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Sample records for activity waste fractions

  1. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. PMID:25398411

  2. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity.

  3. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  4. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  5. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized. PMID:26099240

  6. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION TREATMENT PROCESS FOR THE LOW ACTIVITY FRACTION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Lowery, P.S.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Snyder, T.; McElroy, J.L.

    2003-02-27

    AMEC Earth & Environmental, Inc. and RWE NUKEM Corporation have teamed to develop and apply a waste pre-treatment and bulk vitrification process for low activity waste (LAW) from Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The pretreatment and bulk vitrification process utilizes technologies that have been successfully deployed to remediate both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes at nuclear power plants, DOE sites, and commercial waste sites in the US and abroad. The process represents an integrated systems approach. The proposed AMEC/NUKEM process follow the extraction and initial segregation activities applied to the tank wastes carried out by others. The first stage of the process will utilize NUKEM's concentrate dryer (CD) system to concentrate the liquid waste stream. The concentrate will then be mixed with soil or glass formers and loaded into refractory-lined steel containers for bulk vitrification treatment using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process. Following the vitrification step, a lid will be placed on the container of cooled, solidified vitrified waste, and the container transported to the disposal site. The container serves as the melter vessel, the transport container and the disposal container. AMEC and NUKEM participated in the Mission Acceleration Initiative Workshop held in Richland, Washington in April 2000 [1]. An objective of the workshop was to identify selected technologies that could be combined into viable treatment options for treatment of the LAW fraction from selected Hanford waste tanks. AMEC's ICV process combined with NUKEM's CD system and other remote operating capabilities were presented as an integrated solution. The Team's proposed process received some of the highest ratings from the Workshop's review panel. The proposed approach compliments the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) by reducing the amount of waste that the WTP would have to process. When combined with the capabilities of the WTP, the proposed approach

  8. Effects of quartz, airborne particulates and fly ash fractions from a waste incinerator on elastase release by activated and nonactivated rabbit alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyas, H.; Labedzka, M.; Schmidt, N.; Gercken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Elastase release from cultured, activated and nonactivated rabbit alveolar macrophages (AM) was investigated after stimulation by different environmentally related mineral dusts (50-1000 micrograms/10(6) cells). Eight different dusts were analyzed for element contents and grain size: one rural and three urban airborne dusts, a coarse and a fine fraction of a sieved waste incinerator fly ash, a sonicated coarse fly ash fraction, and the standard quartz dust DQ 12. The fine fly ash fraction, the sonicated coarse fly ash fraction, and the quartz dust DQ 12 enhanced elastase release by activated AM. Only one of the tested airborne dusts effected a comparable elastase release. The untreated coarse fraction of the fly ash did not cause a significant increase of extracellular elastase activities. Elastase release was dependent on particle numbers and chemical composition and correlated best with barium and tin contents. Nonactivated AM released higher elastase activities than activated AM at low-dose levels. The possible role of dust-induced elastase secretion in the pathogenesis of emphysema is discussed.

  9. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  10. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  11. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  12. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  13. Organic waste amendments effect on zinc fraction of two soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, L.M.

    1999-10-01

    Organic soil amendments can ameliorate metal toxicity to plants by redistributing metals to less available fractions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic amendments on Zn distribution among soil fractions. Two soils were amended with five organic waste materials (some of which contained Zn) or commercial humic acid with and without 400 mg kg{sup {minus}1} Zn, incubated, and fractionated using a sequential extraction technique. Where no Zn was added most of the metals were in the residual fraction. Commercial compost, poultry litter, and industrial sewage sludge increased Zn in the exchangeable (EXC), organic (OM), and manganese oxide (MnOx) fractions due to Zn in the materials. Spent mushroom compost (SMC) redistributed Zn from the EXC fraction to the MnOx fraction for the coarse-textured soil. Where Zn was added, most of the metal was in the EXC and OM fractions. The SMC and humic acid lowered Zn in the EXC fraction and increased Zn in the other fractions. Effects of the organic materials on Zn in soil fractions were more evident for the sandy soil dominated by quartz in the clay than for the finer-textured soil dominated by kaolinite in the clay-size fraction. It was concluded that organic materials high in Zn can increase Zn in the EXC, OM, and MnOx fractions where the soil is not contaminated and others such as SMC and HA can lower the potential availability of Zn in contaminated soils by redistributing it from the EXC to less soluble fractions.

  14. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-03

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble {sup 137}Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in {sup 137}Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005.

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTS WITH SIMULATED TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2007-11-29

    Results are presented for several simulated waste tests related to development of the fractional crystallization process. Product salt dissolution rates were measured to support pilot plant equipment design. Evaporation tests were performed to evaluate the effects of organics on slurry behavior and to determine optimum antifoam addition levels. A loss-of-power test was performed to support pilot plant accident scenario analysis. Envelope limit tests were done to address variations in feed composition.

  16. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation. PMID:19854039

  17. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation.

  18. A consumption approach to wastes from economic activities.

    PubMed

    Beylot, Antoine; Boitier, Baptiste; Lancesseur, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    In a context of waste management policies aimed at promoting waste prevention and recycling and, conversely, reducing waste landfilling, this study investigates how waste is generated and treated in a consumption perspective. A Waste Input-Output Analysis is implemented that considers 14 waste fractions and four waste management techniques. Input-Output Tables extended to wastes are initially compiled for the year 2008 considering France and five of its main import suppliers, and further completed with data on waste treatment. Wastes from economic activities are accordingly reallocated to the product categories of household consumption that induce their production. In particular, considering five waste categories (dry recyclable wastes, mixed wastes, mineral wastes, organic wastes, and total wastes) as an aggregation of the 14 waste fractions studied, the ten product categories with the highest contribution account for 64-86% of the total generation of wastes. Waste intensity and volume of expenses are analyzed as the drivers for the amounts of wastes induced by each product category. Similarly, the products responsible for the largest amounts of waste landfilling and incineration without energy recovery, i.e. the management techniques at the bottom of the "waste management hierarchy", are identified. Moreover, this study highlights the relative importance of waste produced abroad as compared to that produced in France, regarding the total amount of waste induced by French household consumption. The sensitivity of results to the modeling of import production is subsequently discussed. Finally, the potential perspectives for this type of consumption approach are considered with respect to its utility and current limitations in a context of waste policy planning, and more particularly regarding the way waste policy targets are set. PMID:26851169

  19. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  20. Characterisation of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications for waste management.

    PubMed

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Mäurer, Andreas; Wolz, Gerd; van Eldik, Rudi

    2007-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in the end-of-life management of polymers present in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This is mainly due to high recycling and recovery quotas set by the European WEEE directive, which can only be fulfilled by including the plastic fraction in recycling and recovery approaches. Previous studies identified a high material diversity and various contaminants in WEEE plastics, including heavy metals, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/F). These substances are regulated by European directives that limit their levels in marketable products. Consequently, both material diversity and contaminants are strong arguments against material recycling and point to hazardous waste treatment. However, recent developments in the production of flame retardants and electrical and electronic goods aimed to reduce contaminants and material diversity. Thus, the present study summarises updated contaminant levels of plastic fractions of European WEEE, as well as data on materials in waste housing polymers. Material characterisation revealed housing fractions to be interesting sources for polymer recycling, which however has to implement potent material separation and/or bromine elimination techniques. With respect to contaminants, our data indicate an effective phase-out of PBB, but still high levels of PBDE and PBDD/F are found. Sources and implications for the material recycling and thermal recovery approaches are discussed in detail.

  1. Anticancer activity of selected Colocasia gigantia fractions.

    PubMed

    Pornprasertpol, Apichai; Sereemaspun, Amornpun; Sooklert, Kanidta; Satirapipatkul, Chutimon; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer potential of the extract of Colocasia gigantea C. gigantea), a plant member of the Araceae family. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of C. gigantea extract on cervical cancer (Hela) and human white blood cells (WBC) in vitro. The authors then identified the bioactive ingredients that demonstrated cytotoxicity on tested cells and evaluated those bioactive ingredients using the bioassay-guided fractionation method. The results showed that not all parts of C. gigantea promote cytotoxic activity. The dichloromethane leaf fraction showed significant cell proliferation effect on Hela cells, but not on WBCs. Only the n-hexane tuber fraction (Fr. 1T) exhibited significant cytotoxicity on Hela cells (IC50 = 585 μg/ml) and encouraged WBC cell proliferation. From GC-Mass spectrometry, 4,22-Stigmastadiene-3-one, Diazoprogesterone, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, hexyl ester and Oleic Acid were the components of Fr 1T that demonstrated cytotoxic potential. In conclusion, C. gigantea's Fr 1T shows potential for cervical cancer treatment.

