic composition of 139 Pinotage wines (2002 and 2003 vintages) were determined using the 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzo-thialozine-sulfonic acid) scavenging assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The contribution of individually quantified phenolic compounds to the wine TAC was calculated using their concentrations and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values. The TEAC values of quercetin-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin, and peonidin-3-glucoside are reported for the first time. Between 11 and 24% of the measured TAC of Pinotage wines was explained by the sum of the calculated contributions of their quantified phenolic compounds comprising monomeric phenolic compounds and procyanidin B1. Ultrafiltration was carried out to attempt separation of monomeric and polymeric phenolic compounds. Analysis of ultrafiltration permeates and retentates enabled estimation of the TAC contribution of large molecular weight (MW) unknown compounds (46%) (>50 kDa), including oligomeric and polymeric phenolic compounds and small MW unknown compounds (34%) (<50 kDa). Three mixtures, containing 12 phenolic compounds in typical concentrations expected in Pinotage wines, exhibited 16-23% synergistic antioxidant activity. This suggests that synergy between phenolic compounds does play a role in the wine TAC but that it does not explain the large discrepancy between measured and calculated TAC values.
Nielsen, S. Suzanne
The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.
Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).
Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian
The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.
Curcic, Milena G; Stankovic, Milan S; Radojevic, Ivana D; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Comic, Ljiljana R; Topuzovic, Marina D; Djacic, Dragana S; Markovic, Snezana D
The antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities, total phenolic content and concentrations of flavonoids of A. flavum extracts were determined. The total phenolic content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 42.29 to 80.92 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in various extracts of A. flavum was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and obtained results varied from 64.07 to 95.71 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and expressed in terms of IC50 (μg/ml), and its values ranged from 64.34 to 243.34 μg/ml. The highest phenolic content and capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals were found in acetone extract. Antibacterial efficacy was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations using microdilution method. Significant antibacterial activity, especially for ethyl acetate extract, was observed. The best activity was showed against G+ bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis, while Escherichia coli was one of the least sensitive bacteria. Antiproliferative activity of the methanolic extract on HCT- 116 cell line was determined by MTT assay. Results showed that A. flavum has good antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 28.29 for 24 h and 35.09 for 72 h. Based on these results, A. flavum is a potential source of phenols as natural antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer substance of high value. Phenolic content of extracts depend on the solvents used for extraction.
Pilepić, Kroata Hazler; Males, Zeljan; Crkvencić, Maja
The content of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in the aerial parts of thirty Hypericum taxa collected over two consecutive seasons was investigated by spectrophotometric methods. All taxa examined contained flavonoids and phenolic acids in different quantities, although the differences between species and year's harvest were not found to be significant. The quantity of total flavonoids ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the samples of H. japonicum (1.6%) and H. perforatum (1.5%), while the samples of H. androsaemum and H. balearicum comprised the lowest flavonoid amount (0.13%). The content of total phenolic acids in the investigated samples was found to be between 1.1-10.4%. The samples of H. perforatum were found to contain the highest quantity of phenolic acids (10.4% and 10.2%), whereas the sample ofH. linarifolium showed the lowest amount of phenolic acids (1.1%).
Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd
Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.
Zhang, Yu-ying; Chen, Xiu-rong; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia-hui; Xu, Yan; Zhuang, You-jun; Yu, Ze-ya
High loaded phenolic pollutants, refractory and high toxic, which existed in coal gasification wastewater, could cause the inhibition of sludge activity. In biological denitrification process of activated sludge treatment system, people tend to focus on the phenol inhibition on the efficiency and activity of nitrifying bacteria while there are few researches on the denitrification process. In order to investigate the inhibition of phenolic compounds from coal gasification wastewater on the denitrification and sludge activity, we used anoxic denitrification system to indentify the influence of different phenol load on denitrification efficiency (removal efficiency of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N) as well as the stress and degradation activity of sludge. The results showed that when the concentration of total phenol was changed from 50 mg · L⁻¹ to 200 mg · L⁻¹, the removal rates of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N were changed from 55% and 25% to 83% and 83% respectively. In the process of sludge domestication, the characteristics of denitrifying sludge were influenced to a certain degree.
Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Chang Yong
The contribution of each phytochemical to the total antioxidant capacity of apples was determined. Major phenolic phytochemicals of six apple cultivars were identified and quantified, and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using a 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). Average concentrations of major phenolics and vitamin C in six apple cultivars were as follows (mg/100 g of fresh weight of apples): quercetin glycosides, 13.20; procyanidin B(2), 9.35; chlorogenic acid, 9.02; epicatechin, 8.65; phloretin glycosides, 5.59; vitamin C, 12.80. A highly linear relationship (r (2) > 0.97) was attained between concentrations and total antioxidant capacity of phenolics and vitamin C. Relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the order quercetin (3.06) > epicatechin (2.67) > procyanidin B(2) (2.36) > phloretin (1.63) > vitamin C (1.00) > chlorogenic acid (0.97). Therefore, the estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh apples is as follows: quercetin (40.39 VCEAC) > epicatechin (23.10) > procyanidin B(2) (22.07) > vitamin C (12.80) > phloretin (9.11) > chlorogenic acid (8.75). These results indicate that flavonoids such as quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B(2) rather than vitamin C contribute significantly to the total antioxidant activity of apples.
Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.
Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali
In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05) effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés
In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.
Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viškelis, Pranas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Kviklys, Darius; Uselis, Norbertas; Janulis, Valdimaras
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.
Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas
The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319
Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Espinoza-Torres, Libia Citlali; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Medina-Godoy, Sergio
The phenolic content and antioxidant and antimutagenic activities from the peel and seeds of different tomato types (grape, cherry, bola and saladette type), and simulated tomato industrial byproducts, were studied. Methanolic extracts were used to quantify total phenolic content, groups of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and the profile of phenolic compounds (by HPLC-DAD). Antimutagenic activity was determined by Salmonella typhimurium assay. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of tomato and tomato byproducts were comparable or superior to those previously reported for whole fruit and tomato pomace. Phenolic compounds with important biological activities, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acids, quercetin-3-β-O-glycoside, and quercetin, were quantified. Differences in all phenolic determinations due to tomato type and part of the fruit analyzed were observed, peel from grape type showing the best results. Positive antimutagenic results were observed in all samples. All evaluated materials could be used as a source of potential nutraceutical compounds.
Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen
To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902
Vucić, Dragana M; Petković, Miroslav R; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanović, Olgica D; Vasić, Sava M; Comić, Ljiljana R
Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves and flowers of Erica herbacea L. were studied. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by macrodilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris. The values for MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. The most sensitive bacterial strains were Proteus vulgaris strains. The aqueous extract from E. herbacea was found the most active. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 14.98 and 119.88 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in extracts was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminium chloride and obtained results varied from 16.19 to 26.90 mg RU/g. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically using DPPH reagent. The highest capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals was found in the aqueous extract from E. herbacea. The results of the total phenolic content determination of the examined extracts indicate that E. herbacea extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and also possess a significant antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial activity.
Antioxidant activity (ABTS assay), total phenolics, and total anthocyanins were determined in the petioles of fifteen rhubarb (Rheum spp.) varieties. Antioxidant activity ranged from 491 ± 60 (Victoria 574/27) to 1820 'mol Trolox/g DW (Valentine). The phenolic content varied from 673 ± 41 (Loher Blu...
Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergo; Alberti, Agnes; Sonati, Mirella; Kéry, Agnes
Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazel), a common hazel species in Europe, could be considered as a source of pharmacologically important natural compounds, since other members of the Corylus genus have been reported to contain several constituents with beneficial biological activity. Nevertheless, its phytochemical exploration is still incomplete. In this study the potent antioxidant phenolic compounds in different parts of the plant were investigated. The phenolics in the leaves, bark, catkins and involucre of C. colurna possess notable scavenger activity on both DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The total polyphenol content shows significant correlation with the antioxidant activity of the samples. Twenty-three phenolic compounds - hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives and diarylheptanoids - were characterized in the C. colurna extracts by LC-DAD, LC-ESI-TOF and LC-ESI-QQQ-MS.
Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Pegg, Ronald B; Kong, Fanbin
The goal of this research was to investigate the change in phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of microencapsulated anthocyanins (ACNs) digested in vitro. Blueberry ACN microcapsules were prepared from two wall materials (whey protein isolate and gum arabic) and ACN powder, previously extracted with three solvent systems (acetonic, ethanolic, methanolic); this was then spray-dried. The physicochemical properties and release characteristics of the microcapsules were evaluated. Rehydrated gum arabic microcapsules retained more total ACNs but less ferric reducing power than did whey protein microcapsules. Ethanolic extracts retained most of the total ACNs while methanolic extracts possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. During in vitro digestion, gum arabic microcapsules had high release rates of phenolics with high antioxidant activity during the gastric phase. Whey protein microcapsules had comparably lower release rates but high antioxidant activity throughout digestion.
Fan, Cheng-Qi; Yue, Jian-Min
Sixteen phenolic compounds were isolated from the polar fraction of Saussurea medusa and were structurally elucidated by chemical evidences and spectral methods. These compounds include two new lignan glucosides, namely medusasides A (1) and B (2), and fourteen known phenolic compounds (3-16). One major compound, apigenin 7-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (6) showed remarkable activity to attenuate the scopolamine induced memory deficit of mice. Compound 6 and another major one, quercetin (8) also exhibited moderate cell protecting activities against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced PC12 cell damage.
Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust
Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption.
Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia
Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440
Redan, Benjamin W; Vinson, Joe A; Coco, Michael G
Though much attention has been devoted to phenolics in beans, to our knowledge no studies have been done to determine the effect commercial canning has on these compounds. Free and total phenolic concentration in 18 cultivars of raw beans and 9 cultivars of commercial canned beans was determined. Alkaline hydrolysis was used on samples prior to analysis by Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent (FCR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). A correction for non-phenolic antioxidants, interferences, was then made. There is a significant difference between the free phenolics of canned and raw beans using FCR (P = 0.006) but not FRAP. There is also a significant difference in the total phenolics of canned and raw beans using FRAP (P = 0.006) but not FCR. When considered on a single serving basis, the amount of phenolics in canned beans is comparable to that provided by raw fruits and vegetables.
Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang
Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250
Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Bajpai, Vivek K
In the present study, we carried out a systematic research on relative antioxidant activity of aqueous leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana. The DPPH activity of aqueous leaf extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 40.00-72.37% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of aqueous extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 83.45 and 26.75 μg/ml, respectively. Measurement of total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 56.73 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly potent when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The aqueous extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide and superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 100.86, 98.73 and 100.86 μg/ml, respectively. The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads to more potent radical scavenging effects as shown by the aqueous leaf extract of S. rebaudiana.
Wang, J; Zhao, Y M; Zhang, B; Guo, C Y
Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration.
Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L
The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity.
Butsat, S; Siriamornpun, S
This study was designed to investigate the free and bound phenolic acids as well as their antioxidant activities in husk of 12 Thai rice varieties consisting of pigmented rice and normal rice. The pigmented rice husk gave higher free total phenolic contents than normal rice husk. However, there was no significant difference in bound total phenolic contents between pigmented rice and normal rice husks. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the major phenolic acids in the free fraction of pigmented rice husks, whereas vanillic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the free fraction of normal rice husks. On the other hand, p-coumaric acid was highly found in bound form of both pigmented and normal rice husks. The antioxidant activity of husk extracts was positively correlated with the total free phenolics content and individual of phenolic acids especially ferulic acid. On the basis of this study, it is suggested that the rice husk could be a potential phenolic acid source and may therefore offer an effective source of natural antioxidant. Our findings provide valuable information on phenolic acids composition and antioxidant activity of husk for further food application.
Torras-Claveria, Laura; Jauregui, Olga; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Viladomat, Francesc
The phenolic content of lavandin waste obtained after the distillation of essential oils for the perfume industry was investigated to find an alternative use for this material. The antioxidant activity of different fractions as well as their total phenolic content were evaluated by different methods. Twenty-three phenolic compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to ionspray mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), including phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid derivatives, glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids, none of which have previously been reported in lavandin waste. Some structure-activity relationships were proposed by relating the type of scavenging activity of different fractions with the identified phenolic compounds. Contents of representative phenolic acids of Lamiaceae (chlorogenic and rosmarinic) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and compared with those of other plant species.
Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi
The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year. PMID:26849120
Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Ni, Xiangyin; He, Jie; Tan, Bo; Hu, Yi
The total phenol content in decomposing litter not only acts as a crucial litter quality indicator, but is also closely related to litter humification due to its tight absorption to clay particles. However, limited attention has been focused on the total phenol dynamics in foliar litter in relation to forest gaps. Here, the foliar litter of six representative tree species was incubated on the forest floor from the gap center to the closed canopy of an alpine Minjiang fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dynamics of total phenol concentration in the incubated litter was measured from November 2012 to October 2014. Over two-year incubation, 78.22% to 94.06% of total phenols were lost from the foliar litter, but 52.08% to 86.41% of this occurred in the first year. Forest gaps accelerated the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter in the winter, although they inhibited the loss of total phenols during the growing season in the first year. In comparison with the effects of forest gaps, the variations of litter quality among different species were much stronger on the dynamics of total phenols in the second year. Overall, the loss of total phenols in the foliar litter was slightly higher in both the canopy gap and the expanded gap than in the gap center and under the closed canopy. The results suggest that the predicted decline in snow cover resulting from winter warming or vanishing gaps caused by forest regeneration will retard the loss of total phenol content in the foliar litter of alpine forest ecosystems, especially in the first decomposition year.
Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Apostolakis, Constantinos; Pliakis, Emmanuel; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi
In recent years an effort has been made to isolate and identify biologically active compounds that are included in the Mediterranean diet. The existence of naturally occurring acetylated phenolics, as well as studies with synthetic ones, provide evidence that acetyl groups could be correlated with their biological activity. Platelet activating factor (PAF) is implicated in atherosclerosis, whereas its inhibitors seem to play a protective role against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the biological activity of resveratrol and tyrosol and their acetylated derivatives as inhibitors of PAF-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Acetylation of resveratrol and tyrosol was performed, and separation was achieved by HPLC. Acetylated derivatives were identified by negative mass spectrometry. The data showed that tyrosol and its monoacetylated derivatives act as PAF inhibitors, whereas diacetylated derivatives induce platelet aggregation. Resveratrol and its mono- and triacetylated derivatives exert similar inhibitory activity, whereas the diacetylated ones are more potent inhibitors. In conclusion, acetylated phenolics exert the same or even higher antithrombotic activity compared to the biological activity of the initial one.
The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...
Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A
The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.
Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan
To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety.
Lamparski, Robert; Balcerek, Maciej; Modnicki, Daniel; Kotwica, Karol; Wawrzyniak, Maria
In laboratory conditions, the effect of pro-ecological procedures (application of effective microorganisms and Asahi SL biostimulator) and foraging by insects [cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopa L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)] on the total content of phenolic compounds in winter wheat, was studied. Correlations between the total content of phenolic compounds (determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method) expressed as the amount of pyrogallol in wheat plants: undamaged, damaged by O. melanopa, damaged by R. padi, the length of feeding scar left by cereal leaf beetle and the number of pricks made by actively feeding insects of bird cherry-oat aphid were analysed. The wheat was treated by EM inoculant and a biostimulator. The mode of application of the preparations used had a significant effect on level the total phenolic compounds in the undamaged wheat and the wheat exposed to foraging by the above-mentioned insects. The plants not exposed to insects foraging contained greater amounts of phenolic compounds than those exposed to the insects. The correlation between the total content of phenols in the wheat damaged by the insects in the 'no-choice' conditions, proved insignificant.
Phenolic composition of different extracts of honeydew melon seeds and their antioxidant activity was determined for the first time. Phenolic compounds were identified using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method. Results showed the identification of five phenolic compounds in water extract namely gallic acid and its derivative, hydroxybenzoic acid and catechin derivatives and caffeic acid. There were nine phenolic compounds identified in methanol–water extract, which are caffeic acid, two vanillic acid derivatives, ellagitanins, quercetin-3-rutinoside, derivatives of syringic acid and ellagic acid. The amounts of gallic acid, caffeic acid and catechin were higher among all phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity were higher in water and methanol–water extract than their corresponding methanol extracts. In conclusion, melon seeds are a good source of natural antioxidants with significant biological functions and may serve as food ingredients and as fortifying material for maintaining shelf life. PMID:28231162
Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.
Wu, Yihang; Zhou, Changxin; Song, Liyan; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Shuyun; Mo, Jianxia; Chen, Haiyong; Bai, Hua; Wu, Xiumei; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Rongping; Hao, Xiaojiang; Sun, Handong; Zhao, Yu
The anti-inflammatory effect of total phenolics from Laggera alata (TPLA) was evaluated with various in vivo models of both acute and chronic inflammations. In the acute inflammation tests, TPLA inhibited significantly xylene-induced mouse ear oedema, carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability. In the carrageenan-induced rat pleurisy model, TPLA significantly suppressed inflammatory exudate and leukocyte migration, reduced the serum levels of lysozyme (LZM) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and also decreased the contents of total protein, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the pleural exudates. In the chronic inflammation experiment, TPLA inhibited significantly cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma. These results indicated that TPLA possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic inflammation models. Its anti-inflammatory mechanisms are probably associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin formation, the influence on the antioxidant systems, and the suppression of LZM release. Furthermore, the total phenolic content of Laggera alata and its main component type was quantified, and its principle components were isolated and authenticated. Acute toxicity studies revealed that TPLA up to an oral dose of 8.5 g/kg body weight was almost nontoxic in mice.
The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...
Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.
This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220
Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž
The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants.
Monente, Carmen; Ludwig, Iziar A; Irigoyen, Angel; De Peña, María-Paz; Cid, Concepción
Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has been estimated in comparison to free compounds. Phenolic compounds with one or more caffeic acid molecules were approximately 54% linked to macromolecules such as melanoidins, mainly by noncovalent interactions (up to 81% of bound phenolic compounds). The rest of the quantitated phenolic acids were mainly attached to other structures by covalent bonds (62-97% of total bound compounds). Alkaline hydrolysis and saline treatment were suitable to estimate total bound and ionically bound phenolic acids, respectively, whereas acid hydrolysis is an inadequate method to quantitate coffee phenolic acids.
de la Rosa, Laura A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Shahidi, Fereidoon
The phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of pecan kernels and shells cultivated in three regions of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed. High concentrations of total extractable phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were found in kernels, and 5-20-fold higher concentrations were found in shells. Their concentrations were significantly affected by the growing region. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC, DPPH•, HO•, and ABTS•-- scavenging (TAC) methods. Antioxidant activity was strongly correlated with the concentrations of phenolic compounds. A strong correlation existed among the results obtained using these four methods. Five individual phenolic compounds were positively identified and quantified in kernels: ellagic, gallic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids and catechin. Only ellagic and gallic acids could be identified in shells. Seven phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in kernels by means of MS and UV spectral comparison, namely, protocatechuic aldehyde, (epi)gallocatechin, one gallic acid-glucose conjugate, three ellagic acid derivatives, and valoneic acid dilactone.
Pelvan Pelitli, Ebru; Janiak, Michał Adam; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Alasalvar, Cesarettin
Natural (raw) hazelnut was extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone to obtain crude phenolic extract that was then fractionated for elution of low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions. LMW fraction was further purified (LWM-FP) to remove sugars and organic acids. The crude extract and its fractions were determined by measuring their protein precipitating capacity (PPC) using two different proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin], molecular weights, total phenolics, condensed tannins, and various antioxidant activities. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, antioxidant activities, and PPC among the crude extract and fractions, albeit to different extends. BSA and gelatin was effectively precipitated by HMW fraction. HMW fraction had the highest total phenolics, condensed tannins, and antioxidant activities, followed by crude extract, LWM-FP, and LMW, respectively. The present study suggests that HMW fraction could be utilised as a source of polyphenols for the food industry.
Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus
Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.
Kilci, A; Gocmen, D
Steel-cut oats (SCO) was used to replace wheat flour in the tarhana formulation (control) at the levels of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w). Control sample included no SCO. Substitution of wheat flour in tarhana formulation with SCO affected the mineral contents positively. SCO additions also increased phenolic acid contents of tarhana samples. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic and vanillic acids, followed by syringic acid in the samples with SCO. Tarhana samples with SCO also showed higher antioxidant activities than the control. Compared with the control, the total phenolic content increased when the level of SCO addition was increased. SCO addition did not have a deteriorative effect on sensory properties of tarhana samples and resulted in acceptable soup properties in terms of overall acceptability. SCO addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of tarhana by causing increases in antioxidant activity, phenolic content and phenolic acids.
The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified ...
Weber, Manfred; Weber, Markus
Up to the end of the nineteenth century, phenol was recovered primarily from coal tar. With the commercialization of the phenolic resins, the demand for phenol grew significantly. Currently, the cumene-to-phenol process is the predominant synthetic route for the production of phenol. It is accompanied by acetone as a co-product. Cumene is oxidized with oxygen to form cumene hydroperoxide. The peroxide is subsequently decomposed to phenol and acetone, using a strong mineral acid as catalyst. The products are purified in a series of distillation columns. The cumene-to-phenol process is described in more detail in this chapter. An overview is given about synthetic routes via direct oxidation of benzene. None of these alternative routes has been commercialized. The chapter also gives an overview of global supply and use of phenol in 2008. Finally, the main natural sources and synthetic routes for cresols, xylenols, resorcinol, and bisphenol-A are described. These components are used as comonomers for special phenolic resins.
Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush
The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency.
We measured six phenolic compounds by HPLC, the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu, and antioxidative activities by three methods in the sweet potato plant and in home processed roots. Total phenolic content was highest in the leaves. Eight root varieties were partitioned and analyzed for p...
Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.
Chen, X N; Fan, J F; Yue, X; Wu, X R; Li, L T
The Mopan persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) is the major cultivar of astringent persimmon in northern China. This study investigates the radical scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radical, and the content of total and individual phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) with apple, grape, and tomato as controls. The radical scavenging activities against ABTS and DPPH radicals of the Mopan persimmon are 23.575 and 22.597 microm trolox eq/g f.w., respectively. These findings suggest that the Mopan persimmon's antioxidant activity is significantly (P < 0.05) stronger than that of reference materials. The Mopan persimmon showed the highest content of total phenolics among the 4 materials tested. Significant correlations (R(2)= 0.993, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.980, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) are found between the total phenolics and the radical scavenging activities. The total content of these 6 kinds of phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and gallic acid) is significantly correlated (R(2)= 0.831, P < 0.05, ABTS radical; R(2)= 0.745, P < 0.05, DPPH radical) with the individual radical scavenging activity of the 4 materials, although the total content of the 6 phenolics accounts for no more than 20% of the total phenolics in the Mopan persimmon. Gallic acid exhibits the strongest antioxidant activity in all 6 kinds of phenolics and its content is the largest in the Mopan persimmon, presumably being responsible for its much higher antioxidant activity as compared to apple, grape, and tomato.
Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice
The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.
Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P
The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22 h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. They were also analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using the diphenyl picrylhydrazyl method and the β-carotene linoleate model assay. Moreover, the effects of different crude olive leaf extracts on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 40°C and sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (10% o/w) at 37°C, at a final concentration of crude extract 200 mg kg(-1) oil, were tested and compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene.
Bunning, Marisa L; Kendall, Patricia A; Stone, Martha B; Stonaker, Frank H; Stushnoff, Cecil
Butterhead, crisphead, green leaf, red leaf, and romaine types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are all commonly available in U.S. markets. Sensory properties of lettuce may vary in response to environmental factors that often fluctuate widely throughout the growing season. Bitterness is generally thought to increase in lettuce grown at higher temperatures and may be related to phenolic content. This study evaluated sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars harvested early, midway, and late in the growing season and investigated possible correlations with environmental temperature and light intensity indexes. Thirty panelists rated bitterness, appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of "Crisp and Green" (green leaf), "Crispino" (crisphead), "Green Forest" (romaine), "Lochness" (butterhead), and "Vulcan" (red leaf) lettuce. There was considerable variation in sensory ratings among the 5 cultivars (P < 0.005) but few differences within cultivars across the growing season. The crisphead cultivar, Crispino, received higher scores (P < 0.01) for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability and was rated less bitter (P < 0.05) than other cultivars. Total phenolic content varied significantly (P < 0.001) among cultivars with the red leaf cultivar, Vulcan, exhibiting the highest levels. There was no correlation between bitterness and total phenolic content or environmental factors. Differences among lettuce cultivars appear to have a larger impact on sensory and phenolic profiles than environmental variation during the growing season.
Bernaert, Nathalie; De Paepe, Domien; Bouten, Charlotte; De Clercq, Hervé; Stewart, Derek; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart
Extracts of the white shaft and green leaves of 30 leek cultivars were investigated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic (TP) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) content. The measured antioxidant properties included free radical scavenging activities against peroxyl (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) and their Fe(3+) reducing capacity (FRAP). The results from this study suggest that the green leek leaves generally have significantly stronger antioxidant properties than the white shaft. Correlation analysis between the TP and the AA content and the antioxidant activity showed that phenolics and ascorbic acid contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity of leek. The three antioxidant activity assays were all correlated for the extracts of the white shaft of the 30 leek cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) elucidated the influence of part and type of cultivar on the antioxidant capacity, TP, and l-ascorbic acid content, whilst the breeding strategy and seed company had no influence.
Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhang, B.; Guo, C. Y.
Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration. PMID:26009648
Stevanato, Roberto; Fabris, Sabrina; Momo, Federico
A new spectrophotometric enzymatic method for the determination of total phenol content in tea and wine has been developed. The method is based on the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, by hydrogen peroxide, of phenols to phenoxyl radicals, which can react with aromatic substrates to form intensely colored adducts. In comparison with the widely used Folin-Ciocalteu method, this method appears to be more specific and more rapid and as a whole is not affected by the common interfering substances such as ascorbate, citrate, and sulfite. Numerous samples of teas and wines were analyzed by using the new method, and the results compared with those obtained by using the Folin and scavenging of DPPH methods. The differences of the total phenols content found by applying the three methods are discussed in terms of the different specificities of the analytical basis.
Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A
The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines.
Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Leskovar, Daniel; Patil, Bhimanagouda S
We developed a system to run the Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) total phenolic assay, in artichoke extract samples, which is fully automatic, consistent, and fast. The system uses 2 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pumps, an autosampler, a column heater, a UV/Vis detector, and a data collection system. To test the system, a pump delivered 10-fold diluted F-C reagent solution at a rate of 0.7 mL/min, and 0.4 g/mL sodium carbonate at a rate of 2.1 mL/min. The autosampler injected 10 μL per 1.2 min, which was mixed with the F-C reagent and heated to 65 °C while it passed through the column heater. The heated reactant was mixed with sodium carbonate and color intensity was measured by the detector at 600 nm. The data collection system recorded the color intensity, and peak area of each sample was calculated as the concentration of the total phenolic content, expressed in μg/mL as either chlorogenic acid or gallic acid. This new method had superb repeatability (0.7% CV) and a high correlation with both the manual method (r(2) = 0.93) and the HPLC method (r(2) = 0.78). Ascorbic acid and quercetin showed variable antioxidant activity, but sugars did not. This method can be efficiently applied to research that needs to test many numbers of antioxidant capacity samples with speed and accuracy.
Faudale, Mariangela; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Poli, Ferruccio; Codina, Carles
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a typical aromatic plant of the Mediterranean area, long used as a medicinal and spice herb. Fennel is also well-known for its essential oil, which has been extensively studied for many years owing to its commercial importance. In this work, the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as the quantitative determination of individual flavonoids and phenolic acids of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries, have been determined. The antioxidant activity was measured as the free radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activities. Wild fennel was found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity, as well as a total phenolic and total flavonoid content, higher than those of both medicinal and edible fennels.
The Evolution of Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities during Ripening of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Tempranillo) Grown in Semiarid Region: Effects of Cluster Thinning and Water Deficit
Garrido, Inmaculada; Uriarte, David; Hernández, Marcos; Llerena, José Luis; Valdés, María Esperanza; Espinosa, Francisco
A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The findings confirmed previous results that both thinning and water deficit advance ripening, while irrigation and high crop load (no thinning) lengthen the growth cycle. The SOD activity remained practically constant throughout ripening in the thinned treatments and was always lower than in the unthinned treatments, an aspect which could have been the cause of the observed greater level of lipid peroxidation in the water deficit, thinned treatment. The nonspecific peroxidase activity was very low, especially in the thinned treatments. The effect of thinning was enhanced when combined with water deficit, inducing increases in phenylpropanoids and, above all, flavonoids at the harvest stage of ripening, while leaving the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO) unaffected. PMID:27869671
The Evolution of Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities during Ripening of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Tempranillo) Grown in Semiarid Region: Effects of Cluster Thinning and Water Deficit.
Garrido, Inmaculada; Uriarte, David; Hernández, Marcos; Llerena, José Luis; Valdés, María Esperanza; Espinosa, Francisco
A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated) and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning) can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain). The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids), together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The findings confirmed previous results that both thinning and water deficit advance ripening, while irrigation and high crop load (no thinning) lengthen the growth cycle. The SOD activity remained practically constant throughout ripening in the thinned treatments and was always lower than in the unthinned treatments, an aspect which could have been the cause of the observed greater level of lipid peroxidation in the water deficit, thinned treatment. The nonspecific peroxidase activity was very low, especially in the thinned treatments. The effect of thinning was enhanced when combined with water deficit, inducing increases in phenylpropanoids and, above all, flavonoids at the harvest stage of ripening, while leaving the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO) unaffected.
Gao, Hui; Cheng, Ni; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Bini; Deng, Jianjun; Cao, Wei
In the present study, phenolic compounds are extracted from the date plum persimmon fruits using water, methanol and acetone as solvents. Antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts are measured using four different tests, namely, DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, chelating and reducing power assays. All the extracts show dose dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing and chelating powers and moreover, they are well correlated with the total phenolic and total flavonoid substances, suggesting direct contribution of phenolic compounds to these activities. In further, the extracts are identified and quantified by HPLC-ECD. Results show that gallic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound, with amounts ranging between 45.49and 287.47 μg/g dry sample. Myricetin is the dominant flavonoid in all extracts. Its level varied from 2.75 μg/g dry sample in acetone extract to 5.28 μg/g dry sample in water extract. On the basis of the results obtained, the date plum persimmon fruits phenolic extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants owing to its significant antioxidant activities.
This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for estimation of total soluble phenolic content in dietary supplement raw materials and finished products using the Folin-C assay for comparison within same matrices. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to b...
Karoune, Samira; Falleh, Hanen; Kechebar, Mohamed Seif Allah; Halis, Youcef; Mkadmini, Khaoula; Belhamra, Mohamed; Rahmoune, Chaabane; Ksouri, Riadh
This study compared phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in different organs of Acacia albida (leaves and bark) and focuses on identification of phenolic compounds of leaves by HPLC-DAD. The analysed organs exhibited differences in total polyphenol contents (100 and 59.5 mg GAE g(-1) DW). Phenolic contents of leaves were two times higher than those in bark. Ethanolic extracts exhibited good antioxidant activities with IC50 = 26 μg mL(-1) for DPPH and EC50 = 50 μg mL(-1) for FRAP. Identification by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds known for their high antioxidant activity. The results suggested that this species can be used as source of natural antioxidants.
Mašković, Pavle; Solujić, Slavica; Mihailović, Vladimir; Mladenović, Milan; Cvijović, Milica; Mladenović, Jelena; Aćamović-Đoković, Gordana; Kurćubić, Vladimir
This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the endemic plant species Kitaibelia vitifolia in inhibiting the growth of selected fungi and bacteria. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the broth dilution procedure for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). MICs were determined for eight selected indicator strains. The highest susceptibility to K. vitifolia ethanolic extract among the bacteria tested was exhibited by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (MIC=15.62 μg/mL), followed by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153 (MIC=31.25 μg/mL), and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 (MIC=62.50 μg/mL). Of the fungi, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC=15.62 μg/mL) showed the highest susceptibility, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 (MIC=31.25 μg/mL) had the lowest. Results showed that K. vitifolia extract possesses antioxidant activity, with total antioxidant capacity of 75.45±0.68 μg of ascorbic acid/g and 50% inhibition concentration values of 47.45±0.55 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, 35.35±0.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 95.25±0.52 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and 31.50±0.35 μg/mL for metal chelating activity. Total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, and gallotannins were 85.25±0.69 mg of gallic acid (GA)/g, 45.32±0.55 mg of rutin/g, 54.25±0.75 mg of GA/g, and 41.74±0.55 mg of GA/g, respectively. The phenolic composition of K. vitifolia extract was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the dominant phenolic compound of the extract.
