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Sample records for activity values oavs

  1. Characterization of the Key Aroma Volatile Compounds in Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Using Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O) and Odor Activity Value (OAV).

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2016-06-22

    The volatile compounds of cranberries obtained from four cultivars (Early Black, Y1; Howes, Y2; Searles, Y3; and McFarlin, Y4) were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). The result presented that a total of thirty-three, thirty-four, thirty-four, and thirty-six odor-active compounds were identified by GC-O in the Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In addition, twenty-two, twenty-two, thirty, and twenty-seven quantified compounds were demonstrated as important odorants according to odor activity values (OAVs > 1). Among these compounds, hexanal (OAV: 27-60), pentanal (OAV: 31-51), (E)-2-heptenal (OAV: 17-66), (E)-2-hexenal (OAV: 18-63), (E)-2-octenal (OAV: 10-28), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV: 8-77), ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (OAV: 10-33), β-ionone (OAV: 8-73), 2-methylbutyric acid (OAV: 18-37), and octanal (OAV: 4-24) contributed greatly to the aroma of cranberry. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean data accumulated from sensory evaluation by the panelists, odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1), and samples. Sample Y3 was highly correlated with the sensory descriptors "floral" and "fruity". Sample Y4 was greatly related to the sensory descriptors "mellow" and "green and grass". Finally, an aroma reconstitution (Model A) was prepared by mixing the odor-active aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) based on their measured concentrations in the Y1 sample, indicating that the aroma profile of the reconstitution was pretty similar to that of the original sample.

  2. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in dry flower of Malva sylvestris L. by GC-MS-O analysis and OAV calculations.

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Kashima, Yusei; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aroma-active compounds in the dried flower of Malva sylvestris L. were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). A light yellow oil with a sweet odor was obtained with a percentage yield of 0.039% (w/w), and 143 volatile compounds (89.86%) were identified by GC-MS. The main compounds were hexadecanoic acid (10.1%), pentacosane (4.8%) and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (4.1%). The essential oil consisted mainly of hydrocarbons (25.40%) followed by, alcohols (18.78%), acids (16.66%), ethers (5.01%) ketones (7.28%), esters(12.43%), aldehydes (2.30%) and others (2.00%). Of these compounds, 20 were determined by GC-O and AEDA, to be odor-active (FD (flavor dilution) factor ≥ 1). β-Damascenone (FD = 9, sweet), phenylacetaldehyde (FD = 8, floral, honey-like) and (E)-β-ocimene (FD = 8, spicy) were the most intense aroma-active compounds in M. sylvestris. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the compounds to the aroma of M. sylvestris, odor activity values (OAVs) were used. β-Damascenone had the highest odor activity values (OAV) (50,700), followed by (E)-β-ionone (15,444) and decanal (3,510). In particular, β-damascenone had a high FD factors, and therefore, this compound was considered to be the main aroma-active components of the essential oil. On the basis of AEDA, OAVs, and sensory evaluation results, β-damascenone is estimated to be the main aroma-active compound of the essential oil.

  3. Concentrations of aroma compounds and odor activity values of odorant series in different olive cultivars and their oils.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-06-05

    Olives from Picual, Arbequina, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Local cultivars together with their corresponding oils were analyzed in terms of odor activity values (OAVs) to establish the relationship between the aromatic profile of both olives and oils. The OAVs for the different compounds were classified in nine odorant series: grass, leaf, wood, bitter, sweet, pungent, olive fruit, apple, and banana. The total intensities for every aromatic series were calculated as the sum of the OAVs of each compound associated with this series. As a result, olives had characteristic profiles. Picual cultivar had not a clear sensory characterization from the volatile compounds. Arbequina cultivar was mainly characterized by apple and bitter odorant series; Manzanilla de Sevilla by apple, bitter, and grass odorant series; and Local variety by banana and olive fruit. However, in the oils obtained from those olives, these differences disappeared, and all oils showed the same profile with pungent, bitter, and wood odorant series most strongly contributing.

  4. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial sufus by odour activity value, gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma recombination and omission studies.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Shang, Yi; Chen, Feng; Niu, Yunwei; Gu, Yongbo; Liu, Shengjiang; Zhu, Jiancai

    2015-01-01

    Sufu is a solid-state fermented product made from soya beans. For the sake of quality control and regulation purposes, it is essential to be able to identify key odorants of various commercial sufus. To identify the aroma-active compounds in sufus, gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) was performed, and odour activity value (OAV) was estimated. The correlations between aroma profiles and identified aroma-active compounds were also investigated by principal component analysis. Results showed that 35 aroma-active compounds were detected through OAV calculation, while 28 compounds were identified by using GC-O/AEDA. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that aroma recombination model based on OAV calculation was more similar to original sufu in terms of aroma comparing to aroma recombination model based on GC-O/AEDA. Omission experiments further confirmed that the aroma compounds, such as ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, contributed most significantly to the characteristic aroma of a commercial sufu.

  5. Verification of key odorants in rose oil by gas chromatography-olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis, odour activity value and aroma recombination.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Li, Jing; Niu, Yunwei; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Junhua

    2017-03-28

    Rose oil is much too expensive but very popular. It's well known that the flower oil's aroma profile hasn't been intensively investigated. In order to verify the aroma profile of rose oil, the synthetic blend of odorants was prepared and then compared with the original rose oil using electronic nose analysis (ENA) combined with quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). The odorants from rose oils were screened out by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry/aroma extract dilution analysis (GC-O/AEDA) combined with odour activity value (OAV). Both ENA and QDA indicated the recombination model derived from OAV and GC-O/AEDA closely resembled the original rose oil. The experiment results show that rose oxide, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, nonanal, heptanal citronellal, phenyl ethyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β-citronellol, hexyl acetate, β-ionone, nerol, etc. are very important constituent to rose oil aroma profile.

  6. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA. PMID:28231141

  7. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Gamze; Sevindik, Onur; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2016-06-24

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were identified in the olive oil. Aldehydes and alcohols were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in the oil sample. Of these, six volatile components presented odor activity values (OAVs) greater than one, with (Z)-3-hexenal (green), hexanal (green-sweet) and nonanal (fatty-pungent) being those with the highest OAVs in olive oil. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector and ion spray mass spectrometry. The major phenolic compounds were found as 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA.

  8. Identification of Aroma-active Compounds in Essential Oil from Uncaria Hook by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Megumi; Nakaya, Satoshi; Maki, Yusuke; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Usami, Atsushi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Uncaria Hook ("Chotoko" in Japanese), the branch with curved hook of the herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla has been investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Eighty-four compounds, representing 90.8% of the total content was identified in oil obtained from Uncaria Hook. The main components i were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (13.4%), α-copaene (8.0%), methyl eugenol (6.8%), δ-cadinene (5.3%), and curcumene (3.6%). The important key aroma-active compounds in the oil were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), using the flavor dilution (FD) factor to express the odor potency of each compounds. Furthermore, the odor activity value (OAV) has been used as a measure of the relative contribution of each compound to the aroma of the Uncaria Hook oil. The GC-O and AEDA results showed that α-copaene (FD = 4, OAV = 4376), (E)-linalool oxide (FD = 64, OAV = 9.1), and methyl eugenol (FD = 64, OAV = 29) contributed to the woody and spicy odor of Uncaria Hook oil, whereas furfural (FD = 8, OAV = 4808) contributed to its sweet odor. These results warrant further investigations of the application of essential oil from Uncaria Hook in the phytochemical and medicinal fields.

  9. The relationship between chemical concentration and odor activity value explains the inconsistency in making a comprehensive surrogate scent training tool representative of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A

    2015-12-01

    This report highlights the importance of an individual chemical's odor impact in the olfactory identification of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. There are small amounts of highly odorous compounds present in headspace of these drugs, with very low odor detection thresholds, that are more likely responsible for contributing to the overall odor of these drugs. Previous reports of the most abundant compounds in headspace can mislead researchers when dealing with whole odor of these drugs. Surrogate scent formulations, therefore, must match the odor impact of key compounds and not just the chemical abundance of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from illicit drug samples of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin to surrogate smell formulations using simultaneous sensory (via human olfaction) and chemical analyses. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed VOCs in drug headspace to be extracted and pre-concentrated on site, and analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). Use of MDGC-MS-O allowed for further separation of odorous compounds and simultaneous detection by the human nose of the separate odor parts that make up the total aroma of these drugs. The compounds most abundant in headspace were not the most odor impactful when ranked by odor activity values (OAVs) (defined as ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold, ODT). There were no apparent correlations between concentrations and OAVs. A 1g marijuana surrogate lacked in odor active acids, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, N-containing, and S-containing VOCs and was overabundant in odor active alcohols and aromatics compared with real marijuana. A 1g cocaine surrogate was overabundant in odor active alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, esters, ethers, halogenates, hydrocarbons, ketones and N-containing compounds compared with real. A 1g heroin surrogate should contain less odor active acids

  10. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce.

  11. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  12. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs.

  13. Comparison of Aroma-Active Volatiles in Oolong Tea Infusions Using GC-Olfactometry, GC-FPD, and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JianCai; Chen, Feng; Wang, LingYing; Niu, YunWei; Yu, Dan; Shu, Chang; Chen, HeXing; Wang, HongLin; Xiao, ZuoBing

    2015-09-02

    The aroma profile of oolong tea infusions (Dongdingwulong, DDWL; Tieguanyin, TGY; Dahongpao, DHP) were investigated in this study. Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) with the method of aroma intensity (AI) was employed to investigate the aroma-active compounds in tea infusions. The results presented forty-three, forty-five, and forty-eight aroma-active compounds in the TGY, DHP, and DDWL infusions, including six, seven, and five sulfur compounds, respectively. In addition, the concentration of volatile compounds in the tea infusions was further quantitated by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS and SPME-GC-flame photometric detection (FPD). Totally, seventy-six and thirteen volatile and sulfur compounds were detected in three types of tea infusions, respectively. Quantitative results showed that forty-seven aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-methylpropanal (OAV: 230-455), 3-methylbutanal (1-353), 2-methylbutanal (34-68), nerolidol (108-184), (E)-2-heptenal (148-294), hexanal (134-230), octanal (28-131), β-damascenone (29-59), indole (96-138), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (34-67), (R)-(-)-linalool (63-87), and dimethyl sulfide (7-1320) presented relatively higher OAVs than those of other compounds, indicating the importance of these compounds in the overall aroma of tea infusions.

  14. Recurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus: rates and risk factors from initial GDM and one abnormal GTT value.

    PubMed

    Nohira, Tomoyoshi; Kim, Seiichi; Nakai, Hiromi; Okabe, Kazuhiro; Nohira, Tomoo; Yoneyama, Kuniyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The recurrence rate of GDM among women in Japan who had GDM or one abnormal value on 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OAV) during an initial pregnancy is unclear. We therefore sought to determine the recurrence rate and risk factors of recurrent GDM by evaluating 32 patients with GDM and 37 with OAV in their index pregnancies. Medical records and chemical data were compared between patients with and without GDM in their subsequent pregnancies. The recurrence rate from index GDM and OAV were 65.6% and 40.5%. Age, BMI before pregnancy, an increased weight gain between pregnancies and a short interval between pregnancies were risk factors for recurrence from the initial GDM. An increased weight gain between pregnancies and a short interval between pregnancies were risk factors of development to GDM from the initial OAV. We concluded that the control of weight gain and interval between pregnancies could be important to reduce GDM recurrence.

  15. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover,…

  16. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper.

  17. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover, in virtue of reflecting a suitable variety of worldviews and value outlooks, perhaps including some religious ones, science is better able to further its aim. An extended argument is made that, although the materialist worldview has de facto been widely associated with the development of modern science, the scope of scientific inquiry is improperly limited when constraints, derived from materialism, are generally placed upon admissible scientific theories. Some implications for science education are sketched in the conclusion.

  18. Personal values and political activism: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization.

  19. Reinforcing value of interval and continuous physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jacob E; Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N

    2009-08-04

    During play children engage in short bouts of intense activity, much like interval training. This natural preference for interval-type activity may have important implications for prescribing the most motivating type of physical activity, but the motivation of children to be physically active in interval or continuous fashion has not yet been examined. In the present study, ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO2 peak were determined in boys (n=16) and girls (n=16) age 10+/-1.3 years. Children sampled interval and continuous constant-load physical activity protocols on a cycle ergometer at 20% VT on another day. The physical activity protocols were matched for energy expenditure. Children then completed an operant button pressing task using a progressive fixed ratio schedule to assess the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of interval versus continuous physical activity. The number of button presses performed to gain access in interval or continuous physical activity and output maximum (O(max)) were the primary outcome variables. Children performed more button presses (P<0.005) and had a greater O(max) (P<0.005) when working to gain access to interval compared to continuous physical activity at intensities >VT and activity was more reinforcing than continuous constant-load physical activity for children when exercising both >VT and activity at a high-rate during natural play because it is more reinforcing than longer, continuous activity.

  20. Diagnostic value of creatine kinase activity in canine cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic value for various groups of neurological conditions or for different anatomical areas of the nervous system (NS). The age, breed, results of CSF analysis, and diagnosis of 578 canine patients presenting with various neurological conditions between January 2009 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected. The cases were divided according to anatomical areas of the nervous system, i.e., brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, and into groups according to the nature of the condition diagnosed: vascular, immune/inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, toxic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, neoplastic, and degenerative. Statistical analysis showed that CSF-CK alone cannot be used as a diagnostic tool and that total proteins in the CSF and red blood cells (RBCs) do not have a significant relationship with the CSF-CK activity. CSF-CK did not have a diagnostic value for different disease groups or anatomical areas of the nervous system. PMID:27708448

  1. Active Inference, epistemic value, and vicarious trial and error

    PubMed Central

    Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits—the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are “forward sweeps” of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)—the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193

  2. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  3. Mathematical Modeling Activities as a Useful Tool for Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kursat

    2012-01-01

    Values education is crucial since it is one of the factors to reach success in education in broader sense and in mathematics education in particular sense. It is also important for educating next generations of societies. However, previous research showed that expected importance for values education was not given in Mathematics courses. In a few…

  4. The Interdependence of Leisure Activity and Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker, Don

    Important contributors to significant changes occurring worldwide are: the emergence of a global economy; substantial political and social change; new transmigration; and enormous technological development. The effects of these changes on cultural values, both at small community and national levels, are far reaching. National boundaries are no…

  5. Valued Life Activities, Smoking Cessation, and Mood in Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Srour, John Fani; Arrighi, James A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continued engagement in valued life activities is a protective factor for depression and has been linked to readiness to quit smoking in medical populations, but has never been examined among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships among valued life activities, mood, and smoking post-ACS. Methods Participants were 54 post-ACS patients who were smoking before ACS hospitalization. Data on mood, smoking status, engagement in valued activities, restriction of valued activities, and satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was collected 1-12 months post-ACS. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with both less valued activity engagement and greater valued activity restriction. Positive affect was associated with greater valued activity engagement and negative affect was associated with greater valued activity restriction. Satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was associated with greater positive affect, fewer depressive symptoms, and quitting smoking post-ACS. The majority of these relationships remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates, including physical functioning. Conclusions Valued activity restriction and engagement may contribute to depressed mood and failure to quit smoking in ACS patients. Psychotherapies that target greater engagement in valued life activities deserve further investigation in ACS patients. PMID:25471466

  6. Assessing the Value of U.S. Army International Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of U.S. Army International Activities Tajfel , Henri , Human Groups and Social Categories, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Taw...more recent treatment, see Fearon (1997, pp. 68–90). 3 For general discussions, see Tajfel (1981, p. 36), Hogg and Abrams (1998, pp. 31–63), and Goffman

  7. Active Inference, Epistemic Value, and Vicarious Trial and Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; io-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits--the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments…

  8. The Role of Values in Promoting Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…

  9. Clinical value of monitoring eosinophil activity in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koller, D Y; Herouy, Y; Götz, M; Hagel, E; Urbanek, R; Eichler, I

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the use of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in monitoring disease activity in childhood asthma, serum ECP in 175 asthmatic children was assessed. Forty five patients with cystic fibrosis, 23 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), and 87 healthy children were used as controls. Serum ECP concentrations (34.3 micrograms/l v 9.8 micrograms/l) were significantly higher in children with bronchial asthma than in healthy control subjects. In symptomatic patients with asthma serum ECP concentrations were increased compared with those from asymptomatic patients (40.2 micrograms/l v 14.4 micrograms/l), irrespective of treatment modalities (that is steroids, beta 2 agonists, or sodium cromoglycate). Moreover, atopy and infection appeared to be factors enhancing eosinophil activity in bronchial asthma as measured by serum ECP (58.4 micrograms/l v 36.8 micrograms/l and 68.8 micrograms/l v 42.2 micrograms/l, respectively). In a longitudinal trial, antiasthmatic treatment modalities (that is steroids) reduced serum ECP within four weeks (42.2 micrograms/l v 19.0 micrograms/l). In conclusion, the data indicate that (1) eosinophils also play a central part in childhood asthma; (2) serum concentrations of ECP in children with bronchial asthma are related to the disease severity and may thus be used for monitoring inflammation in childhood asthma; (3) eosinophil activity appears to be enhanced by atopy and infection; and (4) longitudinal measurements of serum ECP concentrations may be useful for optimising anti-inflammatory treatment in children with bronchial asthma. PMID:8554357

  10. The value to the anaesthetist of monitoring cerebral activity.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Thomsen, C E

    1994-03-01

    The administration rate of general anaesthetic drugs is at present guided by clinical experience, and indirect indicators such as haemodynamic parameters. In the presence of muscle relaxants most of the clinical signs of inadequate anaesthesia are lost and accidental awareness may occur. A number of monitoring modalities, primarily based on analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been proposed for measurement of the anaesthetic depth. Moreover intraoperative cerebral monitoring may also provide the anaesthetist with early warning of cerebral ischaemia, or information on specific neurological pathways. To facilitate this, it is essential to combine analysis of the spontaneous EEG with recording of evoked potentials, to assess both cortical and subcortical activity/events. None of the reviewed methods, however promising, can alone meet all of the requirements for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral function. We suggest that the future direction should be to integrate several modalities in a single device, to provide valuable new information, upon which to base clinical management decisions.

  11. Effects of aging on value-directed modulation of semantic network activity during verbal learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A.; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278

  12. Confirmation of 1-Phenylethane-1-thiol as the Character Impact Aroma Compound in Curry Leaves and Its Behavior during Tissue Disruption, Drying, and Frying.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin

    2017-03-15

    The most odor-active compounds previously identified by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis were quantitated in freshly picked curry leaves, either by stable isotope dilution assays in combination with GC-GC-MS or by GC-FID after simultaneous extraction/fractionation. Odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratios of concentrations to odor threshold values. The topmost OAVs were obtained for (3Z)-hex-3-enal (grassy; OAV 180 000), (1S)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 150 000), (1R)-1-phenylethane-1-thiol (sulfury, burnt; OAV 120 000), (3R)-linalool (citrusy; OAV 58 000), and myrcene (geranium leaf-like; OAV 23 000). The high OAVs calculated for its enantiomers confirmed 1-phenylethane-1-thiol as character impact compound of the typical sulfury and burnt aroma of curry leaves. The 1-phenylethane-1-thiol concentration in curry leaves decreased upon tissue disruption and drying, as well as upon frying of fresh leaves. By contrast, frying of dried leaves led to an increase of 1-phenylethane-1-thiol, indicating a yet unknown thermolabile precursor.

  13. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  14. Integrating values in the care giving activity from the professional point of view.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Antolín, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Nurses trained more and more on scientific evidence, often focus their actions based fundamentally on scientific fact, leaving aside other important knowledge that intervene in the care giving relation: communication, personal relationships, respect in the relationship, and knowing all the values implied in said relationship. It is about these values and on their importance within care upon which the author reflects in this article, until concluding on how we can integrate values to the care giving activity.

  15. Implementation and Evaluation of a Values Clarification Activity for a Large Undergraduate Human Sexuality Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.

    2016-01-01

    Values clarification is an important tool that helps individuals to clarify their beliefs about sexuality-related issues. This lesson plan provides instructions for a 1-hour values clarification activity for a large undergraduate human sexuality course that serves as an introduction to course content and tone, stimulates students' initial thinking…

  16. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  17. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  18. Personal Values and Mission Statement: A Reflective Activity to Aid Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird-Magee, Tyler; Gayle, Barbra Mae; Preiss, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Personal values guide ethical decision-making behaviors. Business professors have traditionally addressed undergraduate ethics-based learning through a learn ethics approach using case studies, simulations, presentations, and other activities. Few offer a live ethics orientation requiring completion of a personal values self-assessment and…

  19. Insights into the Key Compounds of Durian (Durio zibethinus L. 'Monthong') Pulp Odor by Odorant Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Xiao; Schieberle, Peter; Steinhaus, Martin

    2017-01-25

    Sixteen compounds, previously identified as potent odorants by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis and the gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of static headspace samples, were quantitated in the pulp of durians, variety Monthong, and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated by dividing the concentrations obtained by the odor thresholds of the compounds in water. In combination with data recently reported for hydrogen sulfide and short-chain alkanethiols, OAVs > 1 were obtained for 19 compounds, among which ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1700000), ethanethiol (rotten onion; OAV 480000), and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol (roasted onion; OAV 250000) were the most potent, followed by methanethiol (rotten, cabbage; OAV 45000), ethane-1,1-dithiol (sulfury, durian; OAV 23000), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity; OAV 22000). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that the overall odor of durian pulp could be mimicked by only two compounds, namely, ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and 1-(ethylsulfanyl)ethane-1-thiol, when combined in their natural concentrations.

  20. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  1. Trigger values for investigation of hormonal activity in drinking water and its sources using CALUX bioassays.

    PubMed

    Brand, Walter; de Jongh, Cindy M; van der Linden, Sander C; Mennes, Wim; Puijker, Leo M; van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Schriks, Merijn; Heringa, Minne B

    2013-05-01

    To screen for hormonal activity in water samples, highly sensitive in vitro CALUX bioassays are available which allow detection of estrogenic (ERα), androgenic (AR), progestagenic (PR), and glucocorticoid (GR) activities. This paper presents trigger values for the ERα, AR, PR, and GR CALUX bioassays for agonistic hormonal activities in (drinking) water, which define a level above which human health risk cannot be waived a priori and additional examination of specific endocrine activity may be warranted. The trigger values are based on 1) acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI/TDI) values of specific compounds, 2) pharmacokinetic factors defining their bioavailability, 3) estimations of the bioavailability of unknown compounds with equivalent hormonal activity, 4) relative endocrine potencies, and 5) physiological, and drinking water allocation factors. As a result, trigger values of 3.8ng 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents (eq)/L, 11ng dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-eq/L, 21ng dexamethasone (DEX)-eq/L, and 333ng Org2058-eq/L were derived. Benchmark Quotient (BQ) values were derived by dividing hormonal activity in water samples by the derived trigger using the highest concentrations detected in a recent, limited screening of Dutch water samples, and were in the order of (value) AR (0.41)>ERα (0.13)>GR (0.06)>PR (0.04). The application of trigger values derived in the present study can help to judge measured agonistic hormonal activities in water samples using the CALUX bioassays and help to decide whether further examination of specific endocrine activity followed by a subsequent safety evaluation may be warranted, or whether concentrations of such activity are of low priority with respect to health concerns in the human population. For instance, at one specific drinking water production site ERα and AR (but no GR and PR) activities were detected in drinking water, however, these levels are at least a factor 83 smaller than the respective trigger values, and

  2. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: a measure of engagement in personally valued activities.

    PubMed

    Eakman, Aaron M; Carlson, Mike E; Clark, Florence A

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement.

  3. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  4. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility value and…

  5. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children’s Sport Activity

    PubMed Central

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed. PMID:28344676

  6. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children's Sport Activity.

    PubMed

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-03-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes' acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children's sportive activity and adolescents' acceptance of their parents' socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire - 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents' socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents' willingness to accept their parents' sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.

  7. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  8. How Do People With COPD Value Different Activities? An Adapted Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Greenfield, Sheila M; Greenfield, Charlotte; Jolly, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term condition where activities of daily living (ADLs) may be very restricted; people with COPD need to prioritize what is important to them. We conducted a meta-ethnography to understand which ADLs are valued and why, systematically searching for articles including experiences of ADLs and organizing themes from the articles into five linked concepts: (a) caring for the body, (b) caring for the personal environment, (c) moving between spaces, (d) interacting with others, and (e) selfhood across time. In addition, we identified three key aspects of personal integrity: effectiveness, connectedness, and control. We found that ADLs were valued if they increased integrity; however, this process was also informed by gendered roles and social values. People whose sense of control depended on effectiveness often found accepting help very difficult to bear; therefore, redefining control as situational and relational may help enjoyment of activities that are possible.

  9. Measuring Staff Perceptions of University Identity and Activities: The Mission and Values Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Velcoff, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Higher education institutions need to ascertain whether their stakeholders understand the school's mission, vision, and values. In the present study, the psychometric properties of a mission identity and activity measure were investigated with two staff samples. Using a principal component factor analysis (varimax rotation), respondents in Sample…

  10. Determination of an Optimal Threshold Value for Muscle Activity Detection in EMG Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Özgünen, Kerem Tuncay; Çelik, Umut; Kurdak, Sanlı Sadi

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that one needs to use a threshold value in the detection of muscle activity timing in electromyographic (EMG) signal analysis. However, the algorithm for threshold determination lacks an agreement between the investigators. In this study we aimed to determine a proper threshold value in an incremental cycling exercise for accurate EMG signal analysis. Nine healthy recreationally active male subjects cycled until exhaustion. EMG recordings were performed on four low extremity muscle groups; gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), soleus (SOL) and vastus medialis (VM). We have analyzed our data using three different threshold levels: 25%, 35% and 45% of the mean RMS EMG value. We compared the appropriateness of these threshold values using two criteria: (1) significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts and (2) proximity of the regression line of the actual and estimated number of bursts to the line of identity. It had been possible to find a significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts with the 25, 35 and 45% threshold values for the GL muscle. Correlation analyses for the VM muscle had shown that the number of bursts estimated with the 35% threshold value was found to be significantly correlated with the actual number of bursts. For the GM muscle, it had been possible to predict the burst number by using either the 35% or 45% threshold value and for the SOL muscle the 25% threshold value was found as the best predictor for actual number of burst estimation. Detailed analyses of the actual and estimated number of bursts had shown that success of threshold estimation may differ among muscle groups. Evaluation of our data had clearly shown that it is important to select proper threshold values for correct EMG signal analyses. Using a single threshold value for different exercise intensities and different muscle groups may cause misleading results. Key points α priori

  11. Auxiliary diagnostic value of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 of whole blood in active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Li, Hang; Bao, Hong; Jin, Yufen; Liu, Xiaoju; Wu, Xueqiong; Yu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the expression level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in peripheral blood and its auxiliary diagnostic value in active tuberculosis. A chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method was used to detect the levels of IFN-γ and MCP-1 in peripheral blood. Then the receiver operating characteristic curve were drawn to determine the threshold of IFN-γ and MCP-1 for diagnosis of active tuberculosis and to evaluate their diagnostic performance. The specific IFN-γ and MCP-1 levels in the active tuberculosis group were significantly higher than those in the non-tuberculous pulmonary disease group (P < 0.01) and those in the healthy control group (P < 0.01). The IFN-γ levels in the healthy control group and the non-tuberculous respiratory disease group showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05), but the MCP-1 levels in the non-tuberculous respiratory disease group were significantly higher than those of the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The specific IFN-γ and MCP-1 level cut off values were 256 pg/ml and 389 pg/ml as an active tuberculosis diagnostic standard. The sensitivities of IFN-γ and MCP-1 were 57.3% and 92.8%, respectively; specificities were 80% and 80.7%, respectively; the positive predictive values were 76.9% and 84.9%, respectively; negative predictive values were 61.7% and 78.7%, respectively; and accuracy rates were 76.9% and 84.9%, respectively. Compared with the detection of IFN-γ, we observed a better diagnostic performance of MCP-1 in peripheral blood in active tuberculosis. MCP-1 may become one of the active tuberculosis auxiliary diagnostic targets. PMID:26309608

  12. 25(OH) vitamin D serum values and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (DA S28 ESR)

    PubMed Central

    Sahebari, Maryam; Mirfeizi, Zahra; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Goshyeshi, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is under investigation. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between serum values of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients according to Disease Activity Score 28 joints and ESR (DA S28 ESR). Methods: Ninety-nine patients according to ACR classification criteria for RA and 68 healthy controls were included in this study. The participants with known confounding risk factors affecting serum values of 25(OH)D were excluded. All patients were under treatment with supplementary calcium carbonate (1500mg), 25(OH)D (800U), and Hydroxychloroquine (6mg/kg). The control group was mostly recruited from patients’ relatives who lived with them to minimize the impact of diverse lifestyles on 25(OH)D status. Disease activity was assessed by DA S28 ESR. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured. Serum values of 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/L were considered 25(OH)D deficiency. Results: The mean 25(OH)D serum values were 83.74±46.45 nmol/L in patients and 46.53±34.07 nmol/L in controls. After adjustment for age, sex and BMI, multivariate analysis showed no correlation between 25(OH)D serum levels and DAS in RA (P=0.29, rp=0.11). However, 25(OH)D serum values were significantly lower in patients with early diagnosed RA compared with the other patients (p=0.012). In the early diagnosed patients, 25(OH)D and anti-CCP serum values were negatively correlated (P=0.04, rs=-0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that there was no correlation between 25(OH)D serum values and DAS over a short duration of disease course. However, in early RA, 25(OH) D serum values were lower than the established RA. PMID:25202442

  13. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  14. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  15. Predeliberation activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum and the prediction of subsequent value judgment

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Uri; Rutishauser, Ueli; Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Lee, Daeyeol; Koch, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Rational, value-based decision-making mandates selecting the option with highest subjective expected value after appropriate deliberation. We examined activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum of monkeys deciding between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed ones. We previously found neurons that modulated their activity in this task according to the animal's choice, while it deliberated (choice neurons). Here we found neurons whose spiking activities were predictive of the spatial location of the selected target (spatial-bias neurons) or the size of the chosen reward (reward-bias neurons) before the onset of the cue presenting the decision-alternatives, and thus before rational deliberation could begin. Their predictive power increased as the values the animals associated with the two decision alternatives became more similar. The ventral striatum (VS) preferentially contained spatial-bias neurons; the caudate nucleus (CD) preferentially contained choice neurons. In contrast, the DLPFC contained significant numbers of all three neuron types, but choice neurons were not preferentially also bias neurons of either kind there, nor were spatial-bias neurons preferentially also choice neurons, and vice versa. We suggest a simple winner-take-all (WTA) circuit model to account for the dissociation of choice and bias neurons. The model reproduced our results and made additional predictions that were borne out empirically. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that the DLPFC and striatum harbor dissociated neural populations that represent choices and predeliberation biases that are combined after cue onset; the bias neurons have a weaker effect on the ultimate decision than the choice neurons, so their influence is progressively apparent for trials where the values associated with the decision alternatives are increasingly similar. PMID:24324396

  16. Odor-active constituents in fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) by quantitative and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tokitomo, Yukiko; Steinhaus, Martin; Büttner, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-01

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate prepared from fresh pineapple using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), 29 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2 to 4,096. Quantitative measurements performed by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) of 12 selected odorants revealed the following compounds as key odorants in fresh pineapple flavor: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDF; sweet, pineapple-like, caramel-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity) followed by methyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity, apple-like) and 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene (fresh, pineapple-like). A mixture of these 12 odorants in concentrations equal to those in the fresh pineapple resulted in an odor profile similar to that of the fresh juice. Furthermore, the results of omission tests using the model mixture showed that HDF and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate are character impact odorants in fresh pineapple.

  17. Neural Activity in the Ventral Pallidum Encodes Variation in the Incentive Value of a Reward Cue

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Paul J.; Ferguson, Lindsay M.; Robinson, Terry E.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues are attributed with incentive salience. For example, a food-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS; an illuminated lever) becomes attractive, eliciting approach toward it only in some rats (“sign trackers,” STs), whereas others (“goal trackers,” GTs) approach the food cup during the CS period. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual differences in Pavlovian approach responses are represented in neural firing patterns in the major output structure of the mesolimbic system, the ventral pallidum (VP). Single-unit in vivo electrophysiology was used to record neural activity in the caudal VP during the performance of ST and GT conditioned responses. All rats showed neural responses to both cue onset and reward delivery but, during the CS period, STs showed greater neural activity than GTs both in terms of the percentage of responsive neurons and the magnitude of the change in neural activity. Furthermore, neural activity was positively correlated with the degree of attraction to the cue. Given that the CS had equal predictive value in STs and GTs, we conclude that neural activity in the VP largely reflects the degree to which the CS was attributed with incentive salience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cues associated with reward can acquire motivational properties (i.e., incentive salience) that cause them to have a powerful influence on desire and motivated behavior. There are individual differences in sensitivity to reward-paired cues, with some individuals attaching greater motivational value to cues than others. Here, we investigated the neural activity associated with these individual differences in incentive salience. We found that cue-evoked neural firing in the ventral pallidum (VP) reflected the strength of incentive motivation, with the greatest neural responses occurring in individuals that demonstrated the strongest attraction to the cue. This suggests that the VP

  18. Neuronal activity in primate orbitofrontal cortex reflects the value of time.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Matthew R; Olson, Carl R

    2005-10-01

    Neurons in monkey orbitofrontal cortex (OF) are known to respond to reward-predicting cues with a strength that depends on the value of the predicted reward as determined 1) by intrinsic attributes including size and quality and 2) by extrinsic factors including the monkey's state of satiation and awareness of what other rewards are currently available. We pose here the question whether another extrinsic factor critical to determining reward value-the delay expected to elapse before delivery-influences neuronal activity in OF. To answer this question, we recorded from OF neurons while monkeys performed a memory-guided saccade task in which a cue presented early in each trial predicted whether the delay before the monkey could respond and receive a reward of fixed size would be short or long. OF neurons tended to fire more strongly in response to a cue predicting a short delay. The tendency to fire more strongly in anticipation of a short delay was correlated across neurons with the tendency to fire more strongly before a large reward. We conclude that neuronal activity in OF represents the time-discounted value of the expected reward.

  19. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

  20. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  1. Multistability of complex-valued neural networks with discontinuous activation functions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinling; Gong, Weiqiang; Huang, Tingwen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, based on the geometrical properties of the discontinuous activation functions and the Brouwer's fixed point theory, the multistability issue is tackled for the complex-valued neural networks with discontinuous activation functions and time-varying delays. To address the network with discontinuous functions, Filippov solution of the system is defined. Through rigorous analysis, several sufficient criteria are obtained to assure the existence of 25(n) equilibrium points. Among them, 9(n) points are locally stable and 16(n)-9(n) equilibrium points are unstable. Furthermore, to enlarge the attraction basins of the 9(n) equilibrium points, some mild conditions are imposed. Finally, one numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  2. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) microbial activities in the soils. The critical mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  3. Characteristics of Value and Professional Orientation of the Technical University Students as Ideal Views on the Activity Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khinkanina, Alla L.; Serova, Olga E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the empirical investigation of the characteristics of value and professional orientation of the students taking studies in social and computer engineering related fields are presented. The types of value structure uncovered depend on the students' attitudes to the values significant for the professional evolution (active mode of…

  4. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  5. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  6. Students' perceived value of physiology course activities in a Sudanese medical faculty.