  2. Anticancer activity of selected Colocasia gigantia fractions.

    PubMed

    Pornprasertpol, Apichai; Sereemaspun, Amornpun; Sooklert, Kanidta; Satirapipatkul, Chutimon; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer potential of the extract of Colocasia gigantea C. gigantea), a plant member of the Araceae family. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of C. gigantea extract on cervical cancer (Hela) and human white blood cells (WBC) in vitro. The authors then identified the bioactive ingredients that demonstrated cytotoxicity on tested cells and evaluated those bioactive ingredients using the bioassay-guided fractionation method. The results showed that not all parts of C. gigantea promote cytotoxic activity. The dichloromethane leaf fraction showed significant cell proliferation effect on Hela cells, but not on WBCs. Only the n-hexane tuber fraction (Fr. 1T) exhibited significant cytotoxicity on Hela cells (IC50 = 585 μg/ml) and encouraged WBC cell proliferation. From GC-Mass spectrometry, 4,22-Stigmastadiene-3-one, Diazoprogesterone, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, hexyl ester and Oleic Acid were the components of Fr 1T that demonstrated cytotoxic potential. In conclusion, C. gigantea's Fr 1T shows potential for cervical cancer treatment. PMID:25764620

  3. Heating value prediction for combustible fraction of municipal solid waste in Semarang using backpropagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuriati, Ainie; Setiabudi, Wahyu; Nur, Muhammad; Istadi, Istadi

    2015-12-01

    Backpropgation neural network was trained to predict of combustible fraction heating value of MSW from the physical composition. Waste-to-Energy (WtE) is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The influence of the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) is very important on the implementation of WtE systems. As MSW is heterogeneous material, direct heating value measurements are often not feasible. In this study an empirical model was developed to describe the heating value of the combustible fraction of municipal solid waste as a function of its physical composition of MSW using backpropagation neural network. Sampling process was carried out at Jatibarang landfill. The weight of each sorting sample taken from each discharged MSW vehicle load is 100 kg. The MSW physical components were grouped into paper wastes, absorbent hygiene product waste, styrofoam waste, HD plastic waste, plastic waste, rubber waste, textile waste, wood waste, yard wastes, kitchen waste, coco waste, and miscellaneous combustible waste. Network was trained by 24 datasets with 1200, 769, and 210 epochs. The results of this analysis showed that the correlation from the physical composition is better than multiple regression method .

  4. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - <0.09 mm, 0.09-0.355 mm, and >0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F. PMID:26821729

  5. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - <0.09 mm, 0.09-0.355 mm, and >0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F.

  6. Co-composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste mixed with different bulking waste: characterization of physicochemical parameters and microbial enzymatic dynamic.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Khan, Jamaluddin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of various bulking waste such as wood shaving, agricultural and yard trimming waste combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial enzymatic activities and quality of finished compost. All three piles of OFMSW with different bulking waste were inoculated with microbial consortium. The results revealed that OFMSW combined with wood shaving and microbial consortium (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were helpful tool to facilitate the enzymatic activity and shortened composting period within 4 weeks. Maximum enzymatic activity were observed in pile 1 and 3 during the first 3 weeks, while in pile 2 relatively very low. But phosphatase activity was relatively higher in all piles until the end of the process. Maturity parameters of compost quality also favored the pile 1 as the best formulation for OFMSW composting. PMID:25698412

  7. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  8. Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Product Acceptance Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    1999-06-22

    'The Hanford Site has been used to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during Pu production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The DOE is proceeding with an approach to privatize the treatment and immobilization of Handord''s LAW and HLW.'

  9. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect

    Murto, Marika; Björnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Håkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ► Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ► Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ► Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ► We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  10. Content and fractionation of Cu, Zn and Cd in size fractionated municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huyue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2013-08-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash was size fractionated into six fractions, with the respective particle size of <0.45 mm, 0.45-1 mm, 1-2 mm, 2-4 mm, 4-8 mm and >8 mm. The contents and fractionation of Cu, Zn, Cd in the size fractionated MSWI bottom ash were investigated. The results showed the contents and fractionation of Cu, Zn and Cd varied among the different particle sizes, which were related to their thermodynamic characteristics. High content of Cu was found in the bottom ash with the particle size of <0.45 mm and >4 mm, due to its lithophilic property and the function of entrainment. The content of Zn showed a relatively even distribution among the various particles. The content of Cd showed a decreasing trend with the increase of the particle size, due to its high volatility. Besides, the carbonate bound fraction of Cd showed a decreasing trend with the increase of the particle size, while the carbonate bound fraction of Cu showed an increasing trend. The organic matter bound fraction of Cu increased when the particle size increased. The results also showed the fine ash contained a higher level of unstable Cd than the large ash, while the large ash had a higher level of unstable Cu comparatively. PMID:23731863

  11. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  12. [Intensification of Microbial Decomposition of Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste: Laboratory and Field Experiments].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, A A; Kevbrina, M V; Kallistova, A Yu; Nekrasova, V K; Litti, Yu V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Methods of intensifying the anaerobic microbial decomposition of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) on an MSW landfill and in anaerobic reactors were studied. It was discovered that it is preferable for the initiation and stabilization of the process of anaerobic digestion of organic waste in laboratory bioreactors at 20 and 50 degrees C to use a mixture of activated suspension of soil from the anaerobic zone of the landfill and digested sewage sludge. Stimulation of methanogenesis was shown in field conditions when digested sewage sludge was added directly into the upper layer of anaerobic zone of the landfill. The investigation of methane production during fermentation of concentrated food waste with a mixture of excessive activated sludge in the laboratory under thermophilic conditions (50 degrees C) has shown that the main problem at the first stage of the process was the acidification of the digested mixture due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids. It was shown that for stable operation of the bioreactor under thermophilic conditions the amount of inoculum added during the start up should be no less than 30%-50%--based on volatile suspended solids. A sharp decrease in the digestion temperature from 50 to 20 degrees C did not cause methanogenesis termination, since the thermophilically fermented biomass contained both thermophilic and mesophilic methanogens.

  13. [Intensification of Microbial Decomposition of Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste: Laboratory and Field Experiments].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, A A; Kevbrina, M V; Kallistova, A Yu; Nekrasova, V K; Litti, Yu V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Methods of intensifying the anaerobic microbial decomposition of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) on an MSW landfill and in anaerobic reactors were studied. It was discovered that it is preferable for the initiation and stabilization of the process of anaerobic digestion of organic waste in laboratory bioreactors at 20 and 50 degrees C to use a mixture of activated suspension of soil from the anaerobic zone of the landfill and digested sewage sludge. Stimulation of methanogenesis was shown in field conditions when digested sewage sludge was added directly into the upper layer of anaerobic zone of the landfill. The investigation of methane production during fermentation of concentrated food waste with a mixture of excessive activated sludge in the laboratory under thermophilic conditions (50 degrees C) has shown that the main problem at the first stage of the process was the acidification of the digested mixture due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids. It was shown that for stable operation of the bioreactor under thermophilic conditions the amount of inoculum added during the start up should be no less than 30%-50%--based on volatile suspended solids. A sharp decrease in the digestion temperature from 50 to 20 degrees C did not cause methanogenesis termination, since the thermophilically fermented biomass contained both thermophilic and mesophilic methanogens. PMID:26353402

  14. Extracellular polymers of ozonized waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, J C; Lee, C H; Lai, J Y; Wang, K C; Hsu, Y C; Chang, B V

    2001-01-01

    Effect of ozonation on characteristics of waste activated sludge was investigated in the current study. Concentrations of cell-bound extracellular polymers (washed ECPs) did not change much upon ozonation, whereas the sum of cell-bound and soluble extracellular polymers (unwashed ECPs) increased with increasing ozone dose. Washed ECPs in original sludge as divided by molecular weight distribution was 39% < 1,000 Da (low MW), 30% from 1,000 to 10,000 Da (medium MW), and 31% > 10,000 Da (high MW). It was observed that the low-MW fraction decreased, and the high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The unwashed ECPs were characterized as 44% in low MW, 30% in medium MW, and 26% in high MW. Both low-MW and medium-MW fractions of unwashed ECPs decreased while high-MW fraction increased in ozonized sludge. The dewaterability of ozonized sludge, assessed by capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), deteriorated with ozone dose. The optimal dose of cationic polyelectrolyte increased with increasing ozone dose. The production rate and the accumulated amount of methane gas of ozonized sludge were also higher.

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) WASTES LABORATORY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-12-05

    Laboratory studies demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable process for separating Hanford medium-curie waste into high-curie and low-curie fractions. The product salt from the crystallization process qualifies as low-curie feed to a supplemental treatment system (e.g., bulk vitrification). The high-curie raffinate is returned to the double-shell tank system, eventually to be sent as feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Process flowsheet tests were designed with the aid of thermodynamic chemical modeling. Laboratory equipment design and test procedures were developed using simulated tank waste samples. Proof-of-concept flowsheet tests were carried out in a shielded hot cell using actual tank waste samples. Data from both simulated waste tests and actual tank waste tests demonstrate that the process exceeded all of the separation criteria established for the program.

  16. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  17. 13C isotopic fractionation during biodegradation of agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Phillip M; Inácio, Caio T; Urquiaga, Segundo; Chen, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Significant differences in δ(13)C signatures occur within and between plant tissues and their constituent biochemical entities, and also within and between heterotrophic bacteria and fungi and their metabolic products. Furthermore, (13)C isotopic fractionation occurs during the biodegradation of organic molecules as seen in the substrate, respired CO(2) and the microbial biomass, which could be related to substrate composition and/or microbial metabolism. The (13)C isotopic fractionation observed during the decomposition of a single defined C substrate appears to be due to the intra-molecular heterogeneity in (13)C in the substrate and to (13)C isotopic fractionation during microbial metabolism. Very limited data suggest that the latter may be quantitatively more important than the former. Studies with defined fungi in culture media have highlighted the complexities associated with the interpretation of the observed patterns of (13)C isotopic fractionation when a single defined C source is added to the culture medium which itself contains one or more C sources. Techniques involving (13)C enrichment or paired treatments involving an equivalent C(3)- and C(4)-derived substrate have been devised to overcome the problem of background C in the culture medium and (13)C isotopic fractionation during metabolism. Studies with complex substrates have shown an initial (13)C depletion phase in respired CO(2) followed by a (13)C enrichment phase which may or may not be followed by another (13)C depletion phase. Basic studies involving an integrated approach are required to gain a new insight into (13)C isotopic fractionation during organic residue decomposition, by simultaneous measurements of δ(13)C in all C moieties. New analytical tools to measure real-time changes in δ(13)CO(2) and the intra-molecular δ(13)C distribution within plant biochemical entities offer new opportunities for unravelling the complex interactions between substrate and microbial metabolism with

  18. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  19. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste: Overview of data in literature.