Choudhary, R K; Swarnkar, P L
In this study, total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C content vis-a-vis antioxidant activities were assayed in leaves and stem bark of Azadirachta indica, Butea monosperma, Cassia fistula, Mangifera indica, Syzygium cumini and Tamarindus indica using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging method. The DPPH radical scavenging activity positively correlated with the total phenolic content in both stem bark and leaf. Superoxide radical scavenging activity increased with increasing flavonoid contents. However, the vitamin C content could not be correlated with DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging capacity.
Jakobek, Lidija; Seruga, Marijan; Krivak, Petra
In the present work, interactions between phenolic compounds from chokeberries and their influence on the antiradical activity was studied. Three fractions were isolated from chokeberries containing different classes of phenolic compounds. The first fraction contained a major part of phenolic acids and flavonols, the second anthocyanins, and the third insoluble phenols and proanthocyanidins. The phenolic compound content was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the antiradical activity using the DPPH test. In order to evaluate the effects of interactions between phenolic compounds on the antiradical activity, the antiradical activity of individual phenolic fractions was compared with that obtained by mixing phenolic fractions. Phenolic mixtures showed the decrease in the antiradical activity in comparison with the individual phenolic fractions. These results suggest the existence of complex interactions among phenolic compounds that caused the decrease of the antiradical activity. Interactions among chokeberry phenols promoted a negative synergism.
Wang, Jin; Zhao, Yong-Ming; Tian, Ya-Ting; Yan, Chun-Lin; Guo, Chun-Yan
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%; solid-liquid ratio, 1 : 20; number of extractions, 2 times; extraction time, 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid was 6.13 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.17 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that high amounts of phenolic compounds can be extracted from I. helenium by ultrasound-assisted extraction technology. PMID:24089600
Liotta, L F; Gruttadauria, M; Di Carlo, G; Perrini, G; Librando, V
This review article explored the catalytic degradation of phenol and some phenols derivates by means of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Among them, only the heterogeneous catalyzed processes based on catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, catalytic ozonation and catalytic wet oxidation were reviewed. Also selected recent examples about heterogeneous photocatalytic AOPs will be presented. In details, the present review contains: (i) data concerning catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenolic compounds over metal-exchanged zeolites, hydrotalcites, metal-exchanged clays and resins. (ii) Use of cobalt-based catalysts, hydrotalcite-like compounds, active carbons in the catalytic ozonation process. (iii) Activity of transition metal oxides, active carbons and supported noble metals catalysts in the catalytic wet oxidation of phenol and acetic acid. The most relevant results in terms of catalytic activity for each class of catalysts were reported.
Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto
Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI.
The long-established Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices this interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Approaches to eliminating the AsA interference are brie...
The venerable Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can substantially exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been a promising approach to ...
The venerable and operationally simple Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been...
The venerable Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for total phenolics can have severe limitations due to interference by ascorbic acid (AsA). For common fruit juices AsA interference can easily exceed the magnitude of the total phenolic signal itself. Ascorbate oxidase (AO) has been a promising approach to ...
Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan
Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in
Kumar, Tekeshwar; Jain, Vishal
The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME) of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica) and its two ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AqF) subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL), superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL), and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL). Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity. PMID:26457224
Abourashed, Ehab A; Roberson, Cindy Leslie A; Elsharkawy, Nancy
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) preparations are among the top selling products in the United States dietary supplements market. Numerous manufacturers claim different levels of specific catechin markers in their products while many others use total phenolic concentration instead, or not at all. Limited quality control results have been published for green tea dietary supplements over the past seven years. Thus, the goal of this work was to correlate determined levels of phenolics, catechins, and caffeine with manufacturer label claims for selected dietary supplement products (26 total) purchased in the United States. The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method was used to determine the total phenolic content while reversed-phase (RP) HPLC was used to quantify the major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The developed HPLC method was validated for accuracy and precision. It utilized a C8 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile in 0.1% aqueous formic acid over 11 min total run time. Peak detection was performed at 280 nm. Caffeine was also included in the HPLC method as another non-phenolic alkaloid marker commonly found in green tea. Both methods showed a good correlation between the content of catechins and polyphenolic compounds in the selected products. The ranges of total catechins and polyphenol concentrations were 3.8-70.2% and 3.6-95.8%, respectively, while that of caffeine was 0.8-11.2%. The selected products displayed a wide range of marker levels. A lack of conformity in disclosing the actual levels of marker compounds was also noticed in the labeling of many products.
EPA / 635 / R - 02 / 006 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF Phenol ( CAS No . 108 - 95 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2002 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington D.C . DISCLAIMER Mention of trade names or commercial products does n
Dinnella, Caterina; Minichino, Patrizia; D'Andrea, Anna Maria; Monteleone, Erminio
The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenols from 10 extra-virgin olive oil samples was assessed. Extra-virgin olive oil phenols were totally extracted in the aqueous phase, which reproduces gastric fluids during the digestion procedure. A linear bioaccessibility model, based on tyrosol behavior in model oil samples, was used to estimate the bioaccessibility index (BI%) of extra-virgin olive oil phenols. The BI% varied amongst samples from a maximum of 90% to a minimum of 37%, thus indicating that only a fraction of phenols can be considered bioaccessible. The specific antioxidant activity of olive oil phenols proved to be negatively affected by the digestion procedure. By computing a principal component analysis, it was possible to show that differences in the potential bioactive effect of extra-virgin olive oil samples were related to different phenolic profiles.
Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A
Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.
Plazonić, Ana; Mornar, Ana; Maleš, Željan; Kujundžić, Nikola
Since C. platycarpos contains a wide variety of antioxidants, in the present study total flavonoid and phenolic acid content as well as antioxidative activity of various C. platycarpos extracts were investigated. The results obtained show a significant polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the investigated plant. Moreover, a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was found, indicating the responsibility of these compounds for the antioxidant effectiveness of C. platycarpos extracts and making C. platycarpos a good potential source of natural antioxidants.
Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A
In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.
Maddox, Christina E; Laur, Lisa M; Tian, Li
Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiting X. fastidiosa growth, as indicated by low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In addition, phenolic compounds with different structural features exhibited different anti-Xylella capacities. Particularly, catechol, caffeic acid and resveratrol showed strong anti-Xylella activities. Differential response to phenolic compounds was observed among X. fastidiosa strains isolated from grape and almond. Elucidation of secondary metabolite-based host resistance to X. fastidiosa will have broad implication in combating X. fastidiosa-caused plant diseases. It will facilitate future production of plants with improved disease resistance properties through genetic engineering or traditional breeding approaches and will significantly improve crop yield.
Xu, Ying; Fan, Mingtao; Ran, Junjian; Zhang, Tingjing; Sun, Huiye; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Haiyan
Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds with its contents being 240.45–864.42 mg/100 gDW. Total phenolic content (TPC) measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay in apple seed extracts of seven cultivars ranged from 5.74 (Golden Delicious) to 17.44 (Honeycrisp) mgGAE/gDW. Apple seeds showed higher antioxidant activity than peels or flesh; antioxidant activity in seeds varied from 57.59 to 397.70 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW for FRAP, from 37.56 to 64.31 μM TE/g FW for DPPH, and from 220.52 to 708.02 μM TE/g FW for ABTS. TPC in apple seeds was significantly correlated with all three assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Honeycrisp was characterized with high contents of total polyphenols and phloridzin. Our findings suggest that phenolic extracts from apple seeds have good commercial potential as a promising antioxidant for use in food or cosmetics. PMID:27081364
Boukhary, Rima; Raafat, Karim; Ghoneim, Asser I; Aboul-Ela, Maha; El-Lakany, Abdalla
Objectives. Salvia fruticosa Mill. (S. fruticosa) is widely used in folk medicine. Accordingly, the present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of S. fruticosa, and to determine the phenolic constituents of its extracts. Methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay. Total phenolic contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify phenolic constituents. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema was determined plethysmographically. Key Findings. Different plant extracts demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity, where the ethyl acetate extract had the highest value in the roots and the lowest in the aerial parts. This antioxidant activity was correlated to the total phenolic content of different extracts, where rutin and luteolin were the most abundant constituents. Interestingly, both the roots and aerial parts revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity comparable to diclofenac. Conclusions. This study is the first to demonstrate pharmacologic evidence of the potential anti-inflammatory activity of S. fruticosa. This activity may partly be due to the radical scavenging effects of its polyphenolic contents. These findings warrant the popular use of the East Mediterranean sage and highlight the potential of its active constituents in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.
Alberti, Ágnes; Riethmüller, Eszter; Béni, Szabolcs; Kéry, Ágnes
Semnpervivum tectorum L. and Corylus avellana L. are traditional herbal remedies exhibiting antioxidant activity and representing diverse phenolic composition. The aim of this study was to reveal the contribution of certain compounds to total radical scavenging activity by studying S. tectorum and C. avellana extracts prepared with solvents of different selectivity for diverse classes of phenolics. Antioxidant activity of S. tectorum and C. avellana samples was determined in the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging assays, and phenolic composition was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between antioxidant activity and phenolic content of houseleek extracts have been revealed. Significant differences regarding antioxidant activity have been shown between S. tectorum 80% (v/v) methanol extract and its fractions. Additionally, synergism among the constituents present together in the whole extract was assumed. Significantly higher radical scavenging activity of hazel extracts has been attributed to the differences in phenolic composition compared with houseleek extracts.
Phenolic composition of different extracts of honeydew melon seeds and their antioxidant activity was determined for the ﬁrst time. Phenolic compounds were identiﬁed using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method. Results showed the identiﬁcation of ﬁve phenolic compounds in water extract namely gallic acid and its derivative, hydroxybenzoic acid and catechin derivatives and caffeic acid.There were nine phenolic compounds identiﬁed in methanol-water extract, which are caffeic acid, two vanillic acid derivatives, ellagitanins, quercetin-3-rutinoside, derivatives of syringic acid and ellagic acid. The amounts of gallic acid, caffeic acid and catechin were higher among all phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity were higher in water and methanol-water extract than their corresponding methanol extracts. In conclusion, melon seeds are a good source of natural antioxidants with signiﬁcant biological functions and may serve as food ingredients and as fortifying material for maintaining shelf life.
Sekretaryova, Alina N; Volkov, Anton V; Zozoulenko, Igor V; Turner, Anthony P F; Vagin, Mikhail Yu; Eriksson, Mats
The monitoring of phenolic compounds in wastewaters in a simple manner is of great importance for environmental control. Here, a novel screen printed laccase-based microband array for in situ, total phenol estimation in wastewaters and for water quality monitoring without additional sample pre-treatment is presented. Numerical simulations using the finite element method were utilized for the characterization of micro-scale graphite electrodes. Anodization followed by covalent modification was used for the electrode functionalization with laccase. The functionalization efficiency and the electrochemical performance in direct and catechol-mediated oxygen reduction were studied at the microband laccase electrodes and compared with macro-scale electrode structures. The reduction of the dimensions of the enzyme biosensor, when used under optimized conditions, led to a significant improvement in its analytical characteristics. The elaborated microsensor showed fast responses towards catechol additions to tap water - a weakly supported medium - characterized by a linear range from 0.2 to 10 μM, a sensitivity of 1.35 ± 0.4 A M(-1) cm(-2) and a dynamic range up to 43 μM. This enhanced laccase-based microsensor was used for water quality monitoring and its performance for total phenol analysis of wastewater samples from different stages of the cleaning process was compared to a standard method.
Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell
The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.
Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity in urine, sputum and nasal mucous is used as an indicator of inflammation due to viral or bacterial infection. However, bovine nasal mucous neutrophils collected, lysed and stored in Dulbecco's minimal medium containing Phenol Red, showed no NE activity with methox...
Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C
Chemical and cellular antioxidant activities and phenolic profiles of 11 lentil cultivars grown in the cool northern parts of the United States were investigated. Individual phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanins, were further quantitatively investigated by HPLC. Cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC) were evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader. Cultivar Morton exhibited the highest individual flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) and total flavonoids, as well as the highest antioxidant properties (PRSC and CAA) among all lentils tested. Five phenolic acids of the benzoic types and their derivates (gallic, protocatechuic, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and protocatechualdehyde) and four phenolic acids of the cinnamic type (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, and sinapic acid) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Two flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] and one flavone (luteolin) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Among all phenolic compounds detected, sinapic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, and (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the predominant flavonoids. These results showed that different phenotype lentils possessed considerable variations in their individual phenolic compounds, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and total flavonoids significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Cellular antioxidant assay significantly correlated with chemical antioxidant assay ORAC. The results from this study could be very interesting for breeding programs to improve lentils for use as functional foods.
Khang, Do Tan; Dung, Tran Nhan; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang
Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively). A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively). The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity. PMID:28231122
Piacente, Sonia; Montoro, Paola; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo
Two new phenolic constituents with unusual spirostructures, named yuccaols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark. Their structures were established by spectroscopic (ESIMS and NMR) analysis. The new yuccaols D and E, along with resveratrol (3), trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), yuccaols A-C (5-7), yuccaone A (8), larixinol (9), the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark, and the phenolic portion of this extract, were assayed for antioxidant activity by measuring the free radical scavenging effects using two different assays, namely, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid (autoxidation assay). The significant activities exhibited by the phenolic fraction and its constituents in both tests show the potential use of Y. schidigera as a source of antioxidant principles.
Raudone, Lina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viskelis, Jonas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras
Apples (Malus domestica L.) are the most common source of phenolic compounds in northern European diet. Besides pectins, dietary fibers, vitamins, and oligosaccharides they contain phenolic compounds of different classes. Apple powders are convenient functional forms retaining significant amounts of phenolic antioxidants. In this study reducing and radical scavenging profiles of freeze-dried powders of "Aldas,ˮ "Auksis,ˮ "Connel Red,ˮ "Ligol,ˮ "Lodel,ˮ and "Rajkaˮ were determined and phenolic constituents were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. A negative ionization mode was applied and seventeen compounds: phenolic acids (coumaroylquinic, chlorogenic), flavonoids (quercetin derivatives), and procyanidin derivatives (B1, B2, and C1) were identified in all tested apple samples. Total values of Trolox equivalents varied from 7.72 ± 0.32 up to 20.02 ± 0.52 and from 11.10 ± 0.57 up to 21.42 ± 0.75 μmol/g of dry weight of apple powder in FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) postcolumn assays, respectively. The greatest Trolox equivalent values were determined for apples of "Aldasˮ cultivar. Chlorogenic acid and procyanidin C1 were the most significant contributors to total reducing and radical scavenging activity in all apple cultivars tested, therefore they could be considered as markers of antioxidant activity.
Kang, Jie; Thakali, Keshari M; Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli
Highbush (cultivated) and lowbush (wild) are the two major blueberry species in the US market. Eight phenolic acids were detected and quantified from these two species by HPLC-MS. Chlorogenic acid was found to be the predominant phenolic acid in both species, with 0.44 mg/g fresh weight in lowbush blueberries and 0.13 mg/g fresh weight in highbush blueberries. Total phenolic content in lowbush blueberries is over three times higher than that of highbush blueberries. The phenolic acid mixtures representing those in the two species were prepared by using authentic standards to assess their contribution to total antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the whole berries. Neither lowbush nor highbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture contributed significantly to the total antioxidant capacity of their relevant whole berries measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Both phenolic acid mixtures were able to enter the cell and showed in cell antioxidant activities from the cell based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay. Lowbush blueberry phenolic acid mixture was found to show anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) at the high dose.
de Toledo, T. C. F.; Canniatti-Brazaca, S. G.; Arthur, V.; Piedade, S. M. S.
The objective was determining possible radiation-induced alterations (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw or cooked grains from five soybean cultivars through the analysis of some antinutrient. Total phenolic ranged from 2.46 to 10.83 mg/g, the trypsin inhibited from 18.19 to 71.64 UTI/g and tannins from 0.01 to 0.39 mg/g. All the antinutrient studied underwent reduction with increases in the doses and cooking process was effective too.
Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese
Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.
Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Maio, Ilona Di; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese
Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. PMID:26784660
Xu, Jian Guo; Tian, Cheng Rui; Hu, Qing Ping; Luo, Ji Yang; Wang, Xiang Dong; Tian, Xiang Dong
Samples from naked oat were steeped and germinated under controlled conditions in an incubator. Changes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in oats during steeping and germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of oats varied with the difference in steeping and germination stages. Compared with raw grains, short-term steeping treatment did not show significant effects (p > 0.05) on phenolic content. Germination can significantly result in the decrease in bound phenolic and the increase in free and total phenolics. Main phenolic acids and avenanthramides were isolated and quantified by HPLC analysis. During steeping, phenolic acids decreased (p < 0.05); avenanthramide N-(3',4'-dihydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid first decreased and then increased (p < 0.05), while avenanthramides N-(4'-hydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid and N-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy)-(E)-cinnamoyl-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid did not change significantly (p > 0.05). During germination, gallic and caffeic acids first increased (p < 0.05) and then decreased, whereas p-coumaric and ferulic acids and avenanthramides increased (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, avenanthramides did not change significantly (p > 0.05) during the last stage of germination. Oat extracts exhibited increasing high antioxidant activity with the steeping and germination going on, which may explain that antioxidant activity correlated (p < 0.01) significantly with the content of phenolic compounds.
Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi
Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862
Background The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruits could be underestimated if the bound phenolic compounds are not considered. In the present study, the extraction efficiencies of various solvents were investigated in terms of the total content of the free and bound phenolic compounds, as well as the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the extracts. Methods Five different solvent mixtures were used to extract the free phenolic compounds from litchi pulp. Alkaline and acidic hydrolysis methods were compared for the hydrolysis of bound phenolic compounds from litchi pulp residue. The phenolic compositions of the free and bound fractions from the litchi pulp were identified using HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activities of the litchi pulp extracts were determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Results Of the solvents tested, aqueous acetone extracted the largest amount of total free phenolic compounds (210.7 mg GAE/100 g FW) from litchi pulp, followed sequentially by aqueous mixtures of methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate, and water itself. The acid hydrolysis method released twice as many bound phenolic compounds as the alkaline hydrolysis method. Nine phenolic compounds were detected in the aqueous acetone extract. In contrast, not all of these compounds were found in the other four extracts. The classification and content of the bound phenolic compounds released by the acid hydrolysis method were higher than those achieved by the alkaline hydrolysis. The aqueous acetone extract showing the highest ORAC value (3406.9 μmol TE/100 g FW) for the free phenolic extracts. For the CAA method, however, the aqueous acetone and methanol extracts (56.7 and 55.1 μmol QE/100 g FW) showed the highest levels of activity of the five extracts tested. The ORAC and CAA values of the bound phenolic compounds obtained by acid hydrolysis were 2.6- and 1.9-fold higher than those obtained using the
Osorio, Mauricio; Aravena, Jacqueline; Vergara, Alejandra; Taborga, Lautaro; Baeza, Evelyn; Catalán, Karen; González, Cesar; Carvajal, Marcela; Carrasco, Héctor; Espinoza, Luis
The synthesis of twenty six prenylated phenols derivatives is reported. These compounds were obtained under mild conditions via Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) coupling reactions between phenol derivatives containing electron-donor subtituents and 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol using BF(3)×OEt(2). Dialkylations were also produced with this method. The formation of a chroman ring by intramolecular cyclization between a sp2 carbon from the prenyl group with the hydroxyl substituent in the ortho position occurred with some phenols. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated as antioxidants according to a DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. IC(50) values of five synthesized compounds indicated they were as good antioxidants as Trolox™.
Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.
Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.
Zhang, Li Zhen; Liu, Rui Hai
Commonly consumed foxtail millet varieties Jingu28 and Jingu34 were compared in terms of phytochemical composition, antioxidant property, and antiproliferative activity. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was evaluated based on HepG2 cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties against HepG2 and MDA cell were assayed by methylene blue assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was 78.79 and 114.22 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW in Jingu28 and Jingu34. Both varieties contained ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid. Xanthophylls and zeaxanthin were also detected. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the foxtail millet were 228.13 (Jingu28) and 355.03 (Jingu34) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g, respectively. CAA values of the foxtail millet varieties ranged from 1.52 to 8.97 μmol quercetin equiv/100 g DW. The proliferation of MDA and HepG2 cancer cells were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to Jingu28 and Jingu34 extractions.
Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.
The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci
Background The leaves of Leea indica (Vitaceae), commonly known as ‘Huo Tong Shu’ in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. The current study reports the outcome of antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation of L. indica leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) for evaluation of total phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell lines. Methods In the present study, L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) were firstly prepared prior to phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity assessment. Folin-Ciocalteau’s method was used for the measurement of total phenolic content of the extracts. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, reducing power assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity assay. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts were evaluated against three colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (HT-29, HCT-15 and HCT-116) by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Results The total phenolic content and antioxidant capabilities differed significantly among the L. indica leaf extracts. A strong correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant properties was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant properties of these extracts. Among the crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts, fractionated water extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content and strongest antioxidant effect in all the antioxidant testing systems employed in this study. All the four extracts exert no damage to the selected colon cancer cells. Conclusions The
Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.).
Manthey, John A; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit grown worldwide with excellent nutritional value and widely attributed health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peels, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidants of mango fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over 1 year to compare the beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the fruit pulp and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. To minimize ripeness variability, only soft fruit (0.5-1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g of pulp puree, and beta-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of puree. The varieties Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, and Haden had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2+/-7.8 mg GAE/100 g of puree, whereas the variety Ataulfo contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activities among the five varieties. In contrast, the country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. Ataulfo mangoes contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoids profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk) fruit and to compare various techniques for the analysis of total phenolic acids. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, querceti...
Li, Jie; Di, Liu-qing; Li, Jun-song; Kang, An; Qian, Jing; Wang, Deng-jie
To compare the difference of total phenol of magnolia solid dispersion prepared by different methods. Hot melt extrusion, solvent evaporation method, and fusion-cooling method were used to prepare total phenol of Magnolia accessory solid dispersion, Plastone S-630 and HPC. The drug dispersion state in the prepared solid dispersion was evaluated with DSC and X-ray diffraction; FT-IR method was used to analyze the possible connections between drug and accessories. Finally, accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test was use to compare the stability differences between these three processes. The results of DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that all of the drug in solid dispersion processed by three processes can exist in amorphous form; FT-IR results also could not distinguish the difference between the three processes; accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test showed the stability of solid dispersion prepared by HPC was better than Plastone S-630, and the same kinds of materials solid dispersion prepared by hot melt extrusion showed a better stability than the other two processes.
Turner, Rufus; Etienne, Nicolas; Alonso, Maria Garcia; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Minihane, Anne Marie; Weinberg, Peter D; Rimbach, Gerald
The aim of the current study was to investigate the antioxidant and cellular activity of the olive oil phenolics oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and homovanillic alcohol (which is also a major metabolite of hydroxytyrosol). Well-characterized chemical and biochemical assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Further experiments investigated their influence in cell culture on cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), nitric oxide production by activated macrophages, and secretion of chemoattractant and cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium. Inhibitory influences on in vitro platelet aggregation were also measured. The antioxidant assays indicated that homovanillic alcohol was a significantly more potent antioxidant than the other phenolics, both in chemical assays and in prolonging the lag phase of LDL oxidation. Cell culture experiments suggested that the olive oil phenolics induce a significant reduction in the secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (and a trend towards a reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and protect against cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized LDL. However, no influence on nitric oxide production or platelet aggregation was evident. The data show that olive oil phenolics have biochemical and cellular actions, which, if also apparent in vivo, could exert cardioprotective effects.
Loganayaki, Nataraj; Siddhuraju, Perumal; Manian, Sellamuthu
In the present study, antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts from H. isora fruits and C. pentandra seeds were investigated by employing established in vitro systems, which included reducing power, OH(●), DPPH(●), ABTS(●+), linoleic acid emulsion, metal chelation and antihemolytic activity. The extracts of C. pentandra contained relatively higher levels of total phenolics and flavonoids than those of H. isora. All the extracts showed dose dependent reducing power activity and moreover, they were well correlated with the total phenolic substances. A similar dose dependant trend has also been observed for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DPPH(●) radical scavenging activity. Further, addition of 250 μg of extracts to the reaction mixture produced 41.3-54.6% peroxidation inhibiting activity during 60 h of incubation. The potential of multiple antioxidant activity of samples can be further evidenced by inhibition of reactive oxygen mediated erythrocyte cell lysis and metal ion chelating activity.
Background Oxidative stress and analgesia are connected with different pathological conditions. The drug candidates from synthetic sources are associated with various side effects; therefore, researchers are giving priority to find novel, effective and safe phytomedicines. Teucrium species possesses antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The essential oils of Teucrium stocksianum have shown strong antinociceptive potential. Our current study is designed to embark total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant and antinociceptive potential of the methanolic extract of Teucrium stocksianum (METS). Method Phytochemical composition was determined by using standard methods. Free radical scavenging potential and TPC of METS were assessed by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent (FCR) respectively. Antinociceptive potential was determined by acetic acid induced abdominal writhing, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion tests. Different test dose 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of METS were administered intra peritonealy (i.p) to various groups of mice for the evaluation of analgesic potential. Results Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinone, steroid, phlobatannin, terpenoid, glycoside and reducing sugars. METS was found safe at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight. A concentration dependent free radical scavenging effect was observed with methanolic aerial parts extract of Teucrium stocksianum (MAPETS) and methanolic roots extracts of Teucrium stocksianum (MRETS). MAPETS and MRETS have shown highest antioxidant activity 91.72% and 86.19% respectively at 100 μg/ml. MAPETS was found more rich (115.32 mg of GAE/g of dry material) in TPC as compared to MAPETS (105.41 mg of GAE/g). METS demonstrated a dose dependent antinociceptive potential in different pain models, like in acetic acid, formalin and tail immersion showing 83.103%, 80.872% and 67
Zhang, Lin; Ravipati, Anjaneya S; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang Chul; Reddy, Narsimha; Smith, Paul T; Bartlett, John; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; Münch, Gerald; Wu, Ming Jie
The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of water and ethanol extracts of 14 Chinese medicinal plants were investigated and also their total phenolics and flavonoid contents measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae , whereas the radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activities of the plant extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Their cytotoxic activities against macrophages were determined by Alamar Blue assay. Four plants, namely, Scutellaria baicalensis , Taxillus chinensis , Rheum officinale , and Sophora japonica , showed significant antioxidant activity in both yeast model and also free radical scavenging methods. The ethanol extract of S. japonica showed highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids (91.33 GAE mg/g and 151.86 QE mg/g, respectively). A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolics and flavonoid contents indicates that these compounds are likely to be the main antioxidants contributing to the observed activities. Five plant extracts (S. baicalensis, T. chinensis, S. japonica, Mahonia fortunei , and Sophora flavescens ) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro inhibition of the production of NO and TNF-α with low IC(50) values. These findings suggest that some of the medicinal herbs studied in this paper are good sources of antioxidants.
Dicko, Mamoudou H; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J
The screening of 50 sorghum varieties showed that, on average, germination did not affect the content in total phenolic compounds but decreased the content of proanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and flavan-4-ols. Independent of germination, there are intervarietal differences in antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were more positively correlated in ungerminated varieties than in germinated ones. Sorghum grains with pigmented testa layer, chestnut color glumes, and red plants had higher contents, larger diversity of phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activities than other sorghums. Some red sorghum varieties had higher antioxidant activities (30-80 mumol of Trolox equiv/g) than several sources of natural antioxidants from plant foods. Among varieties used for "to", "dolo", couscous, and porridge preparation, the "dolo"(local beer) varieties had the highest average content and diversity in phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activities. The biochemical markers determined are useful indicators for the selection of sorghum varieties for food and agronomic properties.
Chandrasekara, Neel; Shahidi, Fereidoon
The effect of roasting on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cashew nuts and testa was studied. Whole cashew nuts, subjected to low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) treatments, were used to determine the antioxidant activity of products. Antioxidant activities of cashew nut, kernel, and testa phenolics extracted increased as the roasting temperature increased. The highest activity, as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC), and reducing power, was achieved when nuts were roasted at 130 °C for 33 min. Furthermore, roasting increased the total phenolic content (TPC) in both the soluble and bound extracts from whole nut, kernel, and testa but decreased that of the proanthocyanidins (PC) except for the soluble extract of cashew kernels. In addition, cashew testa afforded a higher extract yield, TPC, and PC in both soluble and bound fractions compared to that in whole nuts and kernels. Phenolic acids, namely, syringic (the predominant one), gallic, and p-coumaric acids, were identified. Flavonoids, namely, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and epigallocatechin, were also identified, and their contents increased with increasing temperature. The results so obtained suggest that HT-short time (HTST) roasting effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of cashew nuts and testa.
Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.
The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.
Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.
The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088
Zunjar, V; Mammen, D; Trivedi, B M
This article deals with the comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of various parts of Carica papaya L. The evaluation of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content revealed high antioxidant potential of the seeds and fruits. The free radical-scavenging potential of the aqueous extracts indicated the seeds to have better DPPH-scavenging activity than fruits. The results were augmented by the FRAP activity as well. The phenolics present in the extracts were separated and identified as 5-hydroxy feruloyl quinic acid, acetyl p-coumaryl quinic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, syringic acid hexoside, 5-hydroxy caffeic quinic acid, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, sinapic acid-O-hexoside, cyaniding-3-O-glucose and methyl feruloyl glycoside by LCMS-MS technique.
Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong
The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in lipophilic and hydrophilic (extractable and bound) fractions of lentils before and after domestic cooking were investigated. The hydrophilic fractions in lentils contributed much more to the antioxidant activity than the lipophilic fraction. The phenolic content of lentils was mainly composed of extractable compounds. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in carotenoid, tocopherol, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents of both extractable and bound phenolics fractions, as well as in antioxidant activities, were found in lentils before and after cooking. More specifically, cooking was found to favor the release of carotenoids and tocopherols and flavonols (kaempferol glycosides), but led to losses of flavanols (monomeric and condensed tannin). Whereas reduced flavanols and other phenolic compounds may have negatively affected the antioxidant activity, other components, especially the lipophilic antioxidants, were increased. The present study suggests that incorporation of cooked lentils into the diet will not cause significant loss to the phytochemical antioxidants and thus will retain the potential health benefits.
Yeo, JuDong; Shahidi, Fereidoon
A new indicator, the ratio of insoluble bound phenolics (IBPs) to soluble phenolics (SPs), is suggested as an effective means to monitor changes in the antioxidant activity of lentils during germination. This indicator may be used to monitor other process-induced changes in antioxidant potential of food phenolics in other foods. The antioxidant activity of SPs, IBPs, and total value, the sum of both free and esterified phenolics, of germinated CDC Richlea lentil variety was evaluated for 4 days. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability were employed to record antioxidant activities. An incremental increase in IBPs was found in TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, whereas SPs showed a declining trend in TFC, DPPH, and ABTS, except TPC during 4 days of germination. The ratio of IBPs to SPs increased using most methods, and this may be possibly due to the changes of phenolic compound formation from soluble into insoluble bound form during germination process. The ratio can be used as a novel method for monitoring process-induced changes in the antioxidant activity of foods.
We studied the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of monomeric and dimeric phenol compounds. Dimeric compounds had higher antioxidant activities than monomeric compounds. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping experiments showed that phenol compounds with an allyl substituent on their aromatic rings directly scavenged superoxide, and that only eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals. We developed a generation system of the hydroxyl radical without using any metals by adding L-DOPA and DMPO to PBS or MiliQ water in vitro. We found that eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals directly and is metabolized to a dimer. On the other hand, dipropofol, a dimer of propofol, has strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. However, it lacks solubility in water and this property is assumed to limit its efficacy. We tried to improve the solubility and found a new solubilization method of dipropofol in water with the addition of a monosaccharide or ascorbic acid.
Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard
Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.
Dorman, H J Damien; Hiltunen, Raimo
Ocimum basilicum L. leaf material was extracted by maceration with (80:20:1 v/v/v) methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract (CE), which was further fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to isolate light petroleum (PE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH) and H2O-soluble sub-fractions. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the resulting samples were estimated using colorimetric-based methods, and their iron(III) reductive and free radical scavenging activities were determined in a battery of in vitro assays. The CE and sub-fractions contained phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The samples, except for PE, gave a positive result for the presence of flavones and flavonols; however, flavanones only appeared to be present in the CE. In iron(III) reduction, CE and n-BuOH were the most potent followed by EtOAc and H2O (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05). However, in the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, H2O was the most potent followed by CE and EtOAc (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) and n-BuOH and PE. In 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, all the samples, except PE, were effective against this reactive nitrogen species, with CE, EtOAc and n-BuOH being the most potent (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05). In alkylperoxyl scavenging, all the samples, except for PE, were effective against this reactive oxygen species (ROS). In superoxide anion scavenging, all the samples were capable of scavenging this ROS with CE being the most effective, followed by n-BuOH and H2O (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) and EtOAc and PE. Similarly, in hydroxyl scavenging, all the samples were capable of scavenging this ROS with CE and n-BuOH being the most effective (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) followed by EtOAc and H2O (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) and PE.
Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Karimi, Ehsan; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi
The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. PMID:25056545
Kaliora, Andriana C; Kogiannou, Dimitra A A; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Papassideri, Issidora S; Kalogeropoulos, Nick
Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of six herbal infusions - namely rosemary, Cretan dittany, St. John's Wort, sage, marjoram and thyme were assayed. Additionally, the infusion anticarcinogenic effect as to their ability to (a) scavenge free radicals, (b) inhibit cell growth, (c) decrease IL-8 levels and (d) regulate p65 subunit in epithelial colon cancer (HT29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells was investigated. LC-DAD-MS and GC-MS analyses showed major qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic profiles of the infusions. All herbal infusions exhibited antiradical activity which correlated strongly with their total phenolic content. Infusions exhibited the potential to inhibit cell growth and to reduce IL-8 levels in HT29 colon and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The regulation reported in p65 subunit in HT29 treated with St John's Wort and in PC3 treated with thyme might point to the NF-κB as the molecular target underlying the effect of these infusions.
Background This study aims to determine the relationship between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen herbs and two fungi extracts, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods Antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: an antioxidant activity assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a DPPH ((2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay to assess free radical scavenging, an assay assessing ferrous ions or iron (II) chelating ability, and a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride methods, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activities were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-activated J774A.1 macrophages. Their cytotoxicities against macrophages were determined by MTT assay. Results A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the plant extracts was found. The plant extracts with high phenolic and flavonoid content also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with good cell viability. Conclusion The selected herbs could be a rich source of antioxidants and free radical scavenging compounds. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts from the herbs. PMID:23176585
Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo
In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties.
Bujor, Oana-Crina; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I; Dufour, Claire
The seasonal variations of the content and diversity of phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity of leaves, stems and fruits of bilberry collected in May, July and September, were evaluated for two consecutive years. UPLC/MS(n) analyses showed the predominance of anthocyanins in fruits, caffeic acid derivatives in leaves whereas flavanol oligomers represented more than half of the phenolic compounds in stems. Thioacidolysis revealed degrees of polymerization between 2 and 4 and (-)-epicatechin as the main flavanol unit. The sum of the phenolic compounds by UPLC was highly correlated with the total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity in the DPPH test for all the extracts except for May leaves. The latter were relatively rich in p-coumaric acid derivatives. Seasonal effects were more marked for leaves, which exhibited higher antioxidant activities and phenolic contents in July and September when these parameters were at their highest in July for stems.
Yoon, Gun-Ae; Cho, Yoon-Suk; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Tang, Guangwen; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Russell, Robert M.; Yoon, Sun; Lee-Kim, Yang Cha
Phytochemicals are reported to provide various biological functions leading to the promotion of health as well as the reduced risk of chronic diseases. Fat-soluble plant pigments, carotenoids, are extensively studied micronutrient phytochemicals for their potential health benefits. It is noteworthy that specific carotenoids may be responsible for different protective effects against certain diseases. In addition, each carotenoid can be obtained from different types of plant foods. Considering the fact that the phytochemical content in foods can vary according to, but not limited to, the varieties and culture conditions, it is important to establish a database of phytochemicals in locally produced plant foods. Currently, information on individual carotenoid content in plant foods commonly consumed in Korea is lacking. As the first step to support the production and consumption of sustainable local plant foods, carotenoids and total phenolic contents of plant foods commonly consumed in Korea are presented and their potential biological functions are discussed in this review. PMID:23346297
Mohd Din, Azam T; Hameed, B H; Ahmad, Abdul L
The liquid-phase adsorption of phenol onto coconut shell-based activated carbon, CS850A was investigated for its equilibrium studies and kinetic modeling. Coconut shell was converted into high quality activated carbon through physiochemical activation at 850 degrees C under the influence of CO(2) flow. Beforehand, the coconut shell was carbonized at 700 degrees C and the resulted char was impregnated with KOH at 1:1 weight ratio. In order to evaluate the performance of CS850A, a series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted with initial phenol concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 mg l(-1), adsorbent loading of 0.2g and the adsorption process was maintained at 30+/-1 degrees C. The adsorption isotherms were in conformation to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Chemical reaction was found to be a rate-controlling parameter to this phenol-CS850A batch adsorption system due to strong agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorption capacity for CS850A was found to be 205.8 mg g(-1).
Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon
Pomegranate peel was separated into outer leathery skin (PS), mesocarp (PM), and divider membrane (PD), and its phenolic compounds were extracted as free (F), esterified (E), and insoluble-bound (B) forms for the first time. The total phenolic content followed the order PD > PM > PS. ABTS(•+), DPPH, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and metal chelation were evaluated. In addition, pomegranate peel extracts showed inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity, lipase activity, and cupric ion-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation as well as peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission. Seventy-nine phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) mainly in the form of insoluble-bound. Thirty compounds were identified for the first time. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound in pomegranate peel, whereas kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the major flavonoid. Moreover, ellagic acid and monogalloyl-hexoside were the major hydrolyzable tannins, whereas the dominant proanthocyanidin was procyanidin dimers. Proanthocyanidins were detected for the first time.
Marín-Martinez, Raúl; Veloz-García, Rafael; Veloz-Rodríguez, Rafael; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe; Cardador-Martinez, Anabertha; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Miranda-López, Rita; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Pérez, Cristina Pérez; Herrera-Hernández, Guadalupe; Villaseñor-Ortega, Francisco; González-Chavira, Mario; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón G
Quebracho extracts are used in tannery due to their high concentration of phenolics. The Mexican tannery industry uses around 450 kg/m(3) of which, 150 kg/m(3) remains in wastewaters and are discharged in drain pipe systems or rivers. The quebracho phenolics recovered from tannery wastewater (QPTW) was characterized by HPLC. The antimutagenic and antioxidant activities as well as the microbiological quality were evaluated. Total phenolic content of QPTW was 621mg catechin equivalent/g sample. Gallic and protocatechuic acids were the major components characterized by HPLC. QPTW showed an inhibition range on aflatoxin B(1) mutagenicity from 16 to 60% and was dose-dependent. Antioxidant activity (defined as beta-carotene bleaching) of QPTW (64.4%) at a dose of 12.3mg/mL was similar to that of BHT (68.7%) at a dose of 0.33 mg/mL, but lower than Trolox (90.8% at a dose of 2.5mg/mL); meanwhile antiradical activity (measured as reduction of DPPH) (60.8%) was higher than that of BHT (50.8%) and Trolox (34.2%). Quebracho residues were demonstrated to be an outstanding source of phenolic acids and for research and industrial uses.
Yang, Jun; Meyers, Katherine J; van der Heide, Jan; Liu, Rui Hai
Epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk for the development of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Onions are a major source of dietary flavonoids; however, there may exist varietal differences in composition, concentration, and beneficial activities. To characterize these differences, shallots and 10 onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties commonly available in the United States (Western Yellow, Northern Red, New York Bold, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Shallots contained the highest total phenolic content (114.7 +/- 10.0 mg/100 g of sample) among the varieties tested, with a 6-fold difference observed when compared to the variety with the lowest phenolic content (Vidalia, p < 0.05). Western Yellow onion variety exhibited the highest total flavonoid content (69.2 +/- 3.7 mg/100 g of onion) of the varieties tested, with an 11-fold difference when compared to the variety with the lowest flavonoid content (Western White, p < 0.05). Shallots exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity (45.5 +/- 2.1 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of onion), followed by Western Yellow, New York Bold, Northern Red, Mexico, Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. For all varieties, both total phenolic and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with total antioxidant activity (R (2) = 0.9668, p < 0.05; and R (2) = 0.7033, p < 0.05, respectively). The proliferation of HepG(2) and Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion after exposure to the Western Yellow, shallots, New
Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Tomczyk-Ulanowska, Kinga
Seventeen natural sweeteners available on the Polish market were screened for total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and for antioxidant activity, using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay (ABTS(·+)). In addition, we analyzed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus strains: both those susceptible and those resistant to methicillin (MRSA). The results of the study showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity differ widely among different samples of sweeteners. Phenolic content, expressed as a gallic acid equivalent, ranged from 0 mg kg(-1) in white, refined sugar, xylitol and wheat malt syrup to 11.4 g kg(-1) in sugarcane molasses. Antioxidant activity was lowest in refined white sugar, xylitol, brown beet sugar, liquid fructose, and rape honey; it was average in spelt syrup and corn syrup, and highest in sugar cane, beet molasses, date and barley syrups. Despite the great variety of sweeteners, a strong correlation was noted between the concentration of phenolics and antioxidant properties, as determined by the ABTS(·+) method (r = 0.97) and the FRAP assay (r = 0.77). The strongest antibacterial activity was observed in sugarcane molasses, which was lethal to S. aureus strains at 2 and 4% concentrations in medium for susceptible and MRSA strains respectively. Other sweeteners kill bacteria in 6-15% solutions, whereas some did not show any antibacterial activities against S. aureus strains, even at 20% concentrations. Due to their high antioxidant and antibacterial activities, some of the tested sweeteners have potential therapeutic value as supporting agents in antibiotic therapy.
Zhang, Ge; Xu, Zhicun; Gao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xianxiao; Zou, Yanping; Yang, Tiankui
Germination is considered to be an effective process for improving the nutritional quality and functionality of cereals. In this study, changes of nutritional ingredients, antinutritional components, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat seeds over 72 h of germination were investigated, and the reasons for these changes are discussed. With the prolonged germination time, the contents of crude protein, reducing sugar, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins increased significantly, while the levels of crude fat, phytic acid, and the activity of trypsin inhibitor decreased. Phenolic compounds, such as rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased significantly during the germination process, which may be due to the activation of phenylalanine ammonialyase. The improvement of flavonoids led to significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities of germinated buckwheat. Germinated buckwheat had better nutritional value and antioxidant activities than ungerminated buckwheat, and it represented an excellent natural source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, especially rutin and C-glycosylflavones. Therefore, germinated buckwheat could be used as a promising functional food for health promotion.
Stratil, P; Klejdus, B; Kubán, V
Three methods, FCM (with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), PBM (Price and Butler) and AAPM (with 4-aminoantipyrine) for assessment of phenolic compounds and three commonly used methods, TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), DPPH (with diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) for evaluation of antioxidant capacity, were modified to a semimicroscale (total volume 1ml) with minimum consumption (to 100mul) of a sample and thereby applicable for fast screening. Appropriate standards and extracts of 17 kinds of fruit and six kinds of cereal were assessed for total content of phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity by each of these methods. The results of analyses of commonly used standards (gallic, caffeic and ferulic acids, (+)-catechin, Trolox, fenol and FeSO(4)) for these methods and identical plant extract showed different reactivity of principal reagent of the methods with individual standards and therefore with phenolic substances of extracts as well. However, the trends of the measured values of extracts could be compared, though their absolute values differ proportionally. At assessments of phenolic compounds it is important to determine content of ascorbic acid at roughly the same time and correct the obtained values according to its contribution to the increase in absorbance calculated on the basis of absorbance equations, especially for samples with a higher content. The same is true for reducing saccharides; they can significantly "elevate" values of contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities (by even more than 50%), especially in samples of sweeter fruits. The saccharides should therefore be removed or a correction applied reflecting their concentration.
Shao, Yafang; Tang, Fufu; Xu, Feifei; Wang, Yuefei; Bao, Jinsong
Three rice genotypes with different color were gamma irradiated at a dose of 2, 4, 6, 8and 10 kGy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity, as well as physicochemical properties of whole grain rice. The bound phenolics content in all the genotypes were significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation. Gamma irradiation at high dose significantly increased the free, bound and total antioxidant activities of three rice genotypes except for the free antioxidant activities of red rice. Though the color parameters were slightly changed, these changes could not be visibly identified. Rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) viscosities and gel hardness decreased continuously with the increase of the irradiation doses. It is suggested that gamma irradiation enhanced the antioxidant potential and eating quality of whole grainrice.
Viapiana, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek
The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of teas prepared from twenty-four commercially available berries and flowers of Sambucus nigra L. in relation to their phenolic profile, as reflected by the most representative phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic and syringic acids); flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and rutin); and total phenolic (TPC), phenolic acid (TAC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents. The infusions prepared from elderflowers contained more abundant phenolic compounds than the elderberry infusions. The TPC of these infusions ranged from 19.81 to 23.90 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of sample (GAE/g DW) for elderberries and from 15.23 to 35.57 mg GAE/g DW for elderflowers, whereas the TFC ranged from 2.60 to 4.49 mg of rutin equivalents/g dry weight of sample (RUTE/g DW) in elderberry infusions and from 5.27 to 13.19 mg RUTE/g DW in elderflower infusions. Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, quercetin (2.07-9.48 mg/g DW) and myricetin (1.17-9.62 mg/g DW) had the highest concentrations in the teas prepared from berries and flowers, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant potential of elder infusions assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays revealed that the teas prepared from flowers had higher mean DPPH and FRAP activities than the teas prepared from berries. Therefore, elder beverages could be important dietary sources of natural antioxidants that contribute to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Zou, Yanping; Chang, Sam K C; Gu, Yan; Qian, Steven Y
Phenolic compounds were extracted from Morton lentils using acidified aqueous acetone. The crude Morton extract (CME) was applied onto a macroresin column and desorbed by aqueous methanol to obtain a semipurified Morton extract (SPME). The SPME was further fractionated over a Sephadex LH-20 column into five main fractions (I-V). The phytochemical contents such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) of the CME, SPME, and its fractions were examined by colorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions were screened by DPPH scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reduced antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) methods. In addition, the compositions of active fractions were determined by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods. Results showed that the fraction enriched in condensed tannins (fraction V) exhibited significantly higher values of TPC, CTC, and antioxidant activity as compared to the crude extract, SPME, and low molecular weight fractions (I-IV). Eighteen compounds existed in those fractions, and 17 were tentatively identified by UV and MS spectra. HPLC-MS analysis revealed fraction II contained mainly kaempferol glycoside, fractions III and IV mainly contained flavonoid glycosides, and fraction V was composed of condensed tannins. The results suggested that the extract of Morton lentils is a promising source of antioxidant phenolics and may be used as a dietary supplement for health promotion.
Kubola, Jittawan; Siriamornpun, Sirithon
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) has long been regarded as a food and medicinal plant. We investigated the antioxidant activity of the water extract of leaf, stem and fruit fractions by several in vitro systems of assay, namely DPPH radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and total antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Identification of phenolic compounds was achieved using HPLC with the UV-diode array detection. The extracts of different fractions were found to have different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The leaf extract showed the highest value of antioxidant activity, based on DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, while the green fruit extract showed the highest value of antioxidant activity, based on hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay and total antioxidant capacity. The predominant phenolic compounds were gallic acid, followed by caffeic acid and catechin. The present study demonstrated that the water extract fractions of bitter gourd have different responses with different antioxidant methods. Total phenol content was shown to provide the highest association with FRAP assay in this present study (R(2)=0.948).
Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael
Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755
Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei
The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon.
Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess
The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits.
Omar, Nur Faezah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Sinniah, Umarani
A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer) and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian). The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K(2)O ha-1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava.
Application of artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) to predict the changes of anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, Total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity during storage of red bayberry juice based on fractal analysis and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values.
Zheng, Hong; Jiang, Lingling; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Kong, Xuecheng; Lu, Hongfei
Artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed to predict the changes of anthocyanin (AC), ascorbic acid (AA), total phenols (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (SA) in bayberry juice during storage based on fractal analysis (FA) and red, green, and blue (RGB) intensity values. The results show the root mean squared error (RMSE) of ANN-FA decreased 2.44 and 12.45% for AC (RMSE = 18.673 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.939) and AA (RMSE = 8.694 mg/100 mL, R(2) = 0.935) compared with PLSR-RGB, respectively. In addition, PLSR-FA (RMSE = 5.966%, R(2) = 0.958) showed a 12.01% decrease in the RMSE compared with PLSR-RGB for predicting SA. For the prediction of TP and TF, however, both models showed poor performances based on FA and RGB. Therefore, ANN and PLSR combined with FA may be a potential method for quality evaluation of bayberry juice during processing, storage, and distribution, but the selection of the most adequate model is of great importance to predict different nutritional components.
Saini, Ritu; Dangwal, Koushalya; Singh, Himani; Garg, Veena
Yellow Himalayan raspberry, a wild edible fruit, was analyzed for phenolic contents, and antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Phenolics were extracted using 80 % aqueous solvents containing methanol, acidic methanol, acetone and acidic acetone. Our analysis revealed that the acidic acetone extracts recovered the highest level of total phenolics (899 mg GAE/100 g FW) and flavonoids (433.5 mg CE/100 g FW). Free radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and linoleate hydroperoxide radicals) and ferric reducing activity were highest in the acetone and acidic acetone extracts. No metal chelating or antibacterial activity was detected in any of the extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed potent antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cells (C33A) with an EC50 of inhibition at 5.04 and 4. 9 mg/ml fruit concentration respectively, while showing no cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that the yellow Himalayan raspberry is a potent source of phytochemicals having super antioxidant and potent antiproliferative activities.
Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong
Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual phenolics. These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source, and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food.
Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Nahavandi, Bahman; Tehrani, Shirin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Oveisi, Morvarid
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil have long been used widely as healthy foods to supply energy and prevent aging. Some of the main active anti-oxidative constituents in sesame seeds are γ-tocopherol and phenols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between roasting temperature and time with γ-tocopherol and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of sesame seeds when roasted in a domestic electric oven. Eight cultivars of sesame seeds in this study were Darab, Dezful, Karaj, Moghan, Naz- Branching, Naz-NonBranching, Siah and Varamin. Each cultivar was divided into ten group based on the roasting time (10, 15 and 20 min) and temperatures (180, 200 and 220 °C)andunroasted one. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometeric methods were used for γ-tocopherol (n = 80) and TPC (n = 80) analysis, respectively. The γ-tocopherol content ranged from 329 ± 5 mg/L in Naz-Branching sesame oil to 1114±7 mg/L in Siah sesame oil and 169±6 to 577±1 mg/kg in sesame seed respectively. γ-tocopherol content of six cultivars increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the roasting temperature and time; until 200 °C for 10 min, but they were decreased by roasting at 220 °C in longer time. Also TPC increased significantly as the roasting temperature. The amount of TPC varied in different sesame cultivars from 20.109 ± 3.967 μM to 129.300±3.493 in Varamin and Naz- Branching sesame seed cultivars, respectively, also TPC increased from 70.953 ± 5.863 μM in unroasted Naz-Branching sesame seed to 129.300 ± 3.493 μM after roasting in 200 °C for 20 min. The present study showed that Iranian sesame seed can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant specially after roasting. The optimum temperature and time roasting to obtain the most γ-tocopherol and total phenolic content was 200 °C for 10 and 20 min, respectively.
de Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz; Zagal, José Heraclito
A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III) followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III) reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample), and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. PMID:21461407
Bunea, Andrea; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Socaciu, Carmen; Bobis, Otilia; Neacsu, Madalina; Verhé, Roland; Camp, John Van
The carotenoid and phenolic acid contents in fresh, stored and processed (blanched, frozen and boiled) spinach were comparatively determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses. The major carotenoids identified after HPLC analysis in saponified samples were lutein (37-53μg/kg), β-carotene (18-31μg/kg), violaxanthin (9-23μg/kg) and neoxanthin (10-22μg/kg). These carotenoids were all affected by storage and/or heating. The content of carotenoids was best preserved after storage for one day at 4°C. The total phenolic content in the fresh spinach was 2088mg GAE/kg FW. After LC-MS analysis three phenolic acids were identified and quantified. These being ortho-coumaric acid (28-60mg/kg FW), ferulic acid (10-35mg/kg) and para-coumaric acid (1-30mg/kg) depending on the sample type. After storage of spinach at different temperatures (4°C or -18°C) the amount of total phenolic compounds decreased by around 20%, while the amount of individual phenolic acids increased by four times on average.
Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo
The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples.
Wen, Lingrong; Guo, Xingbo; Liu, Rui Hai; You, Lijun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong
It is evident from various epidemiological studies that consumption of fruits and vegetables is essential to maintain health and in the disease prevention. Present study was designed to examine phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of three varieties of Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn). Shanlihong variety exhibited elevated levels of total phenolics and flavonoid contents, including free and bond phenolics. Procyanidin B2 was most abundant phenolic compound in all samples, followed by epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin. The free ORAC values, and free hydro-PSC values were 398.3-555.8 μmol TE/g DW, and 299.1-370.9 μmol VCE/g DW, respectively. Moreover, the free cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) values were 678-1200 μmol of QE/100 g DW in the no PBS wash protocol, and 345.9-532.9 μmol of QE/100 g DW in the PBS wash protocol. C. pinnatifida fruit could be valuable to promote consumer health.
Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J
There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.
Total soluble phenolics in two white (‘Allahabad Safeda’ and ‘Lucknow-49’), two pink (‘Beaumont’ and ‘Gushiken Sweet’), and three red fleshed (‘Ka Hua Kola’, ‘Ruby Supreme’ and ‘Red Fleshed’) guava (Psidium guajava. L.) fruits were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. ‘Allahabad Safeda’ and...
BACKGROUND: The effect of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light treatment on total soluble phenolic contents (TSP) of various whole and fresh-cut specialty crops was evaluated. Whole fruits (strawberries, blueberries, grapes), vegetables (cherry tomatoes, white sweet corn) and root crops (sweet potatoes, colo...
Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis
Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity.
Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Carrera, Ceferino; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F
New ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the determination of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds present in mulberries have been developed. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (50-100%), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasound amplitude (30-70%), cycle (0.2-0.7s), solvent pH (3-7) and solvent-solid ratio (10:1.5-20:1.5) were optimized. A Box-Behnken design in conjunction with a response surface methodology was employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum response based on 54 different experiments. Two response variables were considered: total anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds. Extraction temperature and solvent composition were found to be the most influential parameters for anthocyanins (48°C and 76%) and phenolic compounds (64°C and 61%). The developed methods showed high reproducibility and repeatability (RSD<5%). Finally, the new methods were successfully applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds in several mulberry jams.
Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.
The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…
Lominchar, Miguel A; Rodríguez, Sergio; Lorenzo, David; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Arturo; Santos, Aurora
Three persulfate (PS) activation methods (nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI), hydrogen peroxide and alkali) were compared using phenol as target pollutant. Firstly, four experiments were conducted at 25°C in a batch way using the same initial phenol and oxidant concentrations (10 mM and 420 mM, respectively), being the molar ratio activator/PS fixed to 0.005 with nZVI (mass ratio 0.0011 nZVI/PS), to 2 using hydrogen peroxide and to 2 and 4 with NaOH. Phenol and PS conversions and aromatic byproducts profiles during 168 h reaction time were measured and compared, as well as mineralization and ecotoxicity of the samples. It was found that both phenol and aromatic byproducts (catechol and hydroquinone) totally disappeared using PS activated by alkali before 24 h, while a significant amount of aromatic intermediates was obtained with nZVI and H2O2. Additional runs were carried out using shorter times (0-2 h) to discriminate the oxidation route and the kinetic model of phenol abatement by using PS activated by alkali. Different initial concentrations of phenol (5-15 mM), PS (210 and 420 mM) and molar ratio NaOH/PS (2 and 4) were employed. The kinetic model obtained predicts accurately the evolution of phenol, persulfate, hydroquinone and catechol.
Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.
In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361
Chen, Liang-Yu; Cheng, Chien-Wei; Liang, Ji-Yuan
The Folin-Ciocalteu method is widely applied for the determination of the total phenolic contents in natural products. This method is significantly affected by the addition of sodium carbonate. The currently applied Folin-Ciocalteu methods may have been modified without any validation in the quantitative standards and the order of processes. In this study, serial experiments were performed to investigate the effect of phenolic calibrations based on the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method. Esterification condensations were observed in the assays with prior basification for gallic acid and catechin used as quantitative standards. The phenolic contents obtained in the samples differed depending on when basification occurred compared with the gallic acid calibration. The bias of the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method derived from cross-linkage of molecules was first defined in this study. The performance of the Folin-Ciocalteu method is optimised and validated again.
Bettaieb, Iness; Bourgou, Soumaya; Wannes, Wissem Aidi; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim
Cuminum cyminum L. roots, stems and leaves, and flowers were investigated for their essential oils, total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins contents, individual phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities. The essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas identification and quantification of individual target polyphenolic compounds was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Essential oil yields were 0.03% in roots, 0.1% in stem and leaves, and 1.7% in flowers. Major components of the oils were bornyl acetate (23%), α-terpinene (34%), and γ-terpinene (51%) in roots, stems and leaves, and flowers, respectively. In all C. cyminum organs, total phenolics content ranged from 11.8 to 19.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW). Among the polyphenols studied, 13 were identified in roots, 17 in stem and leaves, and 15 in flowers. The major phenolic compound in the roots was quercetin (26%), whereas in the stems and leaves, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, trans-2-dihydrocinnamic acids and resorcinol were predominant. In the flowers, vanillic acid was the main compound (51%). The antioxidant activities of C. cyminum essential oils and acetone extracts obtained from the three organs were assessed using four tests [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene/linoleic acid, reducing power, and chelating power assays]. The acetone extract of flowers was strongly effective as a DPPH radical scavenger, lipid peroxidation inhibitor, and reducing agent, with IC(50) values of 4, 32, and 8 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the acetone extract of stems and leaves showed the highest chelating power. However, the essential oils exhibited moderate activities in the different tests.
Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle
In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE00) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.
Hu, Yaxi; Pan, Zhi Jie; Liao, Wen; Li, Jiaqi; Gruget, Pierre; Kitts, David D; Lu, Xiaonan
Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate, containing different amounts of cacao (35-100%), were determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (4000-550cm(-1)). Antioxidant capacities were first characterized using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assays. Phenolic contents, including total phenol and procyanidins monomers, were quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD), respectively. Five partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed and cross-validated using FT-IR spectra from 18 types of chocolate and corresponding reference values determined using DPPH, ORAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, and HPLC assays. The models were validated using seven unknown samples of chocolate. PLSR models showed good prediction capability for DPPH [R(2)-P (prediction)=0.88, RMSEP (root mean squares error of prediction)=12.62μmol Trolox/g DFW], ORAC (R(2)-P=0.90, RMSEP=37.92), Folin-Ciocalteu (R(2)-P=0.88, RMSEP=5.08), and (+)-catechin (R(2)-P=0.86, RMSEP=0.10), but lacked accuracy in the prediction of (-)-epicatechin (R(2)-P=0.72, RMSEP=0.57). ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for rapid prediction of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and (+)-catechin in chocolate.
Rishmawi, Suzi; Ariqat, Sharehan H.; Khalid, Mahmoud F.; Warad, Ismail; Salah, Zaidoun
Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AA). Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC)), while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner. PMID:27999608
Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane
In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants.
Kim, A Ryun; Jin, Qinglong; Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Woo, Eun-Rhan
A new biflavonoid, named asteryomenin (1), as well as six known phenolic compounds, esculetin (2), 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-3-hydroxy methyl benzoate (3), caffeic acid (4), isoquercitrin (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6), and apigenin (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Aster yomena. The structures of compounds (1-7) were identified based on 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. For these isolates, the inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell was examined. Among these isolates, compounds 4 and 7 appeared to have potent inhibitory activity of IL-6 production in the TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cell, while compounds 1-3 and 5-6 showed moderate activity.
Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna
Phenolic compounds have different biological properties, including antioxidative activities, but they may also be prooxidants. The effect of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum on oxidative protein/lipid damages (determined by such parameters as levels of protein thiol groups and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species--TBARS) in human blood platelets and human plasma after treatment with hydrogen peroxide--H2O2 (which is the strong biologic oxidant and inflammatory mediator) was studied in vitro. We also studied the effect of A. maurorum extract on blood platelet activation corresponding to thrombin-induced arachidonic acid pathway. Moreover, the present work was designed to study the effect of A. maurorum extract on selected physiological function of blood platelets--adhesion of blood platelets to collagen in vitro. The action of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum was compared with the selected commercial phenolic extracts: extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®), extract from bark of Yucca schidigera and monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to H2O2 resulted in a decrease of the level of thiol groups in proteins, and an increase of TBARS. In the presence of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum (0.5-50 µg/ml), a reduction of thiol groups oxidation together with the decrease of autoperoxidation of lipids and lipid peroxidation caused by H2O2 or thrombin was observed. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of A. maurorum extract on adhesion of thrombin-activated platelets to collagen were also found. The phenolic fraction from A. maurorum acts as an antioxidant and can be useful as the natural factor protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress. Tested fraction from A. maurorum has more effective antioxidative activity and antiplatelet properties than aronia extract or other commercial extract, however differences between their actions
Matsunaga, K; Shibuya, M; Ohizumi, Y
Imperanene, a novel phenolic compound  has been isolated from Imperata cylindrica. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Imperanene showed platelet aggregation inhibitory activity.
Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori
Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.
Reddivari, Lavanya; Hale, Anna L; Miller, J Creighton
The influence of genotype, location, and year on antioxidant activity (AOA), total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC), and phenolic composition was studied using specialty (colored) potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum L.) from the Texas Potato Variety Development Program. Twenty-five potato genotypes were grown at two Texas locations (McCook and Dalhart) and in two years (2003 and 2004). The AOA, TP, and TC differed significantly with genotype (G), location (L), and year (Y). Phenolic composition differed significantly among genotypes and between locations. The AOA, TP, and chlorogenic acid content were significantly correlated with one another. Genotypic effects were significant for all parameters measured and were larger than location and year effects. Interaction effects (G x L and G x L x Y) were significant for most parameters, but were relatively smaller than genotypic effects. Lutein and violaxanthin were the major carotenoids identified, and genotypes differed significantly in their carotenoid content. Genotypes CO112F2-2P/P and ATTX98013-1R/R were stable between locations and years with high AOA and TP, suggesting that they could be used as parents in breeding varieties with improved health benefits.
Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah
A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.
Yang, Guang-Feng; Jin, Ren-Cun
A batch test was employed to analyze the joint toxicity of copper (II) and oxytetracycline (OTC), OTC and sulfide, phenol and sulfide (S(2-)), phenol and copper (II), and OTC, copper (II) and substrate on an Anammox mixed culture. The joint toxicity of OTC and copper (II) on the Anammox mixed culture was antagonistic, whereas the interaction between OTC and S(2-) and between phenol and S(2-) was generally synergistic. The joint toxicity of phenol and copper (II) was dependent on the level of phenol: the joint toxicity was antagonistic at a high phenol level of 300 mg L(-1), whereas the joint toxicity was synergistic at a low phenol level of 75 mg L(-1). The joint toxic effect of OTC, copper (II) and NO(2)(-)-N on the Anammox activity can be ranked in the following order: NO(2)(-)-N>copper (II)>OTC.