    PubMed

    Kaddam, Lamis; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    The physiology course in our department consists of lectures, laboratory sessions, and tutorials, all of which are teacher centered, as well as student-led seminars. The overall aim of this project was to investigate student perceptions of the value of varying academic activities on their learning of physiology. A faculty-based descriptive study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of Alneelain University (Khartoum, Sudan). Questionnaires (150 total) were distributed to students from the Schools of Medicine, Dentistry, and Physiotherapy; 127 questionnaires were completed and returned. The results showed that 108 students (85%) believed that their absence from different academic activities could affect their performance. Students perceived lectures as the most valuable academic activity (90.7%), whereas seminars presented by students were perceived as the least important activity (18.5%). There was a significant correlation between lectures attendance and their performance in examinations (P = 0.008). Ninety percent of the students thought that teacher involvement in tutorials was essential and that lectures were useful to understand certain topics. These results showed that in our course, students perceived teacher involvement as a key component of the educational process.

  7. Reliability and validity of the valued activity inventory for adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults With Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument that measures activity limitations. Participants included 50 older adults undergoing chemotherapy who completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood 3 days before and the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. The 72-hour test-retest reliability ICC was 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p < .001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p < .001), lower symptom intensity (r = -0.57, p < .001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = -0.68, p < .001). The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.

  8. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  9. Singular Value Decomposition of Optically-Mapped Cardiac Rotors and Fibrillatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, A.; Biton, Y.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.; Yandrapalli, S.; Pandit, S. V.; Berenfeld, O.

    2015-01-01

    Our progress of understanding how cellular and structural factors contribute to the arrhythmia is hampered in part because of controversies whether a fibrillating heart is driven by a single, several, or multiple number of sources, and whether they are focal or reentrant, and how to localize them. Here we demonstrate how a novel usage of the neutral singular value decomposition (SVD) method enables the extraction of the governing spatial and temporal modes of excitation from a rotor and fibrillatory waves. Those modes highlight patterns and regions of organization in the midst of the otherwise seemingly-randomly propagating excitation waves. We apply the method to experimental models of cardiac fibrillation in rabbit hearts. We show that the SVD analysis is able to enhance the classification of the heart electrical patterns into regions harboring drivers in the form of fast reentrant activity and other regions of by-standing activity. This enhancement is accomplished without any prior assumptions regarding the spatial, temporal or spectral properties of those drivers. The analysis corroborates that the dominant mode has the highest activation rate and further reveals a new feature: A transfer of modes from the driving to the passive regions resulting in a partial reaction of the passive region to the driving region. PMID:26668401

  10. Singular value decomposition of optically-mapped cardiac rotors and fibrillatory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Biton, Y.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.; Yandrapalli, S.; Pandit, S. V.; Berenfeld, O.

    2015-03-01

    Our progress of understanding how cellular and structural factors contribute to arrhythmia is hampered in part because of controversies as to whether a fibrillating heart is driven by a single, several, or multiple number of sources, whether they are focal or reentrant and how to localize them. Here we demonstrate how a novel usage of the neutral singular value decomposition (SVD) method enables the extraction of the governing spatial and temporal modes of excitation from a rotor and fibrillatory waves. Those modes highlight patterns and regions of organization in the midst of the otherwise seemingly random propagating excitation waves. We apply the method to experimental models of cardiac fibrillation in rabbit hearts. We show that SVD analysis is able to enhance the classification of the heart electrical patterns into regions harboring drivers in the form of fast reentrant activity and other regions of by-standing activity. This enhancement is accomplished without any prior assumptions regarding the spatial, temporal or spectral properties of those drivers. The analysis corroborates that the dominant mode has the highest activation rate and further reveals a new feature: a transfer of modes from the driving to passive regions resulting in a partial reaction of the passive region to the driving region.

  11. pA2 values for antagonists of platelet activating factor on aggregation of rabbit platelets.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, S. R.; Barnett, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    1. The relative potencies, and equilibrium dissociation constants, for nine antagonists of platelet activating factor (Paf) have been determined on rabbit platelets (in diluted platelet-rich plasma (PRP)) in experiments in which the aggregatory response to Paf was measured. 2. Log concentration-response (% maximum) curves to Paf were obtained in the absence (controls) and presence of different concentrations of each Paf antagonist drug. The antagonists shifted the Paf curves to a higher concentration range and the slopes of the Schild plots, constructed from these data, suggested that the drugs were competitive antagonists of Paf. The slopes of the Schild plots for CV-3988 and SRI 63-119 were greater than 1. 3. The pA2 values (pKB values in parentheses) were: WEB 2086 7.31 (7.63); SRI 63-119 6.95; L-652,731 6.71 (6.73); BN 52021 6.38 (6.47); SRI 63-072 6.36 (6.43); CV-3988 5.87; 48740 RP 4.97 (5.07); ketotifen 4.94 (4.95); thiazinamium 4.73 (4.76). 4. This study provides, for the first time, some functional response data for Paf antagonists (pKB values) which are in an appropriate form for use in classifying putative Paf receptors. The study also provides the comparative potencies of these Paf antagonists in inhibiting Paf-induced platelet aggregation. WEB 2086 was the most potent of the drugs examined. PMID:3293683

  12. A complex-valued nonlinear neural adaptive filter with a gradient adaptive amplitude of the activation function.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Andrew I; Mandic, Danilo P

    2003-03-01

    A complex-valued nonlinear gradient descent (CNGD) learning algorithm for a simple finite impulse response (FIR) nonlinear neural adaptive filter with an adaptive amplitude of the complex activation function is proposed. This way the amplitude of the complex-valued analytic nonlinear activation function of a neuron in the learning algorithm is made gradient adaptive to give the complex-valued adaptive amplitude nonlinear gradient descent (CAANGD). Such an algorithm is beneficial when dealing with signals that have rich dynamical behavior. Simulations on the prediction of complex-valued coloured and nonlinear input signals show the gradient adaptive amplitude, CAANGD, outperforming the standard CNGD algorithm.

  13. Yield, size, nutritional value, and antioxidant activity of oyster mushrooms grown on perilla stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Mengxue; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Ziwen

    2017-02-01

    Perilla is an edible medical plant with rapidly increasing acreage in China. In this study, we investigated the potential of perilla stalks (PSs) as an alternative substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). P. ostreatus was cultivated on cottonseed hulls (CSH) alone or mixed with PSs in different ratios. The production parameters, physical characteristics, nutritional values, and antioxidant activity of mushrooms cultivated on different substrate mixtures were determined. The addition of PSs to CSH significantly improved the growth rate, yield, biological efficiency, and proximate composition and shortened the cultivation cycle. Cultivation on PSs alone increased the amino acid content in P. ostreatus fruiting bodies and the antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The PS75 (25% CSH + 75% PS) substrate was deduced to be the most effective substrate on the basis of yield and biological efficiency obtained in a large area where perilla had been planted. The results demonstrate that mixtures of PS with CSHs could be used as novel, practical, and easily accessible alternative substrates for P. ostreatus cultivation.

  14. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials.

  15. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  16. Evaluation of the formation of volatiles and sensory characteristics of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) fruit wines using different commercial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Cai; Niu, Yun Wei; Feng, Tao; Liu, Sheng Jiang; Cheng, He Xing; Xu, Na; Yu, Hai Yan; Xiao, Zuo Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of five strains (IFFI 1346, IFFI 1363, CICC 31482, D254 and CGMCC2.346) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic profiles of fermented persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) musts. A total of 50 and 60 compounds were identified in persimmon wine by stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. According to odour activity values (OAVs), 26 detected compounds showed an OAV above 1. Principal component analysis explained the distribution of these persimmon wines on the basis of volatile compounds with OAV>1. The volatile compounds with high OAV included ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, linalool and geraniol. Quantitative descriptive analysis was employed. The result showed that persimmon wines fermented with strains IFFI 1363 and D254 were strongly correlated with persimmon, aroma harmony, fruity, fusel and taste balanced, fullness, hedonic scale. Therefore, the two yeast strains could be used as starter culture for persimmon wine production.

  17. Comparison of volatile compounds with characteristic odor in flowers and leaves of nojigiku (Chrysanthemum japonense).

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Ono, Toshirou; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the essential oils isolated from flower and leaf in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their aroma-active composition. The essential oil obtained from the two parts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O). Flower and leaf oils, 38 and 36 constituents, representing 96.4 and 91.0% of the total oil composition, respectively, were identified. The main compounds in flower oil were camphor (47.64%), bornyl acetate (11.87%), and nojigiku alcohol (6.29%), whereas those in leaf oil were camphor (39.14%), nojigiku alcohol (10.76%) and γ-muurolene (7.02%). 13 Aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O analysis in flower oil and 12 in leaf oil. The main aroma-active compounds in flower oil were camphor (camphor, FD (flavor dilution) = 7, OAV (odor active value) = 136913), bornyl acetate (camphor, FD = 6, OAV = 113711), and β-caryophyllene (spicy, FD = 5, OAV = 116480). In leaf oil, the main aroma-active compounds were camphor (camphor, FD = 7, OAV = 106784), nojigiku alcohol (camphor, FD = 5, OAV = not determined), and β-caryophyllene (spicy, FD = 6, OAV = 526267).

  18. [The diagnostic value of the radioimmunological estimation of prostatic acid phosphatase. Comparative value of the measurement of enzyme activity (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tellier, J L; Chatal, J F; Bourdin, S; Auvigne, J; Etienne, P; Faye, R

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunological estimation of prostatic acid phosphatase was carried out in 72 reference subjects, 46 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy, 106 patients with untreated prostatic carcinoma and 25 patients with a carcinoma of some other origin. The mean concentration in non-acidified serum was 1.3 +/- 0.4 (M +/- SD) ng/ml for the reference group and 1.6 +/- 0.8 ng/ml for the benign hypertrophy group. The upper limit of discriminatory values for the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma was fixed at 3 ng/ml. Taking this value, the overall percentage of positive results for carcinoma of the prostate was 61% (65/106). The number of cases with a value greater than 3 ng/ml was 3/18 (17%) for stage A, 8/27 (30%) for stage B, 7/13 (54%) for stage C and 47/48 (98%) for stage D. 8% (2/25) of carcinomas of another origin gave a positive result. The results of estimation using the radioimmunological technique were compared with those obtained by the measurement of enzyme activity using para nitro-phenyl phosphate as a substrate in 34 untreated prostatic carcinomas (all stages mixed together). When measurements by both techniques were carried out under the same ideal conditions using fresh sera as soon as possible after the blood was drawn, the result was abnormal in 10 cases out of 12 (83%) for the radioimmunological method and in 8 cases out of 12 (67%) for the measurement of enzyme activity. By contrast, under routine conditions, the positive percentage figures were 77% (17/22) for the radioimmunological technique and only 36% (8/22) for the measurement of enzyme activity. It would thus appear that radioimmunological measurement is more reliable than the measurement of enzyme activity.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of the Values Tracker: A Two-Item Measure of Engagement in Valued Activities in Those With Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Pielech, Melissa; Bailey, Robert W; McEntee, Mindy L; Ashworth, Julie; Levell, Jayne; Sowden, Gail; Vowles, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in valued activities is an important outcome, particularly in treatments that aim to enhance quality of life in those with chronic conditions. The present study describes the initial evaluation of the Values Tracker (VT), a two-item measure of values engagement, in 302 treatment-seeking adults with chronic pain. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the utility of the VT in the statistical prediction of pain-related functioning, after controlling for demographic variables, pain intensity, and pain-related distress. Across analyses, pain intensity accounted for significant variance (range ΔR2 = .06-.09) with pain-related distress adding additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .07-.19). The VT accounted for additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .02-.17) for all variables with the exception of physical disability. These findings provide initial support for the utility of the VT in those with chronic pain. Given the VT's brevity, it may be particularly useful for tracking changes in engagement in values across sessions.

  20. Maternal attitudes and values to youth sexuality-related activities in Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, I P; Ilika, A I

    2003-09-01

    This descriptive study assessed maternal attitudes to youth-related activities in Delta State. Using an adapted questionnaire, 300 women with adolescent children were chosen through a multistage sampling technique and relevant data obtained regarding their socio-economic status, perceptions and values as well as their knowledge of basic reproductive health concerns. Most of the women interviewed (95%), believed it was very important that young people completed secondary education and another 72% said they would normally set rules in their homes regarding what young people should read or watch. Sixty-seven percent of those studied, discussed sexuality issues regularly with their adolescent children, though only 46.4% of them were comfortable discussing these issue and about 50% admitted having enough information in such discussions. Another 76% of the women would approve of their children receiving reproductive health information and service including contraceptive condoms. The mothers studied believed that guided reproductive health information and services should be routinely provided for young people. The findings strongly suggest that the mothers who are important stakeholders in Adolescent Health would most likely be supportive of youth programmes. Most of the findings differ from those of other studies, and a qualitative study would be carried out to identify the reasons for these interesting findings.

  1. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that over time become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this manuscript proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of Expectancy Value Theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically-driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. PMID:23106844

  2. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits.

  3. Characterization of the Typical Potent Odorants in Chinese Roasted Sesame-like Flavor Type Liquor by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis, with Special Emphasis on Sulfur-Containing Odorants.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sha; Chen, Shuang; Qian, Michael; Wang, Chengcheng; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-11

    The aroma profile of Chinese roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor was investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction-aroma extract dilution analysis (HS-SPME-AEDA). Sixty-three odor-active regions were detected by HS-SPME-AEDA with flavor dilution (FD) factors >5, and 58 of these were further identified. Among them, ethyl hexanoate, 2-furfurylthiol, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl pentanoate, and ethyl 4-methylpentanoate appeared with the highest FD factors. In particular, eight sulfur-containing odorants were identified to be potentially important to roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. The concentration of these odor-active compounds was further quantitated by combination of four different quantitative measurements, and 36 odorants had concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), 2-furfurylthiol (OAV 1182), dimethyl trisulfide (OAV 220), β-damascenone (OAV 116), and methional (OAV 99) could be responsible for the unique aroma of roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. An aroma recombination model prepared by mixing 36 aroma compounds with OAVs >1 showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor. For the first time, 2-furfurylthiol was determined to be a typical potent odorant in roasted sesame-like flavor type liquor by omission study.

  4. The experience matters more than you think: People value intrinsic incentives more inside than outside an activity.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-12-01

    We document a shift in the value assigned to intrinsic incentives: people value these incentives more inside an activity than outside the activity (i.e., during vs. before or after pursuit). For example, people care more about the level of interest of their present work task than of past or future work tasks. We document this shift across a variety of activities (exercising, visiting a museum, and lab tasks) and using various measures, including rated importance of intrinsic incentives inside and outside pursuit, actual and planned persistence on activities that offer these incentives, and regret when choosers outside pursuit forgo intrinsic incentives that pursuers later seek. This shift in valuation occurs because intrinsic incentives improve the experience during action pursuit, and therefore, this shift is unique to intrinsic incentives. Extrinsic incentives, by contrast, are valued similarly inside and outside pursuit.

  5. Insights into the Key Aroma Compounds in Mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden') Fruits by Stable Isotope Dilution Quantitation and Aroma Simulation Experiments.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Didzbalis, John; Schnell, Raymond J; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-four aroma-active compounds, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis, were quantified in tree-ripened fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L. 'Haden'). From the results, the odor activity value (OAV) was calculated for each compound as the ratio of its concentration in the mangoes to its odor threshold in water. OAVs > 1 were obtained for 24 compounds, among which ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 2100), (3E,5Z)-undeca-1,3,5-triene (pineapple-like; OAV 1900), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity; OAV 1600), and ethyl butanoate (fruity; OAV 980) were the most potent, followed by (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal (cucumber-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), ethyl hexanoate (fruity), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol (sulfurous), γ-decalactone (peach-like), β-myrcene (terpeny), (3Z)-hex-3-enal (green), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (tropical fruit-like), and ethyl octanoate (fruity). Aroma simulation and omission experiments revealed that these 15 compounds, when combined in a model mixture in their natural concentrations, were able to mimic the aroma of the fruits.

  6. The Educational Value of High Risk Activities in the Physical Education Program: A Social Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Robert E. C.

    A growing number of schools and institutions in North America have begun offering training in high risk activities such as high element rope courses, rock climbing, white water kayaking and canoeing, and scuba diving in conjunction with their regular physical education activity programs. High risk activities are those activities which occur in or…

  7. Active Teaching Methods: Personal Experience of Integrating Spiritual and Moral Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Tengku Sarina Aini Tengku; Yusoff, Yusmini Md

    2014-01-01

    Islamic education has always recognized spiritual and moral values as significant elements in developing a "balanced" human being. One way of demonstrating spiritual and moral concepts is through effective teaching methods that integrate and forefront these values. This article offers an investigation of how the authors' teaching…

  8. Prefrontal and Striatal Activity Related to Values of Objects and Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Hwang, Jaewon; Lee, Daeyeol

    2012-01-01

    The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values (DVs) associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and DVs of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute DVs of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations. PMID:22822390

  9. Impacts of tundra fire on active layer condition and estimation of true resistivity value of soil in Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Sawada, Y.; Narita, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-12-01

    In Seward Peninsula, southwest Alaska, large tundra fires were occurred in 1997 and 2002, and a discontinuous permafrost area burned widely near the Kougarok River. After fires, a vegetation condition was destroyed and a ground surface thermal condition was changed. Then, field observations were conducted at burned and unburned sites in summer 2005, 2006 and 2007, in order to clarify impacts of the tundra fire on thermal and water conditions of active layer. From pit surveys, ground temperatures at burned sites showed 4-5 °C higher values than those at unburned sites. Soil water contents at burned sites showed relative high values in 2005, but low in 2006. Active layer thicknesses were significantly different between burned and unburned sites, about 60cm and 40cm, respectively. There is no significant increasing of the thickness between 2005 and 2006, however, the thickness in 2007 at north-facing sites increased to 80cm at the burned site and 50cm at the unburned site, respectively. Apparent electrical resistivity values up to 1m deep were obtained from electrical soundings in 2006, and values at burned sites were lower than those at unburned sites due to the thick active layer whose resistivity value is relatively low. As an apparent resistivity value is generally produced from the combination of a true resistivity value and a thickness of a layer, a simple calculation was carried out in order to estimate a true resistivity value of unfrozen mineral soil in the active layer. The calculated results showed that the true resistivity at burned sites was higher than that at unburned sites, which was seemed to correspond to a relative low water condition. This result is in agreement with the measured result of water content in 2006. Using this method, the apparent resistivity may show a soil water condition.

  10. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on liking and relative reinforcing value of TV and physical activity in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of making access to television (TV) viewing contingent on physical activity on the liking and reinforcing value of TV and attitudes towards physical activity in overweight and obese children. Secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial designed to increase physical activity and reduce TV viewing in 30, 8-12 years old overweight or obese children by making access to TV contingent on physical activity (intervention) or free access to TV (control). Liking of TV and physical activity was measured by a 100 point visual analog scale, while the relative reinforcing value of TV in relation to physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire based on behavioural choice paradigm that provided children an opportunity to work (button presses) to gain access to TV or physical activity according to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Enjoyment, Adequacy, Predilection and Motivation for physical activity was assessed by self-report questionnaire. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity showed a trend that approached statistical significance towards increased enjoyment of physical activity and did not adversely affect change in the liking or the relative reinforcing value of TV viewing. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity had no adverse effects on the liking or reinforcing value of TV and even showed a suggestive effect of increased enjoyment of physical activity. Thus, given this intervention markedly increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing in overweight and obese children, long-term evaluations of this interventions to assess sustainability of these behavioral changes and associated health benefits are warranted.

  11. Sustainable development of tyre char-based activated carbons with different textural properties for value-added applications.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Pejman; Yeung, Kit Ying; Guo, Jiaxin; Wang, Huaimin; McKay, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims at the sustainable development of activated carbons for value-added applications from the waste tyre pyrolysis product, tyre char, in order to make pyrolysis economically favorable. Two activation process parameters, activation temperature (900, 925, 950 and 975 °C) and residence time (2, 4 and 6 h) with steam as the activating agent have been investigated. The textural properties of the produced tyre char activated carbons have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments at -196 °C. The activation process has resulted in the production of mesoporous activated carbons confirmed by the existence of hysteresis loops in the N2 adsorption-desorption curves and the pore size distribution curves obtained from BJH method. The BET surface area, total pore volume and mesopore volume of the activated carbons from tyre char have been improved to 732 m(2)/g, 0.91 cm(3)/g and 0.89 cm(3)/g, respectively. It has been observed that the BET surface area, mesopore volume and total pore volume increased linearly with burnoff during activation in the range of experimental parameters studied. Thus, yield-normalized surface area, defined as the surface area of the activated carbon per gram of the precursor, has been introduced to optimize the activation conditions. Accordingly, the optimized activation conditions have been demonstrated as an activation temperature of 975 °C and an activation time of 4 h.

  12. The Prognostic Values of Leukocyte Rho Kinase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng-I.; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Yuen, Chun-Man; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. It has been reported that leukocyte ROCK activity is elevated in patients after ischemic stroke, but it is unclear whether leukocyte ROCK activity is associated with clinical outcomes following acute stroke events. The objective of this study is to investigate if leukocyte ROCK activity can predict the outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 110 patients of acute ischemic stroke and measured the leukocyte ROCK activity and plasma level of inflammatory cytokines to correlate the clinical outcomes of these patients. Results. The leukocyte ROCK activity at 48 hours after admission in acute ischemic stroke patients was higher as compared to a risk-matched population. The leukocyte ROCK activity significantly correlated with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) difference between admission and 90 days after stroke event. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed lower stroke-free survival during follow-up period in patients with high leukocyte ROCK activity or plasma hsCRP level. Leukocyte ROCK activity independently predicted the recurrent stroke in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. Conclusions. This study shows elevated leukocyte ROCK activity in patients with ischemic stroke as compared to risk-matched subjects and is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. PMID:24716192

  13. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  14. A New Generation of Leaders for Eastern Europe: Values and Attitudes for Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education has a crucial role in developing active citizenship within students. Even though active citizenship skills and competencies have been identified as essential life skills for Europe there is very little progress to date in establishing measures or indicators as to how this might be accomplished. This study provides the first data…

  15. Puerto Rican adolescents' disclosure and lying to parents about peer and risky activities: associations with teens' perceptions of Latino values.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G

    2012-08-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M=15.58 years, SD=1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to parents about their risky prudential (unhealthy or unsafe) and peer activities. Lying was infrequent, although greater for risky than for peer issues. In general, path analyses demonstrated that teens' greater adherence to Latino family values and trust in parents were associated with more disclosure and less lying to mothers. However, these findings were moderated by the type of issue considered and perceptions of parents' Latino family values.

  16. Response to "A Step in the Right Direction: Commentary on Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; McClain, James J.; Hart, Teresa L.; Sisson, Susan B.; Washington, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    As researchers and science writers, the authors are always pleased when anyone takes enough interest in their work, but this time it was especially pleasing to have inspired Beets to comment on it (Beets, 2010)! The focus of his commentary is "Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth" (Tudor-Locke, McClain, Hart, Sisson,…

  17. Who I Am: The Meaning of Early Adolescents' Most Valued Activities and Relationships, and Implications for Self-Concept Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Guerin, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Self-concept research in early adolescence typically measures young people's self-perceptions of competence in specific, adult-defined domains. However, studies have rarely explored young people's own views of valued self-concept factors and their meanings. For two major self domains, the active and the social self, this mixed-methods study…

  18. Puerto Rican Adolescents' Disclosure and Lying to Parents about Peer and Risky Activities: Associations with Teens' Perceptions of Latino Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M = 15.58 years, SD = 1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to…

  19. Teachers' Understanding of Students' Attitudes and Values toward Physical Activity in Physical Education Dropout Rates and Adolescent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…

  20. Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Wex, Heike; Ignatius, Karoliina; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The immersion freezing behavior of droplets containing size-segregated, monodisperse feldspar particles was investigated. For all particle sizes investigated, a leveling off of the frozen droplet fraction was observed reaching a plateau within the heterogeneous freezing temperature regime (T >- 38°C). The frozen fraction in the plateau region was proportional to the particle surface area. Based on these findings, an asymptotic value for ice active surface site density ns, which we named ns⋆, could be determined for the investigated feldspar sample. The comparison of these results with those of other studies not only elucidates the general feasibility of determining such an asymptotic value but also shows that the value of ns⋆ strongly depends on the method of the particle surface area determination. However, such an asymptotic value might be an important input parameter for atmospheric modeling applications. At least it shows that care should be taken when ns is extrapolated to lower or higher temperature.

  1. The Impact of the Campus Culture on Students' Civic Activities, Values, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Meredith S.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo

    2014-01-01

    A supportive campus culture is critical to institutionalizing civic engagement and instilling the principles of active citizenship. This chapter explores a model that quantitatively measures the impact of the campus environment on civic engagement outcomes.

  2. Exploring Dietary Kilocalories: An Activity Exemplifying the Personal Value of Science and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates mathematics and science and focuses on estimation, percent, proportionality, ratio, interconverting units, deriving algorithms mathematically, energy transformation, interactions of energy and matter, bioavailability, composition, density, inferring, and data gathering through scientific interpretation.…

  3. Evaluation of phytochemical content, nutritional value and antioxidant activity of Phanji - Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy leaf

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Sneha D.; Naik, Raghavendra; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy is known to be the source plant of Phanji, a classically delineated leafy vegetable which is till date used by some hill dwelling Kandha tribes of Odisha. Though it is in use since a long time, it is not yet evaluated for its nutritive value. Aim: The leaves of R. hypocrateriformis were evaluated for its nutritive value and antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antioxidant properties of the leaf of R. hypocrateriformis were screened through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total antioxidant capacity. Phytochemicals, crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy value, and mineral content of the leaves of the plant were evaluated with standard procedures. Results: In phytochemical analysis, tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids, and carbohydrates were present in leaf powder of R. hypocrateriformis. Energy content was found to be highest (331.54 kcals/100 g). Carbohydrate, fat, protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and zinc were present in 57.63%, 2.66%, 19.27%, 0.99%, 0.34%, 0.32%, and 0.011%, respectively. The IC50 values of the extract and ascorbic acid were found to be 254 ± 5.29 μg/ml and 11.67 ± 0.58 μg/ml, respectively. Percentage scavenging of DPPH radical was found to rise with increasing concentration of the crude extract. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be 111.30 ± 0.003 mcg. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the leaves of R. hypocrateriformis contain secondary metabolites such as tannin and possess mild antioxidant properties. Nutritional analysis indicates the presence of energy in highest amount, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, and magnesium. PMID:27313417

  4. Thera-band(®) elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band(®) elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates.

  5. Thera-band® elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band® elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates. PMID:27190465

  6. Comparison of symptoms and treatment outcomes between actively and passively detected tuberculosis cases: the additional value of active case finding.

    PubMed

    den Boon, S; Verver, S; Lombard, C J; Bateman, E D; Irusen, E M; Enarson, D A; Borgdorff, M W; Beyers, N

    2008-10-01

    Passive detection of tuberculosis (TB) cases may lead to delay in treatment which may contribute to increased severity of disease and mortality. Active case finding may be an alternative. In a community survey in Cape Town, South Africa, we actively detected 27 bacteriologically positive TB cases and compared those with 473 passively detected TB cases. Seven of 27 (26%) actively detected TB cases did not start treatment within 2 months and were considered initial defaulters. Those who did start treatment had similar treatment success rates as passively detected TB cases (both 80%) (OR 1.01, CI 0.33-3.09). Passively detected cases reported the presence of the symptoms cough (OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.47-9.39), haemoptysis (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.03-9.93), night sweats (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.40-7.99), fever (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.21-15.14), and weight loss (OR 11.14, 95% CI 4.17-29.74) more often than those detected actively. We conclude that although TB cases detected by a community survey are less symptomatic and are prone to a high initial default rate, active case finding can potentially identify a substantial portion of the existing caseload at an earlier stage of disease, thereby reducing the risk of transmission.

  7. Animal activity around the clock with no overt circadian rhythms: patterns, mechanisms and adaptive value

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Barnes, Brian M.; Gerkema, Menno P.; Helm, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in many organisms. Animals that are forced to be active around the clock typically show reduced performance, health and survival. Nevertheless, we review evidence of animals showing prolonged intervals of activity with attenuated or nil overt circadian rhythms and no apparent ill effects. We show that around-the-clock and ultradian activity patterns are more common than is generally appreciated, particularly in herbivores, in animals inhabiting polar regions and habitats with constant physical environments, in animals during specific life-history stages (such as migration or reproduction), and in highly social animals. The underlying mechanisms are diverse, but studies suggest that some circadian pacemakers continue to measure time in animals active around the clock. The prevalence of around-the-clock activity in diverse animals and habitats, and an apparent diversity of underlying mechanisms, are consistent with convergent evolution. We suggest that the basic organizational principles of the circadian system and its complexity encompass the potential for chronobiological plasticity. There may be trade-offs between benefits of persistent daily rhythms versus plasticity, which for reasons still poorly understood make overt daily arrhythmicity functionally adaptive only in selected habitats and for selected lifestyles. PMID:23825202

  8. Efficient exploration through active learning for value function approximation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takayuki; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2010-06-01

    Appropriately designing sampling policies is highly important for obtaining better control policies in reinforcement learning. In this paper, we first show that the least-squares policy iteration (LSPI) framework allows us to employ statistical active learning methods for linear regression. Then we propose a design method of good sampling policies for efficient exploration, which is particularly useful when the sampling cost of immediate rewards is high. The effectiveness of the proposed method, which we call active policy iteration (API), is demonstrated through simulations with a batting robot.

  9. Evaluation of Prognostic Values of Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Yunus; Ozturk, Baris; Tutuncu, Emin Ediz; Sencan, Irfan; Cicek Senturk, Gonul; Altay, Fatma Aybala

    2015-01-01

    Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease in Turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet. Objectives: In this study we aimed to determine the levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as predictors of prognosis in CCHF. Patients and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgM positivity in the reference laboratory were included in this study. Tissue Plasminogen activator and PAI-1 levels were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a commercial kit (human t-PA ELISA and human PAL-1 ELISA; BioVendor research and diagnostic products, BioVendor-Laboratorni medicina a.s., Brno, Czech Republic). Results: A total of 46 patients participated in this study. The significant differences between recovering patients and the patients who died, regarding Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombocyte and fibrinogen levels, were consistent with many clinical studies in the literature. The fatal cases were found to have higher tPA and PAI-1 levels in contrast to the patients who completely recovered. Conclusions: We think that these findings may help the progress of understanding of CCHF pathogenesis. PMID:26587219

  10. The Clinical Value of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) Levels in Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toldi, Gergely; Balog, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the general inflammatory condition of patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders (ACTD) is a major challenge. The use of traditional inflammatory markers including CRP-levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is limited by several preanalytical factors and their low specificities. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is one of the novel candidate markers that is increasingly used in immune mediated disorders. In our studies we compared suPAR levels of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ankylosing spondylitis with those of healthy controls. suPAR provided valuable clinical information on disease activity in RA, SLE and SSc. We identified a subgroup of remitted RA patients, who presented still clinical symptoms of inflammatory activity which correlated to high plasma suPAR (while ESR and CRP were normal). In SLE we established specific suPAR cut-off values that support the discrimination between patients with high and those with moderate SLE activity. In patients with SSc suPAR correlated with objective measures of lung and other complications. In the majority of ACTDs including SLE, SSc or RA, suPAR is seemingly a good biomarker that would provide valuable clinical information. However, before the introduction of this novel parameter in laboratory repertoire important issues should be elucidated. These include the establishment of appropriate and disease specific cutoff values, clarification of interfering preanalytical values and underlying conditions and declaration of age- and gender-specific reference ranges. PMID:27683525

  11. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  12. The Value of Picture-Book Reading-Based Collaborative Output Activities for Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Chia-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional modes: picture-book reading-only (PRO), picture-book reading plus vocabulary instruction (PRVI), and picture-book reading plus reading-based collaborative output activity (PRCOA) on young adult EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' vocabulary acquisition and retention. Eighty…

  13. The value of simple tests for peristaltic activity in hiatus hernia

    PubMed Central

    Powis, S. J. A.; Collis, J. Leigh

    1970-01-01

    A study has been made of oesophageal peristaltic activity as viewed at barium swallows, in an effort to see whether this is helpful in assessing the type and degree of oesophageal lesions associated with hiatus hernia. It has not been possible to establish a clinical usefulness from such testing as the frequency with which peristaltic upset occurs is too marginal. PMID:5485006

  14. The Three I's for Ethics as an Everyday Activity: Integration, Intrinsic Valuing, and Intersubjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Heesoon

    2004-01-01

    In addressing the theme of ethics as an everyday activity, this essay makes a case for the primacy of preventive ethics over interventional ethics. Preventive ethics aims at creating a condition of viability and wellbeing for all members of the earth community, an ethical ideal that follows from the thesis that all life-phenomena are…

  15. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Valued Activities to the Life Satisfaction of Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Gail Hills

    1983-01-01

    Describes a survey that collected information about perceived activity participation levels, health status, income, social supports, and life satisfaction of participants in a nutritional lunch program for the elderly. Results showed that perceptions of the above factors were significant predictors of life satisfaction. (NJ)

  16. Pedagogical Values of Mobile-Assisted Task-Based Activities to Enhance Speaking Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Safdari, Nastaran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of online mobile-assisted task-based activities on improving Iranian intermediate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' speaking skills. To achieve the purpose of the study, 90 intermediate language learners were selected ranging between 13 to 16 years old and divided into three…

  17. Value of Web-based learning activities for nursing students who speak English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Du, Hui Yun; Andrew, Sharon; Frost, Steven A; Dunncliff, Kirstin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-07-01

    There is an increasing need to address the educational needs of students with English as a second language. The authors assessed the value of a Web-based activity to meet the needs of students with English as a second language in a bioscience subject. Using telephone contact, we interviewed 21 Chinese students, 24 non-Chinese students with English as a second language, and 7 native English-speaking students to identify the perception of the value of the intervention. Four themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) Language is a barrier to achievement and affects self-confidence; (2) Enhancement intervention promoted autonomous learning; (3) Focusing on the spoken word increases interaction capacity and self-confidence; (4) Assessment and examination drive receptivity and sense of importance. Targeted strategies to promote language acculturation and acquisition are valued by students. Linking language acquisition skills to assessment tasks is likely to leverage improvements in competence.

  18. [Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome. Intensive physical activity: the value of fulguration].