    PubMed

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-03-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico-chemical waste composition data was performed to derive value ranges and data distributions for element concentrations (e.g. Cd content) and physical parameters (e.g. heating value). Based on 11,886 individual data entries, median values and percentiles for 47 parameters in 11 individual waste fractions are presented. Exceptional values and publications are identified and discussed. Detailed datasets are attached to this study, allowing further analysis and new applications of the data. PMID:26792628

  20. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste: Overview of data in literature.

    PubMed

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-03-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico-chemical waste composition data was performed to derive value ranges and data distributions for element concentrations (e.g. Cd content) and physical parameters (e.g. heating value). Based on 11,886 individual data entries, median values and percentiles for 47 parameters in 11 individual waste fractions are presented. Exceptional values and publications are identified and discussed. Detailed datasets are attached to this study, allowing further analysis and new applications of the data.

  1. Solid Waste Activity Packet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This solid waste activity packet introduces students to the solid waste problem in Illinois. Topics explore consumer practices in the market place, packaging, individual and community garbage generation, and disposal practices. The activities provide an integrated approach to incorporating solid waste management issues into subject areas. The…

  2. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kasinski, Slawomir; Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-01

    Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m(3)/h. Using Darcy's equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7-2.88-fold. PMID:24268917

  3. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) WASTES A MODELING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-12-21

    The Hanford site has 149 underground single-shell tanks (SST) storing mostly soluble, multi-salt, mixed wastes resulting from Cold War era weapons material production. These wastes must be retrieved and the salts immobilized before the tanks can be closed to comply with an overall site closure consent order entered into by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State. Water will be used to retrieve the wastes and the resulting solution will be pumped to the proposed treatment process where a high curie (primarily {sup 137}Cs) waste fraction will be separated from the other waste constituents. The separated waste streams will then be vitrified to allow for safe storage as an immobilized high level waste, or low level waste, borosilicate glass. Fractional crystallization, a common unit operation for production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals, was proposed as the method to separate the salt wastes; it works by evaporating excess water until the solubilities of various species in the solution are exceeded (the solubility of a particular species depends on its concentration, temperature of the solution, and the presence of other ionic species in the solution). By establishing the proper conditions, selected pure salts can be crystallized and separated from the radioactive liquid phase.

  4. Microbial Enzyme Activity and Carbon Cycling in Grassland Soil Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are necessary to degrade complex organic compounds present in soils. Using physical fractionation procedures, we tested whether old soil carbon is spatially isolated from degradative enzymes across a prairie restoration chronosequence in Illinois, USA. We found that carbon-degrading enzymes were abundant in all soil fractions, including macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the clay fraction, which contains carbon with a mean residence time of ~200 years. The activities of two cellulose-degrading enzymes and a chitin-degrading enzyme were 2-10 times greater in organic matter fractions than in bulk soil, consistent with the rapid turnover of these fractions. Polyphenol oxidase activity was 3 times greater in the clay fraction than in the bulk soil, despite very slow carbon turnover in this fraction. Changes in enzyme activity across the restoration chronosequence were small once adjusted for increases in soil carbon concentration, although polyphenol oxidase activity per unit carbon declined by 50% in native prairie versus cultivated soil. These results are consistent with a `two-pool' model of enzyme and carbon turnover in grassland soils. In light organic matter fractions, enzyme production and carbon turnover both occur rapidly. However, in mineral-dominated fractions, both enzymes and their carbon substrates are immobilized on mineral surfaces, leading to slow turnover. Soil carbon accumulation in the clay fraction and across the prairie restoration chronosequence probably reflects increasing physical isolation of enzymes and substrates on the molecular scale, rather than the micron to millimeter scale.

  5. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) WASTES FROM CONCEPT TO PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    GENIESSE, D.J.; NELSON, E.A.; HAMILTON, D.W.; MAJORS, J.H.; NORDAHL, T.K.

    2006-12-08

    The Hanford site has 149 underground single-shell tanks (SST) storing mostly soluble, multi-salt mixed wastes resulting from Cold War era weapons material production. These wastes must be retrieved and the salts immobilized before the tanks can be closed to comply with an overall site-closure consent order entered into by the US Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the State of Washington. Water will be used to retrieve the wastes and the resulting solution will be pumped to a proposed pretreatment process where a high-curie (primarily {sup 137}Cs) waste fraction will be separated from the other waste constituents. The separated waste streams will then be vitrified to allow for safe storage as an immobilized high-level waste, or low-level waste, borosilicate glass. Fractional crystallization, a common unit operation for production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals, was proposed as the method to separate the salt wastes; it works by evaporating excess water until the solubilities of various species in the solution are exceeded (the solubility of a particular species depends on its concentration, temperature of the solution, and the presence of other ionic species in the solution). By establishing the proper conditions, selected pure salts can be crystallized and separated from the radioactive liquid phase. The aforementioned parameters, along with evaporation rate, proper agitation, and residence time, determine nucleation and growth kinetics and the resulting habit and size distribution of the product crystals. These crystals properties are important considerations for designing the crystallizer and solid/liquid separation equipment. A structured program was developed to (a) demonstrate that fractional crystallization could be used to pre-treat Hanford tank wastes and (b) provide data to develop a pilot plant design.

  6. Abundance of (14)C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO(2) emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes (14)C and (12)C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in (14)C and reflect the (14)CO(2) abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying (14)C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper (14)C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated (14)C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135pMC.

  7. Abundance of (14)C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO(2) emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes (14)C and (12)C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in (14)C and reflect the (14)CO(2) abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying (14)C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper (14)C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated (14)C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135pMC. PMID:19157836

  8. Abundance of {sup 14}C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fellner, Johann Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-15

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO{sub 2} emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 12}C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in {sup 14}C and reflect the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying {sup 14}C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper {sup 14}C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated {sup 14}C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC.

  9. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ali; Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50-10kDa, 10-1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50-10kDa and 10-1kDa peptide fractions showed good radical scavenging activity and reducing power at a concentration of 0.5mg protein/ml. All the fractions demonstrated low iron chelating activity and did not inhibit oxidation in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome model system. However all the fractions were to some extent able to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10-50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products.

  10. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  11. Comparison of polyphenol extractions from olive pomace and solid fraction of olive mill waste water.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Sevgul; Seker, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    The solid fraction of olive mill waste water (OMWW) was separated from OMWW and then the solutes in the solid fraction of OMWW were extracted with ethanol. The detection of polyphenols in the ethanol extract showed the presence of polyphenols in the solid fraction of OMWW. Effects of solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction and agitation time on the extraction of polyphenols from the solid fraction of OMWW were examined and the maximum amount of polyphenol was extracted from the solid fraction of OMWW with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 15 at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time. Percent yields and purities of the polyphenols extracted from solid fraction of OMWW were higher than those of the polyphenols extracted from olive pomace with ethanol at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time with solvent-to-solid ratio of 15.

  12. Fractionation and characterization of organic matter in wastewater from a swine waste-retention basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Rostad, Colleen E.

    2004-01-01

    Organic matter in wastewater sampled from a swine waste-retention basin in Iowa was fractionated into 14 fractions on the basis of size (particulate, colloid, and dissolved); volatility; polarity (hydrophobic, transphilic, hydrophilic); acid, base, neutral characteristics; and precipitate or flocculates (floc) formation upon acidification. The compound-class composition of each of these fractions was determined by infrared and 13C-NMR spectral analyses. Volatile acids were the largest fraction with acetic acid being the major component of this fraction. The second most abundant fraction was fine particulate organic matter that consisted of bacterial cells that were subfractionated into extractable lipids consisting of straight chain fatty acids, peptidoglycans components of bacterial cell walls, and protein globulin components of cellular plasma. The large lipid content of the particulate fraction indicates that non-polar contaminants, such as certain pharmaceuticals added to swine feed, likely associate with the particulate fraction through partitioning interactions. Hydrocinnamic acid is a major component of the hydrophobic acid fraction, and its presence is an indication of anaerobic degradation of lignin originally present in swine feed. This is the first study to combine particulate organic matter with dissolved organic matter fractionation into a total organic matter fractionation and characterization.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy recovery from the aerobic bioconversion of solid urban waste organic fraction.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Benavoli, Manuel; Zoppitelli, Mirco

    2008-01-01

    Waste management is of the utmost importance for many countries and especially for highly developed ones due to its implications on society. In particular, proper treatment before disposal of the solid urban waste organic fraction is one of the main issues that is addressed in waste management. In fact, the organic fraction is particularly reactive and if disposed in sanitary landfills without previous adequate treatment, a large amount of dangerous and polluting gaseous, liquid and solid substances can be produced. Some waste treatment processes can also present an opportunity to produce other by-products like energy, recycled materials and other products with both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, the aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of solid urban waste, performed in a biocell plant with the possibility of recovering heat for civil or industrial needs, was examined from the thermodynamic point of view. A theoretical model was proposed both for the biological process of the organic fraction, as well as for the heat recovery system. The most significant results are represented and discussed. PMID:17512716

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING FOR INCLUSION & COPRECIPITATION WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    WARRANT, R.W.