Prasain, Keshar; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Gorman, Maureen J.; Barrigan, Lydia M.; Peng, Zeyu; Kanost, Michael R.; Syed, Lateef U.; Li, Jun; Zhu, Kun Yan; Hua, Duy H.
Laccases are copper-containing oxidases that are involved in sclerotization of the cuticle of mosquitoes and other insects. Oxidation of exogenous compounds by insect laccases may have the potential to produce reactive species toxic to insects. We investigated two classes of substituted phenolic compounds, halogenated di- and trihydroxybenzenes and substituted di-tert-butylphenols, on redox potential, oxidation by laccase and effects on mosquito larval growth. An inverse correlation between the oxidation potentials and laccase activity of halogenated hydroxybenzenes was found. Substituted di-tert-butylphenols however were found to impact mosquito larval growth and survival. In particular, 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol (15) caused greater than 98% mortality of Anopheles gambiae larvae in a concentration of 180 nM, whereas 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanal oxime (13) and 6,8-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene (33) caused 93% and 92% mortalities in concentrations of 3.4 and 3.7 μM, respectively. Larvae treated with di-tert-butylphenolic compounds died just before pupation. PMID:22300888
Toul, Fethi; Belyagoubi-Benhammou, Nabila; Zitouni, Amel; Atik-Bekkara, Fawzia
The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity of 21 extracts prepared from seven parts of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica. (Fruits, leaves, buds, stems, roots, internal and external trunk barks) collected from Tlemcen, Algeria. Total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents were determined and the antioxidant properties were measured using different assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric antioxidant reducing power and β-carotene bleaching assay. BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) was used for comparison purposes. The results showed that the extracts of leaves and buds had the highest phenolic contents with 255.789 ± 4.733 and 233.946 ± 6.205 mg GAE/g DM, respectively. For the antioxidant activity, values of EC50 concentrations ranged from 0.059 to 5.712 mg/mL for DPPH, 0.015 to 3.141 mg/mL for reducing power and 0.068 to 5.021 mg/mL for β-carotene method, for all studied extracts. Analysing the phenolic composition, 10 components were identified in different parts of the plant.
Glenn, William H.
Describes several activities involving a total eclipse of the moon. Included are observations with binoculars, naked eye, and telescope; timing activities and observations of color changes during penumbral and umbral phases; and photography activities. (CS)
Li, Nan; Shi, Junling; Wang, Kun
Phenolic products are highly demanded by the food and cosmetics industries and consumers due to their high antioxidant activities. To evaluate the potential of crabapples (Malus wild species) in preparing phenolic extracts, fruits of 10 crabapples grown in China were separately extracted with 80% (v/v) ethanol and ethyl acetate and the phenolic profiles, polyphenol (PC) and flavonoid contents (FC), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were analyzed. Chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, hyperin, and phlorizin appeared as the major phenolic compounds in all phenolic extracts. Ethanol extracts had PC of 302.83-1265.94 mg GAE/100g and FC of 352.45-2351.74 mg RE/100g, being 4.17 and 4.49 times those obtained in ethyl acetate extracts and much higher than those previously reported in apples. Malus wild species appeared as rich sources of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity, especially when high chlorogenic acid and rutin contents are emphasized.
Kurzbaum, E; Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Armon, R
Analysis of a low organic load constructed wetland (CW) system was performed in order to understand the relative role of its various components contribution in phenol removal (100 mg/L) under controlled plant biomass/gravel/water experimental ratios (50 g/450 g/100 mL). The results [expressed as phenol50/time (hours) required to remove 50% of the initial phenol concentration] showed that the highest phenol removal occurred by combined biofilms from roots and gravel attached (phenol50=19), followed by gravel biofilm (phenol50=105) and planktonic (suspended in water) bacteria (phenol50=>200). An in depth analysis revealed that plants contribution alone (antibiotics sterilized) was minor (phenol50=>89) while roots supported biofilm resulted in a significant phenol removal (phenol50=15). Therefore in this type of CW, the main phenol removal active fraction could be attributed to plant roots' biofilm bacteria.
Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Orsavová, Jana; Valášek, Pavel
Zizania aquatica L. was analysed for total flavonoids, phenolics and HPLC profile in both free and bound phenolic fractions. The highest content of flavonoids (378-455mgRE/kg) was detected in bound fractions, while the highest polyphenols content (1061-2988mgGAE/kg) was determined in free fractions. Additionally, predominant phenolics were identified. To understand the contribution of individual phenolics to an antioxidant activity their mutual correlations were evaluated. Regarding free flavonoids, the main contributors to an antioxidant activity (r>0.7111) were epigallocatechin, epicatechin and rutin; while epicatechin, quercetin and rutin were the main contributors in bound fractions (r>0.6868). Concerning free phenolic acids, the main contributors to an antioxidant activity (r>0.7585) were ferulic, vanillic, ellagic, sinapic and syringic acids; while caffeic, sinapic, syringic, o-coumaric, p-hydroxy benzoic, vanillic, protocatechuic, gallic and cinnamic acids were the main contributors in bound fractions of wild rice (r>0.6538). Finally, in vitro organic matter and dry matter digestibility were assessed.
Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila
BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.
Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Bills, Gerald; Vicente, M Francisca; Basilio, Angela; Rivas, Concepción López; Requena, Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Bartolomé, Begoña
Phenolic acids (benzoic, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids) are the most abundant phenolic structures found in fecal water. As an approach towards the exploration of their action in the gut, this paper reports the antimicrobial activity of thirteen phenolic acids towards Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 was inhibited by only four of the phenolic acids tested at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL, whereas pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) was susceptible to ten of them. The genetically manipulated E. coli lpxC/tolC strain was highly susceptible to phenolic acids. The growth of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus paraplantarum LCH7, Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17, Lactobacillus fermentum LPH1, L. fermentum CECT 5716, Lactobacillus brevis LCH23, and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT 5711) and pathogens (S. aureus EP167 and C. albicans MY1055) was also inhibited by phenolic acids, but to varying extents. Only P. aeruginosa PAO1 was not susceptible to any of the phenolic compounds tested. Structure-activity relationships of phenolic acids and some of their diet precursors [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] were established, based on multivariate analysis of microbial activities. The antimicrobial properties of phenolic acids reported in this paper might be relevant in vivo.
Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Praveen, Nagella; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a highly important medicinal plant producing anthraquinones (emodin and physcion) and phenolic compounds which has pharmaceutical use. In vitro seedling explants such as roots, internodals, nodals and leaves were inoculated with A. rhizogenes strain KCTC 2703. Transformed roots were induced from internodals and leaf explants. Six transgenic clones of hairy roots were established and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using rolC specific primers. Hairy roots cultured using MS liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose showed highest accumulation of biomass (99.05 g/l FW [fresh weight] and 10.95 g/l DW [dry weight]) and highest production of anthraquinones content (emodin 211.32 μg/g DW and physcion 353.23 μg/g DW) were observed at 20 days. Nearly 9.5-fold increment of biomass was evident in suspension cultures at 20 days of culture and hairy root biomass produced in suspension cultures possessed 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher content of emodin and physcion, respectively, when compared with the untransformed control roots. MS basal liquid medium was superior for the growth of hairy roots and production of anthraquinones compared with other culture media evaluated (SH, B5 and N6), with MS-basal liquid medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose was optimal for secondary metabolite production. A total of 23 polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified from P. multiflorum untransformed and hairy roots, which includes hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and other groups of phenolic compounds. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis of the phenolic compounds profile revealed that pyrogallol, hesperidin, naringenin and formononetin were higher in hairy roots compared to untransformed roots. The total phenolics, flavonoids content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was high in hairy roots compared to untransformed roots. This is the first
Servili, M; Esposto, S; Fabiani, R; Urbani, S; Taticchi, A; Mariucci, F; Selvaggini, R; Montedoro, G F
Hydrophilic phenols are the most abundant natural antioxidants of virgin olive oil (VOO), in which, however, tocopherols and carotenes are also present. The prevalent classes of hydrophilic phenols found in VOO are phenolic alcohols and acids, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. Among these substances the last two classes include the most concentrate phenols of VOO. Secoiridoids, like aglycone derivatives of oleuropein, demethyloleuropein and ligstroside, are present in olive fruit as most abundant VOO phenolic antioxidants. Several important biological properties (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer) and the characteristic pungent and bitter tasty properties have been attributed to VOO phenols. Relationships between polyphenols activities and their chemical structures are discussed in this paper.
Pliakoni, Eleni D; Nanos, George D; Gil, Maria I
The influence of deficit irrigation (Deficit) and reflective mulch (Reflective) of Caldesi 2000 nectarines on the content of individual phenolic compounds was studied at harvest and during storage for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 2 °C during two consecutive years (2007 and 2008). Individual phenolic groups in the edible fruit part consisted mainly of proanthocyanidins (200 mg/100 g fw), lower content of phenolic acids (17 mg/100 g fw), and minor content of flavonols (5 mg/100 g fw) and anthocyanins (1.2 mg/100 g fw). Deficit irrigation increased the content of total phenolics, including proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids, reaching similar amounts in both years. Sun-exposed fruit (upper part of canopy) showed higher content than shaded fruit (lower part of canopy). However, Reflective significantly increased the content of total phenolics, particularly phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins, of fruit located in the lower part of the canopy. During storage, Deficit and Reflective did not affect the content of phenolic acids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins when compared to the content at harvest. Optimizing cultural practices can be a way to increase the phenolic content of nectarines.
Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Kiattisin, Kanokwan; Jantrawut, Pensak; Chansakaow, Sunee; Vejabhikul, Suwanna; Leelapornpisid, Pimporn
The flowers of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L), a medicinal plant widely cultivated in Thailand, were subjected to evaluation for total phenolics, DPPH scavenging and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARs) assays as well as tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In preliminary studies, the ethyl acetate (EA) extract obtained by continuous extraction showed the highest activities with highest phenolic content among all extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of EA extract led to isolation of a flavonoid identified as quercetagetin. Interestingly, it was found that quercetagetin exhibited potent DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 of 3.70 μg/ml which is about 2-3 times higher activity than standard quercetin (IC50 5.07 μg/ml) and trolox (IC50 9.93 μg/ml). Moreover, it exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity on L-tyrosine (IC50 89.31 μg/ml), higher than α- and β-arbutins (IC50 157.77 and 222.35 μg/ml) and slightly higher (IC50 128.41 μg/ml) than ellagic acid (IC50 151.1 μg/ml) when using L-DOPA as substrate. Testing with skin fibroblasts, all the extracts and quercetagetin demonstrated no toxic effect. These finding strongly indicate that African marigold flower is a promising source of natural antioxidative and tyrosinase inhibitory substances with safe to skin.
Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa
The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug eﬄux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and eﬄux.
Ng, S L; Seng, C E; Lim, P E
A kinetic model consisting of first-order desorption and biodegradation processes was developed to describe the bioregeneration of phenol- and p-nitrophenol-loaded powdered activated carbon (PAC) and pyrolyzed rice husk (PRH), respectively. Different dosages of PAC and PRH were loaded with phenol or p-nitrophenol by contacting with the respective phenolic compound at various concentrations. The kinetic model was used to fit the phenol or p-nitrophenol concentration data in the bulk solution during the bioregeneration process to determine the rate constants of desorption, k(d), and biodegradation, k. The results showed that the kinetic model fitted relatively well (R(2)>0.9) to the experimental data for the phenol- and p-nitrophenol-loaded PAC as well as p-nitrophenol-loaded PRH. Comparison of the values of k(d) and k shows that k is much greater than k(d). This indicates clearly that the desorption process is the rate-determining step in bioregeneration and k(d) can be used to characterize the rate of bioregeneration. The trend of the variation of the k(d) values with the dosages of PAC or PRH used suggests that higher rate of bioregeneration can be achieved under non-excess adsorbent dosage condition.
Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulificum) has been studied because of its unique taste modifying properties. This study investigated antioxidant activities, phenolic contents, and flavonoids in skin, pulp, and seeds of Miracle Fruit. The free phenolic content in skin was almost three times of that in p...
Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados; Gordon, Michael H
The concentration of hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA) and its secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA) in virgin olive oil decreased rapidly when the oil was repeatedly used for preparing french fries in deep-fat frying operations. At the end of the first frying process (10 min at 180 degrees C), the concentration of the dihydroxyphenol components was reduced to 50-60% of the original value, and after six frying operations only about 10% of the initial components remained. However, tyrosol (p-HPEA) and its derivatives (p-HPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EA) in the oil were much more stable during 12 frying operations. The reduction in their original concentration was much smaller than that for hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives and showed a roughly linear relationship with the number of frying operations. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic extract measured using the DPPH test rapidly diminished during the first six frying processes, from a total antioxidant activity higher than 740 micromol of Trolox/kg down to less than 250 micromol/kg. On the other hand, the concentration of polar compounds, oxidized triacylglycerol monomers (oxTGs), dimeric TGs, and polymerized TGs rapidly increased from the sixth frying operation onward, when the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extract was very low, and as a consequence the oil was much more susceptible to oxidation. The loss of antioxidant activity in the phenolic fraction due to deep-fat frying was confirmed by the storage oil and oil-in-water emulsions containing added extracts from olive oil used for 12 frying operations.
Firuzi, Omidreza; Miri, Ramin; Asadollahi, Mojtaba; Eslami, Saba; Jassbi, Amir Reza
The plants of the genus Salvia synthesize several types of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and radical scavenging activities and are used in the folk medicine of different countries. Eleven Salvia species including S. aegyptiaca, S. aethiopis, S. atropatana, S. eremophila, S. hypoleuca, S. limbata, S. nemorosa, S. santolinifolia, S. sclarea, S. syriaca, and S. xanthocheila were collected from different localities in Iran and screened for their cytotoxic activity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. The antioxidant potential and total phenol contents of the plant extracts were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Folin- Ciocalteu reagent respectively and finally antimicrobial activity of the above extracts were determined by using agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. Cytotoxic activity of methanol, 80% methanol and dichloromethane extracts of these plants were assessed on 3 human cancer cell lines. All of the extracts of S. eremophila and S. santolinifolia were active at IC50 values of 10.5-75.2 μg extract/mL, while the methanol and dichloromethane extracts of S. limbata, S. hypoleuca and S. aethiopis showed considerable cytotoxic activity against the tested cell lines. Among the tested plants for their antioxidant activity, S. nemorosa, S. atropatana, S. santolinifolia, and S. eremophila were the most active radical scavengers with higher total phenol contents while, S. limbata, S. xanthocheila and S. aegyptiaca were the weakest ones. The methanol extracts of S. santolinifolia, S. eremophila, S. sclarea and S. limbata inhibited the growth of all tested bacterial strains. PMID:24523760
Silva, Sandra D; Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Boas, Luís V; Bronze, Maria R
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) was applied for the determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays) in Moscatel dessert wines (n=56). Prediction models were developed for the referred parameters using Partial Least Squares (PLS) considering the spectral region 1800-900cm(-1). The determination coefficients (r(2)) values in the calibration models ranged from 0.670 to 0.870. Cross validation (leave-one-out technique) was applied to the data. Root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) and cross validation (RMSECV) as well as the relative errors of prediction (REP) were calculated. Minimum errors of prediction were obtained for total flavonoid content (0.2%) and maximum values (22%) for antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP. The proposed method may be used for rapid screening of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in Moscatel dessert wines. The implemented methodologies may also be used to get rough estimates for DPPH and FRAP antioxidant capacities.
Schmitzer, Valentina; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Solar, Anita
The potential effect of skin removal and roasting on individual and total phenolic content, and on antioxidative potential of 6 hazelnut cultivars were investigated. HPLC-MS identification of individual phenolics confirmed the presence of 7 flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, 2 procyanidin dimers, and 3 procyanidin trimers), 3 flavonols (quercetin pentoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, and myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside), 2 hydrobenzoic acids (gallic acid, protocatechulic acid), and 1 dihydrochalcone (phloretin-2'-O-glucoside). Flavonols were only detected in whole hazelnut kernels. The content of individual phenolics, with the exception of gallic acid, was always highest in whole unroasted hazelnuts and was significantly reduced after skin removal. Similarly, total phenolic content and antioxidative potential decreased when skin was removed. Roasting had a significant negative effect on individual phenolics but not on the total phenolic content and antioxidative potential of kernels. From a health promoting phytochemical composition of hazelnuts the consumption of whole unroasted kernels with skins should be preferential to peeled kernels either roasted or unroasted. Practical Application: A significant reduction in the antioxidative potential and total phenolic content is detected after hazelnut skin removal but not after roasting, suggesting that hazelnut kernels should be consumed whole. In hazelnut skin, many phenolic compounds are located, which are not present in flesh and, therefore, the health properties of hazelnuts are strongly affected by skin removal. Thermal processing and roasting conditions used in this study had a lesser effect on the individual phenolic composition of the kernel and thus roasted and unroasted hazelnuts without skin contain comparable amounts of health promoting compounds.
Cuomo, Francesca; Venditti, Francesco; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco
The use of titanium dioxide as heterogeneous photocatalyst is drawing considerable attention for water and air purification and remediation. Recently, TiO2 particles have been modified in order to make this material attractive for industrial and environmental remediation usage. In the present study, phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) were degraded in the presence of glucose-doped titanium particles (CDT) through a photocatalysis process activated by visible light. The photocatalyst effectiveness towards the polluted wastewater from olive oil industry was tested on systems having different initial concentrations of phenols and in the presence of different amounts of CDT. For kinetic analysis the role of Ti/TPh ratio (amount of catalyst/amount of total phenols) was investigated. The rate constant (k2) and the amounts of species adsorbed on adsorbent at equilibrium (qe) of each reaction were calculated by fitting kinetics data to a second-order kinetic adsorption model. The results collected at different Ti/TPh ratios showed that the amount of phenols that can be removed from the water solution linearly increases with the Ti/TPh ratio till a maximum value (optimal ratio) at which no further degradation of phenolic compounds was obtainable. Such kind of parameter allows to identify the optimal value of catalyst and the initial substrate concentration for a high level of degradation. The results showed in this study can have an important impact for an applicative point of view.
Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan
The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.
García-Lafuente, Ana; Moro, Carlos; Manchón, Noelia; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Alicia; Villares, Ana; Guillamón, Eva; Rostagno, Mauricio; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura
According to epidemiological evidence, diets rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the incidence of several chronic diseases that share an inflammatory component. These protective effects are attributed, in part, to the occurrence of different antioxidant components, mainly phenolic compounds. Our aim was to characterise phenolic composition, and to determine antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic rich extracts obtained from two kinds of common beans, white kidney beans (WKB) and round purple beans (RPB). Phenolic acids were the predominant component in WKB extracts, whereas RPB extracts presented higher concentrations of phenolic compounds, mainly catechin derivatives, proanthocyanidins and catechin glucoside. In addition, RPB extracts showed higher antioxidant capacity and higher anti-inflammatory activity by the reduction of NO production and cytokine mRNA expression of LPS stimulated macrophages. These results suggest that common bean extracts may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion.
Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background.
Feng, Jia; Shi, Shengli; Pei, Liangyu; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian
Phenol components are major industry contaminants of aquatic environment. Among all practical methods for removing phenol substances from polluted water, activated carbon absorption is the most effective way. Here, we have produced low-cost activated carbon using Polygonum orientale Linn, a wide spreading species with large biomass. The phenol adsorption ability of this activated carbon was evaluated at different physico-chemical conditions. Average equilibrium time for adsorption was 120 min. The phenol adsorption ability of the P. orientale activated carbon was increased as the pH increases and reached to the max at pH 9.00. By contrast, the ionic strength had little effect on the phenol absorption. The optimum dose for phenol adsorption by the P. orientale activated carbon was 20.00 g/L. The dominant adsorption mechanism of the P. orientale activated carbon was chemisorption as its phenol adsorption kinetics matched with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In addition, the equilibrium data were fit to the Langmuir model, with the negative standard free energy and the positive enthalpy, suggesting that adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. PMID:27741305
Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Gupta, Shreyasi; Dutta, Sharmistha; Mukherjee, Dilip
Ovarian cyp19a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity were measured in vivo in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to phenol for 96 h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and parameters of antioxidant defense system in serum ovary and liver of this fish after long-term phenol exposure were also studied. In vivo exposure of fish to sublethal dose of phenol for 96 h caused marked attenuation of ovarian cyp19a1a gene expression and P450 aromatase activity. Production of ROS like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in serum, liver and ovary in fish exposed to phenol for 15 days elevated significantly from day 1 to day 7 with no further significant increase thereafter compared to their respective control values. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in serum and ovary decreased gradually and significantly from day 1 to day 4, which then increased significantly for the rest of the exposure days. Liver SOD activity seemed to be distinctly responsive to phenol. SOD activity in liver of phenol-exposed fish started to increase gradually from day 1 to 4 with no further increase thereafter. Catalase activities in all the tissues showed significant inhibition up to day 4 which then increased gradually and significantly up to day 15 of phenol exposure compared to their respective control values. From our results, it appears that sublethal dose of phenol has the endocrine disruptive potential and effect is mediated via inhibition of ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo. Sublethal dose of phenol also caused oxidative stress, and antioxidant systems are very much effective to prevent the damages caused by the generation of ROS.
Lu, WenQing; Zhou, XiaoMin
In our previous study, we have found that persimmon, guava, and sweetsop owned considerably high antioxidant activity and contained high total phenolic contents as well. In order to further supply information on the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of these three tropic fruits, they were extracted by 80% methanol. We then examined the extractions about their phenolic compounds and also studied the extractions and phenolic contents about their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against twelve targeted pathogens including 8 standard strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Monilia albican, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 4 multidrug-resistant strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli, carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii), which are common and comprehensive in clinic. We also employed two ways, that is, FRAP and TEAC, to evaluate their antioxidant activities, using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. Our study indicated that the three tropical fruits possessed obvious antioxidant and antibacterial activity, which supported the possibility of developing the fruits into new natural resource food and functional food as well as new natural antimicrobial agent and food preservatives. Moreover, phenolic compounds detected in the fruits could be used as a potential natural antibacterial agent and antioxidant. PMID:27648444
Tomaino, Antonio; Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Monteleone, Domenico; Giovinazzo, Corrado; Saija, Antonella
Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.; Anacardiaceae) is native of aride zones of Central and West Asia and distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, a pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte (Sicily), an area around the Etna volcano, where the lava land and climate allow the production of a nut with intense green colour and aromatic taste, very appreciated in international markets. Pistachio nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, and have recently been ranked among the first 50 food products highest in antioxidant potential. Pistachio nuts are often used after removing the skin, which thus represents a significant by-product of pistachio industrial processing. The present study was carried out to better characterize the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity of Bronte pistachios, with the particular aim to evaluate the differences between pistachio seeds and skins. The total content of phenolic compounds in pistachios was shown to be significantly higher in skins than in seeds. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid, catechin, eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and eriodictyol were found both in pistachio seeds than in skins; furthermore, genistein-7-O-glucoside, genistein, daidzein and apigenin appeared to be present only in pistachio seeds, while epicatechin, quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are contained only in pistachio skins. The antioxidant activity of pistachio seeds and skins were determined by means of four different assays (DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and TEAC assay, SOD-mimetic assay). As expected on the basis of the chemical analyses, pistachio skins have shown to possess a better activity with respect to seeds in all tests. The excellent antioxidant activity of pistachio skins can be explained by its higher content of antioxidant phenolic compounds. By HPLC-TLC analysis, gallic acid
Abdul Qadir, Muhammad; Bashir, Asad; Munir, Adil
The study was designed to evaluate the phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), oak (Quercus), aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). All extracts showed a wide range of total phenolic contents, that is, 4.96 to 98.37 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents, that is, 0.41 to 17.64 mg/100 g catechin equivalents. Antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity. Different extracts inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid by 16.6–84.2% while DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) ranged from 17.8% to 79.1 μg/mL. Reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration ranged from 0.11 to 0.84 nm. Furthermore the extracts of these medicinal herbs in 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone, and 100% water were screened for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method against selected bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pasteurella multocida, and fungal strains, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus solani, and Alternaria alternata. The extracts show better antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains as compared to fungal strains. Results of various assays were analyzed statistically by applying appropriate statistical methods. PMID:28316626
Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf
The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.
Watanabe, Kazuya; Teramoto, Maki; Harayama, Shigeaki
Activated sludge was fed phenol as the sole carbon source, and the phenol-loading rate was increased stepwise from 0.5 to 1.0 g liter−1 day−1 and then to 1.5 g liter−1 day−1. After the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter−1 day−1, nonflocculating bacteria outgrew the sludge, and the activated-sludge process broke down within 1 week. The bacterial population structure of the activated sludge was analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments. We found that the population diversity decreased as the phenol-loading rate increased and that two populations (designated populations R6 and R10) predominated in the sludge during the last several days before breakdown. The R6 population was present under the low-phenol-loading-rate conditions, while the R10 population was present only after the loading rate was increased to 1.5 g liter−1 day−1. A total of 41 bacterial strains with different repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR patterns were isolated from the activated sludge under different phenol-loading conditions, and the 16S rDNA and gyrB fragments of these strains were PCR amplified and sequenced. Some bacterial isolates could be associated with major TGGE bands by comparing the 16S rDNA sequences. All of the bacterial strains affiliated with the R6 population had almost identical 16S rDNA sequences, while the gyrB phylogenetic analysis divided these strains into two physiologically divergent groups; both of these groups of strains could grow on phenol, while one group (designated the R6F group) flocculated in laboratory media and the other group (the R6T group) did not. A competitive PCR analysis in which specific gyrB sequences were used as the primers showed that a population shift from R6F to R6T occurred following the increase in the phenol-loading rate to 1.5 g liter−1 day−1. The R10 population corresponded to nonflocculating phenol-degrading bacteria. Our results
de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Shahidi, Fereidoon
Bioactive compounds belonging to phenolic acids, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins of grape juice and winemaking byproducts were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). The concentration of phenolic compounds in different grape cultivars was in the order Tempranillo > Cora > Syrah > Isabel. The insoluble-bound fraction was most prominent, contributing 63 and 79% to the total for Isabel and Tempranillo, respectively. Juice-processing byproducts had a higher content of free than esterified phenolics, but the opposite was noted for winemaking byproducts. Insoluble-bound phenolics were up to 15 and 10 times more effective as antioxidants than those of free and esterified fractions, respectively, as evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and H2O2 scavenging activities and reducing power determinations. In general, insoluble-bound phenolics (100 ppm) were more effective in inhibiting copper-induced human LDL-cholesterol oxidation than free and esterified phenolics, exhibiting equal or higher efficacy than catechin. Phenolic extracts from all fractions inhibited peroxyl radical-induced DNA strand breakage. These findings shed further light for future studies and industrial application of grape byproducts, which may focus not only on the soluble phenolics but also on the insoluble-bound fraction.
Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Ramdath, D Dan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Qiang; Tsao, Rong
Phenolic extracts from 20 Canadian lentil cultivars (Lens culinaris) were evaluated for total phenolic contents and composition, antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC), and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Twenty one phenolic compounds were identified in the present study, with the majority being flavonoids, including kaempeferol glycosides, catechin/epicatechin glucosides and procyanidins. These phenolic compounds not only contributed significantly to the antioxidant activities, but they were also good inhibitors of α-glucosidase and lipase, two enzymes, respectively, associated with glucose and lipid digestion in the human intestine, thus contributing significantly to the control of blood glucose levels and obesity. More interestingly, it was the flavonols, not the flavanols, which showed the inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Our result provides supporting information for developing lentil cultivars and functional foods with improved health benefits and suggests a potential role of lentil consumption in managing weight and control of blood glucose.
Malarczyk, Elżbieta; Kochmańska-Rdest, Janina; Paździoch-Czochra, Marzanna
Changes in the activity of horseradish peroxidase resulting from an addition of ethanol water dilutions of 19 phenolic compounds were observed. For each compound, the enzyme activity was plotted against the degree of dilution expressed as n = –log100 (mol/L) in the range 0 ≤ n ≥ 20. All the curves showed sinusoidal activity, more or less regular, with two to four peaks on average. Each analyzed compound had a characteristic sinusoidal shape, which was constant for samples of peroxidase from various commercial firms. This was clearly visible after function fitting to experimental results based on the Marquadt–Levenberg algorithm using the least-squares method. Among the 19 phenolics, the highest amplitudes were observed for phenol and iso- and vanillate acids and aldehydes. The specific character of each of the analyzed curves offers a possibility of choosing proper dilutions of phenolic compound for activating or inhibiting of peroxidase activity. PMID:19330128
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...
Mora, Verónica C; Rosso, Janina A; Mártire, Daniel O; Gonzalez, Mónica C
The ability of thermal activated peroxydisulfate (PS) of mineralizing phenol at 70°C from contaminated waters is investigated. Phenol in concentrations of 10(-4) to 5×10(-4)M is quantitatively depleted by 5×10(-3) to 10(-2)M activated PS in 15 min of reaction. However, mineralization of the organic carbon is not observed. Instead, an insoluble phenol polymer-type product is formed. A reaction mechanism including the formation of phenoxyl radicals and validated by computer simulations is proposed. High molecular weight phenolic products are formed by phenoxyl radical H-abstraction reactions. This is not the case for the room temperature degradation of phenol by sulfate radicals where sulfate addition to the aromatic ring mainly leads to the generation of hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals leading to hydroxybenzenes and oxidized open chain products. Therefore, a change in the reaction mechanism is observed with increasing temperature, and thermal activation of PS at 70°C does not lead to the mineralization of phenol. Thus PS activation at 70°C may be considered a potential method to reduce the load of phenol in polluted waters by polymerization.
Bermúdez-Saldaña, J M; Escuder-Gilabert, L; Medina-Hernández, M J; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Sagrado, S
An investigation of the use of the chromatographic retention (log k) as an in vitro approach for modeling the pH-dependence of the toxicity to Guppy of phenols is developed. A data set of 19 phenols with available experimental toxicity-pH data was used. The importance of the mechanism of toxic action (MOA) of phenols was studied. log k data at three pH values were used for the phenols classification and two groups or 'MODEs' were identified. For one 'MODE' a quantitative retention-activity relationship (QRAR) model was calculated. Finally, the model was used to assess the toxicity to Guppy of phenols at different pH values. The results of this investigation suggest that chromatographic retention data allows fish toxicity modeling, in the 5.5-8 pH range of interest.
Priya, Syama Hari; Prakasan, Nisha; Purushothaman, Jayamurthy
Background: The medicinally important phytochemicals present in Syzygium cumini seeds probably accounts for its wide use in traditional systems of medicines in India, like Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant potential of three different geographical variants of S. cumini seeds and to compare the phenolic profiling to know the effect of geographical variation in phenolic composition. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid content of S. cumini seeds were analyzed. Antioxidant activities in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging assays were performed. The most active fractions were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling to identify the phenolic composition. Results: Among all the fractions, 70% methanol fraction of S. cumini seed showed significant antioxidant potential. There existed a linear correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. HPLC profiling of 70% methanol (ME) fractions of all the variants revealed the presence of phenolic compounds with high concentrations of ellagic acid and gallic acid. The differences in phenolic concentration due to geographical changes might be the reason for higher antioxidant potential showed by 70% ME of Trivandrum variant. Conclusion: 70% methanolic fraction of S. cumini can act as a novel source of natural antioxidant. PMID:28163968
Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria
The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.
Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea
The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min.
Cicerale, S; Lucas, L J; Keast, R S J
The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of chronic degenerative diseases and higher life expectancy. These health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) by Mediterranean populations, and more specifically the phenolic compounds naturally present in EVOO. Studies involving humans and animals (in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have potentially beneficial biological effects resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the biological activities of specific olive oil phenolic compounds together with information on their concentration in EVOO, bioavailability and stability over time.
Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A
Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans-caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans-caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.
Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 tropical juices from Malaysia and identification of phenolics from the bioactive fruit juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.
Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong
The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 μg GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 μg AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 μg VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 μg TEAC/g sample), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics.