    PubMed

    Warin, J F; Haissaguerre, M; Le Métayer, P; Montserrat, P

    1989-08-01

    In subjects with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome an intense physical activity or the practice of sports may not only trigger off cardiac arrhythmias but also worsen their consequences and become life-threatening. A full electrophysiological study, including measurement of the anterograde refractory period of the accessory pathway, induction of atrial fibrillation and study of the effects of isoprenaline, seems to be indispensable to detect those patients who are most at risk. When the risk of potentially serious arrhythmia appears to be confirmed, catheter ablation of the accessory pathway may be the ideal solution, as it may cure the disease without the sequelae inherent in surgery. The results obtained in 19 athletes or subjects with intense physical activity (19) successes without preventive anti-arrhythmic treatment and at the cost of a single case of asymptomatic atrioventricular block) suggest that the catheter ablation technique will greatly benefit such patients.

  19. Method and Apparatus for Improved Active Sonar Using Singular Value Decomposition Filtering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-26

    of both projector and receiver of the sonar, type of sonar, range resolution of the sonar, number of eigenrays striking the surface and bottom of the...sonar environment, number of eigenrays striking the target, ray trajectories to the target, and surface and bottom scattering strength as a function...the propagation channel or any other non- homogeneous responses due to channel and/or target interactions. [0052] The system for improved active sonar

  20. Societal Values and Policies May Curtail Preschool Children’s Physical Activity in Child Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Susan N.; Kendeigh, Cassandra A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Three-fourths of US preschool-age children are in child care centers. Children are primarily sedentary in these settings, and are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to children’s physical activity in child care centers. METHODS: Nine focus groups with 49 child care providers (55% African American) were assembled from 34 centers (inner-city, suburban, Head Start, and Montessori) in Cincinnati, Ohio. Three coders independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Data analysis and interpretation of findings were verified through triangulation of methods. RESULTS: We identified 3 main barriers to children’s physical activity in child care: (1) injury concerns, (2) financial, and (3) a focus on “academics.” Stricter licensing codes intended to reduce children's injuries on playgrounds rendered playgrounds less physically challenging and interesting. In addition, some parents concerned about potential injury, requested staff to restrict playground participation for their children. Small operating margins of most child care centers limited their ability to install abundant playground equipment. Child care providers felt pressure from state mandates and parents to focus on academics at the expense of gross motor play. Because children spend long hours in care and many lack a safe place to play near their home, these barriers may limit children's only opportunity to engage in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Societal priorities for young children—safety and school readiness—may be hindering children’s physical development. In designing environments that optimally promote children’s health and development, child advocates should think holistically about potential unintended consequences of policies. PMID:22218842

  1. Reference values for performance on the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics V3.0 in an active duty military sample.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Dennis L; Bleiberg, Joseph; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa; Cernich, Alison N; Schwab, Karen; Ivins, Brian; Salazar, Andres M; Harvey, Sally C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah

    2006-10-01

    The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) is a computerized measure of processing speed, cognitive efficiency, and memory. This study describes performance and psychometric properties of ANAM in an active duty, healthy military sample (N = 2,371) composed primarily of young (18-46 years) adult males. Rarely have neuropsychological reference values for use with individuals in the military been derived from a large, active duty military population, and this is the first computerized neuropsychological test battery with military-specific reference values. Although these results do not provide demographically corrected, formal normative data, they provide reference points for neuropsychologists and other health care providers who are using ANAM data in research or clinical settings, with patients of comparable demographics to the present sample.

  2. Paradoxical relationship between RAVE (relative activity versus endocytosis) values of several opioid receptor agonists and their liability to cause dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-hua; Sun, Jian-feng; Tao, Yi-min; Xu, Xue-jun; Chi, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Jing-gen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between the RAVE (relative activity versus endocytosis) values of opiate agonists and their dependence liability by studying several potent analgesics with special profiles in the development of physical and psychological dependence. Methods: The effects of (−)-cis-(3R,4S,2′R) ohmefentanyl (F9202), (+)-cis-(3R,4S,2′S) ohmefentanyl (F9204), dihydroetorphine (DHE) and morphine on [35S]GTPγS binding, forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, and receptor internalization were studied in CHO cells stably expressing HA-tagged μ-opioid receptors (CHO-HA-MOR). cAMP overshoot in response to the withdrawal of these compound treatments was also tested. Results: All four agonists exhibited the same rank order of activity in stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and induction of receptor internalization: DHE>F9204>F9202>morphine. Based on these findings and the previous in vivo analgesic data obtained from our and other laboratories, the RAVE values of the four agonists were calculated. The rank order of RAVE values was morphine>F9202>F9204>DHE. For the induction of cAMP overshoot, the rank order was F9202≥morphine>F9204≥DHE. Conclusion: Taken in combination with previous findings of these compounds' liability to develop dependence, the present study suggests that the agonist with the highest RAVE value seems to have a relatively greater liability to develop psychological dependence relative to the agonist with the lowest RAVE value. However, the RAVE values of these agonists are not correlated with their probability of developing physical dependence or inducing cAMP overshoot, a cellular hallmark of dependence. PMID:20228826

  3. On the Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Solar Cycle Using Annual Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The aa index can be decomposed into two separate components: the leading sporadic component due to solar activity as measured by sunspot number and the residual or recurrent component due to interplanetary disturbances, such as coronal holes. For the interval 1964-2006, a highly statistically important correlation (r = 0.749) is found between annual averages of the aa index and the solar wind speed (especially between the residual component of aa and the solar wind speed, r = 0.865). Because cyclic averages of aa (and the residual component) have trended upward during cycles 11-23, cyclic averages of solar wind speed are inferred to have also trended upward.

  4. A model to predict anti-tuberculosis activity: value proposition for marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Grkovic, Tanja; Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Xueting; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    The development of new antibiotics effective against all strains of tuberculosis (TB) is needed. To evaluate the potential of marine microbe-derived natural products as anti-TB leads, we analyzed and compared the physico-chemical properties of 39 current TB drugs and candidates against 60 confirmed mycobacteria-active natural products. We showed that anti-TB natural products sourced from marine microbes have a large overlap with TB drug-like space. A model to predict potential anti-TB drugs is proposed.

  5. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  6. Reinforcement value and substitutability of sucrose and wheel running: implications for activity anorexia.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David; Duncan, Ian D

    2006-09-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior was allocated to sucrose and more reinforcements were obtained from that alternative. Allocation of behavior to wheel running decreased, but obtained wheel-running reinforcement did not change. Overall, the results suggested that food-deprived rats were sensitive to qualitative changes in food supply (sucrose concentration) while continuing to defend a level of physical activity (wheel running). In the second study, 15 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running, wheel-running and wheel-running, and sucrose and sucrose reinforcement. For each pair of reinforcers, substitutability was assessed by the effect of income-compensated price changes on consumption of the two reinforcers. Results showed that, as expected, sucrose substituted for sucrose and wheel running substituted for wheel running. Wheel running, however, did not substitute for sucrose; but sucrose partially substituted for wheel running. We address the implications of the interrelationships of sucrose and wheel running for an understanding of activity anorexia.

  7. THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF HFO FEATURES AS A BIOMARKER OF EPILEPTIC ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Gliske, Stephen V.; Stacey, William C.; Moon, Kevin R.; Hero, Alfred O.

    2016-01-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) are a promising biomarker of epileptic brain tissue and activity. HFOs additionally serve as a prototypical example of challenges in the analysis of discrete events in high-temporal resolution, intracranial EEG data. Two primary challenges are 1) dimensionality reduction, and 2) assessing feasibility of classification. Dimensionality reduction assumes that the data lie on a manifold with dimension less than that of the features space. However, previous HFO analysis have assumed a linear manifold, global across time, space (i.e. recording electrode/channel), and individual patients. Instead, we assess both a) whether linear methods are appropriate and b) the consistency of the manifold across time, space, and patients. We also estimate bounds on the Bayes classification error to quantify the distinction between two classes of HFOs (those occurring during seizures and those occurring due to other processes). This analysis provides the foundation for future clinical use of HFO features and guides the analysis for other discrete events, such as individual action potentials or multi-unit activity. PMID:27453693

  8. Statistical approaches to account for missing values in accelerometer data: Applications to modeling physical activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Selene Yue; Nelson, Sandahl; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Patterson, Ruth; Merchant, Gina; Abramson, Ian; Staudenmayer, John; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-07-10

    Physical inactivity is a recognized risk factor for many chronic diseases. Accelerometers are increasingly used as an objective means to measure daily physical activity. One challenge in using these devices is missing data due to device nonwear. We used a well-characterized cohort of 333 overweight postmenopausal breast cancer survivors to examine missing data patterns of accelerometer outputs over the day. Based on these observed missingness patterns, we created psuedo-simulated datasets with realistic missing data patterns. We developed statistical methods to design imputation and variance weighting algorithms to account for missing data effects when fitting regression models. Bias and precision of each method were evaluated and compared. Our results indicated that not accounting for missing data in the analysis yielded unstable estimates in the regression analysis. Incorporating variance weights and/or subject-level imputation improved precision by >50%, compared to ignoring missing data. We recommend that these simple easy-to-implement statistical tools be used to improve analysis of accelerometer data.

  9. Model free isoconversional procedure for evaluating the effective activation energy values of thermally stimulated processes in dinitroimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, P.

    2014-05-01

    The decomposition kinetics of 1,4-dinitroimidazole, 2,4-dinitroimidazole, and N-methyl-2,4-dinitroimidazole have been investigated using thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis technique under N2 atmosphere at the flow rate 100 cm3/min. The Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method and the Friedman method were used for the estimation of the effective activation energy values. These model free isoconversional kinetic methods showed variation in the calculated values due to the approximation of temperature integral used in the derivations of the kinetic equations. The model compounds were decomposed by multi-step kinetics evident from the nonlinear relationship of the effective activation energy values with the conversion rate. Three different reaction pathways namely NO2 elimination, NO elimination, and HONO elimination are expected to play crucial role in the decomposition of nitroimidazoles. The model dinitroimidazoles represent different decomposition kinetics, and the reaction pathways the NO2 elimination, and NO elimination compete with each other for the decomposition mechanism. The present study is certainly helpful in understanding the decomposition kinetics, and dynamics of substituted nitroimidazoles to be used for fuel, and explosive applications.

  10. The effect and value of a WebQuest activity on weather in a 5th grade classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Deborah

    WebQuests are increasing in popularity across the country, yet it remains unclear whether WebQuests confer a significant benefit in student content learning. In addition, the perceptions of teachers regarding the classroom value and efficacy of WebQuests in teaching higher level thinking skills are still unclear. The goals of the study were (a) to determine the effect of WebQuests on elementary students' content area knowledge gains; (b) to investigate teacher perceptions of students' higher order thinking skills while engaged in a WebQuest activity and the value the of the WebQuest, as perceived by teacher. To accomplish the above research goals, a quasi-experimental design was used in this study. The subjects were four teachers and classes at an elementary school in southern California. Results of the study showed that the WebQuest did increase content knowledge in fifth grade students, but not significantly more than traditional teaching as measured by a researcher-modified WebQuest For Teacher Questionnaire (WQFT) (Zheng, Perez, Williamson & Flygare, 2007) and teacher interviews. Teachers responded positively to the value of the WebQuest in their daily teaching. Teachers also indicated that their students engaged in higher level thinking skills while engaged in the WebQuest activity. Keywords: WebQuest, higher level thinking, learning

  11. Evaluation of thiol Raman activities and pKa values using internally referenced Ramanbased pH titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwandaratne, Nuwanthi

    Thiols are one of the most important classes of chemicals used broadly in organic synthesis, biological chemistry, and nanosciences. Thiol pKa values are key indicators of thiol reactivity and functionality. This study is an internally-referenced Raman-based pH titration method that enables reliable quantification of thiol pKa values for both mono- and di-thiols in water. The degree of thiol ionization is monitored directly using the peak intensity of the S-H stretching feature relative to an internal reference peak as a function of solution pH. The thiol pKa values and Raman activity relative to its internal reference were then determined by curve-fitting the experimental data with equations derived on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Using this Raman titration method, first and second thiol pKa values for 1,2-benzenedithol in water were determined for the first time. This method is convenient to implement and its underlying theory is easy to follow.

  12. Estimation of water activity from pH and °Brix values of some food products.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Alonzo A

    2008-06-01

    In this study, a predictive model for the estimation of water activity (aw(25°C)) as a function of pH (1.00-8.00) and °Brix (0-82.00) values of simulated food solutions (SFS) was developed, through response surface methodology. Response fit analyses resulted in a highly significant (pH<0.0001) square root polynomial model that can predict aw(25°C) of SFS in terms of pH and °Brix values within the defined variable ranges. The linear, quadratic and interactive influences of pH and °Brix on aw(25°C) were all significant (pH<0.0001). Model validations in SFS and in a number of actual food systems showed that the model had acceptable predictive performance, as indicated by the calculated accuracy and bias indices.

  13. FMRI activation with an "affective speech" paradigm in vegetative and minimally conscious States: applicability and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Piperno, R; Battistini, A; Cevolani, D; Maffei, M; Leonardi, M; Agati, R

    2012-07-01

    Vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) are considered different clinical entities but their differential diagnosis remains challenging. Some VS patients can show an MCS-like activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that seems to predict recovery from VS. We studied fMRI activation with an affective speech paradigm in a cohort of non-communicative brain-injured individuals consecutively admitted to a post-acute neurorehabilitation facility in five years. Among 93 eligible subjects, 65 met the clinical criteria for VS and 28 for MCS. Because of exclusion criteria, activation studies were performed in only 30 cases out of 93 and analysed in only 24 (about ¼ of the eligible cases): 19 VS and five MCS patients. The passive acoustic stimulus consisted in a familiar voice narrating a significant episode in the patient's life, administered by nonmagnetic earphones. All the MCS patients showed an activation spread to secondary associative cortices but also 52.7% of the VS patients displayed an "atypical" large-scale activation pattern. Regarding the clinical outcome, 80% of the patients with large-scale network activation (LSNA) had some recovery of consciousness. Our results confirm that the VS patients with LSNA at fMRI study have potential for further recovery of consciousness, whereas no patient without activation or only typical activation improved. fMRI study with an affective speech paradigm, when applicable, seems to have a valuable prognostic value in VS patients, even if there are major limitations in terms of applicability.

  14. Jitter Values on Voluntary Active Periocular Muscles of Healthy Subjects with Conventional (37 mm) Concentric Needle Electrode

    PubMed Central

    BAYSAL KIRAÇ, Leyla; KOCASOY ORHAN, Elif; GÖNDERTEN, Saygın; BASLO, Mehmet Barış; ÖGE, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to re-evaluate jitter values of healthy subjects in whom pairs of single-fiber-like potentials were recorded from voluntary activated periocular muscles using a disposable 37-mm concentric needle electrode (CNE) with 2-kHz low-cut filtering. Methods We reviewed the recordings of 129 subjects (85 women; 44 men; mean age, 43.8±15.3 years). The m. frontalis group included 116 subjects, and the m. orbicularis oculi group included 18 subjects. Jitter values were expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD) of 20 different pairs. Results The mean MCD (n=2680) was 22.5±9.7 μs (range, 5–121 μs), and the upper 95% confidence limit (CL) was 39 μs. The mean of 134 MCD values for each subject was 22.5±3.7 μs (range, 15–33 μs), and the upper 95% CL was 30 μs. The outer limit of the 18th highest MCD values out of 20 recordings for each subject was 31.3±6.5 μs (range, 18–53 μs), with an upper 95% CL of 43.3 μs. Conclusion Using a conventional 37-mm CNE with 2-kHz low-cut filtering may be a cost effective alternative to a single-fiber electrode in periocular muscles if strict criteria are used for acceptable signals. Jitter values of >44 μs that were calculated from single-fiber-like action potential pairs should alert the physician regarding the possibility of neuromuscular junction disorders and constitute an indication for a further diagnostic investigation. PMID:28360784

  15. Health Related Quality of Life in a Dutch Rehabilitation Population: Reference Values and the Effect of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Eva A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To establish reference values for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in a Dutch rehabilitation population, and to study effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and physical activity on HRQoL in this population. Method Former rehabilitation patients (3169) were asked to fill in a questionnaire including the Dutch version of the RAND-36. Differences between our rehabilitation patients and Dutch reference values were analyzed (t-tests). Effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and movement intensity on scores on the subscales of the RAND-36 were analyzed using block wise multiple regression analyses. Results In total 1223 patients (39%) returned the questionnaire. HRQoL was significantly poorer in the rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values on all subscales (p<0.001) except for health change (p = 0.197). Longer time between questionnaire and last treatment was associated with a smaller health change (p = 0.035). Higher age negatively affected physical functioning (p<0.001), social functioning (p = 0.004) and health change (p = 0.001). Diagnosis affected outcomes on all subscales except role limitations physical, and mental health (p ranged <0.001 to 0.643). Higher movement intensity was associated with better outcomes on all subscales except for mental health (p ranged <0.001 to 0.190). Conclusions HRQoL is poorer in rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values. Physical components of HRQoL are affected by diagnosis. In rehabilitation patients an association between movement intensity and HRQoL was found. For clinical purposes, results of this study can be used as reference values for HRQoL in a rehabilitation setting. PMID:28060949

  16. Comparison of two extraction methods for evaluation of volatile constituents patterns in commercial whiskeys Elucidation of the main odour-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, M; Rodrigues, F; Perestrelo, R; Marques, J C; Câmara, J S

    2007-11-15

    An analytical procedure based on manual dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method and the conventional extraction method by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), were compared for their effectiveness in the extraction and quantification of volatile compounds from commercial whiskey samples. Seven extraction solvents covering a wide range of polarities and two SPME fibres coatings, has been evaluated. The highest amounts extracted, were achieved using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) by LLE method (LLE(CH2Cl2)) and using a CAR/PDMS fibre (SPME(CAR/PDMS)) in HS-SPME. Each method was used to determine the responses of 25 analytes from whiskeys and calibration standards, in order to provide sensitivity comparisons between the two methods. Calibration curves were established in a synthetic whiskey and linear correlation coefficient (r) were greater than 0.9929 for LLE(CH2Cl2) and 0.9935 for SPME(CAR/PDMS), for all target compounds. Recoveries greater than 80% were achieved. For most compounds, precision (expressed by relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) are very good, with R.S.D. values lower than 14.78% for HS-SPME method and than 19.42% for LLE method. The detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 19.03 microg L(-1) for SPME procedure and from 0.50 to 12.48 microg L(-1) for LLE. A tentative study to estimate the contribution of a specific compound to the aroma of a whiskey, on the basis of their odour activity values (OAV) was made. Ethyl octanoate followed by isoamyl acetate and isobutyl alcohol, were found the most potent odour-active compounds.

  17. Chemical Composition and Aroma Evaluation of Essential Oils from Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus).

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Kashima, Yusei; Motooka, Ryota; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Yoshii, Takashi; Usami, Atsushi; Marumoto, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Two sample preparation methods, namely hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), have been used to investigate the essential oils of the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Symplocarpus foetidus, a plant with a characteristic odor, by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Characteristic aroma-active compounds in the oils were detected by GC-Olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). From the HD method, the main compounds in the oil were found to be p-vinyl-guaiacol (15.5%), 2-pentyl-furan (13.4%), and (Z)-ligustilide (9.5%). From the SAFE method, the main compounds were 2-butoxy-ethanol (49.6%), ethyl-pentanoate (4.5%), and mesitylene (4.0%). In HD oil, the most intense aroma-active compounds were 2-pentyl-furan (flavor dilution factor (FD) = 32, odor activity value (OAV) = 57), p-vinyl-guaiacol (FD = 16, OAV = 41), and dimethyl disulfide (FD = 16, OAV = 41). In SAFE oil, the main aroma-active compounds were 2-butoxy ethanol (FD = 32, OAV = 16), and 2-methoxy thiazole (FD = 32, OAV = 25).

  18. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  19. Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Wex, Heike; Ignatius, Karoliina; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The formation of ice in atmospheric clouds has a substantial influence on the radiative properties of clouds as well as on the formation of precipitation. Therefore much effort has been made to understand and quantify the major ice formation processes in clouds. Immersion freezing has been suggested to be a dominant primary ice formation process in low and mid-level clouds (mixed-phase cloud conditions). It also has been shown that mineral dust particles are the most abundant ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere and thus may play an important role for atmospheric ice nucleation (Murray et al., 2012). Additionally, biological particles like bacteria and pollen are suggested to be potentially involved in atmospheric ice formation, at least on a regional scale (Murray et al., 2012). In recent studies for biological particles (SNOMAX and birch pollen), it has been demonstrated that freezing is induced by ice nucleating macromolecules and that an asymptotic value for the mass density of these ice nucleating macromolecules can be determined (Hartmann et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013, Wex et al., 2014). The question arises whether such an asymptotic value can also be determined for the ice active surface site density ns, a parameter which is commonly used to describe the ice nucleation activity of e.g., mineral dust. Such an asymptotic value for ns could be an important input parameter for atmospheric modeling applications. In the presented study, we therefore investigated the immersion freezing behavior of droplets containing size-segregated, monodisperse feldspar particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). For all particle sizes considered in the experiments, we observed a leveling off of the frozen droplet fraction reaching a plateau within the heterogeneous freezing temperature regime (T > -38°C) which was proportional to the particle surface area. Based on these findings, we could determine an asymptotic value for the ice

  20. Charting the Eccles' expectancy-value model from mothers' beliefs in childhood to youths' activities in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-07-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This investigation focused on testing this model with mothers in sports, music, math, and reading over a 12-year period. Data were drawn from mother, youth, and teacher questionnaires collected as part of Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723). Mothers' beliefs in sports, music, and math positively predicted their behaviors in these areas 1 year later, which predicted youths' self-concepts of ability and values (i.e., their motivational beliefs) in these domains 1 year later. Adolescents' motivational beliefs predicted time spent in organized sport activities, playing music, and reading after school measured 4 years later as well as the number of math courses taken in high school. Furthermore, except in reading, mothers' behaviors mediated the relations between mothers' and youths' beliefs, and youths' beliefs mediated the relations between mothers' behaviors and youths' behaviors. Although there were mean-level differences in several indicators based on child gender, in most cases the relations among these indicators did not significantly vary by child gender. This study highlights the processes by which mothers' beliefs during their children's childhood can predict children's activities in adolescence.

  1. Slow recovery of tropical old-field rainforest regrowth and the value and limitations of active restoration.

    PubMed

    Shoo, Luke P; Freebody, Kylie; Kanowski, John; Catterall, Carla P

    2016-02-01

    There is current debate about the potential for secondary regrowth to rescue tropical forests from an otherwise inevitable cascade of biodiversity loss due to land clearing and scant evidence to test how well active restoration may accelerate recovery. We used site chronosequences to compare developmental trajectories of vegetation between self-organized (i.e., spontaneous) forest regrowth and biodiversity plantings (established for ecological restoration, with many locally native tree species at high density) in the Australian wet tropics uplands. Across 28 regrowth sites aged 1-59 years, some structural attributes reached reference rainforest levels within 40 years, whereas wood volume and most tested components of native plant species richness (classified by species' origins, family, and ecological functions) reached less than 50% of reference rainforest values. Development of native tree and shrub richness was particularly slow among species that were wind dispersed or animal dispersed with large (>10 mm) seeds. Many species with animal-dispersed seeds were from near-basal evolutionary lineages that contribute to recognized World Heritage values of the study region. Faster recovery was recorded in 25 biodiversity plantings of 1-25 years in which wood volume developed more rapidly; native woody plant species richness reached values similar to reference rainforest and was better represented across all dispersal modes; and species from near-basal plant families were better (although incompletely) represented. Plantings and regrowth showed slow recovery in species richness of vines and epiphytes and in overall resemblance to forest in species composition. Our results can inform decision making about when and where to invest in active restoration and provide strong evidence that protecting old-growth forest is crucially important for sustaining tropical biodiversity.

  2. Design of a Water Soluble Fluorescent 3-Hydroxy-4-Pyridinone Ligand Active at Physiological pH Values.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andreia; Silva, Ana M G; Coutinho, Catarina; Cunha-Silva, Luís; de Castro, Baltazar; Rangel, Maria

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we report the structure and the spectroscopic characterization of a new fluorescent 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone ligand D-3,4-HPO. The synthesis of the compound was performed in two steps, which involve the reaction of the commercially available fluorophore dansyl chloride with a 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelating unit and further deprotection. The new fluorescent chelator was characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and in solution by NMR, MS, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The analysis of the variation of the absorption spectrum with pH allowed the determination of four pK a values (pK a1  = 3.50, pK a2  = 4.50, pK a3  = 9.60, pK a4  = 10.20) and establishment of the corresponding distribution diagram. The study of the fluorescence properties of the ligand show that in the pH range between 4 and 9 the fluorescence intensity is constant and has its maximum value thus allowing its further use at physiological pH values. The interaction of the ligand with copper(II) was accessed by fluorescence spectroscopy in MOPS buffer and the results show that the presence of copper(II) quenches the fluorescence of the ligand in ca 94 % at a ligand: metal ratio of 2:1. The latter result is consistent with the formation of a copper(II) complex with the bidentate ligand, as confirmed by the EPR spectroscopy. Graphical Abstract New water soluble fluorescent ligand active at physiological pH values.

  3. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  4. Value of Computerized Tomography Enterography in Predicting Crohn’s Disease Activity: Correlation with Crohn’s Disease Activity Index and C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyung; Han, Na Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Cho, Sung Beom; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Keum, Bora; Kim, Min Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The accurate evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity is important for the treatment of the disease and for monitoring the response. Computerized tomography (CT) enterography is a useful imaging modality that reflects enteric inflammation, as well as extramural complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CT enterographic (CTE) findings of active Crohn’s disease and the Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients and Methods Fifty CT enterographies of 39 patients with Crohn’s disease in the small bowel were used in our study. The CDAI was assessed through clinical and laboratory variables. Multiple CT parameters, including mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, mural stratification, comb sign, and mesenteric fat attenuation, were evaluated with a four-point scale. The presence or absence of enhanced lymph nodes, fibrofatty proliferation, sinus or fistula, abscess, and stricture were also assessed. Two gastrointestinal radiologists independently reviewed all CT images, and inter-observer agreement was examined. Correlations between CT findings, CRP, and CDAI were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation and logistic regression analysis. To assess the predictive accuracy of the model, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for the sum of CT enterographic scores was used. Results Mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, comb sign, mesenteric fat density, and fibrofatty proliferation were significantly correlated with CDAI and CRP (P < 0.05). The binary logistic regression model demonstrated that mesenteric fat density, mural stratification, and the presence of enhanced lymph nodes (P < 0.05) had an influence on CDAI severity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the CTE index for predicting disease activity was 0.85. Using a cut-off value of 8, the sensitivity and negative predictive values were 95% and 94%, respectively

  5. Oven, microwave, and combination roasting of peanuts: comparison of inactivation of salmonella surrogate Enterococcus faecium, color, volatiles, flavor, and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alicia L; Perry, Jennifer J; Marshall, Julie A; Yousef, Ahmed E; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-08-01

    Peanut safety and quality were evaluated for different roasting technologies. Shelled raw peanuts were roasted using an oven at 163 to 204 °C, microwave, or oven and microwave combinations. The lethal effect of these treatments was investigated on peanuts inoculated with the Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium and stored at room temperature for 1 h, 24 h, or 7 d before roasting. Roasted peanut color, odor activity values (OAVs), descriptive sensory panel analysis, free fatty acid, and peroxide values were determined. Color and OAVs were also analyzed on 2 commercial peanut butters. OAVs were calculated using volatile levels quantified with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and known odor thresholds. All treatments resulted in a minimum of 3 log reduction of inoculated bacterial population. Resistance to the process was not influenced by storage of inoculated peanuts prior to treatment. Roasting by different methods produced equivalent, commercially ideal L* color. Based on the OAVs, treatments had similar volatiles important to flavor compared to the commercial samples. Descriptive sensory analysis showed no significant difference between the roasting treatments for most of the sensory attributes. Lipid oxidation was not significantly different between the roasting methods, displaying no evidence that roasting time or temperature affected lipid oxidation, when ideal color was produced. These results suggest that oven, microwave, or combination roasting should be sufficient to mitigate the threat of Salmonella contamination and produce similar color, OAVs, sensory attributes, and lipid oxidation results.

  6. Economic value analysis of the return from the Korean astronaut program and the science culture diffusion activity in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Soyeon; Jang, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Hyo Suk; Yu, Jong-Phil; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Joohee; Hur, Hee-Young

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we analyze the economic effects from the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity (SCDA). Korea has had a huge practical effect on the development of science and technology and has increased international awareness of Korea by producing Korea's first astronaut. There has also been a large, ripple effect on space related industries. In addition, the KAP has exercised a far-reaching influence on Korean society and culture by boosting all science and engineering and inspiring national pride. After the KAP, astronauts' outreach activities, such as lectures for the general public; interviews on television, newspapers and magazines; participating in children's science camps; and distributing publications and DVDs about astronaut program for general public, were instituted for diffusing science culture. Thus, positive effects such as the promotion of Korea's level of technology, student interest in science and engineering fields, and the expansion of the industrial base were reinforced after the KAP. This study is aimed at evaluating the economic significance and the value of return through analyzing the effects of the KAP and the subsequent Science Culture Diffusion Activity.

  7. Coherent activity between brain regions that code for value is linked to the malleability of human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Nicole; Bassett, Danielle S.; Falk, Emily B.

    2017-01-01

    Brain activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during exposure to persuasive messages can predict health behavior change. This brain-behavior relationship has been linked to areas of MPFC previously associated with self-related processing; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. We explore two components of self-related processing – self-reflection and subjective valuation – and examine coherent activity between relevant networks of brain regions during exposure to health messages encouraging exercise and discouraging sedentary behaviors. We find that objectively logged reductions in sedentary behavior in the following month are linked to functional connectivity within brain regions associated with positive valuation, but not within regions associated with self-reflection on personality traits. Furthermore, functional connectivity between valuation regions contributes additional information compared to average brain activation within single brain regions. These data support an account in which MPFC integrates the value of messages to the self during persuasive health messaging and speak to broader questions of how humans make decisions about how to behave. PMID:28240271

  8. Reduced-order model based active disturbance rejection control of hydraulic servo system with singular value perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengwen; Quan, Long; Zhang, Shijie; Meng, Hongjun; Lan, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Hydraulic servomechanism is the typical mechanical/hydraulic double-dynamics coupling system with the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems, which hinder direct applications of many advanced control approaches in the hydraulic servo fields. In this paper, by introducing the singular value perturbation theory, the original double-dynamics coupling model of the hydraulic servomechanism was reduced to a integral chain system. So that, the popular ADRC (active disturbance rejection control) technology could be directly applied to the reduced system. In addition, the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems are avoided. The validity of the simplified model is analyzed and proven theoretically. The standard linear ADRC algorithm is then developed based on the obtained reduced-order model. Extensive comparative co-simulations and experiments are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Prognostic Value of Estimating Functional Capacity Using the Duke Activity Status Index in Stable Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Grodin, Justin L.; Hammadah, Muhammad; Fan, Yiying; Hazen, Stanley L.; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the years several methods have been developed to reliably quantify functional capacity in patients with heart failure. Few studies have investigated the prognostic value of these assessment tools beyond cardio-renal prognostic biomarkers in stable patients with chronic heart failure. Methods and Results We performed Duke Activity Status Index (DASI, a self assessment tool comprised of 12 questions for estimating functional capacity) questionnaire in 1,700 stable, non-acute coronary syndrome patients with history of heart failure who underwent elective diagnostic coronary angiography with 5-year follow-up of all-cause mortality. In a subset of patients (n=800), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured. In our study cohort, the median DASI score was 26.2 (IQR 15.5–42.7). Low DASI score provided independent prediction of a 3.3-fold increase in 5-year mortality risk (Quartile 1 versus 4: Hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 3.33 [2.57–4.36], p<0.0001). After adjusting for traditional risk factors, BNP, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, low DASI score still conferred a 2.6-fold increase in mortality risk (2.57 [1.64–4.15], p<0.0001). Conclusion A simple self-assessment tool of functional capacity provides independent and incremental prognostic value for mortality prediction in stable patients with chronic heart failure beyond cardio-renal biomarkers. PMID:25175697

  10. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin

    2015-10-01

    Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (<45 nm) were synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. They were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electronic microscope-X-ray energy dispersive analysis and temperature programmed desorption method. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14 · 3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high acid value (AV). Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 °C, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield>86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment.

  11. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Valued Life Activities Disability Questionnaire for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Allen, Diane; Buyske, Steven; Schiff, Samuel; Nadkarni, Anagha; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Maclean, Ross; Hassett, Afton L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Develop and validate a shortened version of the Valued Life Activities disability and accommodations scale (VLA) for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods To shorten the existing VLA measure, item response theory analyses were conducted using data from 449 patients with RA. Next, the resulting 14-item shortened version of the VLA scale (S-VLA) was evaluated by structured interviews among 20 RA patients. Lastly, the S-VLA was administered to 150 RA patients along with other measures including the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and SF-36. A random sample of 50 patients completed the S-VLA two weeks later to assess reliability. Item statistics were calculated to evaluate correlations between individual items and S-VLA total score. Correlations between the S-VLA and other measures were used to evaluate validity. Results Test–retest reliability was 0.91, while Cronbach’s alpha for the S-VLA was 0.95. None of the 14 items were associated with improved alpha coefficients when omitted. All items were strongly correlated with the S-VLA total score. S-VLA scores were highly positively correlated with HAQ (r=0.81; p≤0.001), patient-reported disease activity (r=0.71; p≤0.001), satisfaction with abilities (r=0.82; p≤0.001), and number of days with activity limitations (r=0.65; p≤0.001). In addition, as hypothesized, the S-VLA was inversely correlated with SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (r=−0.78; p≤0.001) and subscales: Physical Functioning (r=−0.80; p≤0.001), Role Physical (r=−0.67; p≤0.001) and Social Functioning (r=−0.72; p≤0.001). Conclusions The S-VLA is a short, valid, and reliable instrument that may prove useful for monitoring disability among individuals with RA. PMID:21905253

  12. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  13. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  14. Validating proposed migration equation and parameters' values as a tool to reproduce and predict (137)Cs vertical migration activity in Spanish soils.

    PubMed

    Olondo, C; Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R

    2017-01-05

    This paper shows the procedure performed to validate the migration equation and the migration parameters' values presented in a previous paper (Legarda et al., 2011) regarding the migration of (137)Cs in Spanish mainland soils. In this paper, this model validation has been carried out checking experimentally obtained activity concentration values against those predicted by the model. This experimental data come from the measured vertical activity profiles of 8 new sampling points which are located in northern Spain. Before testing predicted values of the model, the uncertainty of those values has been assessed with the appropriate uncertainty analysis. Once establishing the uncertainty of the model, both activity concentration values, experimental versus model predicted ones, have been compared. Model validation has been performed analyzing its accuracy, studying it as a whole and also at different depth intervals. As a result, this model has been validated as a tool to predict (137)Cs behaviour in a Mediterranean environment.