    2006-12-11

    Fractional crystallization is being considered as a pretreatment method to support supplemental treatment of retrieved single-shell tank (SST) saltcake waste at the Hanford Site. The goal of the fractional crystallization process is to optimize the separation of the radioactivity (radionuclides) from the saltcake waste and send it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant and send the bulk of the saltcake to the supplemental treatment plant (bulk vitrification). The primary factors that influence the separation efficiency are (1) solid/liquid separation efficiency, (2) contaminant inclusions, and (3) co-precipitation. This is a report of testing for factors (2) and (3) with actual tank waste samples. For the purposes of this report, contaminant inclusions are defined as the inclusion of supernatant, containing contaminating radionuclides, in a pocket within the precipitating saltcake crystals. Co-precipitation is defined as the simultaneous precipitation of a saltcake crystal with a contaminating radionuclide. These two factors were tested for various potential fractional crystallization product salts by spiking the composite tank waste samples (SST Early or SST Late, external letter CH2M-0600248, ''Preparation of Composite Tank Waste Samples for ME-21 Project'') with the desired target salt and then evaporating to precipitate that salt. SST Early represents the typical composition of dissolved saltcake early in the retrieval process, and SST Late represents the typical composition during the later stages of retrieval.

  15. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR HANFORD EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE VITRIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    UNTERREINER BJ

    2008-07-18

    More than 200 million liters (53 million gallons) of highly radioactive and hazardous waste is stored at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The DOE's Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) mission includes tank waste retrieval, waste treatment, waste disposal, and tank farms closure activities. This mission will largely be accomplished by the construction and operation of three large treatment facilities at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP): (1) a Pretreatment (PT) facility intended to separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW); (2) a HLW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the HLW for disposal at a geologic repository in Yucca Mountain; and (3) a LAW vitrification facility intended to immobilize the LAW for shallow land burial at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The LAW facility is on target to be completed in 2014, five years prior to the completion of the rest of the WTP. In order to gain experience in the operation of the LAW vitrification facility, accelerate retrieval from single-shell tank (SST) farms, and hasten the completion of the LAW immobilization, it has been proposed to begin treatment of the low-activity waste five years before the conclusion of the WTP's construction. A challenge with this strategy is that the stream containing the LAW vitrification facility off-gas treatment condensates will not have the option of recycling back to pretreatment, and will instead be treated by the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Here the off-gas condensates will be immobilized into a secondary waste form; ETF solid waste.

  16. The digestibility of waste activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Abu-Orf, Mohammad M; Novak, John T

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory digestion studies using waste activated sludges (WAS) were conducted to compare the digestion performance between anaerobic and aerobic processes. Nine samples of WAS from seven wastewater treatment plants were collected and batch-digested under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for 30 days at 25 degrees C. The cation content of wastewater (both floc and solution phases) and solution biopolymer (protein and polysaccharide) was measured before and after digestion and compared with volatile solids destruction data. The study revealed that each digestion process was associated with a distinct biopolymer fraction, which accounted for differences in volatile solids reduction under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The anaerobic digestion data showed strong correlations between soluble protein generation, ammonium production, percent volatile solids reduction, and floc iron (Fe). These data suggest that the amount of volatile solids destroyed by anaerobic digestion depends on the Fe content of floc. In aerobic digestion, polysaccharide accumulated in solution along with calcium and magnesium. For aerobic digestion, correlations between divalent cation release and the production of inorganic nitrogen were found. This implies that divalent cation-bound biopolymer, thought to be lectin-like protein, was the primary organic fraction degraded under aerobic conditions. The results of the study show that the cation content in wastewater is an important indicator of the material that will digest under anaerobic or aerobic conditions and that some of the volatile solids will digest only under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. PMID:16553167

  17. Anti-diabetic activity of active fractions of Stereospermum tetragonum DC and isolation of active principles

    PubMed Central

    Bino Kingsley, Renjit; Mishra, Manisha; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the active principles, determine the anti-diabetes activity of fraction of Stereospermum tetragonum root. Materials and Methods The efficacy was evaluated in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats and the anti-hyperglycemic activity was studied by glucose tolerance test. The major active compounds were isolated by solvent fractionation and chromatographic techniques and characterized with spectral data. Results The active fraction of S. tetragonum showed presence of anti-diabetes mellitus activity in type-2 diabetic rats. It did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. Two active principles (active at 2 mg/kg dose) were isolated and characterized with spectral data. One of them was identified as an iridoid type glycoside and the other one was a lapachol like compound (derivative of naphthoquinone). Conclusions Two active principles from the anti-diabetes fraction of S. tetragonum root were isolated and identified as an iridoid glycoside and a naphthoquinone derivative. PMID:24023445

  18. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinski, Slawomir Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold.

  19. Changes in phosphorus fractions during organic wastes composting from different sources.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Wei, Zimin; Li, Xue; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the changes in different fractions of phosphorus (P) and the relationship between different P fractions and their corresponding physicochemical parameters during organic wastes composting. There were distinct differences in the concentration of P fractions for the composts generated from different sources, highest in chicken manure and pig manure. The availability P (including water soluble P, Olsen P and citric acid P) declined from 44% to 36% in all composts, except for KW, following the thermophilic phase during composting, while moderately available P and non-available P increased from 48% to 59%. Different P fractions (inorganic P, organic P, Olsen P, water soluble P and citric acid P) were positively correlated with each other. The composts were clustered into two groups in our hierarchical cluster analysis. Conclusively, we suggested an optimized mode of composting based on the characteristics of the P fractions from different raw materials. PMID:25912971

  20. Effect of cobalt supplementation and fractionation on the biological response in the biomethanization of Olive Mill Solid Waste.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Ibieta, F; Serrano, A; Jeison, D; Borja, R; Fermoso, F G

    2016-07-01

    Due to the low trace metals concentration in the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW), a proposed strategy to improve its biomethanization is the supplementation of key metals to enhance the microorganism activity. Among essential trace metals, cobalt has been reported to have a crucial role in anaerobic degradation. This study evaluates the effect of cobalt supplementation to OMSW, focusing on the connection between fractionation of cobalt in the system and the biological response. The highest biological responses was found in a range from 0.018 to 0.035mg/L of dissolved cobalt (0.24-0.65mg total cobalt/L), reaching improvements up to 23% and 30% in the methane production rate and the methane yield coefficient, respectively. It was found that the dissolved cobalt fraction is more accurately related with the biological response than the total cobalt. The total cobalt is distorted by the contribution of dissolved and non-dissolved inert fractions. PMID:26998798

  1. Effect of cobalt supplementation and fractionation on the biological response in the biomethanization of Olive Mill Solid Waste.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Ibieta, F; Serrano, A; Jeison, D; Borja, R; Fermoso, F G

    2016-07-01

    Due to the low trace metals concentration in the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW), a proposed strategy to improve its biomethanization is the supplementation of key metals to enhance the microorganism activity. Among essential trace metals, cobalt has been reported to have a crucial role in anaerobic degradation. This study evaluates the effect of cobalt supplementation to OMSW, focusing on the connection between fractionation of cobalt in the system and the biological response. The highest biological responses was found in a range from 0.018 to 0.035mg/L of dissolved cobalt (0.24-0.65mg total cobalt/L), reaching improvements up to 23% and 30% in the methane production rate and the methane yield coefficient, respectively. It was found that the dissolved cobalt fraction is more accurately related with the biological response than the total cobalt. The total cobalt is distorted by the contribution of dissolved and non-dissolved inert fractions.

  2. SLFP: A stochastic linear fractional programming approach for sustainable waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Huang, G.H.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > A new fractional programming (SLFP) method is developed for waste management. > SLFP can solve ratio optimization problems associated with random inputs. > A case study of waste flow allocation demonstrates its applicability. > SLFP helps compare objectives of two aspects and reflect system efficiency. > This study supports in-depth analysis of tradeoffs among multiple system criteria. - Abstract: A stochastic linear fractional programming (SLFP) approach is developed for supporting sustainable municipal solid waste management under uncertainty. The SLFP method can solve ratio optimization problems associated with random information, where chance-constrained programming is integrated into a linear fractional programming framework. It has advantages in: (1) comparing objectives of two aspects, (2) reflecting system efficiency, (3) dealing with uncertainty expressed as probability distributions, and (4) providing optimal-ratio solutions under different system-reliability conditions. The method is applied to a case study of waste flow allocation within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. The obtained solutions are useful for identifying sustainable MSW management schemes with maximized system efficiency under various constraint-violation risks. The results indicate that SLFP can support in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, system cost and system-failure risk.