Helal, Ahmed; Desobry, Stephane; Banon, Sylvie; Shamsia, Sherif M
Active films were developed for food coating applications. Entrapped phenol susceptibility to digestion was studied. Sodium caseinate (Na-CN) coatings were formulated with 0, 10, 20% Casein (CN) incorporating selected phenols as model antioxidants. This study investigated phenol/CN/Na-CN interactions, in vitro bioaccessibility of phenols and CN role in phenols retention during in vitro gastric and pancreatic digestion. The antioxidant activity of catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), chlorogenic acid (CHL), gallic acid (GAL), and tannic acid (TA) in coatings varied with the phenolic compound type and CN concentration and was related to phenol hydrophobic binding to CN. ABTS method gave activities ranged from 412 down to 213, and DPPH method gave values from 291·7 to 190·9. An inverse relationship was found with CN content due to CN/phenol interaction. During digestion, a part of phenols was degraded by alkaline pH of pancreatic fluid. Simultaneously, CN proteolysis led to release of phenols and the bioaccessibility index remained above 80% for all phenols. The results suggested the possibility of protecting phenols against oxidation and digestive alteration by entrapment in CN and Na-CN coating films. These positive results showed the ability to produce antioxidant-enriched edible coatings to increase food protection and phenol nutritional intake.
Satureja rechingeri is a rare endemic and endangered species found in Iran. Its propagation, variations in essential oil and phenolic content, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities at different phenological stages are reported in this study. The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 47 compounds were identified in the essential oils of S. rechingeri at different phenological stages. The major components of all oils were carvacrol (83.6%-90.4%), p-cymene (0.8%-2.9%) and γ-terpinene (0.6%-2.4%). The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Total phenols varied from 35.5 to 37.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (dw), and IC50 values in the radical scavenging assay ranged from 46.2 to 50.2 mg/mL, while those in the FRAP assay were between 49.6 and 52.5 μM quercetin equivalents/g dw. By the disc diffusion method and by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the essentials oils of the various phenological stages were found to have high activities against four medically important pathogens.
Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona
We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133
Garcia-Mesa, José A; Mateos, Raquel
Flavor and taste are sensorial attributes of virgin olive oil (VOO) highly appreciated by consumers. Among the organoleptic properties of VOO, bitterness is related to the natural phenolic compounds present in the oil. Sensorial analysis is the official method to evaluate VOO flavor and bitterness, which requires highly specialized experts. Alternatively, methods based on physicochemical determinations could be useful for the industry. The present work presents a flow-injection analysis system for the direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in VOO without prior isolation, based on the spectral shift undergone by phenolic compounds upon pH variation. This system enables a complete automation of the process, including dilution of the sample and its sequential injection into buffer solutions of acidic and alkaline pH. The variation of the absorbance at 274 nm showed a high correlation with bitterness and the total phenolic content of VOO, due to the close relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the proposed method determines the bitterness and phenolic compounds, with results similar to those from reference methods (relative errors ranging from 1% to 8% for bitterness and from 2% and 7% for phenolic compounds). The precision evaluated at two levels of both parameters ranged between 0.6% and 1.5% for bitterness and between 0.7% and 2.6% for phenolic compounds.
Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin; Abdulhamid, Azizah; Azlan, Azrina
Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of acidified methanolic extract prepared from fully ripe bambangan (Mangifera pajang K.) peel cultivated in Sarawak, Malaysia, were analyzed. The total phenolic content (98.3 mg GAE/g) of bambangan peel powder (BPP) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. BPP showed a strong potency of antioxidant activity and was consistent with that of BHT and vitamin C as confirmed by the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assays. Gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, and mangiferin were the major compounds among the 16 phenolics that have been identified and quantified in M. pajang peels with 20.9, 12.7, 7.3, 5.4, and 4.8 mg/g BPP, respectively. Peak identities were confirmed by comparing their retention times, UV-vis absorption spectra, and mass spectra with authentic standards. The 16 phenolic compounds identified in M. pajang K. using HPLC-DAD and TSQ-ESI-MS are reported here for the first time.
Yasir, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard
Cucurbitaceae are one of most widely used plant species for human food but lesser known members have not been examined for bioactive components. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and genoprotective activities from three cucurbitaceae seeds extracts and to identify phenolic components by LC-ESIMS/MS analysis. From the results, the yield of seeds extract was 20-41% (w/w) and samples had 16-40% total phenols as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Compared with methanol solvent, using acidified methanol led to increased extraction yield by 1.4 to 10-fold, higher phenolic content (149.5 ± 1.2 to 396.4 ± 1.9 mg GAE/g), higher DPPH radical quenching and enhanced genoprotective activity using the pBR322 plasmid assay. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis led to identification of 14-17 components, based on authentic standards and comparison with literature reports, as mainly phenolic acids and esters, flavonol glycosides. This may be the first mass spectrometric profiling of polyphenol components from cucurbitaceae seeds.
Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan
Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15 and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.
Patil, Vinod Vikas; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Goo; Woo, Euijeon
Positive phenol-degradative gene regulator (PoxR) is a σ(54)-dependent AAA+ ATPase transcription activator that regulates the catabolism of phenols. The PoxR sensory domain detects phenols and relays signals for the activation of transcription. Here we report the first structure of the phenol sensory domain bound to phenol and five derivatives. It exists as a tightly intertwined homodimer with a phenol-binding pocket buried inside, placing two C termini on the same side of the dimer. His102 and Trp130 interact with the hydroxyl group of the phenol in a cavity surrounded by rigid hydrophobic residues on one side and a flexible region on the other. Each monomer has a V4R fold with a unique zinc-binding site. A shift at the C-terminal helix suggests that there is a possible conformational change upon ligand binding. The results provide a structural basis of chemical effector binding for transcriptional regulation with broad implications for protein engineering.
Popović, Višnja B; Tomić, Maja A; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Micov, Ana M; Milenković, Marina T; Petrović, Silvana D; Ušjak, Ljuboš J; Niketić, Marjan S
Phenolic compounds and different biological activities of the dry methanol extracts of the flowers and the herb (aerial parts without flowers) of Laserpitium zernyi Hayek (Apiaceae) were investigated. The total phenolic contents in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. In both extracts, apigenin, luteolin, their 7-O-glucosides and chlorogenic acid were detected by HPLC. Identified phenolics were quantified in both extracts, except luteolin in L. zernyi herb extract. The extracts (p.o.) were tested for anti-edematous activity in a model of carrageenan (i.pl.) induced rat paw edema. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by FRAP assay and DPPH and 'OH radicals scavenging tests. Antimicrobial activity was investigated using broth microdilution test against five Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, as well as against two strains of Candida albicans. The polyphenol-richer flower extract exerted higher anti-edematous and antioxidant activities. The herb extract exhibited better antimicrobial effect against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while against other tested microorganisms the activity of both extracts was identical. Demonstrated biological activities of L. zernyi flower and herb extracts represent a good basis for their further investigation as potential new herbal medicinal raw materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan
This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.
Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline
Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines.
Sebei, Khaled; Gnouma, Asma; Herchi, Wahid; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Boukhchina, Sadok
Fatty acid composition of peanut seed oil in four varieties cultivated in Tunisia showed that linoleic (C18:2), oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16) acids account for more than 84% for Chounfakhi and Massriya and for more than 85% of the total fatty acids of Trabilsia and Sinya seed oil respectively. Seed oil contents were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) and did not exceed 48%. The study of total phenolics revealed that Chounfakhi contained more total phenolics (2.1 mg GAE/g DW), followed by the Massriya and Sinya cultivars (1.35 mg GAE/g DW for each); Trabilsia presented the lowest total phenolic content with 1 mg GAE/g DW. Considerable antiradical ability was found, especially in the Trabilsia peanut seed cultivar (IC50 = 1550 μg/ml), the Massriya and Sinya cultivars had, respectively, 720 and 820 mg/ml IC50. In the Massriya variety the sterol fraction showed antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii, Listeria inocua, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococus aureus, Enterococcus hirae and Bacillus cereus.
Leitao, Céline; Marchioni, Eric; Bergaentzlé, Martine; Zhao, Minjie; Didierjean, Luc; Taidi, Behnam; Ennahar, Saïd
A new analytical method (liquid chromatography-antioxidant, LC-AOx) was used that is intended to separate beer polyphenols and to determine the potential antioxidant activity of these constituents after they were allowed to react online with a buffered solution of the radical cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(•+)). Using the LC-AOx method, it was possible to demonstrate that the extent of the antioxidant activity was very much dependent on the phenolic compound considered. The method was also applied to the analysis of beer extracts and allowed the evaluation of their antioxidant activity at different steps of beer processing: brewing, boiling, and fermentation. This study showed that the total antioxidant activity remained unchanged throughout beer processing, as opposed to the polyphenolic content, which showed a 3-fold increase. Hopping and fermentation steps were the main causes of this increase. However, the increase measured after fermentation was attributed to a better extraction of polyphenols due to the presence of ethanol, rather than to a real increase in their content. Moreover, this method allowed the detection of three unknown antioxidant compounds, which accounted for 64 ± 4% of the total antioxidant activity of beer and were individually more efficient than caffeic acid and epicatechin.
Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Cebulak, Tomasz; Wolanin, Mateusz
Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially sanguiin H-6, ellagitannins, lambertianin C, and casuarinin. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. The highest level of phenolic compounds was measured for R. perrobustus, R. wimmerianus, R. pedemontanus and R. grabowskii. The study showed that wild blackberry leaves can be considered a good source of antioxidant compounds. There is clear potential for the utilization of blackberry leaves as a food additive, medicinal source or herbal tea.
Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming
The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.
García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G
The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.
Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; De Simone, Francesco; Passi, Siro; Rastrelli, Luca
Burrito tea originates from the leaves of Wendita calysina, an indigenous Paraguayan plant, which is commonly consumed in South America and in Western countries. Phytochemical investigation of this species has led to the isolation of 14 constituents, among them 2 new flavanonols, dihydroquercetagetin (1) and 3,5,6,7,4'-pentahydroxyflavanonol (2), in addition to several known methoxyflavones, methoxyflavonols, phenylethanoid glycosides, and benzoic acid derivatives (4-14). All structures were elucidated by ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. Quantitative determination of phenolic constituents from burrito water infusions has been performed by HPLC-UV-DAD. The total antioxidant activity of the tea was measured by the ABTS(*)(+) radical cation decolorization and chemiluminescence (CL) assays and compared with the values of other commonly used herbal teas (green and black teas, mate, and rooibos).
Huang, D.S.; Tseng, I.C.
Phenolic compounds are toxic to many organisms and are often present in the effluents from oil refineries, the petrochemical, pesticide, and color and textile industries. Several authors have demonstrated a characteristic pattern of behavioral responses in fishes during phenol exposure. Others have also evaluated the toxicity of halogenated phenolic compounds by screening for effects on the specific growth rates (SGR) and the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of Escherichia coli. However, little work has been done to determine the effects on biota from short exposures at relatively high concentrations of phenol or monochlorophenols that might occur following a deliberate or accidental discharge to a receiving water. Microorganisms with phenol-degrading capacity have been studied intensively, including cyanobacteria such as Nostoc linckia, yeast such as Trichosporon cutaneum, bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida, and other unidentified species. Among these Pseudomonas has received the most attention and several mutants have been prepared to degrade substituted phenols. This study investigates the initial response of Pseudomonas upon exposure to high concentrations of phenol and chlorophenols by measuring the oxygen uptake rates. A series growth experiment was also conducted in order to compare the kinetic results with standard microbial tests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Zhang, Huiqin; Ding, Hongrui; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Cuiping; Lu, Anhuai; Li, Yan; Wang, Changqiu
Birnessite films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass were prepared by cathodic reduction of aqueous KMnO4. The deposited birnessite films were characterized with X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The photoelectrochemical activity of birnessite films was investigated and a remarkable photocurrent in response to visible light was observed in the presence of phenol, resulting from localized manganese d-d transitions. Based on this result, the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of phenol was investigated. Compared with phenol degradation by the electrochemical oxidation process or photocatalysis separately, a synergetic photoelectrocatalytic degradation effect was observed in the presence of the birnessite film coated FTO electrode. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation ratios were influenced by film thickness and initial phenol concentrations. Phenol degradation with the thinnest birnessite film and initial phenol concentration of 10mg/L showed the highest efficiency of 91.4% after 8hr. Meanwhile, the kinetics of phenol removal was fit well by the pseudofirst-order kinetic model.
Ng, S L; Seng, C E; Lim, P E
The bioregeneration efficiencies of powdered activated carbon (PAC) and pyrolyzed rice husk loaded with phenol and p-nitrophenol were quantified by oxygen uptake measurements using the respirometry technique in two approaches: (i) simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation and (ii) sequential adsorption and biodegradation. It was found that the applicability of the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation approach was constrained by the requirement of adsorption preceding biodegradation in order to determine the initial adsorbent loading accurately. The sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach provides a good estimate of the upper limit of the bioregeneration efficiency for the loaded adsorbent in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes. The results showed that the mean bioregeneration efficiencies for PAC loaded with phenol and p-nitrophenol, respectively, obtained using the two approaches were in good agreement.
Mohamed, Saleh A; Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M
The influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on the solubility, total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of turmeric was determined and compared with unfermented turmeric. The solubility of turmeric was monitored by increase in its phenolic content. The total phenolic content of turmeric extracted by 80% methanol and water after SSF by six species of Trichoderma spp. increased significantly from 2.5 to 11.3-23.3 and from 0.5 to 13.5-20.4 GAE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities of fermented turmeric were enhanced using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity of fermented turmeric against human-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Entreococcus faecalis, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae showed a broad spectrum inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the results indicated the potentials of using fermented turmeric as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material for food applications.
Nowicka, Paulina; Wojdyło, Aneta
The aim of this study was to describe the changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour of sour cherry puree supplemented with different natural sweeteners (sucrose, palm sugar, erythritol, xylitol, steviol glycoside, Luo Han Kuo), and natural prebiotic (inulin). A total of 18 types of polyphenolic compounds were assessed in the following sour cherry puree by LC-MS-QTof analysis, before and after 6 months of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. Total phenolics determined by UPLC-PDA-FL was 1179.6 mg/100 g dm. In samples with addition of sweeteners the content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1133.1 (puree with steviol glycoside) to 725.6 mg/100 g dm (puree with erythritol), and the content of these compounds strongly affected on antioxidant activity. After 6-month storage, protective effects of some additives (palm sugar, erythritol, steviol glycoside, xylitol and inulin) on the polyphenol content, especially on anthocyanins and consequently on colour, and antioxidant activity were noticed. The results showed that some natural sweeteners might be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial and pharmaceutical perspective.
Siriphanich, J.; Kader, A.A.
An atmosphere of air + 15% CO/sub 2/ caused CO/sub 2/ injury in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in about 10 days at 0/sup 0/C. However, subsequent removal of CO/sub 2/ was necessary for the brown stain symptoms to develop. Under CO/sub 2/ treatment, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was induced and its activity correlated well with the development of the injury. Nevertheless, PAL activity did not seem responsible for the differences in susceptibility to CO/sub 2/ injury among the 3 lettuce cultivars included in this study. Prevention of the development of brown stain symptoms by CO/sub 2/ probably was due to its inhibition of phenolics production and the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity. 27 references, 10 figures.
Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Le; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao
Two new phenolic acid compounds, asparoffin C (1) and asparoffin D (2), together with four known compounds, asparenyol (3), gobicusin B (4), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxy-4-[5-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl] phenol (5), and asparinin A (6), have been isolated from the stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods (MS and 1D and 2D NMR). Compound 6 has obvious antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.
Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella
Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity.
Zhang, Jinming; Geng, Anli; Yao, Chuanyi; Lu, Yinghua; Li, Qingbiao
Candida athensensis SB18 is potential xylitol producing yeast isolated in Singapore. It has excellent xylose tolerance and is able to produce xylitol in high titer and yield. However, by-products, such as phenolic compounds, derived in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate might negatively influence the performance of this strain for xylitol production. In this work, four potential phenolic inhibitors, such as vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and phenol, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on xylitol production by C. athensensis SB18. Phenol was shown to be the most toxic molecule on this microorganism followed by syringaldehyde. Vanillin and 4-hydroxylbenzaldehyde was less toxic than phenol and syringaldehyde, with vanillin being the least toxic. Inhibition was insignificant when the total content of inhibitors was below 1.0 g/L. The presence of phenolic compounds affected the activity of xylose reductase, however not on that of xylitol dehydrogenase. C. athensensis SB18 is therefore a potential xylitol producer from hemicellulosic hydrolysate due to its assimilation of such phenolic inhibitors.
Yang, Jiufang; Ou, XiaoQun; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, ZiYing; Ma, LiYan
The effects of 9 different solvents on the measurement of the total phenolics and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruits were studied using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Sixteen to 22 types of phenolics (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavanol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and stilbenes) from different mulberry extracts were characterized and quantified using HPLC-MS/MS. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the suitable solvents to distinguish between different classes of phenolics. Additionally, the phenolic extraction abilities of ASE and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared. The highest extraction efficiency could be achieved by using 50% acidified methanol (50MA) as ASE solvents with 15.14 mg/gallic acid equivalents g dry weight of mulberry fruit. The PCA results revealed that the 50MA followed by 50% acidified acetone (50AA) was the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics, particularly flavonols (627.12 and 510.31 μg/g dry weight, respectively), while water (W) was not beneficial to the extraction of all categories of phenolics. Besides, the results of 3 antioxidant capability assays (DPPH, ABTS free radical-scavenging assay, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay) showed that water-based organic solvents increased the antioxidant capabilities of the extracts compared with water or pure organic solvents. ASE was more suitable for the extraction of phenolics than UAE.
Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nomoto, Maki; Oda, Momoko; Mochizuki, Keisuke; Nakano, Yuki; Ishii, Yuji; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Evidence of the health benefits and the important contribution of coffee brew to the intake of anti-oxidants in the diet has increased coffee consumption. Chlorogenic acid (ChA) and caffeic acid (CaA) are the major phenolic compounds in coffee. However, phenolic compounds, which are generally effective anti-oxidants, can become pro-oxidants in the presence of Cu(2+) to induce DNA damage under certain conditions. On the other hand, sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) is widely used as a food additive to preserve and tinge color on cured meat and fish. It is possible that phenolic compounds react with NaNO(2) under acidic conditions, such as gastric juice. In this study, we identified compounds produced by the reaction between ChA or CaA in coffee and NaNO(2) in artificial gastric juice. The identified phenolic compounds and nitrated phenolic compounds were assessed for their anti-oxidant, pro-oxidant, and nitration activities by performing an in vitro assay. The nitrated phenolic compounds seemed to show increased anti-oxidant activity and decreased pro-oxidant activity. However, one nitrated CaA compound that has a furoxan ring showed the ability to release NO(2)(-) in the neutral condition.
Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena
This study investigated the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of an ethanolic extract from the peel of the Annurca (Malus domestica var. Annurca), which is widespread in the Campania region of southern Italy. The antimicrobial effect of the extract on different pathogens was also examined. The potential antiquorum sensing activity of the extract was tested by using the microorganism Chromobacterium violaceum. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography revealed that rutin, epicatechin, dicaffeoylquinic acid, and caffeic acid were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extract; these compounds constituted 27.43%, 24.93%, 16.14%, and 15.3% of the total phenols, respectively. The test for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity showed that the extract possessed an impressive antioxidant capacity (50% effective concentration of 2.50 μg/g of product). Furthermore, the extract clearly exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus (11- to 14-mm diameter of inhibition halo, depending on the strain) and Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 (10-mm diameter of inhibition halo). No activity was observed against the probiotic lactobacilli tested or against Staphylococcus aureus. Antiquorum sensing activity was reported for the first time for apple extracts. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential of this extract for treating some microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, thereby validating the health benefits of apples.
Wang, Wei-Xin; Qian, Jing-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Jiang, Ai-Ping; Jia, Ai-Qun
Four extracts (EtOH, CHCl3, EtOAc, and BuOH) and five phenolics (dihydrokaempferol (1), resveratrol (2), kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (3), dihydrokaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (4), oxyresveratrol (5)) from Smilax china L. was evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activities and cytotoxicity activities in vitro. All these extracts and phenolics showed lower or no cytotoxicity at a concentration ranged from 0.8 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL, but some showed potential anti-HIV-1 activities, that is, BuOH extract and compound 2 showed higher anti-HIV-1 activities than other extracts and compounds in the tested concentrations. EtOAc extract and compound 1 and 3 showed moderate anti-HIV-1 activities at a concentration higher than 4 μg/mL. In the end, the structure-activity relationship of four extracts and five phenolics was discussed.
Chinnici, Fabio; Bendini, Alessandra; Gaiani, Anna; Riponi, Claudio
The relationship between phenolic composition and radical scavenging activity of apple peel and pulp was investigated in fruit produced according to both organic and integrated agricultural methods. Apple tissue extracts were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography separation, which showed that as compared with pulps, peels are richer in almost all of the quantified phenolics. Flavonols, flavanols, procyanidins, dihydrochalcones, and hydroxycinnamates were the identified phenolic classes in peel tissue, and the most abundant compounds were epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and phloridzin. Pulps were poorer in phytochemicals. Their major phenolics were procyanidins and hydroxycinnamates. Flavonols in amounts <20 mg kg(-1) fresh weight (fw) were also found. In both peels and pulps, integrated production samples were richer in polyphenols. Among the 14 compounds identified, only phloridzin had a tendency to appear higher in organic peels. The total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of extracts were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and were expressed as Trolox equivalents. Integrated peels gave the highest TAC (18.56 mM kg(-1) fw), followed by organic peels (TAC = 14.96), integrated pulps (TAC = 7.12), and organic pulps (TAC = 6.28). In peels, the top contributors to the antioxidant activity were found to be flavonols, flavanols, and procyanidins, which accounted for about 90% of the total calculated activity whereas in pulps, the TAC was primarily derived from flavanols (monomers and polymers) together with hydroxycinnamates. A good correlation between the sum of polyphenols and the radical scavenging activities was found. Among the single classes of compounds, procyanidins (in peels and pulps) and flavonols (in peels) were statistically correlated to the TAC.
Valadez-Carmona, Lourdes; Cortez-García, Rosa María; Plazola-Jacinto, Carla Patricia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia
The coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) husk is basically composed by fiber and pith material and remained under-utilized. This is an important source of phenolic compounds that could be used as functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: oven-drying (OD) and microwave drying (MD), on the water activity, color, phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of coconut husk. The OD was performed at 60 °C for 12 h and MD was performed at 900 W for 10 min. The total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh coconut husk was 64.2 mg GAE/g dry wt and significant higher than observed after OD and MD of 35.8 and 45.5 mg GAE/g dry wt, respectively. Ten phenols were identified in fresh and dehydrated coconut husks. The husk MD showed an increase in the content of gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic and syringic acids and epicatechin compared with the fresh; while coconut husk OD and MD, showed a decrease in the content of vanillic acid, vanillin, catequin and kaempferol. The antioxidant activity decreased after both OD and MD. However, MD resulted in a better antioxidant activity in husk than OD. MD of husk resulted into better retention of preserved color, TPC and TFC than OD.
Vázquez, Cecilia Velázquez; Rojas, María Guadalupe Villa; Ramírez, Carolina Alvarez; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; García-Gasca, Teresa; Ferriz Martínez, Roberto A; García, Olga P; Rosado, Jorge L; López-Sabater, Carmen M; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montemayor, Héctor Mario Andrade; de la Torre Carbot, Karina
Milk protects the health of newborns because it contains essential compounds that perform metabolic activities. Despite these benefits, the study of phenolic compounds in milk has been poorly explored. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a technique for extracting total phenolic compounds (TPCs) from a milk matrix and then analyzing them using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The extraction technique was applied to goat milk and involved the addition of methanol, acetonitrile, and Carrez I and II reagents, after which protein was separated from fat through centrifugation. Subsequently, the technique was applied to goat (69.03±6.23mg GAE/L), cow (49.00±10.77mg GAE/L), sheep (167.6±58.77mg GAE/L) and human milk (82.45±12.3mg GAE/L). The technique showed an acceptable linearity (R(2)=0.9998), limit of detection (6.03mg GAE/L) and quantification (16.2mg GAE/L), repeatability (RSD=4%), reproducibility (RSD=6.8%) and recovery (>85.41%); it is thus effective and can be used in the routine analysis of milk. TPCs obtained from each type of milk indicate a high variability among species and among members of the same species.
Sulaymon, Abbas H; Ahmed, Kawther W
For a multicomponent competitive adsorption of furfural and phenolic compounds, a mathematical model was builtto describe the mass transfer kinetics in a fixed bed column with activated carbon. The effects of competitive adsorption equilibrium constant, axial dispersion, external mass transfer, and intraparticle diffusion resistance on the breakthrough curve were studied for weakly adsorbed compound (furfural) and strongly adsorbed compounds (parachlorophenol and phenol). Experiments were carried out to remove the furfural and phenolic compound from aqueous solution. The equilibrium data and intraparticle diffusion coefficients obtained from separate experiments in a batch adsorber, by fitting the experimental data with theoretical model. The results show that the mathematical model includes external mass transfer and pore diffusion using nonlinear isotherms and provides a good description of the adsorption process for furfural and phenolic compounds in a fixed bed adsorber.
Prajna, Jha; Richa, Jindal; Dipjyoti, Chakraborty
Extraction procedure was standardized and for the soluble, glycoside, and wall-bound fractions of phenolic acids from Vetiveria zizanioides. The water soluble alkaline extract which represents the cell wall-bound fraction contained the highest amount of phenolic acids (2.62 ± 1.2 μM/g fwt GA equivalents). Increased phenolic content in the cell wall indicates more lignin deposition which has an important role in plant defense and stress mitigation. Antioxidant property expressed as percentage TEAC value obtained by ABTS assay was correlated with the amount of phenolic acids and showed a Pearson's coefficient 0.988 (significant at 0.01 level). The compounds p-coumaric acid, p-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and ferulic acid were detected in the acidic extracts by HPLC analysis. The plant extracts exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:26555971
Tamrakar, Sonam; Tran, Hai Bang; Nishida, Marina; Kaifuchi, Satoru; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi
Mushrooms have garnered immense popularity for their nutritional as well as medicinal values. The therapeutic potential of mushrooms in Nepal, a country well known for its biodiversity and natural medicinal resources, remains largely unstudied. Therefore, this study attempts to unveil the antioxidative properties of Nepalese wild mushrooms. Sixty-two wild mushroom samples were collected from several forests in different parts of Nepal. Ethanol and water extracts of the dried samples were tested for their antioxidative activities using total phenolic content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and reducing power (RP) assays. Ethanol extracts of samples belonging to the order Hymenochaetales showed significantly high activity in all the assays. Inonotus clemensiae had an exceptionally high TPC of 643.2 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and also exhibited the lowest EC50 values in DPPH (0.081 mg/mL), ABTS (0.409 mg/mL), and EC0.5 value in reducing power (RP; 0.031 mg/mL) assays. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the top ten samples with the highest TPC was done to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis for some unknown compounds. These findings highlight the very strong antioxidative activity of Nepalese mushrooms, and paves the way for further research to explore their economic potential.
Zhang, Rui Fen; Zhang, Fang Xuan; Zhang, Ming Wei; Wei, Zhen Cheng; Yang, Chun Ying; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Xiao Jun; Deng, Yuan Yuan; Chi, Jian Wei
Phenolics in black soybean seed coat (BSSC) are considered to be responsible for the health benefits of black soybean. BSSCs of 60 Chinese varieties were examined for phenolic contents, anthocyanin profiles, and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic and condensed tannin contents ranged from 512.2 to 6057.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g and from 137.2 to 1741.1 mg (+)-catechin equivalents/100 g, respectively. Six anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside) were detected by HPLC. Total anthocyanin contents (TAC) were from 98.8 to 2132.5 mg/100 g, and cyanidin-3-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin in all varieties, with a distribution of 48.8-94.1% of TAC. Antioxidant properties detected by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods all showed wide variations ranging from 4.8 to 65.3 μg/100 mL (expressed as EC(50)), from 17.5 to 105.8 units/g, and from 42.5 to 1834.6 μmol Trolox equivalent/g, respectively. Sixty varieties were classified into four groups by hierarchical clustering analysis, and group 4 consisting of nine varieties had the highest phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity.
Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly
Habermann, E; Imatomi, M; Pontes, F C; Gualtieri, S C J
Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber) and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC). A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI) with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.
Sun, Baoshan; Neves, Ana C; Fernandes, Tiago A; Fernandes, Ana L; Mateus, Nuno; De Freitas, Vítor; Leandro, Conceição; Spranger, Maria I
The objective of this work was to study the evolution of the phenolic composition of red wine during vinification and storage and its relationship with some sensory properties (astringency and bitterness) and antioxidant activities. Thus, red wine was made by a classic vinification method with Castelão and Tinta Miúda grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) harvested at maturity (3:2; w/w). Samples were taken at 2 and 7 days of maceration, at second racking, at the time of bottling and at 6 and 14 months after bottling. The total polyphenols extract (TPx) in each sample was isolated by column chromatography. The phenolic composition (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins), in vitro antioxidant activity, and sensory property (astringency, bitterness) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages were evaluated through high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl radical test, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, total phenolic index, MWI (polyphenol molecular weight index), TSA (tannin specific activity), and sensory panel tasting. The results showed that the phenolic composition of red wine varied significantly during winemaking. The intensity of astringency (IA) and the intensity bitterness (IB) of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages increased from 2 days of maceration until second racking and then decreased. Furthermore, MWI and TSA are positively correlated with IA and IB. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated TPx from different winemaking stages maintained unchanged after alcoholic fermentation, which was independent of the variation of phenolic composition and sensory properties.
Girods, P; Dufour, A; Fierro, V; Rogaume, Y; Rogaume, C; Zoulalian, A; Celzard, A
The problems of valorisation of particleboard wastes on one hand, and contamination of aqueous effluents by phenolic compounds on the other hand, are simultaneously considered in this work. Preparation of activated carbons from a two steps thermo-chemical process, formerly designed for generating combustible gases, is suggested. The resultant carbonaceous residue is activated with steam at 800 degrees C. Depending on the preparation conditions, surface areas within the range 800-1300 m(2)/g are obtained, close to that of a commercial activated carbon (CAC) specially designed for water treatment and used as a reference material. The present work shows that particleboard waste-derived activated carbons (WAC) are efficient adsorbents for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions, with maximum measured capacities close to 500 mg/g. However, most of times, the adsorption capacities are slightly lower than that of the commercial material in the same conditions, i.e., at equilibrium phenol concentrations below 300 ppm. Given the extremely low cost of activated carbons prepared from particleboard waste, it should not be a problem to use it in somewhat higher amounts than what is required with a more expensive commercial material. Phenol adsorption isotherms at 298 K were correctly fitted by various equations modelling type I and type II isotherms for CAC and WAC, respectively. Phenol adsorption isotherms of type II were justified by a 3-stages adsorption mechanism.
Ma, Nan; Tian, Yao-Jin; Yang, Guang-Ping; Xie, Xin-Yuan
Microwave-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-1), nitric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-2), phosphoric acid-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-3) and ammonia-modified activated carbon fiber (ACF-4) were successfully fabricated. The electro-Fenton catalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were evaluated using phenol as a model pollutant. H2O2 formation, COD removal efficiency and phenol removal efficiency were investigated compared with the unmodified activated carbon fiber (ACF-0). Results indicated that ACF-1 showed the best adsorption and electrocatalytic activity. Modification was in favor of the formation of H2O2. The performance of different systems on phenol degradation and COD removal were ACF-1 > ACF-3 > ACF-4 > ACF-2 > ACF-0 and ACF-1 > ACF-4 > ACF-3 > ACF-2 > ACF-0, respectively, which confirmed that electrocatalytic activities of modified activated carbon fiber were better than the unmodified. In addition, phenol intermediates were not the same while using different modified activated carbon fibers.
Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.
Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan. PMID:25147852
Ayub, Muhammad Adnan; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Shahid, Muhammad; Janneh, Omar
The objective of present study was to evaluate the variation in phenolic profile, β-carotene, flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Tagetes eracta and Tagetes patula (T. erecta and T. patula) through different in vitro assays.,Antioxidant activity was determined through 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays and antibacterial and antifungal activities studied using the disc diffusion and resazurin microtiter-plate assays against bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, Total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC) and total flavonoids (TF) were also determined. Highest (TP 35.8 mg GAE/g) and TF (16.9 mg CE/g) contents were found in methanolic extract of T. patula. T. erecta extract showed higher TC contents (6.45 mg/g) than T. patula extract (6.32 mg/g). T. erecta exhibited the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50 ) (5.73 μg/mL) and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (80.1%). RP-HPLC revealed the presence of caffeic acid, sinapic acid and ferulic acid in Tagetes extracts, m-coumaric acid in T. erecta whereas chlorogenic acid in T. patula extract only. Both extracts possessed promising antimicrobial activity compared to the ciprofloxacin and flumequine (+ve controls) against Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria alternate. Both extract were rich source of polyphenols exhibiting excellent biological activities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Miller, D; Wheals, B B; Beresford, N; Sumpter, J P
We used a recombinant yeast estrogen assay to assess the activity of 73 phenolic additives that are used as sunscreens, preservatives, disinfectants, antioxidants, flavorings, or for perfumery. Thirty-two of these compounds displayed activity: 22 with potencies relative to 17beta-estradiol, ranging from 1/3,000 to < 1/3,000,000, and 10 compounds with an impaired response that could not be directly compared with 17beta-estradiol. Forty-one compounds were inactive. The major criteria for activity appear to be the presence of an unhindered phenolic OH group in a para position and a molecular weight of 140-250 Da.
Nkhili, Ezzohra; Loonis, Michèle; Mihai, Simona; El Hajji, Hakima; Dangles, Olivier
In this work, the affinity of common dietary phenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechin, and rutin) for iron and copper ions was quantitatively investigated in neutral phosphate buffer as well as the reactivity of the complexes toward dioxygen. Contrasting behaviors were observed: because of the competing phosphate ions, Fe(III) binding is much slower than Fe(II) binding, which is rapidly followed by autoxidation of Fe(II) into Fe(III). With both ions, O2 consumption and H2O2 production are modest and the phenolic ligands are only slowly oxidized. By contrast, metal-phenol binding is fast with both Cu(I) and Cu(II). With Cu(I), O2 consumption and H2O2 production are very significant and the phenolic ligands are rapidly oxidized into a complex mixture of oligomers. The corresponding mechanism with Cu(II) is hampered by the preliminary rate-determining step of Cu(II) reduction by the phenols. The consequences of these findings for the stability and antioxidant activity of plant phenols are discussed.
Omri, Abdessalem; Benzina, Mourad
In this work, two technologies are studied for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution: dynamic adsorption onto activated carbon and photocatalysis. Almond shell activated carbon (ASAC) was used as adsorbent and catalytic support in the phenol degradation process. The prepared catalyst by deposition of anatase TiO2 on the surface of activated carbon was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, sorption of nitrogen, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and pHZPC point of zero charge. In the continuous adsorption experiments, the effects of flow rate, bed height, and solution temperature on the breakthrough curves have been studied. The breakthrough curves were favorably described by the Yoon-Nelson model. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol has been investigated at room temperature using TiO2-coated activated carbon as photocatalyst (TiO2/ASAC). The degradation reaction was optimized with respect to the phenol concentration and catalyst amount. The kinetics of disappearance of the organic pollutant followed an apparent first-order rate. The findings demonstrated the applicability of ASAC for the adsorptive and catalytic treatment of phenol.
You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming
Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.
Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan
Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA. PMID:28231141
Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan
Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA.
Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Uberos, José; Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Peña, Alejandro; Segura-Carretero, Antonio
Phenolic compounds from a cranberry extract were isolated in order to assess their contribution to the antibacterial activity against uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC). With this purpose, a total of 25 fractions from a cranberry extract were isolated using semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry detection. Then, the effects on UPEC surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation of the cranberry extract as well as the purest fractions (a total of 13) were tested. As expected, the whole extract presented a powerful antibacterial activity against UPEC while the selected fractions presented a different behavior. Myricetin and quercitrin significantly decreased (p < 0.05) E. coli biofilm formation compared with the control, while dihydroferulic acid glucuronide, procyanidin A dimer, quercetin glucoside, myricetin and prodelphinidin B led to a significant decrease of the surface hydrophobicity compared with the control. The results suggest that apart from proanthocyanidins, other compounds, mainly flavonoids, can act against E. coli biofilm formation and also modify UPEC surface hydrophobicity in vitro, one of the first steps of adhesion.
Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad
Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel.
Palmer, H. E.
Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.
Wu, Chengying; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xin Sheng; Shen, Bei; Yue, Wei; Wu, Qinan
This study investigated the antioxidant potential and anti-fatigue effects of phenolics extracted from the seed coat of Euryale ferox Salisb. The in vitro antioxidant potentials, including scavenging DPPH, hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power were evaluated. Antioxidant status in vivo was analyzed by SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities and the MDA content in liver and kidneys of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The anti-fatigue effect was evaluated using an exhaustive swimming test, along with the determination of LDH, BUN and HG content. The phenolic extract possessed notable antioxidant effects on DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power. The mice which received the phenolic extract showed significant increases of SOD, CAT (except for in the kidney), GSH-Px activities, and a decrease of MDA content. The average exhaustive swimming time was obviously prolonged. Meanwhile, increase of LDH content and decrease of BUN content were observed after mice had been swimming for 15 min. The HG storage of mice was improved in the high and middle dose extract groups compared with the normal group. The contents of total phenols and gallic acid of the extract were determined. Three compounds in the extract were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-chroman-4-one, 5,7,4-trihydroxyflavanone and buddlenol E. These results suggest that the extract of E. ferox is a promising source of natural antioxidants and anti-fatigue material for use in functional foods and medicines.
Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon
Oxidative stress, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is responsible for modulating several pathological conditions and aging. Soluble and bound phenolic extracts of commonly consumed millets, namely, kodo, finger (Ravi), finger (local), foxtail, proso, little, and pearl, were investigated for their phenolic content and inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS, namely, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Inhibition of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals was detrmined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The peroxyl radical inhibitory activity was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The scavenging of H(2)O(2), HOCl, and (1)O(2) was evaluated using colorimetric methods. The results were expressed as micromoles of ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram of grain on a dry weight basis. In addition, major hydroxycinnamic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). All millet varieties displayed effective radical and ROS inhibition activities, which generally positively correlated with phenolic contents, except for hydroxyl radical. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids as major hydroxycinnamic acids in phenolic extract and responsible for the observed effects. Bound extracts of millet contributed 38-99% to ROS scavenging, depending on the variety and the test system employed. Hence, bound phenolics must be included in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of millets and other cereals.
Wang, Lifeng; Chen, Chao; Su, Anxiang; Zhang, Yiyi; Yuan, Jian; Ju, Xingrong
The current study aims to investigate the antioxidant activities of various extracts from defatted adlay seed meal (DASM) based on the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay. Of all the fractions, the n-butanol fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, followed by crude acetone extract and aqueous fractions. Of the three sub-fractions obtained by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, sub-fraction 3 possessed the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. There was a strong positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Based on HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis, the most abundant phenolic acid in sub-fraction 3 of DASM was ferulic acid at 67.28 mg/g, whereas the predominant flavonoid was rutin at 41.11 mg/g. Of the major individual compounds in sub-fraction 3, p-coumaric acid exhibited the highest ORAC values, and quercetin exhibited the highest PSC values and CAA values.
Moosavi Dolatabadi, Khadijeh Sadat; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Siavash; Jahanban Esfahlan, Ali
Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell. PMID:25767754
Yu, Seok-Yeong; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kang, Suk-Nam; Lee, Seong-Kap; Jang, Jung-Young; Lee, Hyo-Ku; Lim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Ok-Hwan
This study was to evaluate the phenolic content and composition of Carthamus tinctorius L. seed extract (CSE) and to further assess its antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities using various radical scavenging systems and 3T3-L1 cells. Our results show that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CSE were 126.0 ± 2.4 mg GAE/g and 62.2 ± 1.9 mg QE/g, respectively. The major phenolic compounds in CSE was (-)-epigallocatechin (109.62 mg/g), with a 4-hydroxy benzhydrazide derivative and gallocatechin present at 18.28 mg/g and 17.02 mg/g, respectively. CSE exhibited remarkable radical scavenging activities, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of CSE (0.1 mg/mL) was 62.9 ± 4.7 μM TE (trolox equivalent)/g. During adipogenesis, CSE significantly inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. Overall, these results indicate that CSE might be a valuable source of bioactive compounds that impart functional food and natural antioxidant properties.
Liou, Rey-May; Chen, Shih-Hsiung
This paper presents an original approach to the removal of phenol in synthetic wastewater by catalytic wet peroxide oxidation with copper binding activated carbon (CuAC) catalysts. The characteristics and oxidation performance of CuAC in the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation of phenol were studied in a batch reactor at 80 degrees C. Complete conversion of the oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, was observed with CuAC catalyst in 20 min oxidation, and a highly efficient phenol removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement were achieved in the first 30 min. The good oxidation performance of CuAC catalyst was contributed to the activity enhancement of copper oxide, which was binding in the carbon matrix. It can be concluded that the efficiency of oxidation dominated by the residual H2O2 in this study. An over 90% COD removal was achieved by using the multiple-step addition in this catalytic oxidation.
Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Bioactivity of thyme has been described, but mostly related to its essential oils, while studies with aqueous extracts are scarce. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract, as also their phenolic compounds, were evaluated and compared. Decoction showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (either phenolic acids or flavonoids), followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. In general, the samples were effective against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter sakazakii) bacteria, with decoction presenting the most pronounced effect. This sample also displayed the highest radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Data obtained support the idea that compounds with strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities are also water-soluble. Furthermore, the use of thyme infusion and decoction, by both internal and external use, at recommended doses, is safe and no adverse reactions have been described.
Osman, Nurul Izzati; Sidik, Norrizah Jaafar; Awal, Asmah; Adam, Nurul Athirah Mohamad; Rezali, Nur Inani
Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of methanolic extracts of infloresence axes, endosperms, leaves, and pericarps of Barringtonia racemosa L. Methods: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by assessing the potential through xanthine oxidase (XO) and albumin denaturation inhibition assays. Meanwhile, the TPC in the extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Results: In the XO inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract was found to exert the highest inhibition capacity at 0.1% (w/v) with 59.54 ± 0.001% inhibition followed by leaves (58.82 ± 0.001%), pericarps (57.99 ± 0.003%), and endosperms (57.20 ± 0.003%) extracts. Similarly in the albumin denaturation inhibition assay, the infloresence axes extract had shown the greatest inhibition capacity with 70.58 ± 0.004% inhibition followed by endosperms (66.80 ± 0.024%), leaves (65.29 ± 0.006%), and pericarps extracts (43.33 ± 0.002%). Meanwhile, for TPC analysis, leaves extract was found to have the highest phenolic content (53.94 ± 0.000 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g DW) followed by infloresence axes (31.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), endosperms (22.63 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW), and the least was found in pericarps (15.54 ± 0.001 mg GAE/g DW). Conclusion: The results indeed verified the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of B. racemosa and supported its potential to be used in alleviating gouty arthritis and XO-related diseases. PMID:27757263
Perrone, Daniel; Farah, Adriana; Donangelo, Carmen M
In the present study, the influence of coffee roasting on free and melanoidin-bound phenolic compounds and their relationship with the brews' antioxidant activity (AA), evaluated by TRAP, TEAC, and TRAP, were investigated. Changes in the relative content of free chlorogenic acids (CGA), free lactones, and melanoidin-bound phenolic acids during roasting indicate that phenolic compounds were incorporated into melanoidins mainly at early stages of the process, being thereafter partly oxidized to dihydrocaffeic acid, and degraded. Although less than 1% of CGA in green coffee was incorporated into melanoidins during roasting, the relative content of melanoidin-bound phenolic acids increased significantly during this process, reaching up to 29% of total phenolic compounds in brews from dark roasted coffees. Regardless of the AA assay used and considering all roasting degrees, the overall contribution of CGA to the AA of the whole brews was higher than that of melanoidin-bound phenolic compounds. It was estimated that the latter compounds contributed to 25-47% of the AA, depending on the assay used.
Hemalatha, P; Bomzan, Dikki Pedenla; Sathyendra Rao, B V; Sreerama, Yadahally N
Whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions were evaluated for their phenolic composition in relation to their antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Compositional analysis by HPLC-DAD showed that the distribution of phenolic compounds in quinoa is not entirely localised in the outer layers of the kernel. Milling of whole grain quinoa resulted in about 30% loss of total phenolic content in milled grain. Ferulic and vanillic acids were the principal phenolic acids and rutin and quercetin were predominant flavonoids detected in whole grain and milled fractions. Quinoa milled fractions exhibited numerous antioxidant activities. Despite having relatively lower phenolic contents, dehulled and milled grain fractions showed significantly (p ⩽ 0.05) higher metal chelating activity than other fractions. Furthermore, extracts of bran and hull fractions displayed strong inhibition towards α-amylase [IC50, 108.68 μg/ml (bran) and 148.23 μg/ml (hulls)] and α-glucosidase [IC50, 62.1 μg/ml (bran) and 68.14 μg/ml (hulls)] activities. Thus, whole grain quinoa and its milled fractions may serve as functional food ingredients in gluten-free foods for promoting health.
Alam, Md Iqbal; Alam, Mohammed A; Alam, Ozair; Nargotra, Amit; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Koul, Surrinder
In our earlier study, we have reported that a phenolic compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde from Janakia arayalpatra root extract was active against Viper and Cobra envenomations. Based on the structure of this natural product, libraries of synthetic structurally variant phenolic compounds were studied through molecular docking on the venom protein. To validate the activity of eight selected compounds, we have tested them in in vivo and in vitro models. The compound 21 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde), 22 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and 35 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol) were found to be active against venom-induced pathophysiological changes. The compounds 20, 15 and 35 displayed maximum anti-hemorrhagic, anti-lethal and PLA2 inhibitory activity respectively. In terms of SAR, the presence of a formyl group in conjunction with a phenolic group was seen as a significant contributor towards increasing the antivenom activity. The above observations confirmed the anti-venom activity of the phenolic compounds which needs to be further investigated for the development of new anti-snake venom leads.
To study the polyphenols in whole grain rice varying in bran color, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant capacities of the solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall bound (Bound) fractions and the profiles of procyanidins and anthocyanins were determined. Red and purple bran rices had signific...
Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...
Irrigation with high salinity water influences plant growth, production of photosynthetic pigments and total phenols, leading to reduction in crop yield and quality. Foliar application of macro- and/or micro-nutrients can, to some extent, mitigate negative effects of high salinity irrigation water o...
Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Yi, Weiguang; Fischer, Joan; Krewer, Gerard
Recent research suggests that blueberries are rich in total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Phenolic compounds are highly unstable and may be lost during processing, particularly when heat treatment is involved. There is no systematic study available providing information on the fate of phenolic compounds during storage and how that affects their biological activity. We provide a systematic evaluation of the changes observed in total polyphenols (TPP), total anthocyanins (TACY), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), phenolic acids, and individual anthocyanins of blueberry extract stored in glass bottles and the ability of blueberry extract to inhibit cell proliferation. The extract was stored at different temperatures (-20 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 23 +/- 1, and 35 +/- 1 degrees C). Two cultivars, Tifblue and Powderblue, were chosen for the study. The recoveries of TPP, TACY, and TEAC in blueberry extract after pressing and heating were approximately 25, approximately 29, and approximately 69%, respectively, for both cultivars. The recovery of gallic acid, catechin, and quercetin was approximately 25%. Ferulic acid was not detected in the final extract in both Tifblue and Powderblue cultivars. The recovery of peonidin, malvidin, and cyanidin glycosides was approximately 20% in the final extract in both cultivars. Losses due to storage were less when compared with initial losses due to processing. At -20 degrees C, no statistically significant loss of TPP, TACY, and TEAC was observed up to 30 days (P < 0.05). At 6 degrees C storage, there was a significant loss observed from 15 to 30 days. Similar results were obtained at 23 and 35 degrees C (P < 0.05). There was retention of more than 40% of ellagic and quercetin after 60 days at 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Anthocyanins were not detected after 60 days of storage at 35 +/- 1 degrees C. Significant retention (P < 0.05) was obtained for malvidin (42.8 and 25.8%) and peonidin (74.0 and 79.5%) after 60 days of storage at 23
Xu, Min; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Tanaka, Takashi; Kouno, Isao; Zhang, Ying-Jun
Fifty-eight phenolic compounds isolated from Phyllanthus emblica were screened and compared for their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties, as well as hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory activities. Among them, 20 compounds showed to be promising antioxidants due to the stronger scavenging activity in both DPPH radical and Danio rerio reactive oxygen species assays, while nine compounds were potential HAase inhibitors with 100-fold stronger activities than that of the positive control, DSCG. The structure activity relationship was discussed.
Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra
Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB
Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa
Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions.
Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka
Summary Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types. PMID:27904388
Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka; Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka
Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types.
Draghi, Patrícia Ferrante; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Bastos
We developed a label-free potentiometric biosensor using tyrosinase extracted from Musa acuminata and immobilized by covalent bond on a surface of a solid-contact transducer. The transducer was manufactured containing two layers. The first layer contained a blend of poly(vinyl) chloride carboxylated (PVC-COOH), graphite and potassium permanganate. On this layer, we deposited a second layer containing just a mixture of poly(vinyl chloride) carboxylated and graphite. On the last layer of the transducer, we immobilized the tyrosinase enzyme by reaction with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. The solid-contact potentiometric biosensor presented at low detection limit of 7.3×10(-7)M and a linear range to catechol concentration between 9.3×10(-7)M and 8.3×10(-2)M. This biosensor was applied to determine the amount of total phenols in different samples of honey and propolis. The results agreed with the Folin-Ciocalteu method.
Herraiz, Francisco J; Villaño, Débora; Plazas, Mariola; Vilanova, Santiago; Ferreres, Federico; Prohens, Jaime; Moreno, Diego A
The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is an edible and juicy fruit native to the Andean region which is becoming increasingly important. However, little information is available on its phenolic composition and bioactive properties. Four pepino varieties (37-A, El Camino, Puzol, and Valencia) and one accession (E-7) of its close wild relative S. caripense were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS(n)/ESI. Twenty-four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected (5 to 16 compounds per variety or accession), with differences of more than two-fold for their total content among the materials studied. The major phenolics in the pepino varieties were chlorogenic acids and derivatives, while in S. caripense a caffeoyl-synapoyl-quinic acid was the major compound. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), and TRC (total reducing capacity) tests) was higher in S. caripense. Pepino and S. caripense extracts were not toxic for RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the raw extracts inhibited NO production of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages by 36% (El Camino) to 67% (37-A). No single variety ranked high simultaneously for hydroxycinnamic acids content, antioxidant activity and biological activity. We suggest the screening of large collections of germplasm or the use of complementary crosses between Puzol (high for hydroxycinnamic acids and biological activity) and S. caripense E-7 (high for antioxidant activity) to select and breed pepino varieties with enhanced properties.
Herraiz, Francisco J.; Villaño, Débora; Plazas, Mariola; Vilanova, Santiago; Ferreres, Federico; Prohens, Jaime; Moreno, Diego A.
The pepino (Solanum muricatum) is an edible and juicy fruit native to the Andean region which is becoming increasingly important. However, little information is available on its phenolic composition and bioactive properties. Four pepino varieties (37-A, El Camino, Puzol, and Valencia) and one accession (E-7) of its close wild relative S. caripense were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MSn/ESI. Twenty-four hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected (5 to 16 compounds per variety or accession), with differences of more than two-fold for their total content among the materials studied. The major phenolics in the pepino varieties were chlorogenic acids and derivatives, while in S. caripense a caffeoyl-synapoyl-quinic acid was the major compound. The in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), and TRC (total reducing capacity) tests) was higher in S. caripense. Pepino and S. caripense extracts were not toxic for RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and the raw extracts inhibited NO production of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages by 36% (El Camino) to 67% (37-A). No single variety ranked high simultaneously for hydroxycinnamic acids content, antioxidant activity and biological activity. We suggest the screening of large collections of germplasm or the use of complementary crosses between Puzol (high for hydroxycinnamic acids and biological activity) and S. caripense E-7 (high for antioxidant activity) to select and breed pepino varieties with enhanced properties. PMID:26999114
Jiang, H-L; Tay, J-H; Tay, S T-L
Four column-type sequential aerobic sludge blanket reactors were fed with phenol as the sole carbon and energy source and operated at loading rates of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1). The results indicated that phenol loading exerted a profound influence on the structure, activity and metabolism of the aerobic granules. Compact granules with good settling ability were maintained at loadings up to 2.0 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1), and structurally weakened granules with enhanced production of extracellular polymers and proteins and significantly lower hydrophobicities were observed at the highest loading of 2.5 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1). Specific oxygen uptake rate, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) activities peaked at a loading of 2.0 kg phenol m(-3) day(-1), and declined thereafter. Granules degraded phenol completely in all four reactors, mainly through the meta cleavage pathway as C23O activities were significantly higher than C12O activities. At the highest loading applied, the anabolism and catabolism of microorganisms were regulated such that phenol degradation proceeded exclusively via the meta pathway, apparently to produce more energy for overstimulation of protein production against phenol toxicity. This work contributes to a better understanding of the ability of aerobic granules to handle high-strength industrial wastewaters containing chemicals that are normally inhibitory to microbial growth.
Sora, Gisele Teixeira Souza; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; da Silva, Marcos Vieira; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Geferson Almeida; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina
This paper presents a comparison of the contents of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and total phenolics as well as of the antioxidant activities of six types of peppers of the genus Capsicum. The varieties were analyzed in terms of their in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant powder (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate (ABTS(●+)) assays. The contents of phenolics and capsainoids as well as the antioxidant activities were higher in seeds than in pulps. The correlations (ρ < 0.01) between the phenolic composition and the capsaicinoids levels were high (r = 0.98). Similarly high were also the correlations between the antioxidant activities and the contents of total phenolics and capsaicinoids. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). PCA explained 97.77 % of the total variance of the data, and their separation into three groups in a scatter plot was divised. Using HCA, three clusters were suggested. Cluster one, formed by pulps (bell pepper, orange habanero, cayenne, dedo de moça and red habanero), showed the lowest levels of the compounds quantified. Most seed samples were grouped in cluster two (bell pepper, cayenne, dedo de moça and malagueta) together with malagueta pulp. Cluster three was formed by orange and red habanero seeds, which showed the highest levels of all compounds analyzed. The MRL revealed that the values of capsaicinoids and total phenols are more adequate to predict the antioxidant activity measured by the FRAP assay.
Tang, Xiao-Shan; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin
Extraction of phenolics from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue was optimized by the maximization of the yield in total phenolics, using the response surface methodology. The optimized conditions were 50% ethanol, 5 h extraction time, 1 : 40 liquid to solid ratio, and 80°C extraction temperature. The experimental average total phenolics yield was 54.49 ± 4.26 mg/g. These antioxidant properties of phenolics were comprehensively analyzed for the first time. All the extracts not only demonstrated the significant free radical scavenging activities and metal chelating activity but also inhibited lipid, lipoprotein peroxidation and revealed reducing power activity. Ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) also inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value) of the skin of C57BL/6 mice, indicating its potential use for skin hyperpigmentation in humans. The results of cell experiments showed EAE could strongly inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity, which had led to the decrease of melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Overall, EAE is an excellent natural antioxidant and depigmenting agent, which can be developed as a new food additive, medicine, and cosmetic. PMID:25045392
Spínola, Vítor; Pinto, Joana; Castilho, Paula C
Five fruits species commonly cultivated and consumed in Madeira Island (Portugal) were investigated for their phenolic profile by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)) and antioxidant potential. A large number of compounds were characterised, flavonoids and phenolic acids being the major components found in target samples, 39 compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenoids, cyanogenic glycosides and organic acids) were identified in cherimoyas, lemons, papayas, passion-fruits and strawberries for the first time. Furthermore, all samples were systematically analysed for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents along with two radical scavenging methods (ABTS and ORAC) for antioxidant activity measurement. Target fruits presented high phenolic contents which is responsible for most of the antioxidant activity against radical reactive species (R(2)>0.80). Quantitative data showed that anthocyanins, in particular pelargonidin-3-O-hexoside (>300 mg/100 mL), present only in strawberries were the compounds in largest amounts but are the ones which contribute less to the antioxidant activity.
Furuya, E.G.; Miura, Y.; Yokomura, H.; Tajima, S.; Yamashita, S.; Chang, H.T.; Noll, K.E.
Two parallel diffusion mechanisms, pore and surface, can control the rate of contaminant adsorption. The two mechanisms are different functions of temperature and adsorbate concentration. To develop a mechanistic design model for adsorption processes, the two mechanisms must be evaluated separately. In this paper, the authors show that the mechanisms can be separated accurately using a stepwise linearization technique. The technique can easily be incorporated in adsorption diffusion modeling. Two phenolic compounds were used in this study: p-chlorophenol (PCP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP). The application of the linearization technique is illustrated using two types of reactors: a completely mixed batch reactor and a differential reactor. The study results show that pore and surface diffusivity can be determined accurately using the linearization technique. Furthermore, the tortuosity for the absorbent can be estimated from the pore diffusivity. For PCP that is strongly adsorbed by the adsorbent, surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism controlling the intraparticle transport. For weakly adsorbed PNP, neither surface nor pore diffusion is dominant.
Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio
Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.
Nath, Kaushik; Panchani, Suresh; Bhakhar, M S; Chatrola, Sandip
Utilization of agrowaste materials for the production of activated carbon, as an excellent adsorbent with large surface area, is well established industrially, for dephenolation of wastewater. In the present work, dried pods of Prosopis cineraria-a novel and low-cost agrowaste material-were used to prepare activated carbons by zinc chloride activation. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH, and temperature. Pseudo-first-order second-order and diffusion kinetic models were used to identify the possible mechanisms of such adsorption process. The Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to analyze the adsorption equilibrium. Maximum removal efficiency of 86 % was obtained with 25 mg L(-1) of initial phenol concentration. The favorable pH for maximum phenol adsorption was 4.0. Freundlich equation represented the adsorption equilibrium data more ideally than the Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 78.32 mg g(-1) at a temperature of 30 °C and 25 mg L(-1) initial phenol concentration. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model, an indication of chemisorption mechanism, fitted the experimental data better than the pseudo-first-order Lagergren model. Regeneration of spent activated carbon was carried out using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 2252 as the phenol-degrading microorganism. Maximum regeneration up to 57.5 % was recorded, when loaded phenol concentration was 25 mg L(-1). The data obtained in this study would be useful in designing and fabricating an efficient treatment plant for phenol-rich effluents.
Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Liu, Yupeng; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Tang, Juming
The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin for renewable phenols and fuels using activated carbon (AC) as a catalyst. A central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the reaction condition. The effects of reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, h(-1)) on product yields were investigated. GC/MS analysis showed that the main chemical compounds of bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters, most of which were ranged from 71% to 87% of the bio-oils depending on different reaction conditions. Bio-oils with high concentrations of phenol (45% in the bio-oil) were obtained. The calorific value analysis revealed that the high heating values (HHV) of the lignin-derived biochars were from 20.4 to 24.5 MJ/kg in comparison with raw lignin (19 MJ/kg). The reaction mechanism of this process was analyzed.
Li, Xingchen; Cao, Lin; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Ranran; Jiang, Zijing; Che, Zhenming; Lin, Hongbin
“Hayward” kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv.), widely planted all around the world, were fermented with six different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, WLP77, JH-2, and CR476) to reveal their influence on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and aromatic components. Significant differences in the levels of caffeic acid, protocatechuate, and soluble solid content were found among wines with the six fermented strains. Wines fermented with RC212 strain exhibited the highest total phenolic acids as well as DPPH radical scavenging ability and also had the strongest ability to produce volatile esters. Wines made with S. cerevisiae BM 4×4 had the highest content of volatile acids, while the highest alcohol content was presented in CR476 wines. Scoring spots of wines with these strains were separated in different quadrants on the components of phenolics and aromas by principal component analyses. Kiwifruit wines made with S. cerevisiae RC212 were characterized by a rich fruity flavor, while CR476 strain and WLP77 strain produced floral flavors and green aromas, respectively. Altogether, the results indicated that the use of S. cerevisiae RC212 was the most suitable for the fermentation of kiwifruit wine with desirable characteristics. PMID:28251154
Li, Xingchen; Xing, Yage; Cao, Lin; Xu, Qinglian; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Ranran; Jiang, Zijing; Che, Zhenming; Lin, Hongbin
"Hayward" kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv.), widely planted all around the world, were fermented with six different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, WLP77, JH-2, and CR476) to reveal their influence on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity, and aromatic components. Significant differences in the levels of caffeic acid, protocatechuate, and soluble solid content were found among wines with the six fermented strains. Wines fermented with RC212 strain exhibited the highest total phenolic acids as well as DPPH radical scavenging ability and also had the strongest ability to produce volatile esters. Wines made with S. cerevisiae BM 4×4 had the highest content of volatile acids, while the highest alcohol content was presented in CR476 wines. Scoring spots of wines with these strains were separated in different quadrants on the components of phenolics and aromas by principal component analyses. Kiwifruit wines made with S. cerevisiae RC212 were characterized by a rich fruity flavor, while CR476 strain and WLP77 strain produced floral flavors and green aromas, respectively. Altogether, the results indicated that the use of S. cerevisiae RC212 was the most suitable for the fermentation of kiwifruit wine with desirable characteristics.
Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...
Buckwheat flours (Whole, Farinetta, Supreme, and Fancy) were investigated for their compositions, free and bound phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and flavonoid contents using spectrophotometer and LC-ESI-IT- MS (LC-MS). Farinetta flour contained the highest oil, protein, and free and boun...
Sample sets of ground corn and the corresponding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were collected from three commercial plants in Iowa. Phenolic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and/or mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was ...
Niesen, Daniel B; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Bach, Alvin C; Henry, Geneive E; Seeram, Navindra P
Two new phenolics, a stilbenoid, vulpinoideol A (1), and a chalcone, vulpinoideol B (2), along with ten known compounds (3-12) were isolated from Carex vulpinoidea Michx. seeds. The structures of compounds 1-12 were elucidated based on spectrometric and spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR data. All compounds were evaluated for their tyrosinase enzyme inhibitory activities.
Tohma, Hatice; Köksal, Ekrem; Kılıç, Ömer; Alan, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Gülçin, İlhami; Bursal, Ercan; Alwasel, Saleh H.
The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds. PMID:27775656
Lin, Shaoling; Ching, Lai Tsz; Ke, Xinxin; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung
The composition profile and the antioxidant properties of phenolics in water extracts obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of 4 common cultivated Asian edible mushrooms-Agrocybe aegerita, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Pholiota nameko were compared. The water extract from A. aegerita (AaE) had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) at 54.18 ± 0.27 gallic acid equivalents (μmol/L)/mg extract (P < 0.05), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and consisted of the largest number (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) and total amounts of phenolic acids identified by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The water extract of Ph. nameko was found to have the second-highest TPC (43.55 ± 0.10 gallic acid equivalents [μmol/L]/mg extract), followed by the water extract of P. eryngii and the water extract of P. ostreatus (39.55 ± 0.25 and 39.02 ± 0.30 gallic acid equivalents/mg extract, respectively). The scavenging activities of the water extracts from these mushrooms were evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-l-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide. Based on halfmaximal effective concentrations, AaE was more effective in scavenging hydrogen peroxide (<0.05), followed by DPPH (0.51 mg/mL), superoxide anion radicals (0.85 mg/mL) and hydroxyl radicals (5.94 mg/mL), then the other mushroom water extracts. The differences in the half-maximal effective concentrations of individual mushroom water extracts were probably the result of the different numbers and amounts of individual phenolic acids in the extracts. The antioxidant activities of the mushroom water extracts were correlated with their TPC. The strongest antioxidant properties of AaE were consistent with its highest TPC and with the largest number and amount of phenolics identified in the extract. These results indicated that cultivated
Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro
A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.