  15. Evaluation of the key odorants of foods by dilution experiments, aroma models and omission.

    PubMed

    Grosch, W

    2001-06-01

    The state of the art in aroma analysis is reviewed with emphasis on aroma-recombination studies using synthetic blends of odorants (aroma models) which have been prepared on the basis of analytical data. The model that matches the original aroma is the starting material for omission experiments which are performed to establish the odorants that actually contribute to the aroma. These experiments are discussed in detail for the aromas of two wine varieties, three olive oils of different provenance, French fries, boiled beef and coffee. The results indicate that odorants with higher odour activity values (OAV, the ratio of the concentration to the odour threshold) are frequently essential for the aroma. However, there are exceptions where odorants with high OAVs are suppressed in the aroma and compounds with lower OAVs are important contributors. These findings are discussed in the light of model experiments which have been reported in the literature to obtain an insight into the perceptual interactions of odorants in mixtures.

  16. Modeling the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity values.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cuevas, Marina; Fernández, Pablo S; George, Susan; Pin, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The dynamic model for the growth of a bacterial population described by Baranyi and Roberts (J. Baranyi and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:277-294, 1994) was applied to model the lag period and exponential growth of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions of fluctuating temperature and water activity (a(w)) values. To model the duration of the lag phase, the dependence of the parameter h(0), which quantifies the amount of work done during the lag period, on the previous and current environmental conditions was determined experimentally. This parameter depended not only on the magnitude of the change between the previous and current environmental conditions but also on the current growth conditions. In an exponentially growing population, any change in the environment requiring a certain amount of work to adapt to the new conditions initiated a lag period that lasted until that work was finished. Observations for several scenarios in which exponential growth was halted by a sudden change in the temperature and/or a(w) were in good agreement with predictions. When a population already in a lag period was subjected to environmental fluctuations, the system was reset with a new lag phase. The work to be done during the new lag phase was estimated to be the workload due to the environmental change plus the unfinished workload from the uncompleted previous lag phase.

  17. Defining the value of magnetic resonance imaging in prostate brachytherapy using time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Thaker, Nikhil G; Orio, Peter F; Potters, Louis

    2017-02-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation and planning for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) may deliver potential clinical benefits but at an unknown cost to the provider and healthcare system. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is an innovative bottom-up costing tool in healthcare that can be used to measure the actual consumption of resources required over the full cycle of care. TDABC analysis was conducted to compare patient-level costs for an MRI-based versus traditional PBT workflow. TDABC cost was only 1% higher for the MRI-based workflow, and utilization of MRI allowed for cost shifting from other imaging modalities, such as CT and ultrasound, to MRI during the PBT process. Future initiatives will be required to follow the costs of care over longer periods of time to determine if improvements in outcomes and toxicities with an MRI-based approach lead to lower resource utilization and spending over the long-term. Understanding provider costs will become important as healthcare reform transitions to value-based purchasing and other alternative payment models.

  18. Predictive value of microparticle-associated tissue factor activity for permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Antonio; Miscia, Sebastiano; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Di Pietro, Roberta; Centurione, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) protein 1, which is also known as permeability glycoprotein (Pgp), and tissue factor (TF) are recurrently overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells, likely in response to stimuli such as chemotherapy. Microparticles (MPs) released from cancer cells into the bloodstream express tumour markers on their surface that may be useful as predictive biomarkers for evaluating disease progression. The present study measured the level of TF/factor VII (FVII)-dependent coagulation of MPs isolated from the plasma of cancer patients with various tumours, who were undergoing chemotherapy. Furthermore, Pgp expression on the surface of MPs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. A total of 50 cancer patients, as well as 10 healthy volunteers, were enrolled in the present study. MP-associated TF/FVII-dependent coagulation pathways were evaluated as the effect of an anti-FVII antibody on the time to thrombin generation, as compared with controls treated with saline. The significantly lengthened times of coagulation [obtained in 20/50 samples (36.5 ± 16%) after treatment with anti-FVIIa when compared with controls] suggest the presence of TF activity is associated with circulating MPs. Furthermore, the 20 MP/TF-positive samples were associated with Pgp overexpression on their surface. Conversely, in the remaining samples (n=30), treatment with the anti-FVIIa antibody did not significantly lengthen the time to clotting (<10%), and Pgp overexpression was not detected. In addition, in the control samples from healthy individuals, Pgp expression at the plasma membrane and clotting in the presence of the anti-FVII antibody were not observed, indicating the absence of MPs. The present study demonstrated that MPs in the blood of cancer patients promoted fibrin generation via TF/FVII-dependent pathways, thus suggesting that the evaluation of MP-TF activity may have a predictive value for Pgp-mediated MDR in various cancer types. Although further studies are

  19. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Classroom Activity Designed to Teach the Value of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boburka, Reneé R.; Wesp, Richard K.; Eshun, Sussie; Drago, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    Many agree that educational systems should instill in students the value of lifelong learning (LLL), but few have suggested how to accomplish that or how to measure the effectiveness of those curricular initiatives. We developed a technique intended to strengthen students' beliefs about the value of LLL and piloted use of a recently developed…

  20. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odors from cattle feedlots negatively affect air quality in local communities. The purpose of this study was to identifying key odorants using both analytical (odor activity values, OAV) and gas chromatrography GC-O (olfactometry) techniques, compare odor threshold databases, and track the movement ...

  1. The activation energy values estimated by the Arrhenius equation as a controlling factor of platinum-group mineral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Athinoula L.; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2009-03-01

    In ophiolite complexes and Ural/Alaskan-type intrusions the platinum-group element minerals (PGM) occur as laurite (RuS 2), erlichmanite (OsS 2), irarsite (IrAsS) and alloys (Os-Ir-Ru and Pt-Fe). They are commonly found as small inclusions (normally less than 10 μm, occasionally up to 100 μm) in chromite. The origin of coarse-grained PGM, in the form of 0.5-10 mm nuggets, in placer deposits related with mafic/ultramafic complexes remains still unclear. Literature data on grain size ( r) of platinum-group minerals (PGM) and their formation temperature (range of temperatures between 700 and 1100 °C), revealed an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Correlation of the rate of crystal formation that depends on temperature (T) with the size ( r) of the grain results in a linear relationship between ln( r) and 1/T. From the slope of the line n × ln( r) = -const. + Eact/ RT the activation energy for the formation of IPGM (Ir-platinum-group minerals) was estimated, for the first time in the present study, to be approximately 450 ± 45 kJ mol -1. Applying the Arrhenius equation, the corresponding formation temperature for extremely large IPGM grains (up to 1.3 mm) in chromite ores related to ophiolites was found to be approximately 740 °C. It seems to be consistent with a lower formation temperature than with the typical formation temperature of small PGM grains associated with ophiolitic chromitites. This suggests that coarse-grained PGM in mafic/ultramafic complexes, along the permeable shear zones, may have been re-crystallized during plastic deformation at relatively lower temperatures (700-800 °C), under appropriate pressure, temperature, redox conditions and an increased H 2O content. Thus, applying the plot of ln( r) versus 1/T on large Os-Ir-Ru-minerals (sulfides or alloys), characterized by an r value falling into the linear part of the graph and having evidence supporting their formation at relatively high temperatures, then the corresponding formation

  2. Characterisation of selected active agents regarding pKa values, solubility concentrations and pH profiles by SiriusT3.

    PubMed

    Schönherr, D; Wollatz, U; Haznar-Garbacz, D; Hanke, U; Box, K J; Taylor, R; Ruiz, R; Beato, S; Becker, D; Weitschies, W

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine pKa values and solubility properties of 34active agents using the SiriusT3 apparatus. The selected drug substances belong to the groups of ACE-inhibitors, β-blockers, antidiabetics and lipid lowering substances. Experimentally obtained pKa and intrinsic solubility values were compared to calculated values (program ACD/ChemSketch) and pKa values to published data as well. Solubility-pH profiles were generated to visualise the substance solubility over the gastrointestinal pH range. The relationship between the solubility characteristic of a substance, its bioavailability and categorisation according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was examined as well. The results showed a good agreement between experimentally obtained, calculated and published pKa values. The measured and calculated intrinsic solubility values indicated several major deviations. All solubility-pH profiles showed the expected shape and appearance for acids, bases or zwitterionic substances. The obtained results for the pKa and solubility measurements of the examined active agents may help to predict their physicochemical behaviour in vivo, and to understand the bioavailability of the substances according to their BCS categorisation. The easy and reproducible determination of pKa and solubility values makes the SiriusT3 apparatus a useful tool in early stages of drug and formulation development.

  3. Quantification of aroma compounds in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese by a dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique and calculation of odor activity value.

    PubMed

    Qian, Michael; Reineccius, G A

    2003-03-01

    Potentially important aroma compounds in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese were quantified. Free fatty acids were isolated with ion-exchange chromatography and quantified by gas chromatography. Neutral aroma compounds were quantified with a purge-trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective mass ion technique. Odor activity values were calculated based on sensory thresholds reported in literature. The calculated odor activity values suggest that 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, diacetyl, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, acetic, butanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic acids are the most important aroma contributors to Parmigiano Reggiano cheese.

  4. Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: a photochemiluminescence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils.

  5. Student Perceptions of Value Added in an Active Learning Experience: Producing, Reviewing and Evaluating a Sales Team Video Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, James J.; Kezim, Boualem; Stewart, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video team-based activity as a learning experience in a sales management course. Students perceived this learning activity approach as a beneficial and effective instructional technique. The benefits of making a video in a marketing course reinforce the understanding and the use of the sales process…

  6. A Step in the Right Direction: Commentary on Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The recent compilation of pedometer-determined physical activity studies of youth by Tudor-Locke and colleagues (Tudor-Locke, McClain, Hart, Sisson, & Washington, 2009) is a valuable addition to the growing field of physical activity assessment via pedometry. In this study, Tudor-Locke and colleagues presented an "expected" habitual daily…

  7. The Effect and Value of a WebQuest Activity on Weather in a 5th Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests are increasing in popularity across the country, yet it remains unclear whether WebQuests confer a significant benefit in student content learning. In addition, the perceptions of teachers regarding the classroom value and efficacy of WebQuests in teaching higher level thinking skills are still unclear. The goals of the study were (a) to…

  8. "Do I Have a Choice?" The Influences of Family Values and Investments on Chinese Migrant Young People's Lifestyles and Physical Activity Participation in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Chinese migrant young people's lifestyles and physical activity experiences in relation to the values and cultural investments of their families in Australia. The data in this paper were taken from a larger-scale study underpinned by a critical and interpretive ethnographic method conducted in two school sites. The young…

  9. Values, body weight, and well being: the influence of the protestant ethic and consumerism on physical activity, eating, and body image.

    PubMed

    Vanden Heede, Fred; Pelican, Suzanne; Holmes, Betty; Moore, Sylvia A; Buchanan, David

    This article explores how people's values shape their experiences and emotions with respect to physical activity, eating, and body image. It describes the results of a grounded theory analysis of individual and focus group interviews conducted as part of a community-based health improvement project, Wellness IN the Rockies (WIN the Rockies). The analysis links core theoretical constructs, including habitus, sedimentation, and natural attitude, to larger socio-cultural and historical trends embodied in the Protestant ethic and the rise of consumerism, illuminating how these values shape people's everyday understanding of their experiences. Key analytic frameworks focus on the socialization processes involved in inculcating values, identity formation, and moralization as they relate to health attitudes and behaviors. Major implications of the results are discussed, especially the need to enhance self-understanding about social values in health education.

  10. The pedagogical value of Disassemble/Analyze/Assemble (DAA) activities: Assessing the potential for motivation and transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalrymple, Odesma Onika

    Undergraduate engineering institutions are currently seeking to improve recruiting practices and to retain engineering majors particularly by addressing what many studies document as a major challenge of poor instruction. There is an undisputed need for instructional practices that motivate students in addition to facilitating the transfer of learning beyond the classroom. Reverse engineering and product dissection, more broadly termed Disassemble/Analyze/Assemble (DAA) activities, have shown potential to address these concerns, based on the reviews of students and professors alike. DAA activities involve the systematic deconstruction of an artifact, the subsequent analysis and possible reconstruction of its components for the purpose of understanding the embodied fundamental concepts, design principles and developmental processes. These activities have been part of regular industry practice for some time; however, the systematic analysis of their benefits for learning and instruction is a relatively recent phenomenon. A number of studies have provided highly descriptive accounts of curricula and possible outcomes of DAA activities; but, relatively few have compared participants doing DAA activities to a control group doing more traditional activities. In this respect, two quasi-experiments were conducted as part of a first-year engineering laboratory, and it was hypothesized that students who engaged in the DAA activity would be more motivated and would demonstrate higher frequencies of transfer than the control. A DAA activity that required students to disassemble a single-use camera and analyze its components to discover how it works was compared to a step-by-step laboratory activity in the first experiment and a lecture method of instruction in the second experiment. In both experiments, over forty percent of the students that engaged in the DAA activity demonstrated the ability to transfer the knowledge gained about the functions of the camera's components and

  11. Value added cleaning and disinfection of the root canal: laser-activated irrigation and laser-induced photoporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Roeland J. G.; Meire, Maarten A.

    2016-03-01

    Among present-day marketed systems ultrasonic activation appears to be the best way to activate and potentiate endodontic irrigants. An alternative for ultrasonic activation of irrigants is laser activated irrigation (LAI) or photoninitiated acoustic streaming. Based on present-day research it appears that LAI (especially with Erbium lasers) can be more efficient for debris removal out of root canals and interaction with the endodontic biofilms thanks to the induction of specific cavitation phenomena and acoustic streaming. Other wavelengths are now explored to be used for LAI. Another way to interact with biofilms is to rely on laser-induced photoporation in combination with gold nanoparticles ( AuNPs). The latter is an alternative physical method for delivering macromolecules in cells. Nanosized membrane pores can be created upon pulsed laser illumination. Depending on the laser energy, pores are created through either direct heating of the AuNPs or by vapour nanobubbles that can emerge around the AuNPs.

  12. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  13. The habenulo-raphe serotonergic circuit encodes an aversive expectation value essential for adaptive active avoidance of danger.

    PubMed

    Amo, Ryunosuke; Fredes, Felipe; Kinoshita, Masae; Aoki, Ryo; Aizawa, Hidenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Aoki, Tazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Kakinuma, Hisaya; Matsuda, Masaru; Yamazaki, Masako; Takahoko, Mikako; Tsuboi, Takashi; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Miyasaka, Nobuhiko; Koide, Tetsuya; Yabuki, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Fukai, Tomoki; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2014-12-03

    Anticipation of danger at first elicits panic in animals, but later it helps them to avoid the real threat adaptively. In zebrafish, as fish experience more and more danger, neurons in the ventral habenula (vHb) showed tonic increase in the activity to the presented cue and activated serotonergic neurons in the median raphe (MR). This neuronal activity could represent the expectation of a dangerous outcome and be used for comparison with a real outcome when the fish is learning how to escape from a dangerous to a safer environment. Indeed, inhibiting synaptic transmission from vHb to MR impaired adaptive avoidance learning, while panic behavior induced by classical fear conditioning remained intact. Furthermore, artificially triggering this negative outcome expectation signal by optogenetic stimulation of vHb neurons evoked place avoidance behavior. Thus, vHb-MR circuit is essential for representing the level of expected danger and behavioral programming to adaptively avoid potential hazard.

  14. Comparison of IUPAC k0 Values and Neutron Cross Sections to Determine a Self-consistent Set of Data for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Revay, Zsolt

    2009-12-01

    Independent databases of nuclear constants for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been independently maintained by the physics and chemistry communities for many year. They contain thermal neturon cross sections s0, standardization values k0, and transition probabilities Pg. Chemistry databases tend to rely upon direct measurements of the nuclear constants k0 and Pg which are often published in chemistry journals while the physics databases typically include evaluated s0 and Pg data from a variety of experiments published mainly in physics journals. The IAEA/LBNL Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) also contains prompt and delayed g-ray cross sections sg from Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) measurements that can also be used to determine k0 and s0 values. As a result several independent databases of fundamental constants for NAA have evolved containing slightly different and sometimes discrepant results. An IAEA CRP for a Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis was established to compare these databases and investigate the possibilitiy of producing a self-consistent set of s0, k0, sg, and Pg values for NAA and other applications. Preliminary results of this IAEA CRP comparison are given in this paper.

  15. NMR-based approach to the analysis of radiopharmaceuticals: radiochemical purity, specific activity, and radioactive concentration values by proton and tritium NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schenk, David J; Dormer, Peter G; Hesk, David; Pollack, Scott R; Lavey, Carolee Flader

    2015-06-15

    Compounds containing tritium are widely used across the drug discovery and development landscape. These materials are widely utilized because they can be efficiently synthesized and produced at high specific activity. Results from internally calibrated (3)H and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy suggests that at least in some cases, this calibrated approach could supplement or potentially replace radio-high-performance liquid chromatography for radiochemical purity, dilution and scintillation counting for the measurement of radioactivity per volume, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for the determination of specific activity. In summary, the NMR-derived values agreed with those from the standard approaches to within 1% to 9% for solution count and specific activity. Additionally, the NMR-derived values for radiochemical purity deviated by less than 5%. A benefit of this method is that these values may be calculated at the same time that (3)H NMR analysis provides the location and distribution of tritium atoms within the molecule. Presented and discussed here is the application of this method, advantages and disadvantages of the approach, and a rationale for utilizing internally calibrated (1)H and (3)H NMR spectroscopy for specific activity, radioactive concentration, and radiochemical purity whenever acquiring (3)H NMR for tritium location.

  16. Cyclonic activity in high latitudes as simulated by a regional atmospheric climate model: added value and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, I. M.; Efimov, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Decadal long simulations of atmospheric circulation in the high latitudes have been carried out using a multiscale atmospheric modeling system that consists of MGO global and regional atmospheric models with respective resolutions of 200, 50 and 25 km in the horizontal. The detailed analysis of extratropical cyclone activity including activity of polar mesocyclones has been conducted for the winter season using an advanced cyclone identification and tracking scheme. To enhance the applicability of high-resolution regional atmospheric modeling in the context of detailed general atmospheric circulation analysis, an end-to-end approach for cyclone trajectory calculation on a unified global and regional grid has been proposed. It has been shown that increasing modeling resolution in the high latitudes allows one to more realistically simulate the activity of baroclinic waves and the thermal regime of the Arctic troposphere. The statistical structure of cyclonic activity has been investigated depending on the spatial resolution of the modeling system and compared with that in the reanalyses and satellite-derived analyses. The performance of the atmospheric models in the simulation of extreme cyclones is evaluated.

  17. A silica-supported iron oxide catalyst capable of activating hydrogen peroxide at neutral pH values.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Lee, Changha; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L

    2009-12-01

    Iron oxides catalyze the conversion of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) into oxidants capable of transforming recalcitrant contaminants. Unfortunately, the process is relatively inefficient at circumneutral pH values because of competing reactions that decompose H(2)O(2) without producing oxidants. Silica- and alumina-containing iron oxides prepared by sol-gel processing of aqueous solutions containing Fe(ClO(4))(3), AlCl(3), and tetraethyl orthosilicate efficiently catalyzed the decomposition of H(2)O(2) into oxidants capable of transforming phenol at circumneutral pH values. Relative to hematite, goethite, and amorphous FeOOH, the silica-iron oxide catalyst exhibited a stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the number of moles of phenol transformed per mole of H(2)O(2) consumed, which was 10-40 times higher than that of the iron oxides. The silica-alumina-iron oxide catalyst had a stoichiometric efficiency that was 50-80 times higher than that of the iron oxides. The significant enhancement in oxidant production is attributable to the interaction of Fe with Al and Si in the mixed oxides, which alters the surface redox processes, favoring the production of strong oxidants during H(2)O(2) decomposition.

  18. A Silica-Supported Iron Oxide Catalyst Capable of Activating Hydrogen Peroxide at Neutral pH Values

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Lee, Changha; Doyle, Fiona M.; Sedlak, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxides catalyze the conversion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into oxidants capable of transforming recalcitrant contaminants. Unfortunately, the process is relatively inefficient at circumneutral pH values due to competing reactions that decompose H2O2 without producing oxidants. Silica- and alumina-containing iron oxides prepared by sol-gel processing of aqueous solutions containing Fe(ClO4)3, AlCl3 and tetraethyl orthosilicate efficiently catalyzed the decomposition of H2O2 into oxidants capable of transforming phenol at circumneutral pH values. Relative to hematite, goethite and amorphous FeOOH, the silica-iron oxide catalyst exhibited a stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the number of moles of phenol transformed per mole of H2O2 consumed, that was 10 to 40 times higher than that of the iron oxides. The silica-alumina-iron oxide catalyst had a stoichiometric efficiency that was 50 to 80 times higher than that of the iron oxides. The significant enhancement in oxidant production is attributable to the interaction of Fe with Al and Si in the mixed oxides, which alters the surface redox processes, favoring the production of strong oxidants during H2O2 decomposition. PMID:19943668

  19. Values of Sleep/Wake, Activity/Rest, Circadian Rhythms, and Fatigue Prior to Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Ann M.; Farr, Lynne A.; Kuhn, Brett R.; Fischer, Patricia; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom experienced by patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Higher fatigue levels have been related to sleep maintenance problems and low daytime activity in patients who have received chemotherapy, but knowledge is sparse describing these relationships prior to chemotherapy. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model© guided this study, which describes sleep/wake, activity/rest, circadian rhythms and fatigue, and how they inter-relate in women with Stage I, II or IIIA breast cancer during the 48 hours prior to the first adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The present report describes these variables in 130 females, mean age = 51.4 years; the majority were married and employed. Subjective sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and fatigue was measured by the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS). Wrist actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep/wake, activity/rest, and circadian rhythms. Mean PSQI score was 6.73 ±3.4, indicating poor sleep. Objective sleep/wake results were within limits of normal (WNL) established for healthy individuals, except for the number and length of night awakenings. Objective activity/rest results were WNL except for low mean daytime activity. Circadian rhythm mesor was 132.3(24.6) and amplitude was 97.2(22.8). Mean PFS score was 2.56 ±2.0, with 72% reporting mild fatigue. There were significant relationships between subjective and objective sleep, but no consistent patterns. Higher total and subscale fatigue scores were correlated with most components of poorer subjective sleep quality (r= 0.25 to 0.42, P = <0.005). PMID:17397701

  20. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A.; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M.; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure. PMID:27104554

  1. Comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (cAEDA) of Fat from Tainted Boars, Castrated Male Pigs, and Female Pigs.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christoph; Leppert, Jan; Santiuste, Alicia Chamarro; Pfeiffer, Anne; Boeker, Peter; Wüst, Matthias

    2017-01-12

    The aroma profile of porcine fat from tainted boars, female pigs, and castrated male pigs was investigated by application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) on a SAFE distillate of volatiles prepared from porcine back fat samples. The AEDA resulted in a total of 16 aroma active compounds for boar fat with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 2 to 2048, whereas 12 aroma active compounds were found in fat of female pigs and 14 in fat of castrated male pigs, both with FD factors ranging from 2 to 32. Odor activity values (OAVs) of key components for each fat were identified: In boar fat androstenone, skatole, indole, and 2-aminoacetophenone showed highest OAVs, whereas 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,4-decadienal, and δ-decalactone showed highest OAVs in fat of female pigs. Fat of castrated male pigs showed highest OAVs for skatole, indole, 1-octen-3-ol and methional. Finally, the off-flavor attributes of boar fat were successfully simulated by a recombinant of all odorants at their natural concentration level in deodorized sunflower oil.

  2. Water quality: Historic values and impact of drilling activities during FY 1988 at the reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, P.A.; Teel, S.S.; Raymond, J.R.; Bierschenk, W.H.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring Program was to monitor the characterization activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX and document any environmental impacts as a result of these activities including contamination and/or degradation of the aquifer water quality from the invasion of drilling fluids into the formation and surface contamination from the disposal of drilling fluid at the land surface. The first phase of this program involved describing the baseline water quality at the Reference Repository Location (RRL) including data for spring and surface waters, and both the unconfined and confined aquifers. The second phase involved the collection and analysis of samples collected during drilling operations at wells DC-24CX and DC-25CX. Five surface water and 25 spring sampling sites were designated for chemical and radiological background data collection for BWIP. Chemical and radiological background data from 61 wells that obtain water from the unconfined aquifers indicate that the chemistry of these aquifers is similar to the spring and surface water samples. However, some of the wells show contamination from existing operations and past operations of various facilities on the Hanford Site. These contaminants are both chemical and radiological in nature with nitrate as the primary chemical constituent and tritium as the major radiological constituent. 20 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Similarities between recent seismic activity and paleoseismites during the late miocene in the external Betic Chain (Spain): relationship by 'b' value and the fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Pascua, M. A.; De Vicente, G.; Calvo, J. P.; Pérez-López, R.

    2003-05-01

    A paleoseismic data set derived from the relationship between the thickness of seismites, 'mixed layers' in lacustrine Miocene deposits and the magnitude of the earthquakes is presented. The relationship between both parameters was calibrated by the threshold of fluidification limits in the interval of magnitude 5 and 5.5. The mixed layers (deformational sediment structures due to seismic activity) were observed in varved sediments from three Neogene lacustrine basins near Hellı´n (Albacete, Spain), El Cenajo, Elche de la Sierra and Hı´jar, and are interpreted as liquefaction features due to seismic phenomena. These paleoseismic structures were dated (relative values) by measurements of cyclic annual sedimentation in the varved sediments. From these observations, we are able to establish a recurrence interval of 130 years with events for magnitude bigger than or equal to four. Both paleoseismicity and instrumental seismicity data sets obey the Gutenberg-Richter law and the 'b' value is close to 0.86. The fractal dimension (dimension of capacity) of spatial distribution of potentially active faults (faults oriented according to the stress tensor regime in the area) was measured by the box-counting technique ( D0=1.73). According to the Aki empirical relation ( D0=2 b) for the instrumental seismicity and paleoseismic data sets in the area, the fractal dimension is close to 1.72. The similar value of the fractal dimension obtained by both techniques shows homogeneous seismic dynamics during the studied time interval. Moreover, the better established 'b' value of the paleoseismic data sets (0.86) compared with the 'b' value for the incomplete historic seismicity (<0.5) in the area increases the seismic series beyond the historic seismic record.

  4. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. Methods The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom’s aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. Results The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. Conclusions P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite

  5. Blue honeysuckle fruit (Lonicera caerulea L.) from eastern Russia: phenolic composition, nutritional value and biological activities of its polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Innocenti, Marzia; Bellumori, Maria; Fiorini, Dennis; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro; Buccioni, Michela; Santinelli, Claudia; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Lupidi, Giulio; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Beghelli, Daniela; Cavallucci, Clarita; Bistoni, Onelia; Trivisonno, Angelo; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we conducted a comprehensive chemical analysis of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) spontaneously growing in eastern Russia. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis showed cyanidin-3-glucoside as the major constituent among phenolics, while nutritional analysis revealed fibre, protein, calcium and magnesium as the most important macro- and micronutrients, respectively. Fatty acid composition was dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid being the most abundant. Furthermore, we evaluated several in vitro biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, wound healing and immunomodulatory effects of blue honeysuckle aqueous and ethanolic extracts that are often incorporated in food and nutraceutical preparations. While the fruit extracts were revealed to be potent radical scavengers with significant inhibition of ABTS radical, thus confirming the literature data, their inhibitory effects against microbial pathogens and tumor cell lines were negligible. The fruit aqueous extract did not show toxicity to human fibroblasts, but 24 h treatment with 150-200 μg per mL of extract slightly enhanced the cell migration when tested by scratched wound assay. Worth mentioning was the inhibitory effect displayed by the blue honeysuckle fruit aqueous extract on human lymphocytes.

  6. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Heat-Processed Licorice (Succus Liquiritiae) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Juliane; Schieberle, Peter; Granvogl, Michael

    2017-01-11

    Application of the sensomics concept elucidated the key odorants of heat-processed licorice (Succus Liquiritiae). Forty-nine aroma-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 16 and 2048 were detected; 47 thereof were identified, 23 for the first time in heated licorice. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one revealed the highest FD factor of 2048, followed by 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, and 2-methoxyphenol (all 1024). Forty-two substances were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥ 1 for 29 compounds. Thereby, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxyphenol, and 1,8-cineole showed the highest OAVs in Succus Liquiritiae. To validate the obtained data, a reconstitution model based on an aqueous sucrose solution (50%) was prepared, containing all 29 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile matching very well with the profile of the original heat-processed licorice, proving the correct identification and quantitation of all key aroma compounds of Succus Liquiritiae.

  7. Predictive value of the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test for development of active tuberculosis in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Gunluoglu, Gulşah; Gunluoglu, Mehmet Zeki; Tural, Seda; Sökücü, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) compared with the general population. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) for LTBI detection is more promising than tuberculin skin test (TST) in HD patients. AIM: In our study, we evaluated the value of the TST and QFT-G In-Tube (QFG-IT) test in the development of active tuberculosis (TB), in the HD patients, and in healthy controls. METHODS: The study enrolled 95 HD patients and ninety age-matched, healthy controls. The TST and QFG-IT were performed. All the subjects were followed up 5 years for active TB disease. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, a high prevalence of LTBI was found in the HD patients by QFG-IT (41% vs. 25%). However, no significant difference was detected by TST (32% vs. 31%). Four HD patients and one healthy control progressed to active TB disease within the 5-year follow-up. For active TB discovered subjects, QFG-IT was positive in all, but TST was positive in two (one patient and one healthy control). In HD patients; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of QFG-IT, and TST for active TB was 100% and 25%, 62% and 67%, 10%, and 3%, and 100% and 95%, respectively. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed that the results are significantly different (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: QFG-IT test is a more useful diagnostic method than TST for detecting those who will progress to active TB in HD patients. PMID:27168859

  8. Screening for latent acute intermittent porphyria: the value of measuring both leucocyte delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthase and erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-1-synthase activities.

    PubMed Central

    McColl, K E; Moore, M R; Thompson, G G; Goldberg, A

    1982-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of haem biosynthesis characterised by reduced activity of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen-1-(URO) synthase and compensatory increased activity of the rate controlling enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) synthase. Subjects with the disorder should be identified as they are at risk of developing severe porphyric attacks if exposed to a variety of drugs or chemicals. We have assessed the value of measuring the activities of ALA synthase and URO synthase in peripheral blood cells as a means of identifying latent cases in affected families. In AIP subjects, ALA synthase activity was increased and URO synthase decreased compared to controls, through there was considerable overlap between the two groups when either enzyme was examined alone. When both enzymes were examined together, all but one of the 19 AIP patients had both increased ALA synthase activity (greater than 250 nmol ALA/g protein/h) and reduced URO synthase activity (less than 25.1 nmol URO/l RBC/h), whereas none of the 62 controls showed this enzyme pattern. Examination of 35 asymptomatic first degree blood relatives of AIP patients showed that 17 (49%) had the porphyric enzyme pattern with no sex bias. The combined study of these two enzymes permits accurate detection of latent cases of AIP and confirms its autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:7120315

  9. Nutritional value, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and enrichment of cream cheese with chestnut mushroom Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jovana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Stojković, Dejan; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2015-10-01

    A very well-known and appreciated mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing, was the subject of chemical profiling, antioxidant assays and sensory evaluation test in cream cheese. Methanolic extract obtained from a wild sample of A. aegerita fruiting body was fully chemically identified. Sample was found to be rich in carbohydrates (84.51 g/100 g dw), ash and proteins (6.69 g/100 g dw and 6.68 g/100 g dw, respectively). Trehalose was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. Four isoforms of tocopherols were identified; γ- tocopherol was the dominant isoform with 86.08 μg/100 g dw, followed by β- tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and α-tocopherol (8.80 μg/100 g dw, 3.40 μg/100 g dw and 2.10 μg/100 g dw, respectively). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, with linoleic acid as the most prominent one (78.40 %). Methanolic extract of chestnut mushroom exhibited high antioxidant activity. Sensory evaluation test included grading by panelists and comparing the overall acceptability of cream cheese alone and enriched cream cheese with dry powder of A. aegerita. General conclusion of the participants was that the newly developed product was more likeable in comparison to cream cheese alone. Due to the health-beneficial effects of antioxidants and wealth of chemically identified nutrients, A. aegerita is a promising starting material for incorporation on larger scale products.

  10. Altered circadian blood pressure profile in patients with active acromegaly. Relationship with left ventricular mass and hormonal values.

    PubMed

    Pietrobelli, D J; Akopian, M; Olivieri, A O; Renauld, A; Garrido, D; Artese, R; Feldstein, C A

    2001-09-01

    To determine the relationships between the circadian blood pressure profile and left ventricular mass, hormonal pattern and insulin sensitivity indices in patients with active acromegaly, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was recorded in 25 subjects (47.0 +/- 15.1 years, range 23-72). Serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1, fasting and mean plasma glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulinogenic index, the sum of the plasma insulin levels and the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (Homa's index) were determined. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated from two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiogram. The prevalence of hypertension was 56% (n = 14) and 40% (n = 10) according to sphygmomanometric measurements and ABPM, respectively. Non-dipping profile was observed in six of 10 hypertensives and in six of 15 normotensives. Serum growth hormone, fasting glucose, the area under the serum insulin curve and LVMI were higher for acromegalics with non-dipping profile than for dippers (all of them, P < 0.05). In non-dippers daytime heart rate was higher than night time (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the main observations in the present study suggested that both normotensive and hypertensive acromegalics had a highly prevalent non-dipping profile with a preserved circadian pattern of heart rate, that was associated with higher levels of serum GH. The disturbance in nocturnal blood fall in normotensives was associated with a decreased insulin sensitivity. The role of GH in blood pressure circadian rhythm regulation in essential hypertension deserves further studies.

  11. Alterations of DNA repair genes in the NCI-60 cell lines and their predictive value for anticancer drug activity

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Fabricio G.; Matuo, Renata; Tang, Sai-Wen; Rajapakse, Vinodh N.; Luna, Augustin; Sander, Chris; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Paul H.G.; Doroshow, James H.; Reinhold, William C.; Pommier, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function of DNA repair (DNAR) genes is associated with genomic instability and cancer predisposition; it also makes cancer cells reliant on a reduced set of DNAR pathways to resist DNA-targeted therapy, which remains the core of the anticancer armamentarium. Because the landscape of DNAR defects across numerous types of cancers and its relation with drug activity have not been systematically examined, we took advantage of the unique drug and genomic databases of the US National Cancer Institute cancer cell lines (the NCI-60) to characterize 260 DNAR genes with respect to deleterious mutations and expression down-regulation; 169 genes exhibited a total of 549 function-affecting alterations, with 39 of them scoring as putative knockouts across 31 cell lines. Those mutations were compared to tumor samples from 12 studies of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). Based on this compendium of alterations, we determined which DNAR genomic alterations predicted drug response for 20,195 compounds present in the NCI-60 drug database. Among 242 DNA damaging agents, 202 showed associations with at least one DNAR genomic signature. In addition to SLFN11, the Fanconi anemia-scaffolding gene SLX4 (FANCP/BTBD12) stood out among the genes most significantly related with DNA synthesis and topoisomerase inhibitors. Depletion and complementation experiments validated the causal relationship between SLX4 defects and sensitivity to raltitrexed and cytarabine in addition to camptothecin. Therefore, we propose new rational uses for existing anticancer drugs based on a comprehensive analysis of DNAR genomic parameters. PMID:25758781

  12. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  13. [Value of the assay of 4 urinary enzyme activities in the diagnosis of the infectious or toxic (aminoglycosides) origin of a renal disease. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Roche, G; Brugerolle, B; Straczek, J; Bertrand, F; Hurault de Ligny, B; Gérard, A; Presles, O; Canton, P; Dureux, J B

    1983-12-01

    Occurrence of a renal failure in an infected patient may be referred to various causes: infection, renal toxicity of drugs (for instance aminoglycosides), shock . . . Determination of some urinary enzymatic activities might be helpful in unravelling the mechanism involved in such cases. Therefore a prospective study of the specificity of some urinary enzymatic activities was performed. The whole LDH activity, the LDH isoenzyme 5 (LDH 5), and two lysosomal enzymes, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and beta-glucuronidase (beta-GLU) were dosed systematically, in several groups of patients: I (n = 34): healthy control, with normal renal function; II (n = 24): renal impairment, without recent upper urinary-tract infection (UTI) or aminoglycoside treatment; III (n = 27): upper UTI without aminoglycoside treatment, IV (n = 22): patients treated with aminoglycosides (without upper UTI); V (n = 16): upper UTI treated with aminoglycosides. Results showed a rather good specificity of whole LDH and LDH 5 for infectious kidney damage, and of NAG for tubular injury due to aminoglycoside treatments. Values of urinary beta-glucuronidase varied over a wide range; they were little increased in group III, without a great discriminative value. No significant difference was noted between group I and group II, for any enzyme whatever.