  3. Effect of clay minerals and nanoparticles on chromium fractionation in soil contaminated with leather factory waste.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-10-30

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of time, clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs) on chromium (Cr) fractionation in a soil contaminated with leather factory waste (LFW). Soil was mixed with LFW, then, the contaminated soils were treated with clay minerals (bentonite and zeolite) and nanoparticles (MgO, TiO2 and ZnO) at 5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were incubated for 15-180 days at 25 °C and constant moisture. After incubation, Cr in control and treated soils was fractionated by the sequential extraction procedure. The distribution of various Cr fractions in control soil indicated that the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES) followed by the carbonate (CAR), organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXC) fractions. The addition of LFW in soils increased Cr concentration in all fractions. The higher proportion of EXC fraction in the soil treated with LFW indicates its higher potential of leaching and runoff transport. In all treated soils, the RES fraction was increased, while EXC and OM fractions were decreased during incubation. The results indicated that NPs are effective adsorbent for the removal of Cr ions from LFW treated soil, and they could be useful in reducing their environment risk.

  4. Effect of clay minerals and nanoparticles on chromium fractionation in soil contaminated with leather factory waste.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-10-30

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of time, clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs) on chromium (Cr) fractionation in a soil contaminated with leather factory waste (LFW). Soil was mixed with LFW, then, the contaminated soils were treated with clay minerals (bentonite and zeolite) and nanoparticles (MgO, TiO2 and ZnO) at 5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were incubated for 15-180 days at 25 °C and constant moisture. After incubation, Cr in control and treated soils was fractionated by the sequential extraction procedure. The distribution of various Cr fractions in control soil indicated that the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES) followed by the carbonate (CAR), organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXC) fractions. The addition of LFW in soils increased Cr concentration in all fractions. The higher proportion of EXC fraction in the soil treated with LFW indicates its higher potential of leaching and runoff transport. In all treated soils, the RES fraction was increased, while EXC and OM fractions were decreased during incubation. The results indicated that NPs are effective adsorbent for the removal of Cr ions from LFW treated soil, and they could be useful in reducing their environment risk. PMID:25956643

  5. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. PMID:26821599

  6. Fractionation study in bioleached metallurgy wastes using six-step sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Krasnodebska-Ostrega, Beata; Pałdyna, Joanna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jedynak, Łukasz; Golimowski, Jerzy

    2009-08-15

    The stored metallurgy wastes contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterized by relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The bioleaching process makes use of bacteria to recover elements from industrial wastes and to decrease potential risk of environmental contamination. Wastes were treated by solutions containing bacteria. In this work, the optimized six-stage sequential extraction procedure was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in iron-nickel metallurgy wastes deposited in Southern Poland (Szklary). Fractionation and total concentrations of elements in wastes before and after various bioleaching treatments were studied. Analyses of the extracts were performed by ICP-MS and FAAS. To achieve the most effective bioleaching of Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe the usage of both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria in sequence, combined with flushing of the residue after bioleaching is required. 80-100% of total metal concentrations were mobilized after the proposed treatment. Wastes treated according to this procedure could be deposited without any risk of environmental contamination and additionally the metals could be recovered for industrial purposes.

  7. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the solvent fractions from Bulbine natalensis Tuber.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Mostafa, M; Ashafa, A O T; Afolayan, A J

    2012-01-01

    Bulbine natalensis Baker has been acclaimed to be used as an antimicrobial agent in the folklore medicine of South Africa without scientific evidence to substantiate or refute this claim. In view of this, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of solvent fractions (ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) from Bulbine natalensis Tuber against 4 Gram positive and 12 Gram negative bacteria as well as 3 fungal species were investigated using agar dilution. The ethanolic extract, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions inhibited 75, 87.5 and 100% respectively of the bacterial species in this study. The ethanolic, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions produced growth inhibition at MIC range of 1-10, 3-10 as well as 1 and 5 mg/ml respectively whereas the water fraction did not inhibit the growth of any of the bacterial species. Again, it was only the ethyl acetate fraction that inhibited the growth of Shigelli flexneri, Staphyloccus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic fractions dose dependently inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger and A. flavus whereas the water fraction produced 100% growth inhibition of the Aspergillus species at all the doses investigated. In contrast, no growth inhibition was produced on Candida albicans. The growth inhibition produced by the solvent fractions of B. natalensis Tuber in this study thus justifies the acclaimed use of the plant as an antimicrobial agent. The ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent. PMID:23983381

  9. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  10. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste. PMID:27216729

  11. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste.

  12. Effects of fractionation and combinatorial evaluation of Tamarindus indica fractions for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U; Ngene, Augustine A; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-06-09

    Six fractions, named TiA - TiF, were obtained by fractionating the crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica using column chromatographic techniques. On TLC, fraction TiB showed five bands, TiC three bands, while TiD and TiE showed two bands each. TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent systems to yield two fractions each, while TiB yielded four. These subfractions were designated B1-B4; C1-C2; D1-D2 and E1-E2, respectively. Tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids, among other components, were detected, albeit in different proportions with respect to fractions and subfractions and were compartmentalized with respect to the solvent systems used. The in vitro antibacterial activity of fractions and subfractions was tested separately and in combinations using the agar well diffusion technique. The susceptibly of test strains (expressed as %) were: 83.3% (TiA and TiB), 75.0% (crude extract and TiC), 66.7% (TiD), 50.0% (TiE) and 16.7% (TiF) when used singly, whereas in combination, the corresponding susceptibilities were 100% (CE), 83.3% (DE), 66.7% (AB, AF, BC, BD, DE and EF), 50% (AC and CD), 33.3% (BE and BF) and 16.7% (AD) against Gram negative bacteria strains and 100% (EF), 80% (DE), 60% (AB, BC and CE), 40% (AC, BD, BF, CF and DF) and 20% (AE, AF, BE and CD) against Gram positive strains. Percentage susceptibility with combinatorial use of re-fractions ranged from 85.7-57.1% and 60-40% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiB subfractions), respectively, 100-85.7% and 40-0% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiC, TiD and TiE sub-fractions).

  13. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  14. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Sastre, Herminio; Ordóñez, Salvador; González-LaFuente, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different periods of the year: November 2013 and April 2014. In order to characterize and classify these wastes as solid recovered fuels, they were separated into homogeneous fractions in order to determine different element components, such as plastics, cellulosic materials, packagings or textile compounds, and the elemental analysis (including chlorine content), heavy metal content and the heating value of each fraction were determined. The lower heating value of the waste fractions on wet basis varies between 10 MJ kg(-1) and 42 MJ kg(-1). One of the packaging wastes presents a very high chlorine content (6.3 wt.%) due to the presence of polyvinylchloride from pipe fragments, being the other wastes below the established limits. Most of the wastes analyzed meet the heavy metals restrictions, except the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste. In addition, none of the wastes exceed the mercury limit content, which is one of the parameters considered for the solid recovered fuels classification. A comparison among the experimental higher heating values and empirical models that predict the heating value from the elemental analysis data was carried out. Finally, from the three wastes measured, the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste was discarded for its use as solid recovered fuels due to the lower heating value and its high heavy metals content. From the point of view of the heating value, the end of life vehicles waste was the most suitable residue with a lower

  15. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Sastre, Herminio; Ordóñez, Salvador; González-LaFuente, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different periods of the year: November 2013 and April 2014. In order to characterize and classify these wastes as solid recovered fuels, they were separated into homogeneous fractions in order to determine different element components, such as plastics, cellulosic materials, packagings or textile compounds, and the elemental analysis (including chlorine content), heavy metal content and the heating value of each fraction were determined. The lower heating value of the waste fractions on wet basis varies between 10 MJ kg(-1) and 42 MJ kg(-1). One of the packaging wastes presents a very high chlorine content (6.3 wt.%) due to the presence of polyvinylchloride from pipe fragments, being the other wastes below the established limits. Most of the wastes analyzed meet the heavy metals restrictions, except the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste. In addition, none of the wastes exceed the mercury limit content, which is one of the parameters considered for the solid recovered fuels classification. A comparison among the experimental higher heating values and empirical models that predict the heating value from the elemental analysis data was carried out. Finally, from the three wastes measured, the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste was discarded for its use as solid recovered fuels due to the lower heating value and its high heavy metals content. From the point of view of the heating value, the end of life vehicles waste was the most suitable residue with a lower

  16. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-01-01

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. PMID:26287238

  17. Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-11

    The antioxidative activity of column chromatographic fractions obtained from brewed coffee was investigated to find antioxidants and to assess the benefit of coffee drinking. The dichloromethane extract inhibited hexanal oxidation by 100 and 50% for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, at the level of 5 microg/mL. A GC/MS analysis of fractions, which exhibited oxidative activity, revealed the presence of antioxidative heterocyclic compounds including furans, pyrroles, and maltol. The residual aqueous solution exhibited slight antioxidative activity. The inhibitory activity (%) of the seven fractions from an aqueous solution toward malonaldehde formation from lipid oxidation ranged from 10 to 90 at a level of 300 microg/mL. The results indicate that brewed coffee contains many antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich brewed coffee may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:14759154

  18. Nuclear waste isolation activities report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Included are: a report from the Deputy Assistant Secretary, a summary of recent events, new literature, a list of upcoming waste management meetings, and background information on DOE`s radwaste management programs. (DLC)

  19. Annual waste reduction activities report. Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-18

    This report discusses the waste minimization activities for the Pinellas Plant. The Pinellas Plant deals with low-level radioactive wastes, solvents, scrap metals and various other hazardous materials. This program has realized cost savings through recycling and reuse of materials.