Kang, H.; Seo, J.; Jang, I.; Lee, Y. K.
Artic tundra is one of the largest carbon stocks, of which amount is estimated up to 1,600 Pg. Global climate change models predict surface temperature rise and higher precipitation during summer in Arctic regions, raising concerns about faster decomposition of organic carbon and consequent releases of CO2, CH4 and DOC. Microorganisms are directly involved in decomposition process by releasing various extracellular enzymes. In particular, phenol oxidase was noted to play a key role because it is related to dynamics of highly recalcitrant carbon, which often represents a rate-limiting step of overall decomposition. In this study, we monitored phenol oxidase activity, hydrolases (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, N-acetylglucosaminidase and aminopeptidase), microbial abundance (qPCR) and chemical properties (δ13C and δ15N signatures) of tundra soils exposed to artificial warming and rain addition, by employing a passive chamber method in Cambridge Bay, Canada. Warming and rain addition combinedly increased phenol oxidase activity while no such changes were discernible for other hydrolases. Stable isotope signature indicates that warming induced water stress to the ecosystem and that nitrogen availability may be enhanced, which is partially responsible for the changes in enzyme activities. A short-term warming (2 years) may not accelerate mineralization of easily decomposable carbon, but may affect phenol oxidase which has the longer-term influence on recalcitrant carbon.
Perea-Domínguez, Xiomara Patricia; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Hosseinian, Farah; HadiNezhad, Mehri; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Medina-Godoy, Sergio
Jatropha curcas seed shells are the by-product obtained during oil extraction process. Recently, its chemical composition has gained attention since its potential applications. The aim of this study was to identify phenolic compounds profile from a non-toxic J. curcas shell from Mexico, besides, evaluate J. curcas shell methanolic extract (JcSME) antioxidant activity. Free, conjugate and bound phenolics were fractionated and quantified (606.7, 193.32 and 909.59 μg/g shell, respectively) and 13 individual phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC. The radical-scavenging activity of JcSME was similar to Trolox and ascorbic acid by DPPH assay while by ABTS assay it was similar to BHT. Effective antioxidant capacity by ORAC was found (426.44 ± 53.39 μmol Trolox equivalents/g shell). The Mexican non-toxic J. curcas shell is rich in phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity; hence, it could be considerate as a good source of natural antioxidants.
Piwowar, Katarzyna; Blacha-Grzechnik, Agata; Bernas, Paulina; Zak, Jerzy
Five selected amine-derivatives of phenothiazine were electropolymerized on an ITO/glass substrate and then used in the daylight-activated process to produce in situ singlet oxygen which degrades phenol in a solution. The phenothiazines were immobilized in a simple electrochemical procedure in an acidic solution which led to the formation of an ultrathin transparent polymeric film. All films obtained on the ITO substrate including azure A (AA), azure C (AC), methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue (TBO), and thionine (Th) had a comparable surface coverage at the level of picomoles/cm2. The activity of these materials was then compared and presented in terms of an efficiency of the phenol degradation process in an aqueous solution by photogenerated singlet oxygen. That efficiency was determined by the UV-vis spectroscopy employing a phenol/4-aminoantipyrine complex. All the phenothiazine ultrathin polymeric films were capable of generating the singlet oxygen in the aqueous solution under daylight activation, which was used in the consecutive process of phenol degradation. The highest efficiency at a level of 51.4% and 45.4% was found for the AC/ITO and MB/ITO layers, respectively.
Bourgou, Soumaya; Ksouri, Riadh; Bellila, Amor; Skandrani, Ines; Falleh, Hanen; Marzouk, Brahim
In the present investigation, methanolic extracts from shoots and roots of Tunisian Nigella sativa were assayed for their antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. The phenolic composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by RP-HPLC. The predominant phenolic compound was vanillic acid with a mean concentration of 143.21 and 89.94 mg per 100 g dry weight of shoots and roots, respectively. Shoots and roots showed comparable and strong superoxide scavenger activity; however, shoots exhibited higher DPPH radical scavenging, reducing and chelating activities than roots. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were determined by using the Ames test. Shoots and roots demonstrated important antimutagenic effects. Roots exhibited stronger activity than shoots with an inhibition percentage of 71.32%.
Lamounier, K. C.; Cunha, L. C. S.; de Morais, S. A. L.; de Aquino, F. J. T.; Chang, R.; do Nascimento, E. A.; de Souza, M. G. M.; Martins, C. H. G.; Cunha, W. R.
Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6) and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis). In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC50 = 18.7 μg/mL) was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC50 = 20.9 μg/mL). Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60 μg/mL). Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent. PMID:22454666
Lamounier, K C; Cunha, L C S; de Morais, S A L; de Aquino, F J T; Chang, R; do Nascimento, E A; de Souza, M G M; Martins, C H G; Cunha, W R
Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6) and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis). In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC(50) = 18.7 μg/mL) was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC(50) = 20.9 μg/mL). Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60 μg/mL). Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent.
Liu, Lei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Deng, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Mingwei
In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran were analyzed following successive treatment by gelatinization, liquefaction and complex enzyme hydrolysis. Compared with gelatinization alone, liquefaction slightly increased the total amount of phenolics and antioxidant activity as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, flavonoids, FRAP and ORAC by 46.24%, 79.13%, 159.14% and 41.98%, respectively, compared to gelatinization alone. Furthermore, ten individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed following enzymatic processing. Ferulic acid experienced the largest release, followed by protocatechuic acid and then quercetin. Interestingly, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates, rather than free form. Overall, complex enzyme hydrolysis releases phenolics, thus increasing the antioxidant activity of rice bran extract. This study provides useful information for processing rice bran into functional beverage rich in phenolics.
Identification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in seventeen species of wild mushrooms in Central Mexico and determination of their antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds.
Yahia, Elhadi M; Gutiérrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Moreno-Pérez, Marco A
Wild mushrooms are important for the diet of some communities in Mexico. However, limited information exists on their chemical composition, contribution to the diet, and health effects. We characterized seventeen wild mushroom species growing in the state of Queretaro in Central Mexico. Most species analyzed were edible, but also included nonedible, medicinal, poisonous and toxic specimens. Whole mushrooms (caps and stipes) were characterized for water content, color, and total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In vitro antioxidant capacity was measured by FRAP and DPPH assays. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-mass spectrometry. All species analyzed were found to possess antioxidant activity in vitro and a wide range of phenolic and organic compounds were identified. Our results add to the limited information available on the composition and potential nutritional and health value of wild mushrooms. Further analyses of their bioactivities are warranted.
Ibrahim, Nor Mawarti; Mat, Ishak; Lim, Vuanghao; Ahmad, Ruzita
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of oven and freeze-dried Streblus asper leaves were investigated using DPPH assay. The presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the extracts, which were detected by Folin and colorimetric assays, respectively, may be responsible for the antioxidant activities of S. asper. The different drying treatments resulted in significant differences (p < 0.05) in the antioxidant properties as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the S. asper extracts. Freeze-dried S. asper leaf extracts exhibited high DPPH radical scavenging activity ranging from 69.48% ± 0.03% to 89.25% ± 0.01% at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1 mg/mL, significantly higher compared with the oven-dried extracts which were in the range of 68.56% ± 0.01% to 86.68% ± 0.01%. Generally, the 70% ethanol extract of the freeze-dried samples exhibited higher phenolic and flavonoid content than the aqueous extract, with values of 302.85 ± 0.03 mg GAE/g and 22.70 ± 0.02 mg QE/g compared with 226.8 ± 0.03 mg GAE/g and 15.38 ± 0.05 mg QE/g, respectively. This study showed that S. asper leaf extracts contain a number of health promoting bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, and are potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:26784343
Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M
Green malt was kilned at 95 degrees C following two regimens: a standard regimen (SKR) and a rapid regimen (RKR). Both resulting malts were treated further in a tray dryer heated to 120 degrees C, as was green malt previously dried to 65 degrees C (TDR). Each regimen was monitored by determining the color, antioxidant activity (by both ABTS(.+) and FRAP methods), and polyphenolic profile. SKR and RKR malts exhibited decreased L* and increased b* values above approximately 80 degrees C. TDR malts changed significantly less, and color did not develop until 110 degrees C, implying that different chemical reactions lead to color in those malts. Antioxidant activity increased progressively with each regimen, although with TDR malts this became significant only at 110-120 degrees C. The RKR malt ABTS(.+) values were higher than those of the SKR malt. The main phenolics, that is, ferulic, p-coumaric, and vanillic acids, were monitored throughout heating. Ferulic acid levels increased upon heating to 80 degrees C for SKR and to 70 degrees C for RKR, with subsequent decreases. However, the levels for TDR malts did not increase significantly. The increase in free phenolics early in kilning could be due to enzymatic release of bound phenolics and/or easier extractability due to changes in the matrix. The differences between the kilning regimens used suggest that further modification of the regimens could lead to greater release of bound phenolics with consequent beneficial effects on flavor stability in beer and, more generally, on human health.
Tancredi, Nestor; Medero, Natalia; Möller, Fabiana; Píriz, Javier; Plada, Carina; Cordero, Tomás
Eucalyptus grandis sawdust, a major waste from the growing Uruguayan wood industry, was used in previous work to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC). In the present work, granular activated carbon (GAC) was prepared by mixing PAC, carboxymethyl cellulose as a binder, and kaolin as reinforcer. Ultimate analysis and surface characterization of GAC and PAC were performed. Phenol adsorption was used as a way to compare the characteristics of different PAC and GAC preparations. Kinetics and isotherms of the different GAC and PAC were performed in a shaking bath at 100 rpm and 298 K. Phenol concentrations were determined by UV spectroscopy. Some kinetics parameters were calculated; from kinetics results, external resistance to mass transfer from the bulk liquid can be neglected as the controlling step. Isotherms were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models, and corresponding parameters were determined. Maximum phenol uptakes for all carbons were determined and correlated with carbon characteristics. Thermogravimertic analysis (TGA) determinations were performed in order to study adsorption characteristics and conditions for GAC regeneration after its use. The results showed that phenol is preferentially physisorbed on the carbon of the granules, though some chemisorption was detected. No adsorption was detected in the kaolin-carboxymethyl cellulose mixture.
Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio
The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.
Anouar, El Hassane; Raweh, Salwa; Bayach, Imene; Taha, Muhammad; Baharudin, Mohd Syukri; Di Meo, Florent; Hasan, Mizaton Hazizul; Adam, Aishah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F.; Trouillas, Patrick
Phenolic Schiff bases are known for their diverse biological activities and ability to scavenge free radicals. To elucidate (1) the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of a series of thirty synthetic derivatives of 2-methoxybezohydrazide phenolic Schiff bases and (2) to determine the major mechanism involved in free radical scavenging, we used density functional theory calculations (B3P86/6-31+(d,p)) within polarizable continuum model. The results showed the importance of the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) related to the first and second (BDEd) hydrogen atom transfer (intrinsic parameters) for rationalizing the antioxidant activity. In addition to the number of OH groups, the presence of a bromine substituent plays an interesting role in modulating the antioxidant activity. Theoretical thermodynamic and kinetic studies demonstrated that the free radical scavenging by these Schiff bases mainly proceeds through proton-coupled electron transfer rather than sequential proton loss electron transfer, the latter mechanism being only feasible at relatively high pH.
Anouar, El Hassane; Raweh, Salwa; Bayach, Imene; Taha, Muhammad; Baharudin, Mohd Syukri; Di Meo, Florent; Hasan, Mizaton Hazizul; Adam, Aishah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Trouillas, Patrick
Phenolic Schiff bases are known for their diverse biological activities and ability to scavenge free radicals. To elucidate (1) the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of a series of thirty synthetic derivatives of 2-methoxybezohydrazide phenolic Schiff bases and (2) to determine the major mechanism involved in free radical scavenging, we used density functional theory calculations (B3P86/6-31+(d,p)) within polarizable continuum model. The results showed the importance of the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) related to the first and second (BDEd) hydrogen atom transfer (intrinsic parameters) for rationalizing the antioxidant activity. In addition to the number of OH groups, the presence of a bromine substituent plays an interesting role in modulating the antioxidant activity. Theoretical thermodynamic and kinetic studies demonstrated that the free radical scavenging by these Schiff bases mainly proceeds through proton-coupled electron transfer rather than sequential proton loss electron transfer, the latter mechanism being only feasible at relatively high pH.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...
Cao, C W; Sun, L L; Niu, F; Liu, P; Chu, D; Wang, Z Y
Phenol, also known as carbolic acid or phenic acid, is a priority pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The present study has investigated metabolic activities and transcription profiles of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Chironomus kiinensis under phenol stress. Exposure of C. kiinensis larvae to three sublethal doses of phenol (1, 10 and 100 µM) inhibited cytochrome P450 enzyme activity during the 96 h exposure period. The P450 activity measured after the 24 h exposure to phenol stress could be used to assess the level (low or high) of phenol contamination in the environment. To investigate the potential of cytochrome P450 genes as molecular biomarkers to monitor phenol contamination, the cDNA of ten CYP6 genes from the transcriptome of C. kiinensis were identified and sequenced. The open reading frames of the CYP6 genes ranged from 1266 to 1587 bp, encoding deduced polypeptides composed of between 421 and 528 amino acids, with predicted molecular masses from 49.01 to 61.94 kDa and isoelectric points (PI) from 6.01 to 8.89. Among the CYP6 genes, the mRNA expression levels of the CYP6EW3, CYP6EV9, CYP6FV1 and CYP6FV2 genes significantly altered in response to phenol exposure; therefore, these genes could potentially serve as biomarkers in the environment. This study shows that P450 activity combined with one or multiple CYP6 genes could be used to monitor phenol pollution.
Nenadis, Nikolaos; Llorens, Laura; Koufogianni, Agathi; Díaz, Laura; Font, Joan; Gonzalez, Josep Abel; Verdaguer, Dolors
The effects of UV radiation and rainfall reduction on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of the Mediterranean shrub Arbutus unedo were studied. Naturally growing plants of A. unedo were submitted to 97% UV-B reduction (UVA), 95% UV-A+UV-B reduction (UV0) or near-ambient UV levels (UVBA) under two precipitation regimes (natural rainfall or 10-30% rainfall reduction). Total phenol, flavonol and flavanol contents, levels of eight phenols and antioxidant activity [DPPH(●) radical scavenging and Cu (II) reducing capacity] were measured in sun-exposed leaves at the end of four consecutive seasons. Results showed a significant seasonal variation in the leaf content of phenols of A. unedo, with the lowest values found in spring and the highest in autumn and/or winter. Leaf ontogenetic development and/or a possible effect of low temperatures in autumn/winter may account for such findings. Regardless of the watering regime and the sampling date, plant exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the total flavanol content of leaves, while it increased the leaf content in quercitrin (the most abundant quercetin derivative identified). By contrast, UV-A radiation increased the leaf content of theogallin, a gallic acid derivative. Other phenolic compounds (two quercetin derivatives, one of them being avicularin, and one kaempferol derivative, juglanin), as well as the antioxidant activity of the leaves, showed different responses to UV radiation depending on the precipitation regime. Surprisingly, reduced rainfall significantly decreased the total amount of quantified quercetin derivatives as well as the DPPH scavenging activity in A. unedo leaves. To conclude, present findings indicate that leaves of A. unedo can be a good source of antioxidants throughout the year, but especially in autumn and winter.
Nascimento, Patrícia L A; Nascimento, Talita C E S; Ramos, Natália S M; Silva, Girliane R; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Falcão, Rosângela E A; Moreira, Keila A; Porto, Ana L F; Silva, Tania M S
This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.
Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; de Almeida, Thiago Silva; de Medeiros, Jackeline Lima; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; Moreira, Thaís Borges; Maia, Ana Isabel Vitorino; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano
The most studied bioactive potential of phenolic compounds corresponds to antioxidant activity, which in turn, is associated with a reduction in the incidence of various human diseases. However, the total quantity of these bioactive substances in foods and medicinal preparations does not reflect the amount absorbed and metabolized by the body. The present study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of Triplaris gardneriana seeds ethanolic extract (EETg) by determination of phenolic composition and antioxidant activities before and after in vitro digestion as well as to estimate its bioavailability by chemical analysis of plasma and urine in animal models after oral administration. The bioaccessibility indexes of phenolic compounds in EETg were 48.65 and 69.28% in the presence and absence of enzymes, respectively. Among the identified phenolics classes, flavonoids, represented by galloylated procyanidins type B, proved to be more bioaccessible, 81.48 and 96.29% in the post-intestinal phase with and without enzymes, respectively. The oral administration in Wistar rats resulted in a significant decrease in plasma of the total antioxidant capacity, TAC, by FRAP assay 4h after beginning the experiment. For urine samples, an increase in TAC by DPPH and FRAP was observed from 1 and 4h after administration, respectively. UPLC-QTOF analysis of urine detected 2 metabolites originated from the degradation of phenolic compounds, i.e. hippuric acid and phenylacetil glycine. These results suggest that phenolic compounds in T. gardneriana are unstable under gastrointestinal conditions, being flavonoids the components with higher bioaccessibility; besides that, they showed limited bioavailability due to their rapid biotransformation and urinary elimination.
Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J; Stathopoulos, Costas E
Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m(-2), while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m(-2) resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m(-2) resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m(-2) was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages.
Papoutsis, Konstantinos; Vuong, Quan V.; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John B.; Bowyer, Michael C.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.
Several studies have shown that UV-C (ultraviolet C) irradiation promotes the bioactive compounds and antioxidants of fresh fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to apply UV irradiation in dried lemon pomace powder for enhancing its phenolic content and antioxidant properties, thus more bioactive compounds should be available for extraction and utilization. Lemon pomace dried powder was placed under a UV lamp and treated with dosages of 4, 19, 80 and 185 kJ·m−2, while untreated powder was used as a control. UV-C irradiation significantly affected the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity measured by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the lemon pomace dried powder, while it did not affect the vitamin C content. UV-C irradiation of 19 kJ·m−2 resulted in 19% higher total phenolic content than the control, while UV-C irradiation of 180 kJ·m−2 resulted in 28% higher total flavonoid content than the control. The antioxidant capacity was reduced when UV-C irradiation more than 4 kJ·m−2 was applied. The results of this study indicate that UV-C treatment has the potential to increase the extraction of bioactive compounds of dried lemon pomace at relatively high dosages. PMID:28231150
Using sunflower straw as raw materials to manufacture straw activated carbon-modified by phosphoric acidand adsorption isotherm of phenol on straw activated carbon was studied in a batch reactor. The physical properties of the prepared straw activated carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of various parameters, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature, were studied on optimum conditions. The results have shown that the absorbent was efficient, the removal ratio of phenol up to 99.36% with an adsorbent dosage of 16 g·L-1, a pH of 6.0-8.0, at 25 °C. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity was 109.89 mg/g. The process of adsorption is a exothermic process.
Ma, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Deng-Gao; Zhou, Ai-Yu; Zhang, Yu; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun
The flowers of Edgeworthia gardneri are consumed as an herbal tea in Tibet with potential health benefits. To complement the current knowledge regarding the chemical composition and antihyperglycemic activity of the flower of E. gardneri, two new phenolics, gardnerol A and B (1 and 2), along with 19 known phenolics were isolated from the flower of E. gardneri. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. Compound 5, identified as the major constituent of the flower of E. gardneri, showed a significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and acted as a competitive inhibitor. The oral administration of compound 5 at a dose of 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, compound 5 significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice.
Gómez-Acata, Selene; Esquivel-Ríos, Ivonne; Pérez-Sandoval, Mariana Vivian; Navarro-Noya, Yendi; Rojas-Valdez, Aketzally; Thalasso, Frederic; Luna-Guido, Marco; Dendooven, Luc
Biodegradation of phenolic compounds in bioreactors is well documented, but the changes in the bacterial populations dynamics during degradation were not that often. A glass bubble column used as reactor was inoculated with activated sludge, spiked with 2-chlorophenol, phenol and m-cresol after 28 days and maintained for an additional 56 days, while the 16S rRNA gene from metagenomic DNA was monitored. Proteobacteria (68.1%) dominated the inoculum, but the bacterial composition changed rapidly. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes decreased from 4.8 and 9.4 to <0.1 and 0.2% respectively, while that of Actinobacteria and TM7 increased from 4.8 and 2.0 to 19.2 and 16.1% respectively. Phenol application increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria to 94.2% (mostly Brevundimonas 17.6%), while that of Bacteroidetes remained low (1.2%) until day 42. It then increased to 47.3% (mostly Leadbetterella 46.9%) at day 84. It was found that addition of phenolic compounds did not affect the relative abundance of the Alphaproteobacteria initially, but it decreased slowly while that of the Bacteroidetes increased towards the end.
Liu, Yun; Liu, Xinyan; Zhong, Fei; Tian, Rongrong; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Tianhong
A new spectrometric method ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with high precision and rapid analysis was developed to separate 17 phenolic compounds. Different species of cherries, including 10 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, a tart cherry (P. cerasus L.) rootstock (CAB), and a hybrid rootstock 'Colt' (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus), were analyzed for phenolics contents by this method. The results showed that significant differences were observed among the phenolic compound contents in different cherry species. In 10 sweet cherry cultivars, the contents of neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3O-rutinoside were much higher in red-colored fruits (for example, 64.60 and 44.50 mg/100 g fresh weight in Burlat, respectively) than those in bicolored ones. Principal component analysis revealed that cyanidin-3O-rutinoside was an effective index for grouping the cultivars with similar species and fruit colors. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between phenolics content and antioxidant activity, which was higher in red-colored cherries.
Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee
Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites.
Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree
Passion fruit seed was refluxed in methanolic water and further liquid - liquid extracted yielding n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous (Aq.) extracts. The EtOAc part was the most potent antioxidant (IC 50DPPH = 2.7 ± 0.2 and IC 50ABTS = 9.0 ± 0.0 µg/mL) that significantly (p < 0.05) better than Aq. extract (IC 50DPPH = 177.8 ± 1.3 and IC 50ABTS = 15.4 ± 0.0 µg/mL). The antioxidant EtOAc exhibited ferric reducing powder (EC1mM FeSO4 = 2,813.9 ± 11.6) and tyrosinase inhibitory effect (39.9 ± 0.0 % at 1 mg/mL). The more potent active extract had significant higher total phenolic content than the Aq. one (p < 0.05). Sun protection factor of the EtOAc extract was comparable to ferulic acid. Chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were highly found in EtOAc extract, whereas kojic acid and gallic acid were largely determined in the Aq. part. The most potent biologically active fraction was non cytotoxic in vero cells at the highest test concentration (50 µg/mL). A process to minimize the waste from the fruit juice production is offered. Passion fruit value and profitability in agribusinesses will be increased by the biochemical transformation of the seed into active extracts appraisal for natural cosmetic as a multifunction ingredient.
Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.
A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905
Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity.
Esposito, Tiziana; Sansone, Francesca; Franceschelli, Silvia; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Picerno, Patrizia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Mencherini, Teresa
Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed the isolation and characterization of different classes of phenolic compounds, including neolignans, and a diarylheptanoid, which contribute to a high total polyphenol content (193.8 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract). Neolignans, lawsonicin and cedrusin, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, carpinontriol B, and two phenol derivatives, C-veratroylglycol, and β-hydroxypropiovanillone, were the main components of the extract (0.71%–2.93%, w/w). The biological assays suggested that the extract could be useful as a functional ingredient in food technology and pharmaceutical industry showing an in vitro scavenging activity against the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (EC50 = 31.7 μg/mL with respect to α-tocopherol EC50 = 10.1 μg/mL), and an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines A375, SK-Mel-28 and HeLa (IC50 = 584, 459, and 526 μg/mL, respectively). The expression of cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) suggested that the extract induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both human malignant melanoma (SK-Mel-28) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The cytotoxic activity relies on the presence of the neolignans (balanophonin), and phenol derivatives (gallic acid), showing a pro-apoptotic effect on the tested cell lines, and the neolignan, cedrusin, with a cytotoxic effect on A375 and HeLa cells. PMID:28208804
Esposito, Tiziana; Sansone, Francesca; Franceschelli, Silvia; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Picerno, Patrizia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Mencherini, Teresa
Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed the isolation and characterization of different classes of phenolic compounds, including neolignans, and a diarylheptanoid, which contribute to a high total polyphenol content (193.8 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract). Neolignans, lawsonicin and cedrusin, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, carpinontriol B, and two phenol derivatives, C-veratroylglycol, and β-hydroxypropiovanillone, were the main components of the extract (0.71%-2.93%, w/w). The biological assays suggested that the extract could be useful as a functional ingredient in food technology and pharmaceutical industry showing an in vitro scavenging activity against the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (EC50 = 31.7 μg/mL with respect to α-tocopherol EC50 = 10.1 μg/mL), and an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines A375, SK-Mel-28 and HeLa (IC50 = 584, 459, and 526 μg/mL, respectively). The expression of cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) suggested that the extract induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both human malignant melanoma (SK-Mel-28) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The cytotoxic activity relies on the presence of the neolignans (balanophonin), and phenol derivatives (gallic acid), showing a pro-apoptotic effect on the tested cell lines, and the neolignan, cedrusin, with a cytotoxic effect on A375 and HeLa cells.
Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed
Extracts of mature dark blue and white berries from two Tunisian Myrtus communis morphs growing at the same site were assessed for their essential-oil and fatty-acid compositions, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils allowed the identification of 33 constituents. The oils from the dark blue fruits showed high percentages of α-pinene (11.1%), linalool (11.6%), α-terpineol (15.7%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and geraniol (3.7%). Myrtenyl acetate (20.3%) was found to be the major compound in the oils from white berries. GC Analysis of the pericarp and seed fatty acids showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids constituted the major fraction (54.3-78.1%). The highest percentages of linoleic acid (78.0%) and oleic acid (20.0%) were observed in the seeds and the pericarps of the white fruits, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents and the concentration of the eight anthocyanins, identified by HPLC analysis, were significantly higher in the dark blue fruits. All extracts showed a substantial antioxidant activity, assessed by the free radical-scavenging activity and the ferric reducing power, with the dark blue fruit extracts being more effective.
Physicochemical Properties and in Vitro Digestibility of Cooked Regular and Nondarkening Cranberry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Effects on Bioaccessibility, Phenolic Composition, and Antioxidant Activity.
Chen, Peter X; Dupuis, John H; Marcone, Massimo F; Pauls, Peter K; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Yao; Zhang, Bing; Tsao, Rong
Cranberry beans from regular (RR) and nondarkening (CND) genotypes were pressure cooked, and free, conjugated, and bound phenolics were analyzed. Simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was used to assess the bioaccessibility of these phenolic fractions. Total phenolic content decreased after cooking and digestion, whereas individual phenolic compounds were affected differently. Cooking significantly increased the release of bound ferulic and sinapic acids and flavanols, whereas digestion released p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in both genotypes, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, and catechin in only RR. Bioaccessibility of phenolics in RR and CND was 8.75 and 14.69%, respectively. Difference in total phenolics was smaller after digestion, and enzymes potentially secreted by colonic bacteria released similar amounts of phenolic acids in both varieties. Resistant and slowly digestible starch contents showed no differences between RR and CND. These results suggest that the lower phenolic content in raw CND may not completely negate its impact on gut health.
Matos, Vanessa R; Alencar, Severino M; Santos, Francisco A R
Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis technique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples.
Tiveron, Ana P.; Melo, Priscilla S.; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Vieira, Thais M. F. S.; Regitano-d’Arce, Marisa A. B.; Alencar, Severino M.
Vegetables are widely consumed in Brazil and exported to several countries. This study was performed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of vegetables commonly consumed in Brazil using five different methods, namely DPPH and ABTS free radical, β-carotene bleaching, reduction of Fe3+ (FRAP), oxidative stability in Rancimat, and the chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1.2 mg GA/g (carrot) to 16.9 mg GA/g (lettuce). Vegetables presenting the highest antioxidant activity were lettuce (77.2 μmol Trolox/g DPPH•; 447.1 μmol F2+/g FRAP), turmeric (118.6 μmol Trolox/g ABTS•+; 92.8% β-carotene), watercress and broccoli (protective factor 1.29—Rancimat method). Artichoke, spinach, broccoli, and asparagus also showed considerable antioxidant activity. The most frequent phenolic compounds identified by GC-MS were ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric, 2-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids, and quercetin. We observed antioxidant activity in several vegetables and our results point out their importance in the diet. PMID:22942744
Bassarello, Carla; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Montoro, Paola; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Benidze, Mariam; Kemertelidze, Ether; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia
On the basis of the biological activities exhibited by the phenolic constituents of Yucca schidigera, the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Yucca gloriosa roots was evaluated in the TEAC assay. The strong activity exerted by this extract prompted investigation of its phenolic constituents, yielding three new phenolic derivatives, gloriosaols C, D, and E, along with gloriosaols A and B previously isolated from Y. gloriosa roots and yuccaols C-E isolated from Y. schidigera. ESIMS and NMR data of gloriosaols C-E closely resembled those reported for gloriosaols A and B, two diasteroisomers characterized by unusual spirostructures. Careful inspection of ROESY spectra revealed that gloriosaols C-E are diastereoisomers of gloriosaols A and B. A possible assignment of the relative configuration of gloriosaols C-E, derived according to an integrated NMR-quantum mechanical (QM) approach, which was already applied to the determination of the stereostructures of gloriosaols A and B, is also proposed. Gloriosaols A-E exhibited potent antioxidant activity measured by the TEAC assay, showing the potential use of Y. gloriosa as a source of antioxidant principles.
Contreras-Ruiz, J. C.; Martínez-Gallegos, S.; Ordoñez, E.; González-Juárez, J. C.; García-Rivas, J. L.
Photocatalytic degradation of phenol using titanium dioxide (TiO2), either alone or in combination with other materials, has been tested. Mg/Al hydrotalcites prepared by two methods using inorganic (HC) or organic (HS) chemical reagents, along with mixed oxides produced by calcination of these products (HCC and HSC), were mixed with titanium isopropoxide to obtain hydroxide-TiO2 compounds (HCC-TiO2 and HSC-TiO2) and their photocatalytic activity tested in solutions of 10 mg/L phenol at 120 min under illumination at λ UV = 254 nm with power of 4 W or 8 W. The obtained materials were characterized by various techniques, revealing that TiO2 was incorporated into the mixed oxides of the calcined hydrotalcite to form the above-mentioned compounds. The photocatalytic test results indicate that the activity of HCC-TiO2 can be attributed to increased phenol adsorption by hydrotalcite for transfer to the active photocatalytic phase of the impregnated TiO2 particles, while the better results obtained for HSC-TiO2 are due to greater catalyst impregnation on the surface of the calcined hydrotalcite, reducing the screening phenomenon and achieving HSC-TiO2 degradation of up to 21.0% at 8 W. Reuse of both compounds indicated tight combination of HCC or HSC with TiO2, since in four successive separation cycles there was little reduction of activity, being associated primarily with material loss during recovery.
Salem, Nidhal; Msaada, Kamel; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim
This work was aimed to study the effect of extraction solvent system with varying polarities on polyphenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents and DPPH scavenging activity. Obtained results showed that phenolic contents and antioxidant activities varied considerably as function of solvent polarity. The extraction with acetone/water (2:8) showed the highest flower polyphenol content (15.09 mg GAE/g DW). Moreover, antiradical capacities against DPPH, chelating power and lipid peroxidation assay were maximal in acetone/water (2:8) of flower extract. Significant variation in antioxidant properties was observed between different development stages of Carthamus tinctorius flowers; the highest antioxidant activity was observed at stage III (full flowering) while phenolic composition reached its maximum at stage II (flower formation). Gallic acid was the most abundant phenolic compound in C. tinctorius orange flowers, accounting for about 102.57 (μg/g DW). Findings underline the potential health benefits as a result of consuming C. tinctorius flowers and suggest that it could be used as valuable flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products on the basis of the high polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities.
Contreras-Ruiz, J. C.; Martínez-Gallegos, S.; Ordoñez, E.; González-Juárez, J. C.; García-Rivas, J. L.