  14. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  15. Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.

    PubMed

    Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-05-23

    The concentrations of 19 odorants, recently characterized by GC-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis as the most odor-active compounds in raw hazelnuts, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Calculation of odor activity values (OAV) on the basis of odor thresholds in oil revealed high OAVs, in particular for linalool, 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 4-methylphenol. A model mixture in sunflower oil containing the 13 odorants showing OAVs above 1 in their natural concentrations resulted in a good similarity compared to the overall nut-like, fruity aroma of the raw hazelnuts. Quantitation of the 25 most odor-active compounds in roasted hazelnut paste by SIDA showed clear changes in the concentrations of most odorants, and formation of new odor-active compounds induced by the roasting process was observed. The highest OAVs were calculated for 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (Z)-2-nonenal (fatty), followed by dimethyl trisulfide, 2-furfurylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. The aroma of a model mixture containing the 19 odorants with OAVs above 1 in their actual concentrations in the roasted nut material was judged to elicit a very good similarity to the popcorn-like, coffee-like, and sweet-smoky aroma of the roasted hazelnut paste. New SIDAs were developed for the quantitation of 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2-thenylthiol, and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone.

  16. Young patients with cystic fibrosis: attitude toward physical activity and influence on physical fitness and spirometric values of a 2-week training course.

    PubMed

    Stanghelle, J K; Winnem, M; Roaldsen, K; de Wit, S; Notgewitch, J H; Nilsen, B R

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the attitude toward physical activity in young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and the influence of 2 weeks of training on physical fitness and spirometric values. Two groups of CF patients with mean ages of 11 and 15 years, respectively (total of 13 patients, range 9-21 years), participated in the study. Two healthy control groups with mean ages of 11 and 14 years, respectively, performed the same tests as the CF patients. The CF patients answered questionnaires regarding their attitude toward the activities both during the camp and at home and accomplished spirometric and exercise tests. The CF childrens' parents were interviewed concerning their children's attitude toward physical activity. The attitude toward physical activity of the CF children was very positive both during the camps and at home. The CF patients had at least as good a motivation for exercise as the healthy controls. The physical fitness of the CF patients was reduced, but improved during the training period. The spirometric tests were unchanged during the first course, but increased significantly during the other camp, even if lung physiotherapy was stopped during the training period. The study indicates that CF patients can be motivated for physical exercise, even for training for endurance and at a high enough level to replace lung physiotherapy, at least for shorter periods.

  17. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  18. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  19. Redeeming Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitwell, Stuart C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an essay on organizational transformation and the way successful marketing transformations redeem a sense of value. Focuses on challenges faced by not-for-profit institutions, current changes in the library profession, and implications of the American Library Association's Goal 2000. A sidebar summarizes an interview with the director of…

  20. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  1. 11R-P53 and GM-CSF Expressing Oncolytic Adenovirus Target Cancer Stem Cells with Enhanced Synergistic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Sai-qun; Ye, Zhen-long; Liu, Pin-yi; Huang, Yao; Li, Lin-fang; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Hai-li; Jin, Hua-jun; Qian, Qi-jun

    2017-01-01

    Targeting cancer stem cells with oncolytic virus (OV) holds great potential for thorough elimination of cancer cells. Based on our previous studies, we here established 11R-P53 and mGM-CSF carrying oncolytic adenovirus (OAV) SG655-mGMP and investigated its therapeutic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells Hep3B-C and teratoma stem cells ECCG5. Firstly, the augmenting effect of 11R in our construct was tested and confirmed by examining the expression of EGFP with Fluorescence and FCM assays after transfecting Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells with OVA SG7605-EGFP and SG7605-11R-EGFP. Secondly, the expressions of 11R-P53 and GM-CSF in Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells after transfection with OAV SG655-mGMP were detected by Western blot and Elisa assays, respectively. Thirdly, the enhanced growth inhibitory and augmented apoptosis inducing effects of OAV SG655-mGMP on Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells were tested with FCM assays by comparing with the control, wild type 5 adenovirus, 11R-P53 carrying OVA in vitro. Lastly, the in vivo therapeutic effect of OAV SG655-mGMP toward ECCG5 cell-formed xenografts was studied by measuring tumor volumes post different treatments with PBS, OAV SG655-11R-P53, OAV SG655-mGM-CSF and OAV SG655-mGMP. Treatment with OAV SG655-mGMP induced significant xenograft growth inhibition, inflammation factor AIF1 expression and immune cells infiltration. Therefore, our OAV SG655-mGMP provides a novel platform to arm OVs to target cancer stem cells. PMID:28243324

  2. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of measuring IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies to mycobacterial A60 antigen in active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ben-selma, Walid; Harizi, Hedi; Marzouk, Manel; Ben Kahla, Imen; Ben Lazreg, Foued; Ferjeni, Asma; Boukadida, Jalel

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of detection of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM antibodies raised against the mycobacterial A60 antigen for the diagnosis and discrimination of active tuberculosis (TB) from other pulmonary diseases. Three commercially available ELISA kits (IgA, IgG, and IgM) (ANDA Biologicals, Strasbourg, France) were evaluated simultaneously in 246 serum samples from 3 groups of patients: group I, 171 patients with active TB (128 pulmonary TB and 43 extrapulmonary TB); group II, 73 patients with pulmonary non-TB diseases; and group III, 2 leprosies patients. The sensitivities of tests ranged from 31.3% (IgA) to 94% (IgG) in pulmonary TB patients and from 21% (IgA) to 84% (IgG) in extrapulmonary TB patients. The specificities of assays varied from 92% (IgG) to 96% (IgA) in the pulmonary non-TB group. Combination of IgG with IgA and/or IgM does not improve its sensitivity. Clinical use of the A60-based serodiagnostic IgG assay is of great value for the rapid diagnosis and discrimination between active TB and pulmonary non-TB diseases. Moreover, this test could be used to increase diagnostic accuracy, especially for smear-negative TB cases, which are difficult to diagnose.

  3. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  4. Diagnostic values for the viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Michio; Kawada, Jun-ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease (CAEBV) is a distinct EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease with a poor prognosis. Although the viral load in blood samples has been widely used for diagnosing CAEBV, well-defined viral load thresholds to guide clinicians are currently lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine standardized diagnostic values for EBV load in blood samples of CAEBV patients using the World Health Organization international standard for reporting. Levels of EBV DNA in 103 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 95 plasma/serum samples from 107 cases with CAEBV were quantified and expressed in international units. Receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed to assess the most appropriate cut-off values for levels of EBV DNA to distinguish CAEBV from EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM) and controls with past EBV infection. Levels of EBV DNA in PBMCs were significantly higher in the CAEBV group (median, 10(4.2) IU/μgDNA) compared to the IM (median, 10(2.1) IU/μgDNA) and control groups. An inconsistent qualitative result was seen in 13 of 86 CAEBV patients; in these, EBV-DNA was positive in PBMCs, but negative in plasma. Diagnostic cut-off values for viral load in PBMCs from CAEBV patients, as compared to those of healthy controls and IM patients, were 10(2.0) IU/μgDNA and 10(3.2) IU/μgDNA, respectively. For diagnostic purposes, the viral load of PBMCs was better than of plasma/serum. A diagnostic cut-off EBV load for CAEBV may be useful for the management of CAEBV patients.

  5. Motivational interviewing targeting diet and physical activity improves adherence to pediatric obesity treatment: Results from the MI Values randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Melanie K.; Powell, Priscilla; Quinoy, Alexis; Ingersoll, Karen; Wickham, Edmond P.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adherence is a challenge in obesity treatment. Motivational interviewing (MI) may promote patient adherence. MI Values is a randomized controlled trial of MI implemented as an adjunct to an adolescent obesity treatment (T.E.E.N.S.). Objective Assess effects of MI Values on T.E.E.N.S. attrition and adherence. Methods Participants were randomized to MI (n=58) or control (n=41). At weeks 1 and 10, MI participants had brief MI sessions; controls viewed health education videos. All participants continued with T.E.E.N.S. (biweekly dietitian and behavioral support visits; 3x/week supervised physical activity). Assessments were repeated at baseline, 3 and 6-months. T-tests and chi-square analyses examined T.E.E.N.S. attrition and adherence by group. Results Adolescents (N=99) were primarily African American (73%) females (74%); age=13.8±1.8 years, body mass index percentile=98.0±1.2. Compared with controls, MI participants had greater 3-month adherence overall (89.2% vs. 81.0%, p=0.040), and to dietitian (91.3% vs. 84.0%; p=0.046) and behavioral support (92.9% vs. 85.2%; p=0.041) visits, and greater 6-month adherence overall (84.4% vs. 76.2%, p=0.026) and to behavioral support visits (87.5% vs. 78.8%, p=0.011). Conclusions MI enhanced adherence to this obesity intervention. MI Values is the first study to examine the impact of MI on treatment adherence among obese, primarily African American adolescents. PMID:24729537

  6. Comparison of the prognostic value of genomic grade index, Ki67 expression and mitotic activity index in early node-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Roche, H; Le Doussal, J M; Marisa, L; Martin, A L; Lacroix-Triki, M; Blanc-Fournier, C; Jacquemier, J; Peyro-Saint-Paul, H; Viens, P; Sotiriou, C; Birnbaum, D; Penault-Llorca, F

    2013-03-01

    Background The genomic grade index (GGI) completes the prognostic value of histological grade (HG). Other proliferation markers include the mitotic activity index (MAI) and the Ki67 immunohistochemistry (IHC) status. We compared the prognostic value of GGI, HG, MAI, Ki67 IHC and messenger RNA (mRNA) status in node-positive breast cancer (BC) patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in the prospective PACS01 trial. Patients and methods The five proliferation-related parameters (GGI, Ki67 mRNA expression and centrally determined HG, MAI, and Ki67 IHC status) of tumours were available for 204 cases and analysed as continuous values. We compared the correlations of each one with the other proliferation-related parameters and with histoclinical variables including the disease-free survival (DFS). Results Expected correlations were observed between the five parameters and for each parameter with biological features (hormone-receptor and HER2 status, molecular subtypes), but the GGI displayed the strongest correlations. The GGI outperformed the prognostic performance of the four other proliferation-related parameters for the DFS in all 204 patients and in the 95 HG2 patients. In multivariate analysis including the classical prognostic factors, only GGI remained significant. Finally, the GGI outperformed the prognostic performance of MKI67 mRNA expression in a series of 1599 samples and 656 HG2 cases. Conclusions In this small pilot biomarker study ancillary to the PACS01 trial, the GGI outperforms the prognostic performance of centrally determined HG, MAI, Ki67 IHC status and mRNA expression. Further validation is warranted in larger series.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: a cluster randomized trial of the READY program

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Depression and poor social support are significant risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), and stress and anxiety can trigger coronary events. People experiencing such psychosocial difficulties are more likely to be physically inactive, which is also an independent risk factor for CHD. Resilience training can target these risk factors, but there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs. This paper describes the design and measures of a study to evaluate a resilience training program (READY) to promote psychosocial well-being for heart health, and the added value of integrating physical activity promotion. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized trial, 95 participants will be allocated to either a waitlist or one of two intervention conditions. Both intervention conditions will receive a 10 × 2.5 hour group resilience training program (READY) over 13 weeks. The program targets five protective factors identified from empirical evidence and analyzed as mediating variables: positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, social support, life meaning, and active coping. Resilience enhancement strategies reflect the six core Acceptance and Commitment Therapy processes (values, mindfulness, defusion, acceptance, self-as-context, committed action) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies such as relaxation training and social support building skills. Sessions include psychoeducation, discussions, experiential exercises, and home assignments. One intervention condition will include an additional session and ongoing content promoting physical activity. Measurement will occur at baseline, two weeks post intervention, and at eight weeks follow-up, and will include questionnaires, pedometer step logs, and physical and hematological measures. Primary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of psychosocial well-being and depression. Secondary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of stress, anxiety and physical

  8. Role of different Escherichia coli hydrogenases in H+ efflux and F₁F(o)-ATPase activity during glycerol fermentation at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Blbulyan, Syuzanna; Avagyan, Arev; Poladyan, Anna; Trchounian, Armen

    2011-06-01

    Escherichia coli is able to ferment glycerol and produce H2 by different Hyds (hydrogenases). Wild-type whole cells were shown to extrude H+ through the F1Fo-ATPase and by other means with a lower rate compared with that under glucose fermentation. At pH 7.5, H+ efflux was stimulated in fhlA mutant (with defective transcriptional activator of Hyd-3 or Hyd-4) and was lowered in hyaB or hybC mutants (with defective Hyd-1 or Hyd-2) and hyaB hybC double mutant; DCCD (dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide)-sensitive H+ efflux was observed. At pH 5.5, H+ efflux in wild-type was lower compared with that at pH 7.5; it was increased in fhlA mutant and absent in hyaB hybC mutant. Membrane vesicle ATPase activity was lower in wild-type glycerol-fermented cells at pH 7.5 compared with that in glucose-fermented cells; 100 mM K+ did not stimulate ATPase activity. The latter at pH 7.5, compared with that in wild-type, was lower in hyaB and less in hybC mutants, stimulated in the hyaB hybC mutant and suppressed in the fhlA mutant; DCCD inhibited ATPase activity. At pH 5.5, the ATPase activities of hyaB and hybC mutants had similar values and were higher compared with that in wild-type; ATPase activity was suppressed in hyaB hybC and fhlA mutants. The results indicate that during glycerol fermentation, H+ was expelled also via F1Fo. At pH 7.5 Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 but not FhlA or Hyd-4 might be related to F1Fo or have their own H+-translocating ability. At pH 5.5, both Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 more than F1Fo might be involved in H+ efflux.

  9. Planning Value vs Earned Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    20 196 10 98 7 Postmortem 4 200 2 100 Les Dupaix - 17Earned Value Duration Charts Gantt (Bar) Chart Si lmp e Can show dependencies Tracking planned vs...7 7 4 2 Identify Requirements 78 86 39 43 4 6 96 103 43 3 Match Requirements 20 106 10 53 5 7 24 127 53 to Phases 4 Identify Risk Areas 20 126 10 63

  10. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values.

    PubMed

    Suhr, K I; Nielsen, P V

    2004-08-15

    Inhibition of spoilage organisms from bakery products by weak acid preservatives in concentrations of 0%, 0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3% (w/v) was investigated experimentally on a substrate media with water activity (a(w)) and pH ranging from sourdough-fermented acidic rye bread to alkaline intermediate moisture sponge cake types (a(w) 0.80-0.95, pH 4.7-7.4). Initially, rye bread conditions (a(w) 0.94-0.97 and pH 4.4-4.8) in combination with calcium propionate were investigated. Results showed that the highest concentration of propionate (0.3%) at all conditions apart from high a(w) (0.97) and high pH (4.8) totally inhibited fungal growth for a 2-week period, with the exception of Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium commune and Eurotium rubrum. Characteristically for the major spoiler of rye bread, P. roqueforti, all three isolates tested were stimulated by propionate and the stimulation was significantly enhanced at high water activity levels. The effect of propionate on production of secondary metabolites (mycophenolic acid, rugulovasine, echinulin, flavoglaucin) was also studied, and variable or isolate dependent results were found. Subsequently, a screening experiment representing a wider range of bakery products was conducted using calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. The obtained data was modelled using survival analysis to determine 'spoilage-free time' for the fungi. At the low a(w) level (0.80) only Eurotium species grew within the test period of 30 days. Higher water activity levels as well as higher pH values decreased spoilage-free times of the fungi. The preservative calcium propionate was less effective than potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate.

  11. Section III: Examining American Values: Value Choices Since Revolutionary Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American values are followed by a values clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)

  12. Valuing hope.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  13. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  14. Feeding value of field beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities for broilers.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov

    2017-04-01

    Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets. The Control diet contained as major ingredients wheat (400 g/kg) and soybean meal (SBM) (127 g/kg and 221 g crude protein/kg and 12.83 MJ AMEn/kg. To reduce nutrient density, the Control diet also contained washed sand at 119 g/kg. Another three diets containing 300 g/kg of each of three experimental field bean cultivar samples in replacement for SBM and sand were also mixed. Each diet was fed to nine pens with two male Ross 308 broilers. Diets high in tannin had low AMEn, ECR, DMR and NR (p < 0.001). Feeding field beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the pancreas and the proventriculus and gizzard (PG) of the birds. Supplementing diets with the enzyme mixture improved (p < 0.001) feed conversion efficiency, AMEn and all nutrient utilisation coefficients despite the tannins in diets. The enzyme mixture reduced ileal digesta viscosity (p < 0.001) and the weight of pancreas, total GIT and PG (p < 0.05) of the birds. It can be concluded that the feeding value of field beans with different tannin contents may vary when fed to broilers. The supplementation of the enzyme mixture improved the feeding value of diets for broilers. The beneficial effect of the addition of the enzyme mixture seems to be mediated through reduced ileal digesta viscosity and improved nutrient availability.

  15. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lindefors, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Background A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC) method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT). Methods Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013–2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB), cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention. Outcomes Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment), treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130) per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134) in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 < 5) during both 2013 and 2014 and an additional 35% and 33% had achieved partial remission in 2013 and 2014, respectively. At follow-up, 42% were in full remission

  16. Values Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemin, Marion, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a reference for teachers to use in incorporating values education into all subject areas through the activities listed in the book. The book contains 16 chapters, of which about half provide guidelines, discussion and activities related to values in general, and half suggest activities specific to individual areas of study. In the…

  17. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  18. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, , and nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Jaderborg, Jeffrey P; DiCostanzo, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total in bedded pack material. Four bedded packs of each bedding material were maintained for two 42-d periods ( = 32; eight replicates/bedding material). Straight- and branched-chained fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and sulfide compounds were measured from the headspace above each bedded pack. Green cedar bedding had the highest concentration of odorous VOCs, and pine chip bedding had the lowest ( < 0.01). Calculated odor activity values were highest for green cedar bedding, followed by dry cedar, corn stover, and pine chip bedding. As the bedded packs aged, the concentration of odorous VOCs increased, particularly in the bedded packs containing green cedar chips and dry cedar chips. Total concentrations increased from Days 0 to 21 and then began to decline and were similar among all bedding materials ( < 0.10). Results of this study indicate that producers using a long-term bedded pack management in their facility may benefit from using pine chips because they do not appear to increase odor over time. Cedar-based bedding materials may be better suited for a scrape-and-haul system, where the bedded pack is removed after 1 or 2 wk. Total concentrations did not differ between any of the four bedding materials over time.

  19. Adding Value through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Stephen S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    PPG's training department enhanced its value to the organization by getting closer to its internal customer and helping them build the competencies needed to meet business goals. Techniques included the training, development, and education process model and a professional development sourcebook clarifying competencies and activities for acquiring…

  20. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  1. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  2. Can recent pan-tropical biomass maps be used to derive alternative Tier 1 values for reporting REDD+ activities under UNFCCC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Achard, Frédéric; Grassi, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    The IPCC Guidelines propose 3 Tier levels for greenhouse gas monitoring within the forest land category with a hierarchical order in terms of accuracy, data requirements and complexity. Due to missing data and/or capacities, many developing countries, potentially interested in the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation scheme, have to rely on Tier 1 default values with highest uncertainties. A possible way to increase the credibility of uncertain estimates is to apply a conservative approach, for which standard statistical information is needed. However, such information is currently not available for the IPCC values. In our study we combine a recent global forest mask, an ecological zoning map and the pan-tropical AGB datasets of Saatchi and Baccini to derive mean forest AGB values per ecological zone and continent as well as their corresponding confidence intervals. Such analysis can be considered transparent as the datasets/methodologies are well documented. Our study leads to alternative Tier 1 values and allows the application of statistically-based conservative approaches. Our AGB estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets are 35% and 24% lower respectively than the IPCC values. When restricting the analysis to intact forest landscapes resulting ABG estimates derived from Saatchi and Baccini datasets get closer to the IPCC values with 13% and 1% differences respectively (underestimation). This suggests that the IPCC default values are mainly based on plots in mature forest stands. However, as tropical forests generally consist of a mixture of intact and degraded stands, the use of IPCC values may not properly reflect the reality. Finally, we propose to use the average composite of the Saatchi and Baccini datasets to produce improved alternative IPCC Tier 1 values. The values derived from such approach can easily be updated when newer and/or improved pan-tropical AGB maps will be available.

  3. Defining the typical aroma of sherry vinegar: sensory and chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Callejón, Raquel M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Antonio C Silva; Troncoso, Ana M

    2008-09-10

    The aroma of the three different classes of Sherry vinegar was evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC-O). GC-O was employed to identify substances responsible for aromatic notes associated with the selected descriptors of the typical aroma of Sherry vinegar and odor activity values (OAV) calculated to measure the single impact effect of different compounds selected by GC-O. Diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, ethyl isobutyrate, isovaleric acid, sotolon, and ethyl acetate reached high OAVs, turning out to be characteristic odor active compounds in Sherry vinegars. A total of 58 compounds were quantified, among them, 7 had not been previously reported in Sherry wine vinegars: ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl furoate, and ethyl benzoate, acetophenone, nonanoic acid, and sotolon. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) reveals that using aroma compounds as variables, we can classify Sherry vinegars with 100% correct scores as different from red wine vinegars.

  4. Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research-Active Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutge, Elizabeth; Slack, Catherine; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-02-01

    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. Furthermore, relations between research stakeholders were perceived to be somewhat fragile, making it difficult for stakeholders to achieve consensus about the social value of research, as well as on ways to maximize value. Interventions to negotiate a shared perspective on the social value of research would appear to be warranted, and the findings of this study suggest some focus areas for such intervention.

  5. Parental Influence on Psychological Value Perception of Co-Curricular Activities: Its Links with Improving Personality Traits of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. N. Sunith; Arockiasamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Co-curricular activities provide prospects for better youth development and growth experiences. These activities are particularly good at providing opportunities for students to work in teams, to exercise leadership, and to take the initiative themselves. The active participation of the students is required to reap out maximum benefits out of such…

  6. The Arabs: Activities for the Elementary School Level. The Things that Make for Peace: Empowering Children To Value Themselves and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbas, Audrey; And Others

    These activities for teaching elementary school students about the Arab people are designed to reflect the principles of peace education: respect for one's self, others, and for the planet. The activities are hands-on in nature and designed with the "whole child" in mind. The activities integrate movement, fine muscle and large muscle…

  7. Values in Education and Education in Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, J. Mark, Ed.; Taylor, Monica J., Ed.

    The major purpose of this book is to set out some of the key issues and debates relating to the importance of values in education and of education in values. After an introductory chapter about the concept of values and values education, part 1 provides a variety of perspectives on the values that underpin contemporary education. The introduction…

  8. Micro-opioid receptor activation in the basolateral amygdala mediates the learning of increases but not decreases in the incentive value of a food reward.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Cely, Ingrid C; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-02-02

    The decision to perform, or not perform, actions known to lead to a rewarding outcome is strongly influenced by the current incentive value of the reward. Incentive value is largely determined by the affective experience derived during previous consumption of the reward-the process of incentive learning. We trained rats on a two-lever, seeking-taking chain paradigm for sucrose reward, in which responding on the initial seeking lever of the chain was demonstrably controlled by the incentive value of the reward. We found that infusion of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, CTOP (d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2)), into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) during posttraining, noncontingent consumption of sucrose in a novel elevated-hunger state (a positive incentive learning opportunity) blocked the encoding of incentive value information normally used to increase subsequent sucrose-seeking responses. Similar treatment with δ [N, N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu-OH (ICI 174,864)] or κ [5'-guanidinonaltrindole (GNTI)] antagonists was without effect. Interestingly, none of these drugs affected the ability of the rats to encode a decrease in incentive value resulting from experiencing the sucrose in a novel reduced-hunger state. However, the μ agonist, DAMGO ([d-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin), appeared to attenuate this negative incentive learning. These data suggest that upshifts and downshifts in endogenous opioid transmission in the BLA mediate the encoding of positive and negative shifts in incentive value, respectively, through actions at μ-opioid receptors, and provide insight into a mechanism through which opiates may elicit inappropriate desire resulting in their continued intake in the face of diminishing affective experience.

  9. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model.

    PubMed

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation.

  10. Characterization of the Key Odorants in Chinese Zhima Aroma-Type Baijiu by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Studies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; Sun, Baoguo; Zhao, Mouming; Zheng, Fuping; Huang, Mingquan; Sun, Jinyuan; Sun, Xiaotao; Li, Hehe

    2016-07-06

    Zhima aroma-type Baijiu with typical sesame aroma is particularly popular in northern China. To our knowledge, it is still uncertain which components are important to make contributions to its unique aroma, although a few pieces of research have reported many volatile compounds in this Baijiu. The aroma-active compounds from the Baijiu were researched in this paper. A total of 56 odorants were identified in Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Their odor activity values (OAVs) were determined by different quantitative measurements, and then 26 aroma compounds were further confirmed as important odorants due to their OAVs ≥ 1, and these had higher values, such as ethyl hexanoate (OAV 2691), 3-methylbutanal (2403), ethyl pentanoate (1019), and so on. The overall aroma of Zhima aroma-type Baijiu could be simulated by mixing of the 26 key odorants in their measured concentrations. The similarity of the overall aroma profiles between the recombination model and the commercial sample was judged to be 2.7 out of 3.0 points. Omission experiments further corroborated the importance of methional and ethyl hexanoate for the overall aroma of Chinese Zhima aroma-type Baijiu.

  11. The Education of Developing Responsibility Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güngör, Semra Kiranli; Güzel, Deniz Bostan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value education activities in pre-school value education. In Turkey, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 26 students aged five and…

  12. Characterizing and Assessing Co-Curricular Activities for Graduate and Professional-School Students: Exploring the Value of Intentional Assessment Planning and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waryas, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the importance of systematic evaluation of co-curricular activities directed at graduate- and professional- school students. Approaches to assessment and benefits of sound practice are presented along with the critical role that institutional researchers can play.

  13. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  14. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  15. The various assays for measuring activity states of factor VIIa in plasma and therapeutic products: Diagnostic value and analytical usefulness in various pathophysiological states.

    PubMed

    Amiral, Jean; Dunois, Claire; Amiral, Cédric; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-12-29

    The key coagulation factor FVII, and its activated form FVIIa, present a major interest for their role at the initiation phase of blood coagulation, and because they can activate all blood coagulation cascade, through the extrinsic, but also the intrinsic pathway. Blood activation initiated through FVII is first presented, as it is understood nowadays. Measurement of FVII and FVIIa were of main interest for epidemiological studies, but FVIIa contribution to assay results was only deduced. The introduction of specific FVIIa assays, functional or immunoassays, allowed measuring directly FVIIa without any interference of non-activated FVII, or other coagulation factors or their activated forms. The various methods available, and their characteristics are presented, with a special focus on two assays developed by our group for FVIIa (a clotting one and a chromogenic one). The FVIIa clotting assay shows evident superiority for measuring its activity in plasma, in pathophysiological conditions. The normal range is <2.5ng/ml, which represents less than 0.5% of the FVII protein. FVIIa is elevated in some pathological states. The chromogenic assay is of interest for assigning the potency of FVIIa concentrates, as it has a higher dynamic range. Both assays are fully automatable on laboratory instruments, and standardized in a satisfactory manner thanks to the use of the FVIIa concentrate WHO International Standard (NIBSC). The various applications and usefulness of FVIIa laboratory assays are discussed, for the measurement of therapeutic products, or for following recoveries in treated patients, including hemophiliacs with inhibitors, patients with severe bleeding risk (liver diseases, surgery, trauma, …), and lastly for measurement of its activity in therapeutic products.

  16. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  17. Influence of the Production Process on the Key Aroma Compounds of Rum: From Molasses to the Spirit.

    PubMed

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-30

    The production of rum consists of fermentation, distillation, and aging. To check the influence of each step on the final rum aroma, molasses, mash, distillate, and the final rum were analyzed using the sensomics concept. The changes in key aroma compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for quantitation. Odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) were calculated for the compounds determined in the rum and, finally, the rum aroma was successfully simulated by recombination. (E)-β-Damascenone showed by far the highest OAV (3280) in rum. Although this compound was determined already in molasses, its concentration increased significantly during distillation, indicating a thermolabile precursor. Vanillin, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol are well-known compounds mainly stemming from the wood barrels used for aging and showed an OAV ≥ 1. Another important group of aroma-active compounds in rum were ethyl esters, for which a significant increase was determined during fermentation but also to a lesser extent during aging. Altogether, the concentrations of 68% of the aroma-active compounds increased during the process, demonstrating its influence on the overall rum aroma.

  18. Quantitation of key peanut aroma compounds in raw peanuts and pan-roasted peanut meal. Aroma reconstitution and comparison with commercial peanut products.

    PubMed

    Chetschik, Irene; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2010-10-27

    By means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), 26 odor-active compounds, previously characterized by GC-olfactometry (GC-O), were quantitated in raw peanuts, and the concentrations of 38 odorants were determined in pan-roasted peanut meal. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in vegetable oil, the odor activity values (OAVs) of the most important aroma compounds in raw as well as in pan-roasted peanut meal were calculated. 3-Isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, acetic acid, and 3-(methylthio)propanal showed the highest OAVs in raw peanuts, whereas methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal as well as the intensely popcorn-like smelling 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline revealed the highest OAV in the pan-roasted peanut meal. Aroma recombination studies confirmed the importance, in particular, of methanethiol and of lipid degradation products in the characteristic aroma of the freshly roasted peanut material. To evaluate additive effects on the overall aroma, the concentrations of eight pyrazines, previously not detected by GC-O among the odor-active volatiles, were additionally quantitated in the pan-roasted peanut meal. A sensory experiment in which the eight pyrazines were added to the recombinate clearly revealed that these volatiles did not show an impact on the overall aroma. Finally, selected odorants were quantitated in commercial peanut products to confirm their important role in peanut aroma.

  19. Adding Value to the Learning Process by Online Peer Review Activities: Towards the Elaboration of a Methodology to Promote Critical Thinking in Future Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While…

  20. Developing On-Campus Work-Integrated Learning Activities: The Value of Integrating Community and Industry Partners into the Creative Arts Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly identified as essential to helping creative arts students' transition from university into the creative industries workplace. Off-campus activities, such as work placements, play a major role in educating work-ready graduates. At the same time, increasing enrolment numbers in creative arts education…

  1. Adolescence physical activity is associated with higher tibial pQCT bone values in adulthood after 28-years of follow-up--the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, S; Sievänen, H; Mikkilä, V; Telama, R; Oikonen, M; Laaksonen, M; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T

    2015-06-01

    High peak bone mass and strong bone phenotype are known to be partly explained by physical activity during growth but there are few prospective studies on this topic. In this 28-year follow-up of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort, we assessed whether habitual childhood and adolescence physical activity or inactivity at the age of 3-18 years were associated with adult phenotype of weight-bearing tibia and the risk of low-energy fractures. Baseline physical activity and data on clinical, nutritional and lifestyle factors were assessed separately for females and males aged 3-6-years (N=395-421) and 9-18-years (N=923-965). At the age of 31-46-years, the prevalence of low-energy fractures was assessed with a questionnaire and several tibial traits were measured with pQCT (bone mineral content (BMC; mg), total and cortical cross-sectional areas (mm(2)), trabecular (for the distal site only) and cortical (for the shaft only) bone densities (mg/cm(3)), stress-strain index (SSI; mm(3), for the shaft only), bone strength index (BSI; mg(2)/cm(4), for the distal site only) and the cortical strength index (CSI, for the shaft only)). For the statistical analysis, each bone trait was categorized as below the cohort median or the median and above and the adjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined. In females, frequent physical activity at the age of 9-18-years was associated with higher adulthood values of BSI, total and cortical areas, BMC, CSI and SSI at the tibia independently of many health and lifestyle factors (ORs 0.33-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.002-0.05). Cortical density at the tibial shaft showed the opposite trend (P-value for trend 0.03). Similarly in males, frequent physical activity was associated with higher values of adult total and cortical areas and CSI at the tibia (ORs 0.48-0.53, P≤0.05; P-values for trend 0.01-0.02). However, there was no evidence that childhood or adolescence physical activity was associated with lower risk of low

  2. Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations.

    PubMed

    Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

    2006-07-26

    Isolation of the volatile fraction from cocoa powder (50 g; 20% fat content) by a careful extraction/distillation process followed by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096. Among them, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty, rancid), dimethyl trisulfide (cooked cabbage), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (potato-chip-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Quantitation of 31 key odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of their odor activity values (OAVs) (ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed OAVs>100 for the five odorants acetic acid (sour), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and 2-methylbutanal (malty). In addition, another 19 aroma compounds showed OAVs>1. To establish their contribution to the overall aroma of the cocoa powder, these 24 compounds were added to a reconstructed cocoa matrix in exactly the same concentrations as they occurred in the cocoa powder. The matrix was prepared from deodorized cocoa powder, which was adjusted to 20% fat content using deodorized cocoa butter. The overall sensory evaluation of this aroma recombinate versus the cocoa powder clearly indicated that the 24 compounds represented the typical sweet, cocoa-like odor of the real sample.

  3. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in rape honey by means of the molecular sensory science concept.