  20. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-15

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  1. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  2. Composition variability of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and effects on hydrogen and methane production potentials.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-02-01

    The composition of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) strongly depends on the place and time of collection for a specific municipality or area. Moreover synthetic food waste or organic waste from cafeterias and restaurants may not be representative of the overall OFMSW received at treatment facilities for source-separated waste. This work is aimed at evaluating the composition variability of OFMSW, the potential productions of hydrogen and methane from specific organic waste fractions typically present in MSW and the effects of waste composition on overall hydrogen and methane yields. The organic waste fractions considered in the study were: bread-pasta, vegetables, fruits, meat-fish-cheese and undersieve 20mm. Composition analyses were conducted on samples of OFMSW that were source segregated at household level. Batch tests for hydrogen and methane productions were carried out under mesophilic conditions on selected fractions and OFMSW samples. Results indicated that the highest production of hydrogen was achieved by the bread-pasta fraction while the lowest productions were measured for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The results indicated that the content of these two fractions in organic waste had a direct influence on the hydrogen production potentials of OFMSW. The higher the content of bread-pasta fraction, the higher the hydrogen yields were while the contrary was observed for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The definition of waste composition therefore represents fundamental information to be reported in scientific literature to allow data comparison. The variability of OFMSW and its effects on hydrogen potentials might also represents a problematic issue in the management of pilot or full-scale plants for the production of hydrogen by dark fermentation.

  3. Stoichiometry of the aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW).

    PubMed

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2003-01-01

    An elemental analysis was applied to describe the composition of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The initial elemental composition was constant at C5H8.5O4N0.2. The changes of the composition during the biodegradation process and the final waste composition were strictly dependent on the process conditions. The decrease in carbon content due to biodegradation increased with temperature at which the experiments were conducted, from 20% at 20 degrees C to about 40% at 37-42 degrees C after 96 hours. It was correlated with the amount of oxygen that was utilised in the investigated processes of aerobic biodegradation of the waste suspension. The amount of oxygen required for biodegradation of organic fraction of MSW was estimated on the basis of stoichiometric equations and increased from 0.92 moles per 1 mole of waste at 20 degrees C to 1.6 moles at 42 degrees C within 96 hours of the experiments. PMID:12801100

  4. Biochemical methane potential tests of different autoclaved and microwaved lignocellulosic organic fractions of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pecorini, Isabella; Baldi, Francesco; Carnevale, Ennio Antonio; Corti, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability and methane production of two synthetic Organic Fractions of Municipal Solid Waste with different lignocellulosic contents by assessing microwave and autoclave pre-treatments. Biochemical Methane Potential assays were performed for 21days. Changes in the soluble fractions of the organic matter (measured by soluble chemical oxygen demand, carbohydrates and proteins), the first order hydrolysis constant kh and the cumulated methane production at 21days were used to evaluate the efficiency of microwaving and autoclaving pretreatments on substrates solubilization and anaerobic digestion. Microwave treatment led to a methane production increase of 8.5% for both the tested organic fractions while autoclave treatment had an increase ranging from 1.0% to 4.4%. Results showed an increase of the soluble fraction after pre-treatments for both the synthetic organic fractions. Soluble chemical oxygen demand observed significant increases for pretreated substrates (up to 219.8%). In this regard, the mediocre results of methane's production led to the conclusion that autoclaving and microwaving resulted in the hydrolysis of a significant fraction of non-biodegradable organic substances recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion.

  5. Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract.

    PubMed

    Piñero Estrada, J E; Bermejo Bescós, P; Villar del Fresno, A M

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina platensis, planktonic blue-green algae, is gaining increasing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. This microalgae contains phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin). Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that a protean extract of S. platensis is a potent free-radical scavenger (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize phycocyanin of S. platensis. Besides, we tried to demonstrate that one of the main components responsible for this antioxidant activity is a biliprotein phycocyanin. For this purpose, we studied the antioxidant activity of different fractions obtained during the phycocyanin purification process, through the scavenger activity of hydroxyl radical. We also observed that an increase in phycocyanin content was related to an increase in the antioxidant activity in different fractions, and therefore phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is the component mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  6. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  7. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6).

  8. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories.

  9. Packaging waste prevention activities: A life cycle assessment of the effects on a regional waste management system.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2015-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to evaluate the effects of two packaging waste prevention activities on the overall environmental performance of the integrated municipal waste management system of Lombardia region, Italy. The activities are the use of refined tap water instead of bottled water for household consumption and the substitution of liquid detergents packaged in single-use containers by those distributed 'loose' through self-dispensing systems and refillable containers. A 2020 baseline scenario without waste prevention is compared with different waste prevention scenarios, where the two activities are either separately or contemporaneously implemented, by assuming a complete substitution of the traditional product(s). The results show that, when the prevention activities are carried out effectively, a reduction in total waste generation ranging from 0.14% to 0.66% is achieved, corresponding to a 1-4% reduction of the affected packaging waste fractions (plastics and glass). However, the improvements in the overall environmental performance of the waste management system can be far higher, especially when bottled water is substituted. In this case, a nearly 0.5% reduction of the total waste involves improvements ranging mostly between 5 and 23%. Conversely, for the substitution of single-use packaged liquid detergents (0.14% reduction of the total waste), the achieved improvements do not exceed 3% for nearly all impact categories. PMID:26089188

  10. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste from mechanical selection: biological stabilization and recovery options.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Alessandra; Russo, Lara; Farina, Anna; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Although current trends address towards prevention strategies, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste is greatly produced, especially in high-income contexts. Its recovery-oriented collection is a common practice, but a relevant portion of the biodegradable waste is not source selected. Mechanical and biological treatments (MBT) are the most common option to sort and stabilize the biodegradable matter ending in residual waste stream. Following the changes of the framework around waste management, this paper aimed at analyzing the quality of the mechanically selected organic waste produced in MBT plants, in order to discuss its recovery options. The material performance was obtained by its composition as well as by its main chemical and physical parameters; biological stability was also assessed by both aerobic and anaerobic methods. On this basis, the effectiveness of an aerobic biostabilization process was assessed at pilot scale. After 21 days of treatment, results proved that the biomass had reached an acceptable biostabilization level, with a potential Dynamic Respirometric Index (DRIP) value lower than the limit required for its use as daily or final landfill cover material. However, the final stabilization level was seen to be influenced by scaling factors and the 21 days of treatment turned to be not so adequate when applied in the existing full-scale facility.

  11. Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pivnenko, K; Olsson, M E; Götze, R; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-05-01

    Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies.

  12. Organic fraction of municipal solid waste from mechanical selection: biological stabilization and recovery options.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Alessandra; Russo, Lara; Farina, Anna; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Although current trends address towards prevention strategies, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste is greatly produced, especially in high-income contexts. Its recovery-oriented collection is a common practice, but a relevant portion of the biodegradable waste is not source selected. Mechanical and biological treatments (MBT) are the most common option to sort and stabilize the biodegradable matter ending in residual waste stream. Following the changes of the framework around waste management, this paper aimed at analyzing the quality of the mechanically selected organic waste produced in MBT plants, in order to discuss its recovery options. The material performance was obtained by its composition as well as by its main chemical and physical parameters; biological stability was also assessed by both aerobic and anaerobic methods. On this basis, the effectiveness of an aerobic biostabilization process was assessed at pilot scale. After 21 days of treatment, results proved that the biomass had reached an acceptable biostabilization level, with a potential Dynamic Respirometric Index (DRIP) value lower than the limit required for its use as daily or final landfill cover material. However, the final stabilization level was seen to be influenced by scaling factors and the 21 days of treatment turned to be not so adequate when applied in the existing full-scale facility. PMID:26377969

  13. Waste handling activities in glovebox dismantling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio; Yoshino, Masanori; Hirano, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    The Glovebox Dismantling Facility is a facility to decontaminate and size-reduce after-service gloveboxes in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The wastes generated from these dismantling activities are simultaneously handled and packaged into drums in a bag-out manner. For future waste treatment and disposal, these wastes are separated into material categories. In this paper, we present the basic steps and analyzed data for the waste handling activities. The data were collected from dismantling activities for three gloveboxes (Grinding Pellet Glovebox, Visual Inspection Glovebox, Outer-diameter Screening Glovebox) conducted from 2001-2004. We also describe both current and near-future improvements. (authors)

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Carpolobia lutea extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Nwidu, Lucky L; Nwafor, Paul A; Vilegas, Wagner

    2012-01-01

    Carpolobia lutea (G. Don) (Polygalaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant putative in traditional medicines against gonorrhea, gingivitis, infertility, antiulcer and malaria. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial, antifungal and antihelicobacter effects of extracts C. lutea leaf, stem and root. The extracts were examined using the disc-diffusion and Microplates of 96 wells containing Muller-Hinton methods against some bacterial strains: Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922), E. coli (ATCC10418), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphyllococus aureus (ATCC 6571), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8853) and four clinical isolates: one fungi (Candida albican) and three bacteria (Salmonella, Sheigella and staphylococcus aureus). The Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 19659) and the Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Cândida albicans (ATCC 18804) and Helicobacter pylori (ATCC 43504). Some of these extracts were found to be active against some tested strains but activity against H. pylori was >1000mg/ml and good fungistatic activity against C. albican. The MIC against C. albican is in the order n-HF > CHF > ETF= EAF.The order of potency of fraction was the ethanol root > n-HF leaf > ethanol fraction stem > chloroform fraction leaf = ethyl acetate fraction leaf. Polyphenols were demonstrated in ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, crude ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract, respectively. These polyphenols isolated may partly explain and support the use of C. lutea for the treatment of infectious diseases in traditional Ibibio medicine of Nigeria. PMID:23983362

  15. In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction in Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.W.; Shepard, C.L.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Stokes, T.I.; Terrones, G.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101, which contains approximately one million gallons of radioactive waste. These instruments provided the first direct assay of the waste condition in the tank after more than a year of mixer pump operation. The two instruments were deployed in the tank in late 1994 and early 1995 to gather much-needed data on the effect prolonged mixer pump operation has on gas retention in the waste. The information supplied by these instruments has filled a great gap in the quantitative knowledge of the waste condition. The results show that the solids are well-mixed by the current mixer pump to within less than a meter of the tank bottom. Undisturbed sludge remains only on the lowest 10--30 cm and contains 10--12% void. The mixed slurry above contains less than 1% void and has no measurable yield strength and a shear-thinning viscosity of approximately 6 Poise at 1 sec{sup {minus}1}. Estimating the gas volumes in each of the four layers based on VFI data yields a total of 221 {+-} 57 m{sup 3} (7,800 {+-} 2,000 SCF) of gas at 1 atmosphere. Given the current waste level of 10.2 m (400 inches), the degassed waste level would be 9.8 m (386 inches). These results confirm that the mixer pump in Tank 241-SY-101 has performed the job it was installed to do--thoroughly mix the waste to release stored gas and prevent gas accumulation.