Photocatalytic degradation of phenol using titanium dioxide (TiO2), either alone or in combination with other materials, has been tested. Mg/Al hydrotalcites prepared by two methods using inorganic (HC) or organic (HS) chemical reagents, along with mixed oxides produced by calcination of these products (HCC and HSC), were mixed with titanium isopropoxide to obtain hydroxide-TiO2 compounds (HCC-TiO2 and HSC-TiO2) and their photocatalytic activity tested in solutions of 10 mg/L phenol at 120 min under illumination at λ UV = 254 nm with power of 4 W or 8 W. The obtained materials were characterized by various techniques, revealing that TiO2 was incorporated into the mixed oxides of the calcined hydrotalcite to form the above-mentioned compounds. The photocatalytic test results indicate that the activity of HCC-TiO2 can be attributed to increased phenol adsorption by hydrotalcite for transfer to the active photocatalytic phase of the impregnated TiO2 particles, while the better results obtained for HSC-TiO2 are due to greater catalyst impregnation on the surface of the calcined hydrotalcite, reducing the screening phenomenon and achieving HSC-TiO2 degradation of up to 21.0% at 8 W. Reuse of both compounds indicated tight combination of HCC or HSC with TiO2, since in four successive separation cycles there was little reduction of activity, being associated primarily with material loss during recovery.
Chen, Guo-Jun; Huang, Jie; Gao, Lian-Xun; Han, Fu-She
A new method for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of phenols and arylboronic acids through in situ phenol activation mediated by PyBroP is presented. The reaction proceeds efficiently by using cost-effective, markedly stable [NiCl(2)(dppp)] (dppp=1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) as the catalyst in only 5 mol % loading, as well as in the absence of extra ligands. The method exhibits broad applicability and high efficiency towards a wide range of both phenols and boronic acids, including activated, nonactivated, deactivated, and heteroaromatic coupling partners. In addition, various functional groups, such as ether, amino, cyano, ester, and ketone groups, are compatible with this transformation. Notably, arylboronic acids containing an unprotected NH(2) group and 2-heterocyclic boronic acids, which are generally problematic for coupling under conventional conditions, are also viable substrates, although moderate yields were obtained for sterically hindered substrates. Consequently, the in situ cross-coupling methodology coupled with the use of an inexpensive and stable nickel catalyst provides a rapid and efficient pathway for the assembly of biaryls and heterobiaryls with structural diversity from readily available phenol compounds.
Golestanzadeh, Mohsen; Naeimi, Hossein; Zahraie, Zohreh
Phenolic antioxidants play important role in prevention of oxidation in different industrials. The research objective in the current study was synthesis and evaluate of antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants. The synthetic compounds were prepared in the presence of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide. The antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was investigated by spectrophotometrically method according to the DPPH assay. Overall, these compounds are potentially important antioxidant and also to limit activity of reactive oxygen species.
Ma, Yuanyuan; Kerr, William L; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L; Pegg, Ronald B
Incorporation of ground peanut skins (PS) into peanut butter at 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0% (w/w) resulted in a marked concentration-dependent increase in both the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Using dry-blanched PS to illustrate, the TPC increased by 86%, 357%, 533%, and 714%, respectively, compared to the peanut butter control devoid of PS; the total proanthocyanidins content (TPACs) rose by 633%, 1933%, 3500%, and 5033%, respectively. NP-HPLC detection confirmed that the increase in the phenolics content was attributed to the endogenous proanthocyanidins of the PS, which were characterised as dimers to nonamers by NP-HPLC/ESI-MS. FRAP values increased correspondingly by 62%, 387%, 747%, and 829%, while H-ORAC(FL) values grew by 53%, 247%, 382%, and 415%, respectively. The dietary fibre content of dry-blanched PS was ~55%, with 89-93% being insoluble fibre. Data revealed that PS addition enhances the antioxidant capacity of the peanut butter, permits a "good source of fibre" claim, and offers diversification in the market's product line.
Genetic and environmental effects on carbon allocation to soluble phenolics and non-structural carbohydrates in needles of widely-planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact productivity, sustainability and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern U.S. The magnitude of genetic a...
Mezni, F; Aouadhi, C; Khouja, M L; Khaldi, A; Maaroufi, A
Pistacia lentiscus L. is known in some Tunisian forest area by its fixed oil used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic product. This investigation is the first to study the antimicrobial activity of P.lentiscus edible oil and its phenolic extract. Oil was extracted from fruits harvested from six provenances located in Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Kbouch and Sidi Zid oils were most efficient (p < 0.003) against, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger with an inhibition zone of 9.33 mm. The phenolic extract had the largest spectrum of sensitive microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration results showed that all strains were inhibited by both oil and extract.
Fujii, Shinya; Miyajima, Yu; Masuno, Hiroyuki; Kagechika, Hiroyuki
Here, we report the systematic synthesis and characterization of simple phenols bearing a trialkyl(aryl)silyl or trialkyl(aryl)germyl functional group as a hydrophobic substituent. These silicon and germanium analogues exhibited higher hydrophobicity than the corresponding carbon analogues, with a difference in log P value of approximately 0.6, independent of the alkyl(aryl) species. Trimethylsilylphenol and trimethylgermylphenol exhibited smaller pK(a) values than the corresponding carbon analogue or unsubstituted phenol, indicating that trialkylsilyl and trialkylgermyl functional groups have a negative substituent constant (σ). The trialkylsilyl- and trialkylgermylphenols exhibited more potent estrogenic activity as compared with the carbon analogues. The substituent parameters and structure-activity relationship reported here may be helpful for drug discovery utilizing the heavier group 14 elements.
Vanucci-Bacqué, Corinne; Carayon, Chantal; Bernis, Corinne; Camare, Caroline; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Bedos-Belval, Florence; Baltas, Michel
A novel series of hydrazones derived from substituted benzaldehydes have been synthesized as potential antiatherogenic agents. Several methods were used for exploring their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, such as their scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, the inhibition of superoxide anion (O₂(·-)) generation and the measurement of cell-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation (monitored by the formation of TBARS). The cytoprotective efficacy was also evaluated by measuring the cell viability (monitored by the MTT assay) in the presence of cytotoxic oxidized LDL. In this report, we discuss the relationship between the chemical structure of phenolic hydrazones and their antioxidant and cytoprotective activities, for subsequent application as antiatherogenic agents. This SAR study confirms that the phenolic frame is not the only prerequisite for antioxidant activity and N-methylbenzothiazole hydrazone moiety magnifies the dual required properties in two most interesting derivatives.
Simonyi, Agnes; Chen, Zihong; Jiang, Jinghua; Zong, Yijia; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Greenlief, C. Michael; Rottinghaus, George E.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.
Aims Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is one of the oldest medicinal plants noted for its cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) pomace as well as some of the anthocyanins (cyanidin chloride and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) in bv-2 mouse microglial cells. Main methods The bv-2 cells were pretreated with elderberry pomace (extracted with ethanol or ethyl acetate) or its anthocyanins and flavonols and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ (IFNγ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (indicating oxidative stress and inflammatory response) were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Key findings Analysis of total monomeric anthocyanin (as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents) indicated five-fold higher amount in the freeze-dried ethanol extract as compared to that of the oven-dried extract; anthocyanin was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts. Elderberry ethanol extracts (freeze-dried or oven-dried) showed higher anti-oxidant activities and better ability to inhibit LPS or IFNγ-induced NO production as compared with the ethyl acetate extracts. The phenolic compounds strongly inhibited LPS or IFNγ-induced ROS production, but except for quercetin, they were relatively poor in inhibiting NO production. Significance These results demonstrated difference in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of elderberry extracts depending on solvents used. Results further identified quercetin as the most active component in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses on microglial cells. PMID:25744406
Puspita, M.; Deniel, M.; Widowati, I.; Radjasa, O. K.; Douzenel, P.; Bedoux, G.; Bourgougnon, N.
Sargassum has been well acknowledged for the potential natural product of its phlorotannins. Solid-liquid extraction (SLE) is the most common method used to extract them. However, this method has some drawbacks such as low yield and toxic. An alternative ecofriendly method has been proposed, i.e. enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), proven to be more efficient. The aim is to compare the efficiency of SLE and EAE concerning their extraction yield, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. S. aquifolium, S. ilicifolium and S. polycystum were extracted using water, methanol, methanol 50%, and ethanol 75% and enzymes (Viscozyme and Protamex). Total phenolic content (TPC) was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant activity via DPPH and FRAP analysis. This study implied that bioactivity of Sargassum extracted with enzymes is better compared to the one using organic solvents.
Saffoon, Nadia; Uddin, Riaz; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful
Purpose: This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of two varieties of Codiaeum variegatum leaves (spiral (CP) and royal like (BP)) extracts. Methods: The different antioxidant assays, including DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, total antioxidant activity, protection of lipid peroxidation and RBC membrane stabilization activity, were studied. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the royal like (BP) leaves extract. Results: Codiaeum variegatum extracts showed effective DPPH free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide scavenging activity. However, reducing power of ferric ion was not significant compared to the standard antioxidant activity. In addition, Codiaeum variegatum extracts exhibited protection against lipid peroxidation. The total antioxidant activity was increased dose dependently when compared with standard drug ascorbic acid. (-)-Epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, rutin hydrate and ellagic acid were identified in the extract. Among the phenolic compounds, ellagic acid was abundantly present in the extract. Conclusion: Our investigation suggests that Codiaeum variegatum leaves contain high amount of phenolic compounds which may responsible for its biological activities in folkloric medicine. PMID:25671186
Hegazy, A. K.; Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; El-Chaghaby, G. A.
A novel activated carbon was prepared from Rhazya stricta leaves and was successfully used as an adsorbent for phenol removal from aqueous solution. The prepared activated carbon was characterized by FTIR and SEM analysis. Three factors (namely, temperature, pH and adsorbent dose) were screened to study their effect on the adsorption of phenol by R. stricta activated carbon. A 23 full factorial design was employed for optimizing the adsorption process. The removal of phenol by adsorption onto R. stricta carbon reached 85 % at a solution pH of 3, an adsorbent dose of 0.5 g/l and a temperature of 45 °C. The temperature and adsorbent weight had a positive effect on phenol removal percentage, when both factors were changed from low to high and the opposite is true for the initial solution pH. The results of the main effects showed that the three studied factors significantly affected phenol removal by R. stricta carbon with 95 % confidence level. The interaction effects revealed that the interaction between the temperature and pH had the most significant effect on the removal percentage of phenol by R. stricta activated carbon. The present work showed that the carbon prepared from a low-cost and natural material which is R. stricta leaves is a good adsorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solution.
Soares, Susana; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Mateus, Nuno; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; De Freitas, Victor
Bitterness is a major sensory attribute of several common foods and beverages rich in polyphenol compounds. These compounds are reported as very important for health as chemopreventive compounds, but they are also known to taste bitter. In this work, the activation of the human bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs, by six polyphenol compounds was analyzed. The compounds chosen are present in a wide range of plant-derived foods and beverages, namely, red wine, beer, tea, and chocolate. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a hydrolyzable tannin, (-)-epicatechin is a precursor of condensed tannins, procyanidin dimer B3 and trimer C2 belong to the condensed tannins, and malvidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside are anthocyanins. The results show that the different compounds activate different combinations of the ~25 TAS2Rs. (-)-Epicatechin activated three receptors, TAS2R4, TAS2R5, and TAS2R39, whereas only two receptors, TAS2R5 and TAS2R39, responded to PGG. In contrast, malvidin-3-glucoside and procyanidin trimer stimulated only one receptor, TAS2R7 and TAS2R5, respectively. Notably, tannins are the first natural agonists found for TAS2R5 that display high potency only toward this receptor. The catechol and/or galloyl groups appear to be important structural determinants that mediate the interaction of these polyphenolic compounds with TAS2R5. Overall, the EC(50) values obtained for the different compounds vary 100-fold, with the lowest values for PGG and malvidin-3-glucoside compounds, suggesting that they could be significant polyphenols responsible for the bitterness of fruits, vegetables, and derived products even if they are present in very low concentrations.
Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dereń, Katarzyna
The aim of this study was to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in ready-to-eat desserts for babies. The experimental material consisted of six kinds of fruit desserts taken from the market in 2008, in which the content of dry matter phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity levels on the basis of free radical quenching ability ABTS were determined. The largest share of dry matter was found in apricot mousse with apples and bananas (16.9%). The largest amounts of phenolic compounds were found in the cream with apple and wild rose (186.3 mg/100 g) and apple with forest fruits (170.7 mg/100 g). The highest antioxidant activity among the desserts was determined in cream with apple and wild rose (14.2 micromol Trolox/g) and apple mousse with peaches (12.8 micromol Trolox/g). The antioxidant capacity of the remaining examined purée was slightly lower and ranged from 11.4-11.7 micromol Trolox/g.
Otto, Benjamin; Beuchel, Carl; Liers, Christiane; Reisser, Werner; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar
In order to explore the abundance and potential environmental functions of green algal laccases, we screened various algae for extracellular laccase-like activities, characterized basic features of these activities in selected species and exemplarily studied the transformation of environmental pollutants and complex natural compounds by the laccase of Tetracystis aeria. Oxidation of the classical laccase substrate ABTS was found to be widespread in chlorophycean algae. The oxidation activity detected in members of the 'Scenedesmus' clade was caused by an unknown thermostable low-molecular-mass compound. In contrast, species of the Moewusinia, including Chlamydomonas moewusii and T. aeria, excreted putative 'true' laccases. Phenolic substrates were oxidized by these enzymes optimally at neutral to alkaline pH. The Tetracystis laccase efficiently transformed bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol and triclosan in the presence of ABTS as redox mediator, while anthracene, veratrylalcohol and adlerol were not attacked. Lignosulfonate and humic acid underwent slight (de)polymerization reactions in the presence of the laccase and mediator(s), probably involving the oxidation of phenolic constituents. Possible natural functions of the enzymes, such as the synthesis of complex polymers or detoxification processes, may assist the survival of the algae in adverse environments. In contaminated surface waters, laccase-producing green algae might contribute to the environmental breakdown of phenolic pollutants.
Sunil Kumar, Koppala Narayana; Saraswathy, Ariyamuthu; Amerjothy, Swaminathan; Susan, Thomas; Ravishankar, Basaviah
Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr.) Danser (Loranthaceae) is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 μg/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica. PMID:25379473
Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano
Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.
Jaworska, J.S.; Schultz, T.W. )
The relative toxicity of selected monosubstituted phenols has been assessed by Kramer and Truemper in the Chlorella vulgaris assay. The authors examined population growth inhibition of this simple green algae under short-term static conditions for 33 derivatives. However, efforts to develop a strong predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) met with limited success because they modeled across modes of toxic action or segregated derivatives such as positional isomers (i.e., ortho-, meta-, para-). In an effort to further their understanding of the relationships of ecotoxic effects of phenols, the authors have evaluated the same derivatives reported by Kramer and Truemper in the Tetrahymena pyriformis population growth assay, compared the responses in both systems and developed QSARs for the Chlorella vulgaris data based on mechanisms of action.
Silva-BeltrÁn, Norma Patricia; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; López-Cuevas, Osvaldo; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; López-Mata, Marco A; Del-Toro-SÁnchez, Carmen Lizette; Marquez-Rios, Enrique; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús
Potato peels (PP) contain several bioactive compounds. These compounds are known to provide human health benefits, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, these compounds could have effects on human enteric viruses that have not yet been reported. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant properties in the acidified ethanol extract (AEE) and water extract of PP, and the antiviral effects on the inhibition of Av-05 and MS2 bacteriophages, which were used as human enteric viral surrogates. The AEE showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids were the major phenolic acids. In vitro analysis indicated that PP had a strong antioxidant activity. A 3 h incubation with AEE at a concentration of 5 mg/ml was needed to reduce the PFU/ml (plaque-forming unit per unit volume) of Av-05 and MS2 by 2.8 and 3.9 log₁₀, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest that PP has potential to be a source of natural antioxidants against enteric viruses.
Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario
Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments.
Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Lupidi, Giulio; Venditti, Alessandro; Maggi, Filippo
Schizogyne sericea, well-known as 'salado', is a halophytic shrub widespread on coastal rocks of Tenerife (Canary Islands). This plant is used traditionally as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory and vulnerary agent. In the present work, we have analysed the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. sericea for the content of phenolic acids by HPLC-DAD. The dynamic solid-liquid Naviglio® extractor was used to extract the flowering aerial parts. Aqueous extracts showed higher levels of phenolics than ethanolic extracts. S. sericea extracts were rich in chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The Naviglio® extracts obtained were assayed for in vitro biological activities, namely antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumour cells by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, agar disc-diffusion and MTT methods, respectively. Results showed that aqueous extracts, being richer in phenolic acids, are endowed with relevant radical scavenging activity (TEAC values in the range 208-960 μmol TE/g) while ethanolic extracts exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative effects on tumour cells.
Ouhibi, Chayma; Attia, Houneida; Rebah, Fedia; Msilini, Najoua; Chebbi, Mohamed; Aarrouf, Jawad; Urban, Laurent; Lachaal, Mokhtar
Seeds of Lactuca sativa L. 'Romaine' were subjected to priming treatments with UV-C radiation at 0.85 or 3.42 kJ m(-2). Seedlings obtained from both primed (Pr) and non-primed (NPr) seeds were grown in an hydroponic culture system supplemented with 0 (control) or 100 mM NaCl. After 21 days of NaCl treatment, root and leaf biomass, root lengths, leaf numbers, and leaf surface area were measured. Ions (Na(+) and K(+)) accumulation was determined in roots and leaves. Total phenolic compound and flavonoid concentrations, as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities were measured in L. sativa leaves. Salt stress resulted in a lower increase in fresh weight of roots and leaves, which was more pronounced in roots than in leaves, due to reduced root elongation, leaf number and leaf expansion, as well as leaf thickness. The lower increase in fresh weight was accompanied by a restriction in tissue hydration and K(+) ion uptake, as well as an increase in Na(+) ion concentrations in all organs. These effects were mitigated in plants from the UV-C primed seeds. The mitigating effect of UV-C was more pronounced at 0.85 than at 3.42 kJ m(-2). Salt stress also resulted in an increase in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid concentrations and in the total antioxidant capacity in leaves. The highest diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity was found in the leaves of plants from both Pr seeds. Our results suggest that plants grown from seed primed by exposure to moderate UV-C radiation exhibited a higher tolerance to salinity stress.
García-Macías, Paulina; Ordidge, Matthew; Vysini, Eleni; Waroonphan, Saran; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; Hadley, Paul; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Wagstaffe, Alexandra
Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Exposure to increased levels of UV radiation during cultivation caused the leaves to redden and increased concentrations of total phenols and the main flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, as well as luteolin conjugates and phenolic acids. The total phenol content increased from 1.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight (FW) for lettuce grown under UV block film to 2.9 and 3.5 mg of GAE/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV low and UV window films. The antioxidant activity was also higher in lettuce exposed to higher levels of UV radiation with ORAC values of 25.4 and 55.1 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV block and UV window films, respectively. The content of phenolic acids, quantified as caffeic acid, was also different, ranging from 6.2 to 11.1 micromol/g of FW for lettuce cultivated under the lowest and highest UV exposure plastic films, respectively. Higher concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides were observed with increased exposure to UV radiation, as demonstrated by the concentrations of aglycones after hydrolysis, which were cyanidin (ranging from 165 to 793 microg/g), quercetin (ranging from 196 to 880 microg/g), and luteolin (ranging from 19 to 152 microg/g). The results demonstrate the potential of the use of UV-transparent plastic as a means of increasing beneficial flavonoid content of red leaf lettuce when the crop is grown in polytunnels.
Zhang, W; Han, F; He, J; Duan, C
Qualitative analysis of the nonanthocyanin phenolics from 2 mulberry cultivars, da-10 and hongguo, was performed by the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. Six nonanthocyanin phenolics compounds were identified (procatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-caffeolyquinic acid, taxifolin, rutin, quercetin) and 3 others (3,5-diCQA, taxifolin-hexoside, kamepferol-hexoside) were tentatively identified. Quantification of nonanthocyanin phenolic was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that rutin (111.38 and 90.79 microg/g FW) was the major nonanthocyanin phenolics in the 2 mulberry cultivars. Phenolic acids in cultivar da-10 (54.68 microg/g FW) were far more than in cultivar hongguo (14.93 microg/g FW). CQA and its isomers (40.02 microg/g FW) were the major phenolic acid in cultivar da-10. The nonanthocyanin phenolics in the 2 cultivars of mulberry had higher antiradical activities in superoxide anion and DPPH radical and antioxidant activity in beta-CLAMS assay than the Trolox. These results were relevant to not only the control of color stability and organoleptic characteristics of mulberry juice and wine but also the exploitation of the functional foods made from mulberry.
Labib, Rola M.; Handoussa, Heba; Swilam, Noha; El-Khatib, Ahmed H.; Sharapov, Farukh; Mohamed, Tamer; Krstin, Sonja; Linscheid, Michael W.; Singab, Abdel Nasser; Wink, Michael
Background Schotia brachypetala Sond. (Fabaceae) is an endemic tree of Southern Africa whose phytochemistry and pharmacology were slightly studied. The present work aimed at profiling the major phenolics compounds present in the hydro-alcohol extract from S. brachypetala leaves (SBE) using LC/HRESI/MS/MS and NMR and prove their antioxidant capabilities using novel methods. Methods In vitro assays; DPPH, TEAC persulfate decolorizing kinetic and FRAP assays, and in vivo assays: Caenorhabditis elegans strains maintenance, Intracellular ROS in C. elegans, Survival assay, GFP expression and Subcellular DAF-16 localization were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Results More than forty polyphenols, including flavonoid glycosides, galloylated flavonoid glycosides, isoflavones, dihydrochalcones, procyanidins, anthocyanins, hydroxy benzoic acid derivatives, hydrolysable tannins, and traces of methylated and acetylated flavonoid derivatives were identified. Three compounds were isolated and identified from the genus Schotia for the first time, namely gallic acid, myricetin-3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-L-1C4-rhamnoside. The total phenolics content of SBE was (376 mg CAE/g), followed by flavonoids (67.87 QE/g). In vitro antioxidant activity of SBE was evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 of 9 µg/mL), FRAP ferric reducing activity (5,000 mol Fe2+ E/mg) and ABTS peroxide inhibiting activity (1,054 mM Trolox E/mg). The tested extract was able to protect the worms against juglone induced oxidative stress, an increased survival rate (up to 41%) was recorded, when compared with the control group (11%) and attenuate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in dose-dependent and reached up to 72% for the highest tested concentration. SBE was also able to attenuate the levels of heat shock protein (HSP) expression in dose-dependent up to 60% in the 150 µg SBE/mL group. In DAF-16 Subcellular localization SBE treated worms showed nuclear
This study investigated the changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), individual phenolic compound content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of four phenolic fractions (free, esterified, glycosided and insoluble-bound) fro...
Czeczot, Hanna; Podsiad, Małgorzata; Skrzycki, Michał; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław
The mutagenic activity of yuccaols A, B, and C, trans-resveratrol and trans - 3.3',5.5'-tetrahydroxy -4'-methoxystilbene was tested by the Ames method with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 in the absence and presence of metabolic activation (S9 fraction). These phenolic compounds have been isolated and identified from the hark of Yucca schidigera. All of them were found to be non-toxic and non-mutagenic for testing doses in any of the S. typhimurium strains.
Wang, Jihua; Lou, Jingfeng; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan; Wang, Lan
Halimodendron halodendron has been used as forage in northwestern China for a long time. Its young leaves and flowers are edible and favored by indigenous people. In this study, eleven phenolic compounds were bioassay-guided and isolated from the aerial parts of H. halodendron for the first time. They were identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis as quercetin (1), 3,5,7,8,4′-pentahydroxy-3′-methoxy flavone (2), 3-O-methylquercetin (3), 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin (4), 3,3′-di-O-methylquercetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamentin-3-O-β-d-rutinoside (6), 8-O-methylretusin (7), 8-O-methylretusin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), salicylic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ferulic acid) (10), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (11). They were sorted as flavonols (1–6), soflavones (7 and 8), and phenolic acids (9–11). Among the compounds, flanools 1–4 revealed a strong antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50–150 μg/mL, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 26.8–125.1 μg/mL. The two isoflavones (7 and 8) showed moderate inhibitory activity on the test bacteria. Three phenolic acids (9, 10 and 11) showed strong antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 28.1–149.7 μg/mL. Antifungal activities of the compounds were similar to their antibacterial activities. All these phenolic compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum as well as antioxidant activity based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays. In general, the flavonol aglycones with relatively low polarity exhibited stronger activities than the glycosides. The results suggest the potential of this plant as a source of functional food ingredients and provide support data for its utilization as forage as well. PMID:23109858
Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lin, Su-Hsia; Cheng, Ching-Hsien
The effect of 48-kHz ultrasound on the adsorption and desorption of phenol from aqueous solutions onto coconut shell-based granular activated carbons was studied at 25 degrees C. Experiments were performed at different carbon particle sizes (1.15, 2.5, 4.0 mm), initial phenol concentrations (1.06-10.6 mol/m3), and ultrasonic powers (46-133 W). Regardless of the absence and presence of ultrasound, the adsorption isotherms were well obeyed by the Langmuir equation. When ultrasound was applied in the whole adsorption process, the adsorption capacity decreased but the Langmuir constant increased with increasing ultrasonic power. According to the analysis of kinetic data by the Elovich equation, it was shown that the initial rate of adsorption was enhanced after sonication and the number of sites available for adsorption was reduced. The effect of ultrasonic intensity on the initial rate and final amount of desorption of phenol from the loaded carbons using 0.1 mol/dm3 of NaOH were also evaluated and compared.
Loers, Gabriele; Yashunsky, Dmitry V; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Schachner, Melitta
Small organic phenolic compounds from natural sources have attracted increasing attention due to their potential to ameliorate the serious consequences of acute and chronic traumata of the mammalian nervous system. In this contribution, it is reported that phenols from the knot zones of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) wood, namely, the antioxidant flavonoid (+)-dihydroquercetin (1) and the lignans (-)-secoisolariciresinol (2) and (+)-isolariciresinol (3), affect migration and outgrowth of neurites/processes from cultured neurons and glial cells of embryonic and early postnatal mice. Compounds 1-3, which were available in preparative amounts, enhanced neurite outgrowth from cerebellar granule neurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and motoneurons, as well as process formation of Schwann cells in a dose-dependent manner in the low nanomolar range. Migration of cultured astrocytes was inhibited by 1-3, and migration of neurons out of cerebellar explants was enhanced by 1. These observations provide evidence for the neuroactive features of these phenolic compounds in enhancing the beneficial properties of neurons and reducing the inhibitory properties of activated astrocytes in an in vitro setting and encourage the further investigation of these effects in vivo, in animal models of acute and chronic neurological diseases.
Horax, Ronny; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Chen, Pengyin
Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an exotic vegetable used for consumption and medicinal purposes mainly throughout Asia. Phenolics were extracted from pericarp (fleshy portion) and seeds of bitter melons harvested at three maturation stages (immature, mature, and ripe) using ethanol and water solvent systems. Total phenolic assessment demonstrated 80% of ethanol to be the optimal solvent level to extract phenolics either from pericarp or seed. Main phenolic constituents in the extracts were catechin, gallic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin. Free radical scavenging assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) demonstrated the bitter melon extracts as slow rate free radical scavenging agents. There were low correlations between the total phenolic contents and antiradical power values of the extracts, suggesting a possible interaction among the phenolic constituents occurred. Bitter melon phenolic extracts contain natural antioxidant substances, and could be used as antioxidant agents in suitable food products.
Gao, Xiaoming; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Feng
Activated Semi coke was prepared by KOH activation and employed as adsorbent to study adsorption function of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions. The adsorption result showed that the adsorption capacity of the activated semi coke for phenolic compound increased with contact time and adsorbent dosage, and slightly affected by temperature. The surface structure property of the activated semi coke was characterized by N2 adsorption, indicating that the activated semi coke was essentially macroporous, and the BET surface area was 347.39 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface of the activated semi coke had a high developed pore. The adsorption kinetics were investigated according to pseudofirst order, pseudosecond order and intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics data were fitted by pseudosecond order model, and intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Adsorption isotherm was studied by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models. The result indicated that adsorption isotherm data could fit well with Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models.
Yoo, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jae Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Hwang, In Kyeong
Epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of fruits can reduce the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease, and this may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic compounds. The present study investigated the variations in vitamin C, total phenolic, hesperidin, and naringin contents, and total antioxidant activity of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)-which is a popular citrus fruit in Korea and Japan-between cultivars and during maturity. The amounts of phenolics and vitamin C and the antioxidant activity in all tested yuzu cultivars were higher in peel than in flesh. Ripening increased the total antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in both peel and flesh of yuzu. However, the amounts of all total phenolics, hesperidin, and naringin in peel increased with ripening, whereas they decreased slightly in flesh. There was a highly linear relationship between the vitamin C content and the total antioxidant activity in both peel (r(2) = 1.000) and flesh (r(2) =0.998), suggesting that vitamin C plays a key role in the antioxidant activity of yuzu. In addition, the contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant activity of yuzu was determined using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and is expressed here in terms of the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The means of vitamin C, naringin, and hesperidin in yuzu were 90.4, 63.8, and 65.7 mg/100 g fresh yuzu, respectively. The relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the following order: vitamin C (1.00) > naringin (0.195) > hesperidin (0.162). Therefore, the estimated contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh yuzus is as follows (in mg of VCEAC): vitamin C (90.36 mg) > naringin (12.44 mg) > hesperidin (10.64 mg). Our results indicate that mature yuzu contains higher amounts of vitamin C and phenolics than other citrus fruits and could therefore be
Kumari, Sheena; Chetty, Dereshen; Ramdhani, Nishani; Bux, Faizal
Phenol, a common constituent in many industrial wastewaters is a major pollutant and has several adverse effects on the environment. The potential of various microorganisms to utilize phenol for their metabolic activity has been observed to be an effective means of remediating this toxic compound from the environment particularly wastewater. Five indigenous bacterial isolates (PD1-PD5) were obtained from phenol bearing industrial wastewater using the mineral salts medium. The isolates were further characterized based on their morphology, biochemical reactions and 16S rRNA phylogeny. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis using universal primers (27f/1492r) revealed that PD1, PD2, PD3 and PD4 were closely related to the actinomycete Rhodococcus pyrinidivorans (99%) and PD5 to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (99%). Growth kinetic patterns and phenol degradation abilities of the two representative isolates (PD1 and PD5) were also evaluated. Both the species were effective in utilizing phenol as the sole carbon source and could tolerate phenol concentrations of up to 500 to 600 mg/L. The ability of these isolates to utilize higher concentrations of phenol as their sole carbon source makes them potential candidates and better competitors in the bioremediation process.
Elansary, Hosam O; Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ashmawy, Nader A; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; El-Settawy, Ahmed A A
The crude methanolic extracts from leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis L., E. camaldulensis var obtusa and E. gomphocephala grown in Egypt were investigated to explore their chemical composition as well as their antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. Major phenolics found were ellagic acid, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucuronide, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. The antioxidant activities were examined by the 2,2'-diphenypicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. E. camaldulensis extracts showed the highest phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared to other cultivars. MIC values reported for antibacterial activity of E. camaldulensis ranged from 0.08 μg/mL (Bacillus cereus) to 0.22 μg/mL (Staphylococcus aureus), while MBC values ranged from 0.16 μg/mL (Dickeya solani and B. cereus) to 0.40 μg/mL (S. aureus). The inhibitory activities against growth of bacteria and fungi used is an indication that E. camaldulensis a might be useful resource for the development and formulation of antibacterial and antifungal drugs.
Saavedra, Maria J; Borges, Anabela; Dias, Carla; Aires, Alfredo; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo S; Simões, Manuel
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effects of different classes of important and common dietary phytochemicals (5 simple phenolics - tyrosol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid; chalcone - phloridzin; flavan-3-ol - (-) epicatechin; seco-iridoid - oleuropein glucoside; 3 glucosinolate hydrolysis products - allylisothiocyanate, benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Another objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual combinations of streptomycin with the different phytochemicals on antibacterial activity. A disc diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals and 3 standard antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin) against the four bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of single compounds and d