    PubMed

    Ruisinger, Brigitte; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-05-02

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from unifloral rape honey harvested in July 2009, 28 odor-active areas could be detected within a flavor dilution factor (FD) range of 4-2048. The highest FD factors were found for (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like), phenylacetic acid (honey-like), 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (aniseed-like), 3-phenylpropanoic acid (flowery, waxy), and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like). Twenty-three odorants were then quantitated by application of stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAV, ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of newly determined odor thresholds in an aqueous fructose-glucose solution. The highest OAVs were calculated for (E)-β-damascenone, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and phenylacetaldehyde. Quantitative measurements on a rape honey produced in 2011 confirmed the results. A model mixture containing the 12 odorants showing an OAV ≥ 1 at the same concentrations as they occurred in the rape honey was able to mimick the aroma impression of the original honey. The characterization of the key odorants in rape flowers from the same field suggested 3-phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, and three further odorants to be transferred via the bees into the honey.

  4. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.

    PubMed

    Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-06-27

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma.

  5. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Raw Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Juliane; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-09

    Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA; 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024. Forty-three compounds were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA; 6 more compounds were quantitated using labeled standards with structures similar to the respective analytes) and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥1 for 39 compounds. Thereby, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, hexanal, and linalool showed the highest OAVs. On the basis of the obtained results, an aqueous reconstitution model was prepared by mixing these 39 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile very similar to the profile of raw licorice, proving that all key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated.

  6. Characterization of the aroma signature of styrian pumpkin seed oil ( Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca) by molecular sensory science.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann, Susan; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on a distillate prepared from an authentic Styrian pumpkin seed oil followed by identification experiments led to the characterization of 47 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192 among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (roasty, popcorn-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Among the set of key odorants, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline and another 20 odorants were identified for the first time as constituents of pumpkin seed oil. To evaluate the aroma contribution in more detail, 31 aroma compounds showing the highest FD factors were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in sunflower oil, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated, and 26 aroma compounds were found to have an OAV above 1. Among them, methanethiol (sulfury), 2-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanal (malty), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (roasted potato) reached the highest OAVs. Sensory evaluation of an aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 31 key odorants in the concentrations as determined in the oil revealed that the aroma of Styrian pumpkin seed oil could be closely mimicked. Quantitation of 11 key odorants in three commercial pumpkin seed oil revealed clear differences in the concentrations of distinct odorants, which were correlated with the overall aroma profile of the oils.

  7. What is the diagnostic value of beta-D-glucuronidase (BDG) activity of bacteria using Fluorocult ECD agar for their cultivation?

    PubMed

    Ralovich, B; Ibrahim, G A; Fábián, A; Herpay, M

    1991-01-01

    A total of 1510 strains from 15 genera of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were studied. More than 94% of 327 Escherichia coli strains showed beta-D-glucuronidase (BDG) activity. Seventeen serotypes from 170 E. coli O serogroup representatives were negative. Relationship between the existence of BDG positive and negative E. coli strains in the same serogroup or serotype has not been observed. The rate of BDG positivity was 42% among Salmonella arizonae strains and 42.2% among Shigella strains. Only one Citrobacter strain out of the 971 strains belonging to Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Hafnia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio and Listeria was BDG positive. A screening method based on only BDG activity is not sufficient for the primary diagnosis of E. coli.

  8. Adding value to the learning process by online peer review activities: towards the elaboration of a methodology to promote critical thinking in future engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While introducing a new methodology, it is important to weight the advantages found and the conditions that might have restrained the activity outcomes, thereby modulating its overall efficiency. Our results show that several factors are decisive for the success of the methodology: the use of specific and detailed orientation guidelines for CT skills, the students' training on how to deliver a meaningful feedback, the opportunity to counter-argument, the selection of good assignments' examples, and the constant teacher's monitoring of the activity. Results also tackle other aspects of the methodology such as the thinking skills evaluation tools (grades and tests) that most suit our reality. An improved methodology is proposed taking in account the encountered limitations, thus offering the possibility to other interested institutions to use/test and/or improve it.

  9. Iron chelating active packaging: Influence of competing ions and pH value on effectiveness of soluble and immobilized hydroxamate chelators.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Yoshiko; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-04-01

    Many packaged foods utilize synthetic chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) to inhibit iron-promoted oxidation or microbial growth which would result in quality loss. To address consumer demands for all natural products, we have previously developed a non-migratory iron chelating active packaging material by covalent immobilization of polyhydroxamate and demonstrated its efficacy in delaying lipid oxidation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of this hydroxamate-functionalized iron chelating active packaging to retain iron chelating capacity; even in the presence of competing ions common in food. Both immobilized and soluble hydroxamate chelators retained iron chelating capacity in the presence of calcium, magnesium, and sodium competing ions, although at pH 5.0 the presence of calcium reduced immobilized hydroxamate iron chelation. A strong correlation was found between colorimetric and mass spectral analysis of iron chelation by the chelating packaging material. Such chelating active packaging may support reducing additive use in product formulations, while retaining quality and shelf life.

  10. Predictive value of serum bradykinin and desArg9-bradykinin levels for chemotherapeutic responses in active tuberculosis patients: A retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Nguyen, Duc T.M.; Li, Yaojun; Lyu, Jianxin; Graviss, Edward A.; Hu, Tony Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for methods that can rapidly and accurately assess therapeutic responses in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in order to predict treatment outcomes. Exposure to bacterial pathogens can rapidly activate the plasma contact system, triggering the release of bradykinin (BK) and its metabolite desArg9-bradykinin (DABK) to induce inflammation and innate immune responses. We hypothesized that serum BK and DABK levels might act as sensitive immune response signatures for changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) burden, and therefore examined how serum levels of these markers corresponded with anti-TB therapy in a small cohort of active TB cases. Methods Nanotrap Mass-Spectrometry (MS) was used to analyze serial blood specimens from 13 HIV-negative adults with microbiologically confirmed active TB who were treated with first-line anti-TB chemotherapy. MS signal for BK (m/z 1060.5) and DABK (m/z 904.5) serum peptides were evaluated at multiple time-points (before, during, and after treatment) to evaluate how BK and DABK levels corresponded with disease status. Results Serum BK levels declined from pretreatment baseline levels during the early stage anti-TB therapy (induction phase) and tended to remain below baseline levels during extended treatment (consolidation phase) and after therapy completion. BK levels were consistent with induction phase sputum culture conversions indicative of decreased Mtb burden reflecting good treatment responses. Serum DABK levels tended to increase during the induction phase and decrease at consolidation and post-therapy time points, which may indicate a shift from active disease to chronic inflammation to a disease free state. Elevated BK and DABK levels after treatment completion in one patient may be related to the subsequent recurrent TB disease. Conclusions Our pilot data suggests that changes in the circulating BK and DABK levels in adult TB patients can be used as potential surrogate markers

  11. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  12. Values in health care.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the paper is concerned with the health care values of various groups; namely, those which are resource oriented, disease oriented, political decision-makers, organized sellers and purchasers of health care and patients. These groups are further divided according to selected political/ideological and socio-economic characteristics, essentially along capitalist and socialist lines. Some of the ways in which the values held by these groups are determined, formulated and, by implication at least, changed and the political, economic and other bases for some of their practical applications are identified. The second part of the paper focuses upon values in public health education and related practice. It is argued that to become more useful to the 'health of the public' the new public health worker will have to become more activist, assuming an adversarial stance toward the market economy in capitalist countries and oppressive governmental structures everywhere. A wider integration of knowledge concerning the effects of health of all types of economic, social and political practices is required; this, in turn, would contribute to the emergence of alternative forms of public health analysis and practice. The recognition of wider forms of public health leadership should follow, coupled with organizational changes directed at the greater participation of popular groupings in all types of public health activities.

  13. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow.

  14. In Your 20s it’s Quantity, in Your 30s it’s Quality: The Prognostic Value of Social Activity Across 30 Years of Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Cheryl L.; Reis, Harry T.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Lifespan development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Carstensen, 2003), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age-20 and age-30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age-50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age-20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age-30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  15. [Rates of breathing values and kinetics of respiration response in critical patterns of muscular activity in middle and long distance running].

    PubMed

    Volkov, N I; Kornienko, T G; Tambovtseva, R V

    2014-01-01

    Parameters of ventilation influx, ventilation debt and ventilation demand of exercise were calculated on the basis of heart rate dynamics and parameters of external breathing during the testing procedure and recovery of elite runners during of the maximum workout. It was established that all of external breathing values closely reproduce changes of basic parameters of oxygen demand during the exercises at high intensity and duration and can be used for quantification and valuation of exercise loads in sport. During the conducted at the research it was experimentally proved that high level of sporting achievements in middle and long distance running is defined by three major factors of an aerobic exchange in an organism: 1. General ratio of increase in level of pulmonary ventilation (VE), consumption of oxygen (VO2) and allocation of carbon dioxide (CO2); 2. During the expiration--rate and of supply speed of oxygen (O2) from lungs to working muscles; 3. Rate of oxygenation (StO2) and total speed of the blood-groove.

  16. Extending an In Vitro Panel for Estrogenicity Testing: The Added Value of Bioassays for Measuring Antiandrogenic Activities and Effects on Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Besselink, Harrie T.; Houtman, René; Peijnenburg,  Ad A.C.M.; Brouwer, Abraham; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Bovee,  Toine F.H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a previously established integrated testing strategy (ITS) for in vitro estrogenicity testing was extended with additional in vitro assays in order to broaden its sensitivity to different modes of action resulting in apparent estrogenicity, i.e., other than estrogen receptor (ER) binding. To this end, an extra set of 10 estrogenic compounds with modes of action in part different from ER binding, were tested in the previously defined ITS, consisting of a yeast estrogen reporter gene assay, an U2OS ERα CALUX reporter gene assay and a cell-free coregulator binding assay. Two androgen reporter gene assays and the enhanced H295R steroidogenesis assay were added to that previous defined ITS. These assays had added value, as several estrogenic model compounds also elicited clear and potent antiandrogenic properties and in addition also showed effects on steroidogenesis that might potentiate their apparent estrogenic effects in vivo. Adding these assays, examining mechanisms of action for estrogenicity apart from ERα binding, gives a more complete and comprehensive assessment of the ability of test compounds to interfere with endocrine signaling. It was concluded that the extended ITS will go beyond in vivo estrogenicity testing by the uterotrophic assay, thereby contributing to the 3R-principles. PMID:24928889

  17. Predictive value of cytokines and immune activation biomarkers in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with rituximab plus infusional EPOCH (AMC-034 trial)

    PubMed Central

    Epeldegui, Marta; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Martínez, Anna C.; Widney, Daniel P.; Magpantay, Larry I.; Regidor, Deborah; Mitsuyasu, Ronald; Sparano, Joseph A.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to determine if pre-treatment plasma levels of cytokines and immune activation-associated molecules changed following treatment for AIDS-NHL with rituximab plus infusional EPOCH, and to determine if pre-treatment levels of these molecules were associated with response to treatment and/or survival. Experimental design We quantified plasma levels of B cell activation-associated molecules (sCD27, sCD30, sCD23) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, CXCL13) prior to and after the initiation of treatment in persons with AIDS-NHL (n=69) in the AIDS Malignancies Consortium (AMC) 034 study, which evaluated treatment of AIDS-NHL with EPOCH chemotherapy and rituximab. Results Treatment resulted in decreased plasma levels of some of these molecules (CXCL13, sCD27, sCD30), with decreased levels persisting for one year following the completion of treatment. Lower levels of CXCL13 before treatment were associated with complete responses following lymphoma therapy. Elevated levels of IL-6 pre-treatment were associated with decreased overall survival, while higher IL-10 levels were associated with shorter progression-free survival, in multivariate analyses. Furthermore, patients with CXCL13 or IL-6 levels higher than the median levels for the NHL group, as well as those who had detectable IL-10, had lower overall survival and PFS, in Kaplan Meier analyses. Conclusions These results indicate that CXCL13, IL-6 and IL-10 have significant potential as prognostic biomarkers for AIDS-NHL. PMID:26384320

  18. Selenium and topiramate modulates brain microsomal oxidative stress values, Ca2+-ATPase activity, and EEG records in pentylentetrazol-induced seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Kutluhan, Süleyman; Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that oxidative stress products play an important role in the etiology of epilepsy. We investigated the effects of selenium (Se) administration on topiramate (TPM)- and pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced brain toxicity in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. The first and second groups were used as the control and PTZ groups, respectively. TPM, 50 mg, and Se, 0.3 mg, were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups, respectively, for 7 days. The combination of 50 mg TPM and Se was given to animals in the fifth group for 7 days. At the end of 7 days all groups except the first received a single dose of PTZ. Brain cortex samples were taken at 3 h of PTZ administration. PTZ resulted in a significant increase in brain cortex and microsomal lipid peroxidation (LP) levels, number of spikes, and epileptiform discharges on the EEG, although brain cortex vitamin E, brain cortex and microsomal reduced glutathione (GSH), and microsomal calcium (Ca) levels, Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, and latency to first spike on the EEG were decreased by PTZ. LP, GSH, vitamin E, and Ca levels and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were increased by both Se and TPM, although vitamin A and C concentrations were increased by Se only. There were no effects of TPM and Se on brain cortex and microsomal glutathione peroxidase, brain cortex nitric oxide, or beta-carotene levels. In conclusion, TPM and selenium caused protective effects on PTZ-induced brain injury by inhibiting free radical production, regulating calcium-dependent processes, and supporting the antioxidant redox system.

  19. Free and bound volatile chemicals in mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ≥ 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas.

  20. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars.

  1. Clinical Value of Plasma Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Term Neonates with Infection or Sepsis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Siahanidou, Tania; Margeli, Alexandra; Charoni, Stavroula; Giannaki, Maria; Vavourakis, Eustathios; Charisiadou, Athina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Background. suPAR, the soluble form of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, has been identified as a biomarker of infection in adults but its properties in neonatal infection are not known. Methods. Plasma suPAR levels were determined by ELISA in 47 term neonates with infection (19 bacterial and 28 viral) and in 18 healthy neonates as controls. Thirteen out of 47 infected neonates were septic. In all infected neonates, suPAR levels were repeated at 24 hours, 48 hours, 3–5 days, and 7–10 days following admission. Results. Plasma suPAR levels were significantly increased in infected neonates upon admission, whereas they were highest in septic neonates, in comparison with controls (P < 0.001) and correlated positively with serum CRP levels (P = 0.001). At infection subsidence, suPAR concentrations decreased significantly in comparison with baseline (P < 0.001) but remained higher than in controls (P = 0.01). Receiver operating characteristic analysis resulted in significant areas under the curve for detecting either infected or septic neonates, but not for discriminating between bacterial and viral cause of infection. Conclusions. suPAR is a diagnostic biomarker of infection or sepsis in term neonates; however, it cannot discriminate bacterial from viral infections and also its utility for monitoring the response to treatment is questioned. PMID:24882949

  2. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  3. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model

    PubMed Central

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. PMID:26951592

  4. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  5. The Values System in the Franchising Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Tomaras, Petros; Zondiros, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the values system delimiting the entrepreneurial activity. The total of these entrepreneurial activities is defined within the franchising framework. The reason for choosing to examine these activities is that franchising is considered to be a rather special kind of entrepreneurship. By this way, it can be examined whether specific entrepreneurial values are required in order to turn to franchising, or it concerns a strategic entrepreneurial choice which is independent from the value standards.

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  7. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  8. Values and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.

    Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

  9. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  10. [Establishment of a cut-off value for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction using a new CK-MB activity measurement reagent containing anti-MtCK antibody].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Mariko; Kodama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Risa; Asada, Takashi; Sano, Takahiro; Sano, Michitaka; Kamakura, Shiro; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    CK-MB is an important marker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Since mitochondrial CK (MtCK) is universally present in the blood of healthy individuals, it is known to positively affect the measurement of CK-MB using the immunoinhibition method, causing false-positive results. We performed basic evaluation of ACCURAS AUTO CK-MB MtO, a new reagent containing anti-MtCK antibody that inhibits MtCK activity, and attempted to calculate a cut-off CK-MB level to diagnose AMI. The measurement was performed in samples submitted to the Clinical Laboratory of our center for the measurement of CK-MB. This method was confirmed to have satisfactory basic attributes concerning the reproducibility, linearity, lower detection limit, and effects of interfering substances. When 2886 samples were examined using this and conventional methods, the results of the two methods were correlated in some but not in others. In the samples that showed no correlation, MtCK was demonstrated by isozyme analysis using electrophoresis. The AUC calculated from the ROC curve in AMI patients was 0.912 with this method and 0.861 with the conventional method. The sensitivity and specificity of the new method were higher than those of the conventional method. The cut-off value determined by ROC analysis was 7.7 U/l using the new method and 13.6 U/l using the conventional method, causing an increase in false-positive results compared with the cut off value of 25 U/l widely used for the conventional method to date. However, the cut-off value for the new method that yielded a specificity comparable to 99.1%, which is the specificity of the conventional method using a cut-off value of 25 U/l, was 12 U/l. With a cut-off value of 12 U/l, the sensitivity was improved compared with that employing the conventional method, and both the sensitivity and specificity became comparable to those of the CK-MB mass method. This method is very useful for the accurate measurement of CK-MB activity.

  11. Anthropology with Activism: Settling Its Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.

    2014-01-01

    This response to Katherine Schultz's Presidential Address to the Council on Anthropology and Education explores the themes of temporality and reflexivity in activist scholarship, with Schultz's research as prime example. The need to take action to address a crisis, juxtaposed to the counter need to take time for scholarly reflection and…

  12. The Value of Fun in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherif, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    According to students, fun, good grades and time with friends are the three key outcomes of physical education. A further review of fun in physical education, from the perspective of students, is included in this article. Selected responses from interviews with high school students reference fun as an important part of their experience in physical…

  13. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  14. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  15. Values in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wees, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Teaching for values instead of knowledge would significantly change education. Could the psychosocial values of goodness, beauty, search for truth, social organization, and economics be rank ordered? Can and how should such life-survival values as health, sex, aggression and self-defense, language, and love be taught in school? (Author/SB)

  16. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  17. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  18. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  19. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  20. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  1. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Judy

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities designed to give students an opportunity to solve concrete problems involving spatial relationships and logical thinking utilizing hands-on manipulatives. Provides teacher instructions and four reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  2. The prognostic value of mitotic activity index (MAI), phosphohistone H3 (PPH3), cyclin B1, cyclin A, and Ki67, alone and in combinations, in node-negative premenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Klintman, Marie; Strand, Carina; Ahlin, Cecilia; Beglerbegovic, Sanda; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Grabau, Dorthe; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Janssen, Emiel A M; Lövgren, Kristina; Skaland, Ivar; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Malmström, Per; Baak, Jan P A; Fernö, Mårten

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation, either as the main common denominator in genetic profiles, or in the form of single factors such as Ki67, is recommended for clinical use especially in estrogen receptor-positive (ER) patients. However, due to high costs of genetic profiles and lack of reproducibility for Ki67, studies on other proliferation factors are warranted. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the proliferation factors mitotic activity index (MAI), phosphohistone H3 (PPH3), cyclin B1, cyclin A and Ki67, alone and in combinations. In 222 consecutive premenopausal node-negative breast cancer patients (87% without adjuvant medical treatment), MAI was assessed on whole tissue sections (predefined cut-off ≥10 mitoses), and PPH3, cyclin B1, cyclin A, and Ki67 on tissue microarray (predefined cut-offs 7th decile). In univariable analysis (high versus low) the strongest prognostic proliferation factor for 10-year distant disease-free survival was MAI (Hazard Ratio (HR)=3.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.8-6.1), followed by PPH3, cyclin A, Ki67, and cyclin B1. A combination variable, with patients with MAI and/or cyclin A high defined as high-risk, had even stronger prognostic value (HR=4.2, 95%CI: 2.2-7). When stratifying for ER-status, MAI was a significant prognostic factor in ER-positive patients only (HR=7.0, 95%CI: 3.1-16). Stratified for histological grade, MAI added prognostic value in grade 2 (HR=7.2, 95%CI: 3.1-38) and grade 1 patients. In multivariable analysis including HER2, age, adjuvant medical treatment, ER, and one proliferation factor at a time, only MAI (HR=2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.7), and cyclin A (HR=2.7, 95%CI: 1.2-6.0) remained independently prognostic. In conclusion this study confirms the strong prognostic value of all proliferation factors, especially MAI and cyclin A, in all patients, and more specifically in ER-positive patients, and patients with histological grade 2 and 1. Additionally, by combining two proliferation factors

  3. Identification of complex septic odorants in Huangpu River source water by combining the data from gas chromatography-olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using retention indices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingyuan; Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Kai; Wen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Zhiyong; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Min

    2016-06-15

    Identification of the trace odorants causing the septic odors in source waters with complex matrixes has long been a big challenge. The Huangpu (HP) River, an important source water for Shanghai, has long been suffering from septic and musty odors, although major odorants have not been identified. In this study, combining the data from gas chromatography-olfactometry with mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) using retention indices (RIs) was used for the identification of odorants in HP source water. Olfactometry peaks detected in water extracts by GC-O/MS were combined with the chromatography peaks detected by GC×GC-TOFMS based on the RIs determined using the retention times (RTs) of alkanes C7-C30. A total of thirteen olfactometry peaks were obtained though GC-O/MS analysis, and potential odorants corresponding to each of the olfactometry peaks were screened based on the odor characteristics and match similarity using GC×GC-TOFMS. Finally, fourteen odorants (one odorant was detected in GC×GC-TOFMS without an olfactometry peak), including three septic odorants (bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, diethyl disulfide and dimethyl disulfide) and two musty ones (geosmin and 2-MIB), were confirmed by using authentic standards. The septic and musty odorants in six source water samples taken over a period of six months were quantified. Bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, with an odor activity value (OAV) of 1.84-3.2, was found to be a major septic odorant in HP source water, followed by diethyl disulfide (OAV 1.56-1.96) and dimethyl disulfide (OAV 0.37-2.42), while geosmin (OAV 4.37-11.44) was the major musty odorant, followed by 2-MIB (OAV 1.13-1.89). This is the first comprehensive study focusing on the identification of odorants in a complex source water. The integrated approach used in this study could be applied for the identification of odorants in other complex source waters

  4. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  5. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  6. The Value of the P Value.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research.

  7. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  8. Values Take Center Stage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of mind? Think about the many other circumstances where your mood, outlook, and effectiveness are influenced by values that may be unconscious and...a leader’s values. Aspiring leaders everywhere identify role models, including Abraham Lincoln, Nelson Mandela , Mahatma Gandhi, George Washington...and others whose strongly held and effectively communicated values contrib- uted to their profound impact. While there are many differ- ent

  9. Deodorants, value, and performance.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, L N

    1997-11-01

    For the health-care market, like the deodorant market, the message is clear: Add value or your product will not be competitive. For physicians of all specialties, the best way to add value is to measure and improve performance. Performance measurement is critical to improvement in health care. Without measurement, there can be no improvement in quality. Without improvement in quality, there is no added value. Oncologists can take at least two actions to add value for their health plans: (1) measure practice performance and demonstrate a quality improvement; and (2) become the personal-care physician for cancer patients.

  10. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.

  11. Neural representations of subjective reward value.

    PubMed

    Peters, J; Büchel, C

    2010-12-01

    Decision neuroscience suggests that there exists a core network for the subjective valuation of rewards from a range of different domains, encompassing the ventral striatum and regions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), in particular the ventromedial aspect of the OFC. Here we first review ways to measure subjective value experimentally in a cognitive neuroscience context, and provide a brief overview over different types of value (outcome, goal and decision value). We then compare results of functional neuroimaging studies of subjective value representations across these different types of value. Our analysis suggests that the same region of the mOFC represents the outcome values of primary reinforcers, but also more complex decision values in which multiple dimensions of the reward need to be integrated. The subjective (hedonic) experience of processing highly valued decision options (regardless of whether they refer to actually experienced rewards or merely potential future rewards) appears to be what is reflected in value-related mOFC activity.

  12. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  13. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  14. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  15. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  16. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  17. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  18. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  19. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  20. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  1. Growth of One Dimensional RuO2 Nanowires on g-Carbon Nitride: An Active and Stable Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Reactions at All pH Values.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Tanmay; Kundu, Manas Kumar; Barman, Sudip

    2016-10-04

    Development of highly efficient and durable bifunctional electrocatalyst for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) is essential for the efficient solar fuel generation. The commercial RuO2 or RuO2 based catalysts are highly active towards OER; but their poor stability under different operating conditions is the main obstacle for their commercialization. Herein, we report growth of one dimensional highly crystalline RuO2 nanowires on carbon nitride (1D-RuO2-CNx) for their applications in HER and OER at all pH values. The 1D-RuO2-CNx, as an OER catalyst, exhibits low onset overpotential of ~ 200 mV in both acidic and basic media whereas Tafel slopes are 42 mV/dec and 56 mV/dec in acidic and basic media respectively. This catalyst requires low overpotential of 250 mV and 260 mV to drive the current density of 10 mA/cm-2 in acidic and basic media respectively. The mass activity of 1D-RuO2-CNx catalyst is 352 mA mg-1 which is ~14 time higher than that of commercial RuO2. Most importantly, the 1D-RuO2-CNx catalyst has remarkably higher stability in compare to commercial RuO2. This catalyst also exhibits superior HER activity with current density of 10 mAcm-2 at ~93 and 95 mV in acidic and basic media. The HER Tafel slopes of this catalyst are 40 mV/dec in acidic condition and 70 mV/dec in basic condition. The HER activity of this catalyst is slightly lower than Pt/C in acid media whereas in basic media is comparable or even better than that of Pt/C at higher over-potentials. The HER stability of this catalyst is also better than that of Pt/C in all pH solutions. This superior catalytic activity of 1D-RuO2-CNx composite can be attributed to catalyst-support interaction, enhanced mass and electron transport, one dimensional morphology and highly crystalline rutile RuO2 structure.

  2. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  3. Correlation between serum 25(OH)D values and lupus disease activity: an original article and a systematic review with meta-analysis focusing on serum VitD confounders.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, M; Nabavi, N; Salehi, M

    2014-10-01

    Notwithstanding that several original studies and some systematic reviews have been undertaken on the subject "correlation between serum values of vitamin D (VitD) and lupus disease activity," there is still no consensus on the importance of sectional measurement of serum VitD in the prediction of disease activity and important confounders in estimation of serum VitD. Medline, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases were searched from 1995 to 2013. The following medical subject heading (MeSH) terms and/or text words were used: "Vitamin D" OR "25OHD" OR "25(OH)D" combined with "systemic lupus erythematosus" OR "lupus" OR "SLE." References cited in the identified articles were also manually searched. Human studies in any language were included. Original research on this topic was also carried out on 82 lupus patients, considering important VitD confounders according to our systematic review and we included them in the meta-analysis. A total of 35 studies were registered for this study. Only 11 of these pointed to this correlation by Pearson test. The pooled Pearson correlation (r) of associations between disease activity and VitD was -0.365 (95% CI: -0.536, -0.165) with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.001 I (2 )= 93%). Sensitivity analysis resulted in no significant differences. The most important adjustable confounders considered by researchers were drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and supplementary VitD, body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria or renal function. Only proteinuria was reported to influence VitD concentration strongly. BMI was another probable influencing factor. Our original research presented no correlation between VitD and SLEDAI (p = 0.68, r s = 0.003). This meta-analysis demonstrated that most of the studies on the relationship between VitD and lupus disease activity that found no correlation did not present the details of the statistics. However, analyzing 11 studies, most of which found a reverse correlation and

  4. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  5. Quantity and quantity value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Giordani, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The concept system around ‘quantity’ and ‘quantity value’ is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic ‘equality’ relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A consistent characterization of such concepts is obtained, which is then generalized to ‘property’ and ‘property value’. This analysis also throws some light on the elusive concept of magnitude. A preliminary version of this paper was presented and discussed at the Joint International IMEKO TC1, TC7 & TC13 Symposium, 31 August to 2 September 2011, Jena, Germany.

  6. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  7. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  8. b values and ω−γ seismic source models: Implications for tectonic stress variations along active crustal fault zones and the estimation of high-frequency strong ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    In this study the tectonic stress along active crustal fault zones is taken to be of the form , where  is the average tectonic stress at depth y and Δσp(x, y) is a seismologically observable, essentially random function of both fault plane coordinates; the stress differences arising in the course of crustal faulting are derived from Δσp(x, y). Empirically known frequency of occurrence statistics, moment-magnitude relationships, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops may be used to infer that the number of earthquakes N of dimension ≥r is of the form N ∼ 1/r2 and that the spectral composition of Δσp(x, y) is of the form , where  is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of Δσp(x, y) expressed in radial wave number k. The γ = 2 model of the far-field shear wave displacement spectrum is consistent with the spectral composition , provided that the number of contributions to the spectral representation of the radiated field at frequency ƒ goes as (k/k0)2, consistent with the quasi-static frequency of occurrence relation N ∼ 1/r2;k0 is a reference wave number associated with the reciprocal source dimension. Separately, a variety of seismologic observations suggests that the γ = 2 model is the one generally, although certainly not always, applicable to the high-frequency spectral decay of the far-field radiation of earthquakes. In this framework, then, b values near 1, the general validity of the γ = 2 model, and the constancy of earthquake stress drops independent of size are all related to the average spectral composition of. Should one of these change as a result of premonitory effects leading to failure, as has been specifically proposed for b values, it seems likely that one or all of the other characteristics will change as well from their normative values. Irrespective of these associations, the far-field, high-frequency shear radiation for the γ = 2 model in the presence of anelastic attenuation may be interpreted as

  9. Values in Persons With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This is an explorative study on the values of persons with schizophrenia based on transcripts of individual therapy sessions conducted for 40 persons with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. Values are action-guiding attitudes that subject human activities to be worthy of praise or blame. The schizophrenic value system conveys an overall crisis of common sense. The outcome of this has been designated as antagonomia and idionomia. Antagonomia reflects the choice to take an eccentric stand in the face of commonly shared assumptions and the here and now “other.” Idionomia reflects the feeling of the radical uniqueness and exceptionality of one's being with respect to common sense and the other human beings. This sentiment of radical exceptionality is felt as a “gift,” often in view of an eschatological mission or a vocation to a superior, novel, metaphysical understanding of the world. The aim of this study is neither establishing new diagnostic criteria nor suggesting that values play an etio-pathogenetical role in the development of schizophrenia but improving our understanding of the “meaning” of schizophrenic experiences and beliefs, and by doing so reducing stigmatization, and enhancing the specificity and validity of “psychotic symptoms” (especially bizarre delusions) and of “social and occupational dysfunction” through a detailed description of the anthropological and existential matrix they arise from. PMID:16940339

  10. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  11. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  12. Nuclear Proliferation as a Global Values Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity designed to involve students in critical thinking and values inquiry concerning the horizontal nuclear proliferation. Provides a set of global values, explaining the conflict between them and nuclear proliferation. Uses indicators, hypothesis development, and testing. Provides sources for material evidence to use in…

  13. 12 CFR 703.11 - Valuing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Valuing securities. 703.11 Section 703.11 Banks... DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.11 Valuing securities. (a) Before purchasing or selling a security, a Federal credit union must obtain either price quotations on the security from at least two broker-dealers or...

  14. 12 CFR 703.11 - Valuing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Valuing securities. 703.11 Section 703.11 Banks... DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.11 Valuing securities. (a) Before purchasing or selling a security, a Federal credit union must obtain either price quotations on the security from at least two broker-dealers or...

  15. Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

  16. American values and contraceptive acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rzepka, J R

    1979-07-01

    A number of individual personality factors and social norms may be associated with reproductive confusion and/or irresponsibility. More specifically, the values underlying common American social norms may contribute to ineffective birth planning in the following ways: 1) The traditional roles of women in our society seem to encourage parenthood. The rule has been early marriage, closely spaced children, and few alternate sources of satisfaction or self-esteem. 2) Our culture strongly encourages family life. Children are a symbol of normalcy. 3) The importance of sexual enjoyment per se often conflicts with contraceptive use. Conversely, innocence is also valued and also contributes to unprotected sexual activity. 4) Religious reasons or adherence to concepts of natural law are almost always given by people opposed to contraception. 5) Health is important to Americans, and birth control methods negatively affect health in real and imagined ways. Social norms, though changing, remain essentially congruent with former contraceptive technology and former ideologies, customs, and dreams.

  17. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  18. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  19. Values and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The idea of a democratic society based on human rights and social justice is the social issue examined in this book which is one of a series on challenges and choices in American values. The format followed in the series includes the following for secondary students: case studies illustrating the issue by focusing on human institutions, factual…

  20. Classifying Values by Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gündüz, Mevlüt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to make a new classification regarding the fact that the current classifications may change constantly because of values? gaining a different dimension and importance every single day. In this research descriptive research, which was used frequently in qualitative research methods, was preferred. This research was…

  1. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  2. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  3. Implementing Target Value Design.

    PubMed

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  4. Making People Feel Valued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergueson, Susan; Aimone, Logan

    2002-01-01

    Suggests many quick, easy and inexpensive ways to help make staff members of student publications feel valued and keep staff motivation levels high. Includes additional articles that describe how an editor can support efforts to motivate, suggest that staff retreats lead to success, note how banquets serve as reward, and suggest some favorite…

  5. Changing Values & Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

    A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

  6. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  7. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  8. Planting Seeds - Growing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    Nurturing positive values with youth often involves connecting with them during times of internal struggle and relating these struggles to external influences in their lives. Care and support provided by adults is crucial in these times, even when a youth's outward expression of struggles create conflict or concern. In this article, the author…

  9. Not Without Value. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    2002-01-01

    To reverse the decline in volunteerism in education, administrators must understand the difference between true volunteering and participation coerced under the guise of volunteering. Appreciation is essential for promoting volunteerism, for no one wishes to be considered without value. But if coercion and exploitation are part of the growing…

  10. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  11. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  12. [Nutritional value of sesame seeds].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N

    2011-01-01

    Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.

  13. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  14. Identifying and tracking key odorants from cattle feedlots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Razote, Edna; Hatfield, Jerry

    2011-08-01

    Odors from cattle feedlots can negatively affect air quality in local communities. Our objectives were the following: 1) identify key odor-causing compounds using odor activity values (OAVs) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques; 2) compare odor threshold values from published databases; and 3) track the movement of odors from a cattle feedlot to receptor community. Odorous compounds emitted from a cattle feedlot were sampled on-site, 250 m downwind and 3.2 km downwind using both sorbent tubes and denuders. Sorbent tubes were analyzed by both GC-MS and GC-MS-O and key odorants determined using both OAV and GC-Surface Nasal Impact Frequency (SNIF) analysis, while denuders were analyzed by ion chromatography. Odorant concentrations had a diurnal pattern with peak concentrations during early morning and late evening periods. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were the most abundant of the major odorants. Odorants with concentrations above their odor threshold values at the feedlot included amines, VFAs, phenol compounds, and indole compounds. Key odorants at the feedlot were VFAs and phenol compounds, but their relative importance diminished with downwind distance. Indole compounds, while not the key odorants at the feedlot, increased in relative importance downwind of the feedlot. In general, the odorous compounds identified by GC-SNIF and OAV as having fecal/manure nature were similar. GC-SNIF was the more sensitive analytical technique; it identified several compounds that may have contributed to the unpleasantness of the cattle feedlot odor, but its throughput was extremely low thereby limiting its usefulness. There is a need to improve field sampling devices and odor threshold databases to enhance understanding and confidence in evaluating odors.

  15. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  16. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  17. Education: A Core Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F., Jr.