  16. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  17. Thermochemical pretreatments of organic fraction of municipal solid waste from a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; de los Ángeles Romero Aguilar, María; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-02-09

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160-180-200 °C, 3.5-5.0-6.5 bar and 2-3-4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process.

  18. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; Romero Aguilar, María de los Ángeles; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160–180–200 °C, 3.5–5.0–6.5 bar and 2–3–4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process. PMID:25671816

  19. Phytoavailability and fractions of iron and manganese in calcareous soil amended with composted urban wastes.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Lara, Francisco; Azcón, Mariano; Polo, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of applying composted urban wastes on the phytoavailability and distribution of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) among chemical fractions in soil. In order to study this concern several experiments in pots containing calcareous soil were carried out. The received treatments by adding separately two rates (20 and 80 Mg ha-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and/or municipal solid waste and sewage sludge (MSW-SS) co-compost. The cropping sequence was a lettuce crop followed by a barley crop. It was observed that treatments amended with composted urban wastes tended to promote slight increases in lettuce yield compared to the control. The highest Fe levels in lettuce were found when higher rates of MSW-SS co-compost were applied; these values were significant compared to those obtained in the other treatments. In all cases, the application of organic materials increased the concentration and uptake of Mn in lettuce compared to the control; however, these increases were significant only when higher rates of MSW compost were applied. The organic amendments had beneficial delayed effects on barley yields, showing, in most cases, significant increases compared to the control. In this context, treatments with MSW compost were found to be more effective than the equivalent treatments amended with MSW-SS co-compost. Compared to the control, composted urban wastes increased Fe concentration in straw and rachis, and decreased Fe concentration in barley grain. Similarly, a decreased concentration of Mn in the dry matter of barley crop grown in soils treated with composted urban wastes was observed. PMID:16923600

  20. Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Malagutti, Luca; Fragali, Emilio; Ruboni, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) processes, when applied to different types of organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), may easily be subjected to inhibition due to organic overloading. In this study, a new approach for predicting these phenomena was proposed based on the estimation of the putrescibility (oxygen consumption in 20 h biodegradation, OD(20)) of the organic mixtures undergoing the HSAD process. Different wastes exhibiting different putrescibility were subjected to lab-scale batch-HSAD. Measuring the organic loading (OL) as volatile solids (VS) was found unsuitable for predicting overload inhibition, because similar VS contents corresponded to both inhibited and successful trials. Instead, the OL calculated as OD(20) was a very good indicator of the inhibiting conditions (inhibition started for OD(20)>17-18 g O(2)kg(-1)). This new method of predicting inhibition in the HSAD process of diverse OFMSW may be useful for developing a correct approach to the technology in very different contexts.

  1. Characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and methane production: A review.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a viable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. Biogas production mainly depends on the type and amount of organic macromolecules. Based on results from different authors analysing OFMSW from different cities, this paper presents the importance of knowing the OFMSW composition to understand how anaerobic digestion can be used to produce methane. This analysis describes and discusses physical, chemical and bromatological characteristics of OFMSW reported by several authors from different countries and cities and their relationship to methane production. The main conclusion is that the differences are country and not city dependant. Cultural habits and OFMSW management systems do not allow a generalisation but the individual analysis for specific cities allow understanding the general characteristics for a better methane production. Not only are the OFMSW characteristics important but also the conditions under which the methane production tests were performed.

  2. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  3. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T V

    2009-04-01

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks. PMID:19081239

  4. Thermogravimetric characteristics of typical municipal solid waste fractions during co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Long, YanQiu; Meng, AiHong; Li, QingHai; Zhang, YanGuo

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of nine typical municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions during pyrolysis were investigated using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). To compare the mixture results with the calculation results of superposition of single fractions quantitatively, TG overlap ratio was introduced. There were strong interactions between orange peel and rice (overlap ratio 0.9736), and rice and poplar wood (overlap ratio 0.9774). The interactions of mixture experiments postponed the peak and lowered the peak value. Intense interactions between PVC and rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, wool, terylene, and rubber powder during co-pyrolysis were observed, and the pyrolysis at low temperature was usually promoted. The residue yield was increased when PVC was blended with rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, or rubber powder; while the residue yield was decreased when PVC was blended with wool.

  5. Thermogravimetric characteristics of typical municipal solid waste fractions during co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Long, YanQiu; Meng, AiHong; Li, QingHai; Zhang, YanGuo

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of nine typical municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions during pyrolysis were investigated using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). To compare the mixture results with the calculation results of superposition of single fractions quantitatively, TG overlap ratio was introduced. There were strong interactions between orange peel and rice (overlap ratio 0.9736), and rice and poplar wood (overlap ratio 0.9774). The interactions of mixture experiments postponed the peak and lowered the peak value. Intense interactions between PVC and rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, wool, terylene, and rubber powder during co-pyrolysis were observed, and the pyrolysis at low temperature was usually promoted. The residue yield was increased when PVC was blended with rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, or rubber powder; while the residue yield was decreased when PVC was blended with wool. PMID:25680236

  6. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M.; Wearne, S. L.

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  7. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems.

    PubMed

    Henry, B I; Langlands, T A M; Wearne, S L

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  8. Toward environmentally-benign utilization of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as modifier and precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hadi, Pejman; Ning, Chao; Ouyang, Weiyi; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S.K.; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Environmental impacts of electronic waste and specifically waste printed circuit boards. • Review of the recycling techniques of waste printed circuit boards. • Advantages of physico-mechanical recycling techniques over chemical methods. • Utilization of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as modifier/filler. • Recent advances in the use of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as precursor. - Abstract: Electronic waste, including printed circuit boards, is growing at an alarming rate due to the accelerated technological progress and the shorter lifespan of the electronic equipment. In the past decades, due to the lack of proper economic and environmentally-benign recycling technologies, a major fraction of e-waste generated was either destined to landfills or incinerated with the sole intention of its disposal disregarding the toxic nature of this waste. Recently, with the increasing public awareness over their environment and health issues and with the enaction of more stringent regulations, environmentally-benign recycling has been driven to be an alternative option partially replacing the traditional eco-unfriendly disposal methods. One of the most favorable green technologies has been the mechanical separation of the metallic and nonmetallic fraction of the waste printed circuit boards. Although metallic fraction, as the most profitable component, is used to generate the revenue of the separation process, the nonmetallic fraction (NMF) has been left isolated. Herein, the recent developments in the application of NMF have been comprehensively reviewed and an eco-friendly emerging usage of NMF as a value-added material for sustainable remediation has been introduced.

  9. Size charge fractionation of metals in municipal solid waste landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Oygard, Joar Karsten; Gjengedal, Elin; Røyset, Oddvar

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachates from 9 Norwegian sites were size charge fractionated in the field, to obtain three fractions: particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm, free anions/non-labile complexes <0.45microm and free cations/labile complexes <0.45microm. The fractionation showed that Cd and Zn, and especially Cu and Pb, were present to a large degree (63-98%) as particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm. Cr, Co and Ni were on the contrary present mostly as non-labile complexes (69-79%) <0.45microm. The major cations Ca, Mg, K, and Mn were present mainly as free cations/labile complexes <0.45microm, while As and Mo were present to a large degree (70-90%) as free anions/non-labile complexes <0.45microm. Aluminium was present mainly as particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm. The particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm was mainly inorganic; indicating that the metals present in this fraction were bound as inorganic compounds. The fractionation gives important information on the mobility and potential bioavailability of the metals investigated, in contrast to the total metal concentrations usually reported. To study possible changes in respective metal species in leachate in aerated sedimentation tanks, freshly sampled leachate was stored for 48h, and subsequently fractionated. This showed that the free heavy metals are partly immobilized during storage of leachate with oxygen available. The largest effects were found for Cd and Zn. The proportion of As and Cr present as particulate matter or colloids >0.45microm also increased.

  10. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation.

  11. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Giudicianni, Paola; Bozza, Pio; Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Ragucci, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of the common domestic appliances. Finally, the evaluation of the energy recovered in the final product per unit weight of raw material shows that in most cases it is comparable to the energy required from the treatment.