    2001-09-01

    1. Teaching our Children. ACS should develop an intensive course in modern teaching methods, challenges and responsibilities, and press for streamlined teacher certification procedures for advanced degree or life experience chemists.
    2. Teaching our Future Colleagues. As President I will encourage companies to make scientists with special skills available to universities, and will encourage universities to utilize these scientists to round out areas of study not covered by their existing faculty.
    3. Teaching our Members. ACS should develop functional and management-related courses for scientists to facilitate career advancement from the bench to research management or from science to business.
    4. Teaching the Public. The President is the most visible representative of the Society, and should devote significant time to communication with lay audiences.
    Value Matters. My first priority as President will be to increase value creation, communication and quantification so members can easily identify programs that fill their needs and exceed their expectations.

  18. On establishing reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish a range of reference values for any characteristic one can use Gaussian or nonparametric techniques, whichever are most appropriate. One has the choice of calculating tolerance intervals or percentile intervals. A tolerance interval is said to contain, say 95% of the population with probability, say 0.90. A percentile interval simply simply calculates the values between which 95% of the observations fall. If the data can be said to have a Gaussian distribution, the same precision can be obtained with smaller sample sizes than using the nonparametric techniques. In some cases, data which are not Gaussian can be transformed into a Gaussian form and hence make use of the more efficient Gaussian techniques. In both cases, the data should be checked for outliers or rogue observations and these should be eliminated if the testing procedure fails to imply that they are an integral part of the data. PMID:688072

  19. The value of anecdote.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Juan C; Parodi, Federico E

    2014-04-01

    Anecdote is defined as "a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident" and are not often deemed scientifically valuable (www.merriam-webster.com). Anecdotes can be analyzed, however, and those observations can become the initiation of important and groundbreaking work. In this article, we describe aecdotes of several cases which by themselves had seemingly little value. The value was added later, when these concepts were extrapolated to important projects, which expanded into series of experiences, which were reproducible and able to be analyzed and judged as valuable devices and/or methods. The authors recognize that some of the images are old and not of great quality but the information provided is as complete as possible and reliable.

  20. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  1. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  2. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  3. The value of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence), biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc.) with their related economic values.

  4. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  5. Value management program: performance, quantification, and presentation of imaging value-added actions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir

    2015-03-01

    Health care is in a state of transition, shifting from volume-based success to value-based success. Hospital executives and referring physicians often do not understand the total value a radiology group provides. A template for easy, cost-effective implementation in clinical practice for most radiology groups to demonstrate the value they provide to their clients (patients, physicians, health care executives) has not been well described. A value management program was developed to document all of the value-added activities performed by on-site radiologists, quantify them in terms of time spent on each activity (investment), and present the benefits to internal and external stakeholders (outcomes). The radiology value-added matrix is the platform from which value-added activities are categorized and synthesized into a template for defining investments and outcomes. The value management program was first implemented systemwide in 2013. Across all serviced locations, 9,931.75 hours were invested. An annual executive summary report template demonstrating outcomes is given to clients. The mean and median individual value-added hours per radiologist were 134.52 and 113.33, respectively. If this program were extrapolated to the entire field of radiology, approximately 30,000 radiologists, this would have resulted in 10,641,161 uncompensated value-added hours documented in 2013, with an estimated economic value of $2.21 billion.

  6. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Two Commercial Rums by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    Two rums differing in their overall aroma profile and price level (rum A, high price; rum B, low price) were analyzed by means of the Sensomics approach. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on a distillate of volatiles prepared from rum A revealed 40 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 8 to 2048. The identification experiments indicated cis-whiskey lactone, vanillin, decanoic acid, and 2- and 3-methylbutanol with the highest FD factors. The AEDA of a distillate prepared from rum B showed only 26 aroma-active compounds in the same FD factor range. Among them, in particular, ethyl butanoate, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and decanoic acid appeared with the highest FD factors. Thirty-seven compounds having at least an FD factor ≥32 in one of the two rums were quantitated using stable isotope dilution assays or enzyme kits (2 compounds). The calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) indicated ethanol, vanillin, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and (E)-β-damascenone with the highest OAVs in rum A, whereas ethanol, 2,3-butanedione, 3-methylbutanal, and ethyl butanoate revealed the highest OAVs in rum B. Most compounds were present in similar concentrations in both rums, but significant differences were determined for vanillin, cis-whiskey lactone, and 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (all higher in rum A) and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, and ethyl butanoate (all higher in rum B). Finally, the aromas of both rums were successfully simulated by a recombinate using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they naturally occurred in the spirits.

  7. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  8. Crystal structures of cyanide- and triiodide-bound forms of Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase at different pH values. Perturbations of active site residues and their implication in enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, K; Kunishima, N; Amada, F; Kubota, T; Matsubara, H

    1995-09-15

    The structures of the cyanide and triiodide complexes of Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) at different pH values were investigated by x-ray crystallography in order to examine the behavior of the invariant residues of arginine (Arg-52) and distal histidine (His-56) during the enzyme reaction as well as to provide the structural basis of the active site of peroxidase. The models of the cyanide complexes at pH 7.5, 5.0, and 4.0, respectively, were refined to the R-factors of 17.8, 17.8, and 18.5% using 7.0-1.6-A resolution data, and those of the triiodide complexes at pH 6.5 and 5.0 refined to 16.9 and 16.8% using 7.0-1.9-A resolution data. The structures of the cyanide complexes at pH 7.5, 5.0, and 4.0 are identical within experimental error. Cyanide ion bound to the heme in the bent conformation rather than in the tilt conformation. Upon cyanide ion binding, the N epsilon atom of His-56 moved toward the ion by rotation of the imidazole ring around the C beta-C gamma bond, but there was little conformational change in the remaining residues. The distance between the N epsilon atom of His-56 and the nitrogen atom of the cyanide suggests the presence of a hydrogen bond between them in the pH range investigated. In the triiodide complexes, one of the two triiodides bound to ARP was located at the distal side of the heme. When triiodide bound to ARP, unlike the rearrangement of the distal arginine of cytochrome c peroxidase that occurs on formation of the fluoride complex or compound I, the side chain of Arg-52 moved little. The conformation of the side chain of His-56, however, changed markedly. Conformational flexibility of His-56 appears to be a requisite for proton translocation from one oxygen atom to the other of HOO- by acid-base catalysis to produce compound I. The iron atom in each cyanide complex (low-spin ferric) is located in the heme plane, whereas in each triiodide complex (high-spin ferric) the iron atom is displaced from the plane about 0.2 A toward

  9. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  10. The Value of Cocurriculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

  11. Serving Up Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levas, Michael G.; Hughes, William

    1999-01-01

    The Greendale (Wisconsin) School District uses sophisticated, two-way communication and marketing strategies to find out community concerns, gain a better understanding of all the groups in the district, create trust, and put constructive criticism to good use. "Relationship" marketing actively seeks out input from both supporters and…

  12. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in two bavarian wheat beers by means of the sensomics approach.

    PubMed

    Langos, Daniel; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-11-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatiles isolated from a commercial Bavarian wheat beer (WB A) eliciting its typical aroma profile, best described by a clove-like, phenolic odor quality, revealed 36 odorants in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range from 16 to 4096. Among them, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like) and 2-phenylethanol (flowery) showed the highest FD factors. AEDA of a second wheat beer (WB B), somewhat lacking the typical wheat beer odor note, revealed 32 odor-active components in the FD factor range from 32 to 8192. Among them, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-β-damascenone (cooked apple-like) and 3-methylbutanol (malty) were detected with the highest FD factors. Next, all odorants evaluated with an FD factor ≥32 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays in both beers, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. Thereby, ethanol, (E)-β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl butanoate showed the highest OAVs in WB A, followed by acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and dimethyl sulfide. In WB B, ethanol, (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, and 3-methylbutyl acetate showed the highest OAVs. Whereas most aroma compounds were present in the same order of magnitude in both beer samples, in particular, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylphenol (smoky, leather-like) were by factors of 13 and 15, respectively, higher in WB A. For the first time, the overall aroma of wheat beer (WB A) was successfully simulated on the basis of 27 reference compounds in their natural concentrations using water/ethanol (95:5; v/v) as the matrix.

  13. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-07

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  14. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  15. Network connectivity value.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-02-23

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant.

  16. Improving value with TDABC.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Time-driven activity-based costing: Traces the path of a patient throughout the continuum of care for a specific medical condition. Identifies the actual cost of each resource used, such as personnel, space, consumables, and equipment, in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Documents the amount of time the patient spends with each resource. Supports the ability to aggregate cost information across multiple organizations that deliver care to a patient throughout a defined episode of care.

  17. Value of periangiography hydration.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, M D; Puyau, F A

    1984-11-01

    The value of contrast dye to the planning and evaluation of cardiovascular disease cannot be overestimated. However, adverse renal sequellae may cause the surgeon to hesitate in obtaining an arteriogram, especially in patients with compromised renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of renal dysfunction in patients requiring angiography. Standard contrast angiography for cerebral or peripheral vascular disease was administered to 150 consecutive patients (89 men and 61 women), with an average age of 63.3 years (range 49 to 89 years). All patients received 100 to 150 ml of dye, with a concentration of approximately 50% iodine. Patients were hydrated with 0.5 N saline/5% dextrose, intravenously, for 8 hours before the procedure (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). In 31 patients (11 women and 20 men) the serum BUN and/or creatinine levels were elevated (mean BUN value of 48 +/- 9 mg/dl; mean creatinine level of 2.8 +/- 0.6 mg/dl). The patients with abnormal renal function received an additional 300 to 500 ml of intravenous fluid, plus 20 to 40 mg intravenous furosemide, 1 hour before roentgenography to establish a diuresis. All patients were hydrated for 6 hours after angiography with the same solution at the same rate (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). There were no episodes of compromised renal or cardiopulmonary dysfunction because of contrast angiography. In no patient did the BUN or creatinine level rise, nor was there evidence of acute tubular necrosis, as documented by oliguria and abnormal cells in the urine. Angiography is a safe procedure, even with patients who may have compromised renal function, if appropriate prehydration/posthydration and diuretic measures are undertaken.

  18. The total value equation: a suggested framework for understanding value creation in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    As a result of macroeconomic forces necessitating fundamental changes in health care delivery systems, value has become a popular term in the medical industry. Much has been written recently about the idea of value as it relates to health care services in general and the practice of radiology in particular. Of course, cost, value, and cost-effectiveness are not new topics of conversation in radiology. Not only is value one of the most frequently used and complex words in management, entire classes in business school are taught around the concept of understanding and maximizing value. But what is value, and when speaking of value creation strategies, what is it exactly that is meant? For the leader of a radiology department, either private or academic, value creation is a core function. This article provides a deeper examination of what value is, what drives value creation, and how practices and departments can evaluate their own value creation efficiencies. An equation, referred to as the Total Value Equation, is presented as a framework to assess value creation activities and strategies.

  19. Reference change values.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Callum G

    2011-09-30

    Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines.

  20. Elucidation of Thermally Induced Changes in Key Odorants of White Mustard Seeds (Sinapis alba L.) and Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) Using Molecular Sensory Science.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Eva; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-02

    Heat-processing of Brassica seeds led to the formation of a characteristic pleasant popcorn-like and coffee-like aroma impression compared to the mainly pea-like aroma of the corresponding raw seeds. To analyze this phenomenon on a molecular basis, raw and roasted white mustard seeds and rapeseeds were analyzed using the sensomics approach. Application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) and identification experiments to raw and roasted (140 °C, 30 min) mustard seeds revealed 36 odorants (all identified for the first time) and 47 odorants (41 newly identified), respectively. Twenty-seven odorants in raw and 43 odorants in roasted (140 °C, 60 min) rapeseeds were found, which were all described for the first time. Among the set of volatiles, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (earthy, pea-like) and 4-ethenyl-2-methoxyphenol (clove-like, smoky) showed high FD factors in both raw seeds. 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (caramel-like), 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (earthy), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage-like), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) were present at high flavor dilution (FD) factors in both roasted Brassica seeds. Odorants, differing in cAEDA or showing high FD factors in at least one of the seeds, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), followed by the calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) using odor thresholds determined in refined sunflower oil. Eighteen aroma compounds in raw and 28 in roasted mustard seeds as well as 14 in raw and 25 in roasted rapeseeds revealed OAVs ≥1. All four aroma recombinates, prepared by mixing the odorants showing OAVs ≥1 in their naturally occurring concentrations, showed a very good similarity with the original seeds and, thus, proved the successful characterization of the respective key odorants.

  1. Do We Really Value Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-01-01

    University faculty think of their institutions as places in which learning is valued and pride themselves on the discovery of new knowledge. Indeed universities have been unusually successful in supporting research and developing new knowledge that has been enormously beneficial to society, and university faculty value learning far more than the average. But some kinds of learning are more valued than others-a fact that I believe is detrimental to the long-term welfare of both universities and society. By far the most valued learning is by someone who discovers what nobody else has learned before. We call the process of achieving such learning "research". It is the coin of the academic realm, at least partly because it is easy to evaluate. Those who do it creatively can reap the rewards of respect from their colleagues, better facilities and instrumentation from their institutions, regional and national awards from their disciplinary societies, and increased funding from government and industry for their endeavors. Significantly less valued are activities that help others to learn, especially when the learning involves things already known by many. We call such activities "teaching", although the dictionary definition of "teach" ("to show how to do something; give instructions to; train") is not broad enough to encompass the range of activities currently being used to encourage learning. There is a widespread notion that teaching is easy and requires no real creativity. Nontenured faculty are often warned that time spent on teaching will be thought of as "wasted", and those well established in research have been criticized for spending too much of their time on the "unproductive" activity of teaching. Teaching is held out to students as a fall-back position in case their other career plans do not pan out, and sometimes those who educate teachers are willing to accept less than the highest quality from the students to whom they provide credentials. Those who employ

  2. An Introduction to Value Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Kalman

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes consciousness as a quality which differentiates a human being from other living organisms. Excerpts various perspectives that are value-analyzed to illustrate two assumptions: (1) thinking leads to valuing and values and (2) all psychological perspectives are based upon some value system which can be identified. (JAC)

  3. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance

  4. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in an american bourbon whisky by quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    PubMed

    Poisson, Luigi; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-07-23

    Thirty-one of the 45 odor-active compounds previously identified by us in an American Bourbon whisky were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. Also for this purpose, new synthetic pathways were developed for the synthesis of the deuterium-labeled whisky lactone as well as for gamma-nona- and gamma-decalactone. To obtain the odor activity values (OAVs), the concentrations measured were divided by the odor thresholds of the odorants determined in water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.). Twenty-six aroma compounds showed OAVs >1, among which ethanol, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutanal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (E)-beta-damascenone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-methylpropanal, (3S,4S)- cis-whiskylactone, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate showed the highest values. The overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of the 26 key odorants in their actual concentrations in whisky using water/ethanol (6:4 by vol.) as the matrix. Omission experiments corroborated the importance of, in particular, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, (3S,4S)-cis-whiskylactone, ethanol, and the entire group of esters for the overall aroma of the Bourbon whisky.

  5. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  6. Integrating Value and Utility Concepts into a Value Decomposition Model for Value-Based Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönkkö, Mikko; Frühwirth, Christian; Biffl, Stefan

    Value-based software engineering (VBSE) is an emerging stream of research that addresses the value considerations of software and extends the traditional scope of software engineering from technical issues to business-relevant decision problems. While the concept of value in VBSE relies on the well-established economic value concept, the exact definition for this key concept within VBSE domain is still not well defined or agreed upon. We argue the discourse on value can significantly benefit from drawing from research in management, particularly software business. In this paper, we present three aspects of software: as a technology, as a design, and as an artifact. Furthermore, we divide the value concept into three components that are relevant for software product development companies and their customers: intrinsic value, externalities and option value. Finally, we propose a value decomposition matrix based on technology views and value components.

  7. Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by the notion that effective teaching is as much about relationship as it is about "technical" proficiency, the author examines the values of teachers that inform classroom relationships, and poses the question as to whether there are particular teacher values that are necessary for quality values education. This question is…

  8. Epistemological Values of Feminists in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1989-01-01

    Studies the current epistemological values of North American feminist psychologists. Explores whether the political commitments, personal identities, and professional activities of psychologists are systematically related to different worldviews and different beliefs about the nature of human experience. Lends support to the idea of situated…

  9. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  10. Investigating Morals and Values in Today's Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Paul D.

    This responsibility education activity book for grades 5-10 offers a set of materials that reflect students' interests and motivation for values education. The book is built around three moral principles: (1) "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" (Confucius, 513 B.C.); (2) "The end does not justify the means" (Immanuel Kant, "The…

  11. Value for Money Case Studies. Mendip Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, Bob, Ed.

    In response to a shift from the management of curriculum to the management of scarce resources to deliver a changing curriculum, this paper brings together three "value for money" case studies in college administration. The papers identify three levels of activity, ranging from the one-time opportunity for good housekeeping through…

  12. Investigating Pedagogical Value of Wiki Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil; North, Alexa; Moreland, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the potential of Wiki technology as a tool for teaching and learning. Wikis are a component of Web 2.0 technology tools that provide collaborative features and active learning opportunities in a web-based environment. This research study sought to empirically determine the pedagogical value of using Wiki…

  13. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  14. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  15. The importance of actions and the worth of an object: dissociable neural systems representing core value and economic value.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Coppin, Géraldine; Schwartz, Sophie; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    Neuroeconomic research has delineated neural regions involved in the computation of value, referring to a currency for concrete choices and decisions ('economic value'). Research in psychology and sociology, on the other hand, uses the term 'value' to describe motivational constructs that guide choices and behaviors across situations ('core value'). As a first step towards an integration of these literatures, we compared the neural regions computing economic value and core value. Replicating previous work, economic value computations activated a network centered on medial orbitofrontal cortex. Core value computations activated medial prefrontal cortex, a region involved in the processing of self-relevant information and dorsal striatum, involved in action selection. Core value ratings correlated with activity in precuneus and anterior prefrontal cortex, potentially reflecting the degree to which a core value is perceived as internalized part of one's self-concept. Distributed activation pattern in insula and ACC allowed differentiating individual core value types. These patterns may represent evaluation profiles reflecting prototypical fundamental concerns expressed in the core value types. Our findings suggest mechanisms by which core values, as motivationally important long-term goals anchored in the self-schema, may have the behavioral power to drive decisions and behaviors in the absence of immediately rewarding behavioral options.

  16. Aroma characterization of chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan; Qian, Michael C

    2013-11-27

    The aroma profile of Chinese rice wine was investigated in this study. The volatile compounds in a traditional Chinese rice wine were extracted using Lichrolut EN and further separated by silica gel normal phase chromatography. Seventy-three aroma-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to acids, esters, and alcohols, benzaldehyde, vanillin, geosmin, and γ-nonalactone were identified to be potentially important to Chinse rice wine. The concentration of these aroma-active compounds in the Chinese rice wine was further quantitated by combination of four different methods, including headsapce-gas chromatography, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME)-GC-MS, solid-phase extraction-GC-MS, and SPME-GC-pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD). Quantitative results showed that 34 aroma compounds were at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds. On the basis of the odor activity values (OAVs), vanillin, dimethyl trisulfide, β-phenylethyl alcohol, guaiacol, geosmin, and benzaldehyde could be responsible for the unique aroma of Chinese rice wine. An aroma reconstitution model prepared by mixing 34 aroma compounds with OAVs > 1 in an odorless Chinese rice wine matrix showed a good similarity to the aroma of the original Chinese rice wine.

  17. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in a commercial Amontillado sherry wine by means of the sensomics approach.

    PubMed

    Marcq, Pauline; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-05-20

    An aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) distillation from a commercial Amontillado sherry wine revealed 37 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution (FD) factors in the range of 16-4096. Among them, 2-phenylethanol (flowery, honey-like) and ethyl methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest FD factors, followed by ethyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity) reported for the first time in sherry wine. A total of 36 aroma-active compounds located by AEDA were then quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. The highest OAV was displayed by 1,1-diethoxyethane (2475; fruity), followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanals (574; malty) and methylpropanal (369; malty). Aroma reconstitution experiments and a comparative aroma profile analysis revealed that the entire orthonasal aroma profile of the Amontillado sherry wine could be closely mimicked.

  18. Key Odorants of Lazur, a Polish Mold-Ripened Cheese.

    PubMed

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Myszka, Kamila; Gracka, Anna; Grygier, Anna; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2017-02-15

    Application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) carried out on the volatile fraction isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) from Lazur mold-ripened cheese revealed 17 odor-active compounds. The highest flavor dilution factor (FD) has been obtained for methanethiol (2048) with a burnt odor note and for 2(3)-methylbutanoic acid (2048) with a cheesy, pungent odor. Further quantitation of the 15 most aroma-active compounds allowed for calculation of their odor activity values (OAV). The highest OAVs were obtained for methanethiol (500), 3(2)-methylbutanoic acid (321), 3-(methylthio)propanal (210), 2,3-butanedione (65), dimethyl trisulfide (22), butanoic acid (20), 1-octen-3-ol (18), (Z)-4-heptenal (14), dimethyl disulfide (14), dimethyl sulfide (13), phenylacetaldehyde (6), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (5), and acetic acid (4). An aroma recombination experiment showed slight differences in the perception of cheesy/sweaty and moldy/musty notes. To verify the influence of methyl ketones on the aroma profile of mold-ripened cheese, recombinant has been additionally supplemented with 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-nonanone in concentrations determined in Lazur cheese. The aroma profile remained unchanged, which would suggest that methyl ketones, in this particular cheese, do not play a significant role in the formation of aroma.

  19. Critical laboratory values in hemostasis: toward consensus.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Adcock, Dorothy; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Tripodi, Armando; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2017-02-10

    The term "critical values" can be defined to entail laboratory test results that significantly lie outside the normal (reference) range and necessitate immediate reporting to safeguard patient health, as well as those displaying a highly and clinically significant variation compared to previous data. The identification and effective communication of "highly pathological" values has engaged the minds of many clinicians, health care and laboratory professionals for decades, since these activities are vital to good laboratory practice. This is especially true in hemostasis, where a timely and efficient communication of critical values strongly impacts patient management. Due to the heterogeneity of available data, this paper is hence aimed to analyze the state of the art and provide an expert opinion about the parameters, measurement units and alert limits pertaining to critical values in hemostasis, thus providing a basic document for future consultation that assists laboratory professionals and clinicians alike. KEY MESSAGES Critical values are laboratory test results significantly lying outside the normal (reference) range and necessitating immediate reporting to safeguard patient health. A broad heterogeneity exists about critical values in hemostasis worldwide. We provide here an expert opinion about the parameters, measurement units and alert limits pertaining to critical values in hemostasis.

  20. Private Values and Public Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Benjamin

    1978-01-01

    Explores the relationships among social change, values, and education. Concludes that educators should inquire into and teach about values through classic works by authors such as Homer, Plato, Ibsen, and Mark Twain. (Author/DB)

  1. Work Values of Singaporean Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    This study attempted to determine the predominant work values among Singaporean students, possible changes in the work values of adolescents as they proceed from early to late adolescence, and the role of gender in forming work values. Using a cross-sectional design and stratified random sampling techniques, a sample of 645 boys and 735 girls was…

  2. Identifying and Clarifying Organizational Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    Of the 14 organizational values ranked by a majority of 146 New Mexico Cooperative Extension educators as extremely valued, 9 were extremely evident in organizational policies and procedures. A values audit such as this forms an important initial step in strategic planning. (SK)

  3. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  4. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  5. 78 FR 53380 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF64 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal... Making (NPRM); request for comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA proposes to update the existing value engineering... Leuderalbert, Value Engineering and Utilities Program Manager, FHWA Office of Program Administration,...

  6. 76 FR 36410 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Parts 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... notice proposes updated regulations to enhance the integration of value engineering (VE) analysis in the...-131 on Value Engineering. These revisions will also address certain findings contained in a...

  7. 77 FR 15250 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... of value engineering (VE) analysis in the planning and development of highway improvement projects... Value Engineering. These revisions also will address certain findings contained in a 2007 Office...

  8. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  9. Teacher Values in Teaching Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joseph E.; Harako, Eiichiro Atom

    1994-01-01

    Examines teachers' perceived values about recycling and how their values then influence the teaching of recycling. Results suggest that the teachers surveyed have a strong supportive feeling toward recycling and consequently impose their values onto their students in the teaching/learning exchange. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/MDH)

  10. Making Values Education Everyone's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzner, Louis I.; Nieman, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    Adults are typically required to make values-based decisions multiple times each day. Why, then, should a discussion of values not be explicit across the college curriculum and intentionally integrated into the cocurriculum? The authors describe a place where the work of values education is widely shared. (Contains 9 notes.)

  11. Valuing Diversity: The Primary Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Janet Brown

    Noting that children who learn to accept and value human diversity will develop the open, flexible approach to life that is needed in today's world, this book examines ways to help young children learn to appreciate cultural diversity in the classroom. Following introductory chapters on the value of diversity and a child's right to the valuing of…

  12. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  13. Student Development and Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, John D., Comp.

    1982-01-01

    In five articles explores the value development of college students. Surveyed student personnel administrators to investigate ethical issues and values in student development and educational approaches to values development. Presents an approach to student ethical development. Discusses a rationale for developmental education considering…

  14. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, J. B.; Ania, C. O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J. J.

    2004-11-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 °C under CO2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N2 adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m2 g-1. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  15. Economic Values Implicit in the Social Construction of American Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeffery E.

    Five economic hypotheses of what American universities value (profit, production, prestige, faculty consumption, or academic resources and activities) were tested to illustrate the implicit value framework, a conceptual framework for inferring the objective economic values of an organization from the manner in which society has defined its…

  16. Illustrating Business Marketing Concepts through the Value Chain Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao-Troth, Sara; Thomas, Stephanie P.; Webb, G. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Value Chain Game is an activity that helps students to develop a holistic understanding of the processes and challenges in managing the value chain so that customer needs are met. Competing value chains work to produce and sell two products. Seasonal demand, quality defects, transportation delays, and audits offer complexities that represent…

  17. Aroma components of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein made by partial hydrolysis of rice bran protein.

    PubMed

    Jarunrattanasri, Arporn; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-04-18

    Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) was prepared from rice bran protein concentrate (RBPc) by partial hydrolysis with aqueous 0.5 N HCl at 95 degrees C for 12 or 36 h (H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively). Aroma components of the RBPc and the HVPs were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs). The predominant odorants in RBPc were 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-aminoacetophenone, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and beta-damascenone. Among these, the odor of 2-aminoacetophenone, present at 59 ng/g in RBPc, was reminiscent of the typical odor of RBPc. Most of the predominant odorants had higher log3FD factors in the H-RBPc-36 as compared to H-RBPc-12. Aroma impact compounds of H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36 were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone (sotolon), vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (p-vinylguaiacol), and beta-damascenone. Guaiacol had the highest OAV values of 2770 and 17650 in H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively.

  18. Make your values mean something.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Patrick M

    2002-07-01

    Take a look at this list of corporate values: Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence. They sound pretty good, don't they? Maybe they even resemble your own company's values. If so, you should be nervous. These are the corporate values of Enron, as claimed in its 2000 annual report. And they're absolutely meaningless. Indeed, most values statements, says the author, are bland, toothless, or just plain dishonest. And far from being harmless, as some executives assume, they're often highly destructive. Empty values statements create cynical and dispirited employees and undermine managerial credibility. But coming up with strong values--and sticking to them--isn't easy. Organizations that want their values statements to really mean something should follow four imperatives. First, understand the different types of values: core, aspirational, permission-to-play, and accidental. Confusing them with one another can bewilder employees and make management seem out of touch. Second, be aggressively authentic. Too many companies view a values initiative in the same way they view a marketing launch: a onetime event measured by the initial attention it receives, not by its content. Third, own the process. Values initiatives are about imposing a set of fundamental, strategically sound beliefs on a broad group of people. That's why the best values efforts are driven by small teams. Finally, weave core values into everything. It's not enough to hang your values statement on the wall; it must be integrated into every employee-related process--hiring methods, performance management systems, even dismissal policies. Living by stated corporate values is difficult. But the benefits of doing so can be profound; so can the damage from adopting a hollow set of corporate values.

  19. Principals' Leadership Behaviour: Values-Based, Contingent or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Concepts of values-based leadership posit that school principals' professional practice must be informed by values to ensure coherently purposeful activities. Contingency models stress the contextual dependency of professional practice and the need to match activities to local opportunities and constraints. The purpose of this paper is to…

  20. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonow, Jordan T; Follette, William C

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in harm to the client or the general public. Although the code is appropriately designed as a defense against potential and actual abuses of professional power, this general proscription against directly targeting client values for change is based on an understanding of values that grants them special ontological status and has resulted in limited clinical interventions focusing solely on “values clarification.” With its strong foundation in a unified philosophical system, clinical behavior analysis offers a sophisticated alternative approach to values that both defines what they are and identifies when they can be ethically targeted to improve the lives of clients. PMID:22478514

  1. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.

  2. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in the beverage prepared from Darjeeling black tea: quantitative differences between tea leaves and infusion.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Christian; Schieberle, Peter

    2006-02-08

    By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on the volatile fraction isolated from a black tea infusion (Darjeeling Gold Selection), vanillin (vanilla-like), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel), 2-phenylethanol (flowery), and (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal (oat-flake-like) were identified with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 24 odor-active compounds detected in the FD factor range of 4-128. Quantitative measurements performed by means of stable isotope dilution assays and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold in water) revealed, in particular, the previously unknown tea constituent (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal as a key odorant in the infusion and confirmed the important role of linalool and geraniol for the tea aroma. An aroma recombinate performed by the 18 odorants for which OAVs > 1 were determined in their "natural" concentrations matched the overall aroma of the tea beverage. In the black tea leaves, a total of 42 odorants were identified, most of which were identical with those in the beverage prepared thereof. However, quantitative measurements indicated that, in particular, geraniol, but also eight further odorants were significantly increased in the infusion as compared to their concentration in the leaves.

  3. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept.

    PubMed

    Willner, Bianca; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-10-09

    The aroma compounds in two commercial Bartlett pear brandies clearly differing in their overall aroma profiles were detected in the volatile fractions by the aroma extract dilution analysis. In brandy A eliciting the more intense pear-like, fruity aroma, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 2-phenylethanol were found with the highest Flavor Dilution (FD) factors. In brandy B judged to have a weaker overall aroma, also (E)-β-damascenone, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol revealed high FD factors, while many odorants showed lower FD factors. Fourty-four odor-active compounds were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, and the odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentrations to odor thresholds) confirmed (E)-β-damascenone and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate as important aroma compounds in brandy A, while the OAVs of most odorants were much lower in brandy B. By aroma recombination studies, the aromas of both brandies could be matched using reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the spirits. In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality.

  4. Evaluation of Key Aroma Compounds in Processed Prawns (Whiteleg Shrimp) by Quantitation and Aroma Recombination Experiments.

    PubMed

    Mall, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2017-03-24

    In our previous study on the aroma compounds of heated prawn meat, the main odorants in blanched (BPM) and fried prawn meat (FPM), respectively, were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis. In this follow-up study, these aroma compounds were quantified by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold) were calculated. Results revealed 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one as the most potent odor-active compounds in both prawn samples. In FPM, as compared to BPM, higher OAVs were determined for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 3-methylbutanal, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and trimethylpyrazine. Aroma recombination experiments corroborated that the overall aroma of the blanched as well as the fried prawn meat, respectively, could well be mimicked by the set of key odorants quantitated in this study.

  5. Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Kerstin; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-05-27

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract/distillate prepared from a Hungarian-type salami and subsequent identification experiments led to the identification of 51 of 55 odor-active compounds detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-4096. Nineteen of these compounds are reported for the first time as aroma components of dry-fermented sausages, among them 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide. The highest FD factors were found for 2-methoxyphenol (smoky, sweet), 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), 2-methoxy-4-(E)-(1-propenyl)phenol (clove-like), and acetic acid (pungent, sour). Forty-five aroma compounds were subsequently quantified using stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated on the basis of odor thresholds in oil. The highest OAVs were calculated for acetic acid, acetaldehyde, 3-(methylthio)propanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. A model mixture containing 33 odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the sausage was prepared in a matrix consisting of 44% sunflower oil and 56% aqueous phosphate buffer. A comparison of the overall aroma of this model mixture with the original showed a very high similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds were successfully identified.

  6. Decoding the combinatorial aroma code of a commercial Cognac by application of the sensomics concept and first insights into differences from a German brandy.

    PubMed

    Uselmann, Verena; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-02-25

    In the volatile fraction isolated from a commercial Cognac by means of extraction/SAFE distillation, 39 odor-active areas were detected, among which (E)-β-damascenone showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048 followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2-methylbutanol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, as well as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanilla-like) and 2-phenylethanol. The quantitation of 37 odorants by stable isotope dilution assays and a calculation of odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) resulted in 34 odorants with OAVs > 1. Among them (E)-β-damascenone, methylpropanal, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate together with ethanol were established as key contributors to the Cognac aroma. Finally, the overall aroma of the Cognac could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of these 34 key odorants on the basis of their natural concentrations in the Cognac using an odorless matrix to simulate the influence of the nonvolatile constituents. A comparison of the FD factors of the key odorants identified in a German brandy to those in the Cognac suggested the pair (E)-β-damascenone and ethyl pentanoate as indicators to differentiate various Cognacs from German, French, and Spanish brandies. This was confirmed by calculating a ratio of the concentrations of (E)-β-damascenone to ethyl pentanoate for 12 Cognacs and 7 brandies from Germany and 2 from France and Spain, respectively.

  7. Characterization of Key Odorants Causing a Fusty/Musty Off-Flavor in Native Cold-Pressed Rapeseed Oil by Means of the Sensomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael

    2016-11-02

    The sensomics approach was used to clarify the formation of the fusty/musty off-flavor of native cold-pressed rapeseed oil. A "positive control" (PC) showing the desired sensory attributes and an oil eliciting a fusty/musty off-flavor (OF) were analyzed. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA), identification experiments, quantitation by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), and aroma recombination resulted in 11 odorants with an OAV ≥ 1 in PC. Main differences between both oils were obtained for compounds caused by microbial influence revealing significantly higher concentrations in OF, e.g., for ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methoxyphenol, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (sotolon), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-methylphenol. Comparison of the key odorants in OF with those of the rapeseeds (OFS), from which it was pressed, showed the same 18 compounds proving that the grade of the seeds and their storage conditions are important criteria for the quality of the final oil. Finally, a further 7 native cold-pressed rapeseed oils, eliciting the same sensory defect, were analyzed to confirm aroma-active marker compounds responsible for the fusty/musty off-flavor.

  8. Determination of the effects of different washing processes on aroma characteristics in silver carp mince by MMSE-GC-MS, e-nose and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuxia; Chong, Yunqing; Ding, Yuting; Gu, Saiqi; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-15

    The present study investigated the volatile compounds of silver carp mince and the effects of washing processes on the integral aroma characteristics and aroma-active compounds (AACs) of the mince. 57 volatile compounds were identified by monolithic material sorptive extraction (MMSE) and GC-MS analysis, and 13 volatile compounds with odor activity values greater than 1 (OAVs > 1) were further selected as AACs contributing primarily to the integral aroma profile of silver carp. Washing methods affected the overall aroma profiles of fish samples by washing away or facilitating the release of AACs but to different extents. Compared with water washing, washing with saline and weak alkaline solution removed more AACs. Washing with water three times (T2) exhibited a relatively stronger removal effect on most AACs compared to washing with water twice (T1). Washing with a high concentration of saline (T4) produced a strong removal effect on AACs. The results of sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) detection for distinguishing the aroma characteristics of different samples demonstrated good agreement with those obtained by OAV analysis.

  9. Nurses' professional and personal values.

    PubMed

    Rassin, Michal

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found among some personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values.

  10. Service and education share responsibility for nurses' value development.

    PubMed

    Schank, M J; Weis, D

    2001-01-01

    This article examines professional values of senior baccalaureate nursing students and practicing nurses. An important finding was that practicing nurses rated behaviors reflecting values in the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code for Nurses as more important than did senior students, thereby supporting the notion that practice contributes to value formation. The ongoing development and internalization of the nursing professions' values requires active involvement by staff development educators. The phenomena of value formation and development of professional values appear to mirror the novice to expert model.

  11. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonow, Jordan T.; Follette, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in…

  12. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  13. Value Orientations [and] Leader's Guide for the Value Orientations Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee

    A values exercise suitable for secondary school students is divided into three sections. The first section, an introduction to students, explains the concepts of and interrelationships between basic human needs, culture, values orientation, and global perspectives. The intent of the exercise, to help students appreciate how a set of value…

  14. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics.

  15. Measuring values with the Short Schwartz's Value Survey.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2005-10-01

    The reliability and validity of the Short Schwartz's Value Survey (SSVS) was examined in 4 studies. In Study 1 (N = 670), we examined whether value scores obtained with the SSVS correlate with those obtained with Schwartz's Value Survey (SVS; Schwartz, 1992, 1996) and the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001) and whether the quasi-circular structure of values can be found with the SSVS. In Study 2 (N = 3,261), we replicated the quasi-circular structure in a more heterogeneous sample and assessed whether the SSVS can differentiate appropriately between gender, religiosity, students from different fields, and supporters of left- and right-wing political parties. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined the test-retest reliability of the SSVS and in Study 4 (N = 38), time saving gained by the SSVS compared to the SVS. The results show that the new scale had good reliability and validity and that the values measured by the SSVS were arrayed on a circle identical to the theoretical structure of values. We also provided equations that can be used in future studies to measure individuals' scores on the 2 main value dimensions, Self-Transcendence and Conservation.

  16. Value-based Insurance Design.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-02-17

    The increasing awareness of the scarcity of health care resources is forcing the health care industry to improve quality while lowering the cost. One method by which employers and insurance companies are attempting to do this is with value-based insurance design. In these plans, patients pay a lower amount for certain services that are considered high value and a higher amount for services that are considered low value.

  17. Value-based Insurance Design.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-03-01

    The increasing awareness of the scarcity of health care resources is forcing the health care industry to improve quality while lowering the cost. One method by which employers and insurance companies are attempting to do this is with value-based insurance design. In these plans, patients pay a lower amount for certain services that are considered high value and a higher amount for services that are considered low value.

  18. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris: Status Report and FY16 Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Faye, S. A.; Shaughnessy, D. A.

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced. This is a planning document only.

  19. Tumour-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in normal and neoplastic tissues of patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity - clinical relevance and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Hundsdorfer, Brigitte; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Bock, Klaus Peter; Dettmar, Peer; Schmitt, Manfred; Kolk, Andreas; Pautke, Christoph; Horch, Hans-Henning

    2005-06-01

    The central role of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, the plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in tumour invasion and metastasis becomes more and more evident. In several studies, uPA and PAI-1 proved to be of prognostic relevance as shown for different types of cancer (e.g. breast, stomach, lung). Elevated antigen levels of uPA and/or PAI-1 predict poor outcome (relapse-free survival) for patients afflicted with cancer. For oral squamous cell carcinomas, however, the prognostic relevance of the tumour-associated proteolytic factors uPA and PAI-1 has still to be evaluated. In the present study, using tissue extracts of 79 oral cancer cases, 58 specimens of normal oral cavity mucosa and of 16 tumour positive lymph nodes taken from the same patients, uPA and PAI-1 antigen were determined by highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation was found between uPA and PAI-1 in tumour tissue, when compared with the normal mucosa of the same oral cavity. Median levels showed significant elevations in cancer tissue and in tumour positive lymph nodes versus normal oral mucosa. In patients with high levels of uPA or PAI-1, there were significantly more tumour relapses. There was no significant correlation between pathological TNM categories, grading, residual tumour category, tumour site and patient age. In summary, tumour uPA/PAI-1 content (as determined by ELISA) appears to be a strong independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival in squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity. These observations might help to select patients with poor prognosis for additional adjuvant therapy in conjunction with complete surgical resection.

  20. Are employers pursuing value-based purchasing?

    PubMed

    Maio, Vittorio; Hartmann, Christine W; Goldfarb, Neil I; Roumm, Adam R; Nash, David B

    2005-01-01

    Some employers have begun to undertake a variety of initiatives, collectively termed value-based purchasing (VBP), which aim at factoring quality into the purchasing decision-making process when negotiating costs with providers and insurers. There is evidence that the VBP movement has begun gaining momentum; yet it is unclear whether employers are firmly committed to VBP principles. By surveying a national sample of employers, this study investigates the extent to which employers are currently engaged in VBP activities and also increases our understanding of barriers hampering the broader implementation of these activities.

  1. Congruence and functions of personal and cultural values: do my values reflect my culture's values?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    Two studies are described examining the correlation between self- and culture-referenced values at a culture level (Study 1) and correlation between self- and culture-referenced values and self-reported behavior at an individual level (Study 2). It is found that values related to individual-group relationships (embeddedness) and expression and experience of affective feelings and emotions (affective autonomy) are significantly correlated at a culture level. In Study 2, culture-referenced values are shown to correlate with behaviors attached to social norms, whereas self-rated values are found to correlate with behaviors that are not norm-governed. Implications for measurement of cultural values and cultural and cross-cultural research designs are discussed.

  2. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  3. Personality, Sex, and Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde; Hartman, Timothy

    1978-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPA) and the Ohio Work Values Inventory (OWVI) were administered to 115 undergraduates. A two-factor MANOVA was performed with personality types (VPI) and sex as independent variables and work values (OWVI) as dependent variables. The F-ratios for main effects were significant. (Author/SJL)

  4. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  5. Modern Science and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    Designed to provide scientific personnel, policymakers, and the public with a succinct summary of the public aspects of scientific issues, this book focuses on how values and science intersect and how social values can be brought to bear on complex technical enterprises. Themes examined include: (1) relation of science and technology to human…

  6. Marital Therapy and Changing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

    1976-01-01

    Implications of Feminist and Humanistic values for marriage are conceptualized. Their effects on therapist orientation and definitions of the viable marriage are discussed, together with proposed alternatives in marital intervention. It is concluded that value orientations and standards of positive mental health could provide therapists and…

  7. The Value of Location Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvrcek, Dan; Kumpost, Marek; Matyas, Vashek; Danezis, George

    The value attached to privacy has become a common notion in the press, featuring frequent stories of people selling sensitive personal information for a couple of dollars. Syverson argues [1] that we should incorporate the risk of data misuse into our reasoning about privacy valuations. Yet there are doubts as to whether people can, and do, value their privacy correctly and appropriately.

  8. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  9. How Is Physician Work Valued?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Lahey, Stephen J; Nichols, Francis C; Levett, James M; Johnston, George Gilbert; Freeman, Richard K; St Louis, James D; Painter, Julie; Yohe, Courtney; Wright, Cameron D; Kanter, Kirk R; Mayer, John E; Naunheim, Keith S; Rich, Jeffrey B; Bavaria, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Strategies to value physician work continue to evolve. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database have an increasingly important role in this evolution. An understanding of the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system (American Medical Association [AMA], Chicago, IL) and the Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) is necessary to comprehend how physician work is valued. In 1965, with the dawn of increasingly complex medical care, immense innovation, and the rollout of Medicare, the need for a common language describing medical services and procedures was recognized as being of critical importance. In 1966, the AMA, in cooperation with multiple major medical specialty societies, developed the CPT system, which is a coding system for the description of medical procedures and medical services. The RUC was created by the AMA in response to the passage of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, legislation of the United States of America Federal government that mandated that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services adopt a relative value methodology for Medicare physician payment. The role of the RUC is to develop relative value recommendations for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. These recommendations include relative value recommendations for new procedures or services and also updates to relative value recommendations for previously valued procedures or services. These recommendations pertain to all physician work delivered to Medicare beneficiaries and propose relative values for all physician services, including updates to those based on the original resource-based relative value scale developed by Hsaio and colleagues. In so doing, widely differing work and services provided can be reviewed and comparisons of their relative value (to each other) can be established. The resource-based relative value scale assigns value to physician services using relative value units (RVUs), which consist

  10. Evaluation of the performance of Torulaspora delbrueckii, Williopsis saturnus, and Kluyveromyces lactis in lychee wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dai; Yap, Zhi Yin; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2015-08-03

    This study evaluated the effects of three non-Saccharomyces yeasts, namely Torulaspora delbrueckii PRELUDE, Williopsis saturnus NCYC22, and Kluyveromyces lactis KL71 on lychee juice fermentation. The fermentation performance of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts was significantly different. T. delbrueckii PRELUDE had the fastest rate of growth and high sugar consumption. W. saturnus NCYC22 used the lowest amount of sugars, but consumed the highest amount of nitrogen. Correspondingly, strain PRELUDE produced the highest level of ethanol (7.6% v/v), followed by strain KL71 (3.4% v/v) and strain NCYC22 (0.8% v/v). Aroma character-impact terpenes and terpenoids could be partially retained in all lychee wines, with higher odour activity values (OAVs) of geraniol and citronellol in strain KL71. However, strain KL71 and strain NCYC22 over-produced ethyl acetate. Strain PRELUDE had a better ability to generate high levels of ethanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate and retained high OAVs of lychee aroma-character compounds cis-rose oxide (16.5) and linalool (3.5). Thus, it is deemed to be a promising non-Saccharomyces yeast for lychee wine fermentation.

  11. Identification and Quantitation of Potent Odorants in Spearmint Oils.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Lauren E; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-01-17

    Potent odorants in Native spearmint, Scotch spearmint, and Macho mint oils were determined by the combined use of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Of the 85 odorants detected, (R)-(-)-carvone was the most potent odorant in all three spearmint oils. Additional predominant odorants in all spearmint oils included eugenol, ethyl (S)-(+)-2-methylbutanoate, (E)-β-damascenone, and (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene. Forty-six compounds were quantitated using various methods, including 19 by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), 20 by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and 14 by GCO dilution analysis. Concentrations were used to calculate the odor activity values (OAVs) for predominant odorants in the oils. Among the compounds quantitated, those with the highest OAVs were (R)-(-)-carvone, 1,8-cineole, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-β-damascenone, and (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene.

  12. Characterization of the key odorants in light aroma type chinese liquor by gas chromatography-olfactometry, quantitative measurements, aroma recombination, and omission studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenjun; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-25

    The light aroma type liquor is widely welcomed by consumers due to its pleasant fruity and floral aroma, particularly in northern China. To answer the puzzling question of which key aroma compounds are responsible for the typical aroma, three typical liquors were studied in this paper. A total of 66 aroma compounds were identified in three liquors by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and 27 odorants were further screened out as the important odorants according to quantitative study and odor activity values (OAVs). For OAV calculation, odor thresholds of the odorants were determined in a hydroalcoholic solution at 46% ethanol by volume. The typical light type aroma dominated by fruity and floral notes was successfully simulated by dissolving these important odorants in the 46% vol hydroalcoholic solution in their natural concentrations. Omission experiments further confirmed β-damascenone and ethyl acetate as the key odorants and revealed the significance of the entire group of esters, particularly ethyl lactate, geosmin, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid, for the overall aroma of the light aroma type Chinese liquor.

  13. Identification based on quantitative measurements and aroma recombination of the character impact odorants in a Bavarian Pilsner-type beer.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Helge T; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-09-21

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on the volatiles isolated from a Bavarian Pilsner-type beer revealed 40 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 16-2048, among which ethyl octanoate, (E)-beta-damascenone, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone showed the highest FD factor of 2048. After quantitation of the 26 odorants showing FD factors > or =128 by stable isotope dilution analysis and determination of their odor thresholds in water, odor acitivity values (OAVs) were calculated. The results indicated ethanol, (E)-beta-damascenone, (R)-linalool, acetaldehyde, and ethyl butanoate with the highest OAVs, followed by ethyl 2-methylpropanoate and ethyl 4-methylpentanoate, which was previously unknown in beer. Finally, the overall aroma of the beer could be mimicked for the first time by recombining 22 reference odorants in the same concentrations as they occurred in the beer using ethanol/water as the matrix.

  14. Impact of thermal and nonthermal processing technologies on unfermented apple cider aroma volatiles.

    PubMed

    Azhu Valappil, Zareena; Fan, Xuetong; Zhang, Howard Q; Rouseff, Russell L

    2009-02-11

    Aroma composition and microbial quality of identical lots of apple cider treated by pulsed electric field (PEF), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), or thermal pasteurization stored at 4 degrees C were compared at 0 and 4 weeks. Conditions were optimized to achieve identical 5 log reductions in Escherichia coli K12 for each treatment. PEF and thermal pasteurization maintained acceptable microbial quality for 4 weeks, but UV samples fermented after 2 weeks. Twenty-eight volatiles were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and odor activity values (OAV) determined. OAVs of 69:hexyl acetate, 41:hexanal, 25:2-methylbutyl acetate, 23:2-methyl ethyl butyrate, and 14:2-(E)-hexenal were observed for the control cider. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of these odorants were observed between treated apple ciders only after 4 weeks of storage. Thermal samples lost 30% of the major ester and aldehyde volatiles during storage with significant decreases (p < 0.05) in butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, hexanal, and 2-(E)-hexenal. In UV cider, hexanal and 2-(E)-hexenal were completely lost after 4 weeks of storage. Microbial spoilage in UV cider after 4 weeks of storage was chemically confirmed by the detection of the microbial metabolite 1,3-pentadiene. PEF cider lost <2% of its total ester and aldehydes after 4 weeks of storage and was preferred by 91% of the sensory panel over thermally treated cider.

  15. Geodiversity and Geoheritage: definitions, values and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Murray

    2016-04-01

    Geodiversity is the abiotic equivalent of biodiversity, i.e. it describes the variety of physical processes operating on planet Earth and the resultant rocks, minerals, fossils, sediments, soils, landforms, landscapes and habitats found on the planet today. Just as biodiversity is valued, in the "ecosystem services" approach, for the benefits it brings to human societies, so geodiversity brings a great number of goods and services that have been brilliantly exploited by humans over countless generations. In fact, our modern, complex society could not exist without geodiversity. Geoheritage are those parts of geodiversity that are specifically identified as having conservation significance, i.e. that have some specific value to human society and therefore ought to be conserved, particularly if they are threatened by human activities and could therefore be lost or damaged. Geoheritage is often seen as being about identifying and designating sites that have geoscientific value, but it can represent other values and be on scales larger than small sites. This presentation will attempt to define geodiversity and geoheritage and explain the relationship between them, outline that values of geodiversity in terms of the "ecosystem services" approach, and explain how geodiversity and geoheritage can be protected by geoconservation methods.

  16. Valuing Puget Sound’s Valued Ecosystems Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    tively new field of “ecological economics” incorporates a combination of utilitarian and “ecologistic” values. More broadly, the writings of Aldo ... Leopold have become a touch- stone for many contemporary thinkers on environmental ethics, values and aesthetics. In his much cited essay, The Land...Ethic, Leopold said, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it

  17. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  18. [Threshold values for chemicals to prevent disease].

    PubMed

    Schweinsberg, F

    1990-05-01

    Proper interpretation of threshold limit values should always take into account that such limits are not absolute, but rather subject to change depending on advances in scientific knowledge. Threshold limit values derived from toxicologic study are best suited to evaluation of health risks of chemicals in the environment. Although more toxicologic information than is currently available would be desirable for the establishment of limit values, this should not prevent agreement on limits for more substances. "Better" threshold limit values would be forthcoming from epidemiologic studies, which are particularly rare in the FRG. Prospective studies measure current exposure; but appearance of detrimental health effects generally requires a lengthy latency period (e.g., decades in the case of cancer or cardiovascular disease). Threshold limit values permit monitoring and, if necessary, restriction of anthropogenic activity. Such restrictions are necessary, as shown by severe health damage which has occurred in the past (e.g., angiosarcoma due to vinyl chloride or neurogenic damage due to mercury in the workplace, tumors due to arsenic in drinking water, and methemoglobinemia in infants due to nitrite or renal damage due to cadmium in food). Evaluation of potential detrimental health effects for threshold limit values in environmental media is difficult because the effective dose cannot be determined. Monitoring of such limit values, which have already been incorporated into West German law, is relatively easy to implement, however (e.g. continuous outdoor air quality sampling and measurement, and periodic analysis of drinking water and foodstuffs). Since such monitoring may be performed close to the source, preventive measures should be easy to implement. Biological threshold limit values (biological monitoring) are essential to effective evaluation of the health effects of chemicals. Such limits should be established for more substances. When biological limit values

  19. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  20. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  1. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  2. ISO 14001 EMS VALUE PROPOSITION.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.

    2001-11-06

    The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.

  3. Environmental values in American culture

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of humans on the environment are mostly unintended. But people throughout the world have become more aware of these effects and have begun to try to control them, both through individual action and through government policy. Such efforts at control are based on people`s understanding of the environment and on their values toward it. The title of this important book, Environmental Values in American Culture, is deceptive. It is about understanding as much as values. It provides a more thorough account of the forces that shape our behavior than a study of values alone would provide. Its main concern is the attitude of US citizens toward global warming (the greenhouse effect), but its conclusions surely have more general significance. The book is also well written and easily understood (except for one chapter on individual differences) by a complete newcomer to the field. It deserves a wide audience.

  4. Teaching Values in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Richard A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the major criticisms that have appeared in the literature and argues that values clarification should not be used in the public schools or by such quasi-public agencies as Scouts, Planned Parenthood, and 4-H. (JOW)

  5. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  6. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  7. The societal impact value of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, D.E.

    1995-04-01

    A key ill-defined issue in the management and regulation of potentially hazardous conditions is that of the value to be associated with a reduction (or existence) of human health risks, such as radiation exposure or hazardous substance ingestion. Empirical observations of societal behavior patterns lead to a relationship for the quantitative value of societal risk impact which is consistent with general societal risk acceptance, is not inconsistent with ``de facto`` risk regulation, and is suitable and appropriate as a specification or guide for risk management and risk regulation. This societal risk impact expression is: Impact ($/year) = (8 {times} 10{sup 7}) NR{sub i}{sup 4/3} where Ri = individual annual mortality risk; N = number of persons in the population sharing the risk and benefits. The change in Impact which can be derived from a regulation or risk management activity is the value of annual benefit which society would expect to forego (or annual equivalent cost to incur) in consideration of the activity.

  8. Moral Values and Science Teaching: A Malaysian School Curriculum Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sok Khim

    Implicit in teaching science has been the teaching of a set of values. However, its presence has remained unacknowledged because of assumptions made that its products are value-free and that work of science involves positive values. Malaysian schools have introduced a set of noble values to be taught as a subject called moral education while at the same time expecting all subjects, including the sciences to actively inculcate these noble values in their lessons. A search for values related to science included studies from science education curriculums, studies by scientists and philosophers of science, feminist and Indian critics of science. These values could be categorized into four categories representing epistemological values, supporting values, societal and moral values and power-oriented values. While some categories compliment each other, others are in contention. This paper argues for the inclusion of societal and moral values in the science classrooms. A compassionate scientist should be a reality. The task for Malaysian science educators is to find a way to raise awareness of these values.

  9. Value based care in hepatology.

    PubMed

    Strazzabosco, Mario; Allen, John I; Teisberg, Elizabeth O

    2017-01-10

    The migration from legacy fee-for-service reimbursement to payments linked to high value health care is accelerating in the United States because of new legislation and re-design of payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Since patients with chronic diseases account for substantial use of health care resources, payers and health systems are focusing on maximizing the value of care for these patients. Since chronic liver diseases impose a major health burden worldwide affecting the health and lives of many individuals and families as well as substantial costs for individuals and payers, hepatologists must understand how they can improve their practices . Hepatologists practice a high-intensity cognitive sub-specialty, using complex and costly procedures and medications. High value patient care requires multi-disciplinary coordination, labor-intensive support for critically ill patients and effective chronic disease management. Under current fee for service reimbursement, patient values, medical success and financial success all can be misaligned. Many current attempts to link health outcomes to reimbursement are based on compliance with process measures with less emphasis on outcomes that matter most to patients, thus slowing transformation to higher-value team-based care. Outcome measures that reflect the entire cycle of care are needed to assist both clinicians and administrators in improving quality and value of care. A comprehensive set of outcome measures for liver diseases is not currently available. Numerous researchers now are attempting to fill this gap by devising and testing outcome indicators and patients reported outcomes (PROMs) for the major liver conditions. These indicators will provide tools to implement a value-based approach for patients with chronic liver diseases to compare results and value of care between referral centers, to perform health technology assessment and to guide decision-making processes for health

  10. Transporting values by technology transfer.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Leonardo D

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of new medical technologies into a developing country is usually greeted with enthusiasm as the possible benefits become an object of great anticipation and provide new hope for therapy or relief. The prompt utilization of new discoveries and inventions by a medical practitioner serves as a positive indicator of high standing in the professional community. But the transfer of medical technology also involves a transfer of concomitant values. There is a danger that, in the process of adopting a particular technology, the user takes for granted the general utility and desirability of the implements and procedures under consideration without recognizing the socio-cultural peculiarities of the adopting country. A sensitivity to the social conditions and cultural traditions is important so that the emergence of new values can be examined critically and the transfer of necessary technology can be effected smoothly. In the Philippines, efforts to boost patronage of transplant technology appear to have overlooked this need for socio-cultural sensitivity. Legislative fiat cannot be used to override deep-seated values. There is a need to be more sensitive to the possible confrontation of values that the transfer of technology brings in order to avoid the erosion of indigenous socio-cultural values and minimize the intrusiveness of beneficial medical technology.

  11. Leveraging the real value of laboratory medicine with the value proposition.

    PubMed

    Price, Christopher P; John, Andrew St; Christenson, Robert; Scharnhorst, Volker; Oellerich, Michael; Jones, Patricia; Morris, Howard A

    2016-11-01

    Improving quality and patient safety, containing costs and delivering value-for-money are the key drivers of change in the delivery of healthcare and have stimulated a shift from an activity-based service to a service based on patient-outcomes. The delivery of an outcomes-based healthcare agenda requires that the real value of laboratory medicine to all stakeholders be understood, effectively defined and communicated. The value proposition of any product or service is the link between the provider and the needs of the customer describing the utility of the product or service in terms of benefit to the customer. The framework of a value proposition for laboratory medicine provides the core business case that drives key activities in the evolution and maintenance of high quality healthcare from research through to adoption and quality improvement in an established service. The framework of a value proposition for laboratory medicine is described. The content is endorsed by IFCC and WASPaLM.

  12. Can Value Added Add Value to Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The five thoughtful papers included in this issue of "Educational Researcher" ("ER") raise new questions about the use of value-added methods (VAMs) to estimate teachers' contributions to students' learning as part of personnel evaluation. The papers address both technical and implementation concerns, considering potential…

  13. Values Education, the Judgment of Value and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidle, William R.

    If individuals have an objectified, firm understanding of themselves as subjects who exist within a basic self-constituting process for knowing and valuing, they will discover that their authenticity as human beings exists in fulfilling the requirements through which this self-constituting process effectively expresses itself. Self-appropriation…

  14. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told.

  15. Value of Libraries Symposium--A Summary of the Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    On May 31st 2012 the ACTive ALIA Group and Australian Government Libraries Information network (AGLIN) ran a national symposium on the topic of "Value of Libraries". Approximately 80 attended this event which was designed to challenge librarians with conversations that focused on economic and other means of demonstrating our value--value…

  16. College-Admissions Experts Differ on Value of Summer Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to getting into college, admissions experts differ on the value of summer jobs compared with that of academic programs, unpaid internships, foreign travel, or other activities designed to look good on a college application. This article presents some views from these experts regarding the value of students' summer jobs. They believe,…

  17. Open Classroom Communication and the Learning of Citizenship Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Karfa, Abderrahim

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of fostering citizenship values in language classrooms around the world, and specifically in Morocco. Class content, student-teacher roles, classroom activities, and teacher education can promote civic values of equality, respect, responsibility, tolerance, and compassion. A learner-centered environment where…

  18. Security: An Emerging Fundamental Value in Educational Policy Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMitchell, Todd A.

    1994-01-01

    Education, like other governmental activities, is characterized by a competition for scarce resources. Security, whether in the form of metal detectors or condom availability, is an additional fundamental value that has grabbed center stage in the struggle among competing fundamental values (efficiency, equity, liberty, and quality) in educational…

  19. The Impact of a Classroom Values Clarification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Donald; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Benton High School values clarification program is an orderly sequence of structured group activities directed toward clarifying students' values and decisions as part of a one-semester elective sociology class open to all juniors and seniors. Evaluation indicates program participants moved toward a stronger belief in internal control in…

  20. Using School Lotteries to Evaluate the Value-Added Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Jonah

    2013-01-01

    There has been an active debate in the literature over the validity of value-added models. In this study, the author tests the central assumption of value-added models that school assignment is random relative to expected test scores conditional on prior test scores, demographic variables, and other controls. He uses a Chicago charter school's…

  1. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  2. The Value of Certainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ● Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ● Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ● Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ● Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ● Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ● Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ● Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ● Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ● Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ● Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms

  3. Transfer of value from fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

    2003-06-01

    People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer.

  4. Re-valuing the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sara E.; Salzman, C. Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent advances indicate that the amygdala represents valence: a general appetitive/aversive affective characteristic that bears similarity to the neuroeconomic concept of value. Neurophysiological studies show that individual amygdala neurons respond differentially to a range of stimuli with positive or negative affective significance. Meanwhile, increasingly specific lesion/inactivation studies reveal that the amygdala is necessary for processes – e.g., fear extinction and reinforcer devaluation – that involve updating representations of value. Furthermore, recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human amygdala mediates performance on many reward-based decision-making tasks. The encoding of affective significance by the amygdala might be best described as a representation of state value – a representation that is useful for coordinating physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses in an affective/emotional context. PMID:20299204

  5. System for Memorizing Maximum Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  6. Universal norms and conflicting values.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-09-01

    While UNESCO's Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights highlights appropriate ethical values, its principles are stated in absolute terms and conflict with one another. The Draft Declaration fails to sufficiently address the possibility of conflict between principles, and it provides no real guidance on how to strike a balance between them in cases where conflict occurs. The document's inadequate treatment of conflicting values is revealed by examination of cases where principles aimed at the promotion of autonomy and liberty conflict with those aimed at benefit maximization and harm minimization. I argue that liberty (and autonomy) may be less important in the context of health care than in other contexts, and I conclude by suggesting specific ways in which some of UNESCO's principles should be revised in order to better address the reality of conflicting values.

  7. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  8. Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.

    2014-06-01

    The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.

  9. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  10. Multifractal Value at Risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.

  11. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  12. The Value Assessment Method for Evaluating Preventive Maintenance Activities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    Managemnt and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Prolec (0704-0188). Washington. DC 205M. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 12. REPORT DATE j3. REPORT TYPE...Office. COL Everett R . Thomas is Commander and Director of USACERL, and Dr. L.R. Shaffer is Technical Director. Accesion For / ---- NTIS CR J&I T % ~O...automated system also provides a data base for easy input or recall o17 the maintenance history for each unit serviced. Data base r -quirements for a

  13. Value-of-information aware active task assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Beipeng; Chowdhary, Girish; How, Jonathan P.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the problem of robust allocation of unmanned vehicles (T.N) to targets with uncertainties. In particular, the team consists of heterogeneous vehicles with different exploration and exploitation abilities. A general framework is presented to model uncertainties in the planning problems, which goes beyond traditional Gaussian noise. Traditionally, exploration and exploitation are decoupled into two assignment problems are planned with un-correlated goals. The coupled planning method considered here assign exploration vehicles based on its potential influence of the exploitation. Furthermore, a fully decentralized algorithm, Consensus-Based Bundle Algorithm (CBBA), is used to implement the decoupled and coupled methods. CBBA can handle system dynamic constraints such as target distance, vehicle velocities, and has computation complexity polynomial to the number of vehicles and targets. The coupled method is shown to have improved planning performance in a simulated scenario with uncertainties about target classification.

  14. Consistent set of nuclear parameters values for absolute INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma spectral analysis of irradiated material can be used to determine absolute disintegration rates for specific radionuclides. These data, together with measured values for the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes, and irradiation, cooling and counting time values, are all the experimental information required to do absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The calculations required to go from product photon emission rate to target nuclide amount depend upon values used for the thermal neutron capture cross-section, the resonance absorption integral, the half-life and photon branching ratios. Values for these parameters were determined by irradiating and analyzing a series of elemental standards. The results of these measurements were combined with values reported by other workers to arrive at a set of recommended values for the constants. Values for 114 nuclides are listed.

  15. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  16. Value Systems in International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiba, Farouk I.

    Every society has a system of values and seeks to achieve goals which it defines as desirable. To gain insight and a measure of understanding of another culture, international marketers can approach a country as a whole, seek out behavioral premises, obtain a theoretical knowledge of the culture, and learn the country's social heritage.…

  17. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  18. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  19. A Clash of Values: Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the responsibility of librarians to reject materials that threaten the moral and social values of the community and support for intellectual freedom by the library profession. Criteria that justify the censorship of materials are identified and discussed. (16 references) (CLB)

  20. More Value to Defining Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kemenade, Everard; Pupius, Mike; Hardjono, Teun W.

    2008-01-01

    There are lots of definitions of quality, and also of quality in education. Garvin (1984) discerns five approaches: the transcendental approach, the product-oriented approach, the customer-oriented approach, the manufacturing-oriented approach and the value-for-money approach. Harvey and Green (1993) give five interrelated concepts of quality as:…

  1. Value of Personnel Classification Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abellera, James W.; And Others

    The study outlines the development of a methodology for meaningfully estimating the value of classification information used by the Air Force to make selection and job assignment decisions which lead to the satisfaction of first-term enlisted manpower requirements. The methodology, called the optimal allocation strategy, is employed to solve a…

  2. What Works in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Marvin W.

    2011-01-01

    Values education (alternatively, moral education, character education) is the attempt, within schools, to craft pedagogies and supportive structures to foster the development of positive, ethical, pro-social inclinations and competencies in youth, including around strengthening their academic focus and achievement. Recent research has uncovered…

  3. "Teacher Leadership": Values and Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on teacher leadership, an important dimension of the work of the Leadership for Learning network which is the focus of this special issue. More specifically, the article focuses on the launch of a journal--"Teacher Leadership"--as a strategy for promoting key values: shared leadership, teachers' leadership of…

  4. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  5. Unshackled by Visions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Uses a case study to demonstrate the effects of cultural conflict, alienation, anomie, and contemporary urban society on the lives of troubled Native American youth. Shows that by teaching traditional Native American values, such as visions of hope and independence, society can help these youth enjoy a promising future. (RJM)

  6. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  7. Academic Freedom vs. Community Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A frequent refrain in Utah County, which prides itself on being one of the most conservative communities in the country, is that its public institution of higher education, Utah Valley State College, should reflect "community values." Generally, the argument goes something like this: local taxpayers, who support the school, should not…

  8. Value Orientations in Heterosexual Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1985-01-01

    Results challenge the stereotype that whereas women are more concerned with close-knit attachments, men are more eager to maintain personal autonomy. No sex differences were found in attachment values, and women gave significantly more importance than did men to equal sharing and maintaining their personal autonomy. (Author/BL)

  9. Sexual Values of 783 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Emily; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The sexual values of absolutism (abstinence until marriage), relativism (sexual decisions made in reference to the nature of the relationship), and hedonism ("if it feels good, do it") were assessed in a convenience sample of 783 undergraduate students at a large southeastern university. Results revealed that relativism (62.1%) was the predominate…

  10. Value and Pricing of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rose M.; Passmore, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is the potential for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to transform higher education delivery, accessibility, and costs. Next, five major value propositions for MOOCs are considered (headhunting, certification, face-to-face learning, personalized learning, integration with services external to the MOOC, marketing). Then,…

  11. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  12. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  13. WORK VALUES OF THE HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNANE, JOHN F.; SUZIEDELIS, ANTANAS

    TO DETERMINE THE WORK VALUES OF THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, A WORK MOTIVATION SCHEDULE WAS DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 200 NORMAL WHITE MEN AND 200 WOMEN OF REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL AVERAGE AGE AND EDUCATION AND TO CEREBRAL PALSIED, DEAF, 63 RECENT AMPUTEES FROM THE VIETNAM WAR AND NEURO-PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS. COMPARISON OF THE TWO GROUPS SHOWED…

  14. The Epistemic Value of Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

  15. Baseball and American Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan exploring social values and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)

  16. Value Assessment at the Point of Care: Incorporating Patient Values throughout Care Delivery and a Draft Taxonomy of Patient Values.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Melissa J; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of patient values is a key element of patient-centered care, but consistent incorporation of patient values at the point of care is lacking. Shared decision making encourages incorporation of patient values in decision making, but associated tools often lack guidance on value assessment. In addition, focusing on patient values relating only to specific decisions misses an opportunity for a more holistic approach to value assessment that could impact other aspects of clinical encounters, including health care planning, communication, and stakeholder involvement. In this commentary, we propose a taxonomy of values underlying patient decision making and provide examples of how these impact provision of health care. The taxonomy describes four categories of patient values: global, decisional, situational, and external. Global values are personal values impacting decision making at a universal level and can include value traits and life priorities. Decisional values are the values traditionally conceptualized in decision making, including considerations such as efficacy, toxicity, quality of life, convenience, and cost. Situational values are values tied to a specific moment in time that modify patients' existing global and decisional values. Finally, discussion of external values acknowledges that many patients consider values other than their own when making decisions. Recognizing the breadth of values impacting patient decision making has implications for both overall health care delivery and shared decision making because value assessments focusing only on decisional values may miss important patient considerations. This draft taxonomy highlights different values impacting decision making and facilitates a more complete value assessment at the point of care.

  17. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  18. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  19. Maximising value from PFI contracts.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Karen; Gates, Russell

    2012-05-01

    Against a backdrop where the Coalition Government has said more 'value' needs to be squeezed out of existing healthcare PFI projects, Karen Prosser, head of the health sector team at built asset consultancy, EC Harris, and Russell Gates, one of the company's partners on the same team, set out some of the key elements that NHS Trusts with operational PFI contracts should consider when undertaking a contract savings review.

  20. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)