  12. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Giudicianni, Paola; Bozza, Pio; Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Ragucci, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of the common domestic appliances. Finally, the evaluation of the energy recovered in the final product per unit weight of raw material shows that in most cases it is comparable to the energy required from the treatment. PMID:26209343

  13. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    PubMed

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger.

  14. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  15. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  16. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: a review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiuyong; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  17. In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction: Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Terrones, G.; Chen, G.; Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-103. The two instruments were deployed through risers 17C and 22A in July and August 1995 to gather data on the gas content and rheology of the waste. The results indicate that the nonconvective sludge layer contains up to 12% void and an apparent viscosity of 104 to 105 cP with a yield strength less than 210 Pa. The convective layer measured zero void and had no measurable yield strength. Its average viscosity was about 45 cP, and the density was less than 1.5 g/cc. The average void fraction was 0.047 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 17C and 0.091 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 22A. The stored gas volume based on these void fraction measurements is 213 {plus_minus} 42 M{sup 3} at 1 atmosphere.

  18. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  19. Particle size fractionation as a method for characterizing the nutrient content of municipal green waste used for composting.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R J; Belyaeva, O N; Zhou, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    In order to better characterize mechanically shredded municipal green waste used for composting, five samples from different origins were separated into seven particle size fractions (>20mm, 10-20mm, 5-10mm, 2-5mm, 1-2mm, 0.5-1.0mm and <0.5mm diameter) and analyzed for organic C and nutrient content. With decreasing particle size there was a decrease in organic C content and an increase in macronutrient, micronutrient and ash content. This reflected a concentration of lignified woody material in the larger particle fractions and of green stems and leaves and soil in the smaller particle sizes. The accumulation of nutrients in the smaller sized fractions means the practice of using large particle sizes for green fuel and/or mulch does not greatly affect nutrient cycling via green waste composting. During a 100-day incubation experiment, using different particle size fractions of green waste, there was a marked increase in both cumulative CO2 evolution and mineral N accumulation with decreasing particle size. Results suggested that during composting of bulk green waste (with a high initial C/N ratio such as 50:1), mineral N accumulates because decomposition and net N immobilization in larger particles is slow while net N mineralization proceeds rapidly in the smaller (<1mm dia.) fractions. Initially, mineral N accumulated in green waste as NH4(+)-N, but over time, nitrification proceeded resulting in accumulation of NO3(-)-N. It was concluded that the nutrient content, N mineralization potential and decomposition rate of green waste differs greatly among particle size fractions and that chemical analysis of particle size fractions provides important additional information over that of a bulk sample. PMID:25453318

  20. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    PubMed

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27180430

  1. Thermal and mechanical stabilization process of the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Giudicianni, Paola; Bozza, Pio; Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Ragucci, Raffaele

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A domestic scale prototype for the pre-treatment of OFMSW has been tested. • Two grinding techniques are compared and thermopress is used for the drying stage. • Increasing temperature up to 170 °C reduces energy consumption of the drying stage. • In the range 5–10 bar a reduction of 97% of the initial volume is obtained. • In most cases energy recovery from the dried waste matches energy consumption. - Abstract: In the present study a thermo-mechanical treatment for the disposal of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at apartment or condominium scale is proposed. The process presents several advantages allowing to perform a significant volume and moisture reduction of the produced waste at domestic scale thus producing a material with an increased storability and improved characteristics (e.g. calorific value) that make it available for further alternative uses. The assessment of the applicability of the proposed waste pretreatment in a new scheme of waste management system requires several research steps involving different competences and application scales. In this context, a preliminary study is needed targeting to the evaluation and minimization of the energy consumption associated to the process. To this aim, in the present paper, two configurations of a domestic appliance prototype have been presented and the effect of some operating variables has been investigated in order to select the proper configuration and the best set of operating conditions capable to minimize the duration and the energy consumption of the process. The performances of the prototype have been also tested on three model mixtures representing a possible daily domestic waste and compared with an existing commercially available appliance. The results obtained show that a daily application of the process is feasible given the short treatment time required and the energy consumption comparable to the one of

  2. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    PubMed

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments. PMID:25532672

  3. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    PubMed

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Momordica charantia (Curcubitaceae) extracts and fractions

    PubMed Central

    Costa, José Galberto M.; Nascimento, Eidla M. M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. belongs to the family Curcubitaceae and it is very common in many Brazilian regions. The plant is a liana with flowers and yellow fruits that present red seeds when are ripe. Popularly known as “melão-de-sãocaetano”, “melão amargo” or “cabaço-amargo”, it possesses many uses: antidiabetic, antihelmintic, antmicrobial, anticancerigenous and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried leaves extracts showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites, as flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins, that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. Fresh and dried leaves presented significantly antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains tested, specially Escherichia coli. Ethyl acetate fractions were effective against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The modulatory activity was significative too PMID:24826002

  5. Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nayono, Satoto E.; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

  6. Immunocontraceptive activity guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1998-04-01

    A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility

  7. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended.

  8. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  9. An engineering assessment of the burning of the combustible fraction of construction and demolition wastes in a redundant brick kiln.

    PubMed

    Chang, N B; Lin, K S; Sun, Y P; Wang, H P

    2001-12-01

    This paper confirms both technical feasibility and economic potential via the use of redundant brick kilns as an alternative option for disposal of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes by a three-stage analysis. To assess such an idea, one brick kiln was selected for performing an engineering feasibility study. First of all, field sampling and lab-analyses were carried out to gain a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes. Kinetic parameters for the oxidation of the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes were therefore numerically calculated from the weight loss data obtained through a practice of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Secondly, an engineering assessment for retrofitting the redundant brick kiln was performed based on integrating several new and existing unit operations, consisting of waste storage, shredding, feeding, combustion, flue gas cleaning, and ash removal. Such changes were subject to the operational condition in accordance with the estimated mass and energy balances. Finally, addressing the economic value of energy recovery motivated a renewed interest to convert the combustible fractions of construction and demolition wastes into useful hot water for secondary uses.

  10. Co-digestion of the hydromechanically separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the anaerobic digestion of the hydromechanically sorted organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (HS-OFMSW) co-digested with sewage sludge (SS). Eight laboratory-scale experiments were conducted under semi-continuous conditions at 15 and 20 days of solids retention time (SRT). The biogas yield from the waste reached 309 to 315 dm(3)/kgVS and 320 to 361 dm(3)/kgVS under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The addition of SS to HS-OFMSW (1:1 by weight) improved the C/N balance of the mixture, and the production of biogas through anaerobic mesophilic digestion increased to 494 dm(3)/kgVS, which corresponded to 316 dm(3)CH4/kgVS. However, when SS and HS-OFMSW were treated under thermophilic conditions, methanogenesis was inhibited by volatile fatty acids and free ammonia, which concentrations reached 5744 gCH3COOH/m(3) and 1009 gNH3/m(3), respectively. PMID:25262391

  11. Assessment of New Calculation Method for Toxicological Sums-of-Fractions for Hanford Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2006-09-26

    The toxicological source terms used for potential accident assessment in the Tank Farms DSA are based on toxicological sums-of-fractions (SOFs) that were calculated in fiscal years 2002 and 2003 based on the Best Basis Inventory (BBI) from May 2002, using the method described by Cowley et al. (2003). The present report describes a modified SOF-calculation method that is to be used in future toxicological updates and assessments and compares its results (for the 2002 BBI) to those of the old method. The new method generally calculated different (usually larger) SOFs than the old. The dominant reason was the more conservative way in which the new method represents concentration variability, in that it uses the waste layer with the maximum SOF to represent the tank SOF. The old method had used a tank-average waste composition and SOF. Differences between thermodynamically modeled and BBI solubilities were the next most common reason for differences between old (modeled) and new (BBI) SOFs, particularly in the liquid phase. The solubility-related changes in SOF were roughly equally distributed between increases and decreases. Changes in the effective toxicities of TOC and lead, which resulted from changes in the compounds in which these analytes were considered to be present, were the third most common reason. These toxicity changes increased SOFs and therefore were in a conservative direction.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  13. Effects of Globally Waste-Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Huckaby, James L.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2002-12-18

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  14. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  15. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  16. Hanford Tank Waste - Near Source Treatment of Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-08-15

    Abstract only. Treatment and disposition of Hanford Site waste as currently planned consists of 100+ waste retrievals, waste delivery through up to 8+ miles of dedicated, in-ground piping, centralized mixing and blending operations- all leading to pre-treatment combination and separation processes followed by vitrification at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The sequential nature of Tank Farm and WTP operations requires nominally 15-20 years of continuous operations before all waste can be retrieved from many Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). Also, the infrastructure necessary to mobilize and deliver the waste requires significant investment beyond that required for the WTP. Treating waste as closely as possible to individual tanks or groups- as allowed by the waste characteristics- is being investigated to determine the potential to 1) defer, reduce, and/or eliminate infrastructure requirements, and 2) significantly mitigate project risk by reducing the potential and impact of single point failures. The inventory of Hanford waste slated for processing and disposition as LAW is currently managed as high-level waste (HLW), i.e., the separation of fission products and other radionuclides has not commenced. A significant inventory of this waste (over 20M gallons) is in the form of precipitated saltcake maintained in single shell tanks, many of which are identified as potential leaking tanks. Retrieval and transport (as a liquid) must be staged within the waste feed delivery capability established by site infrastructure and WTP. Near Source treatment, if employed, would provide for the separation and stabilization processing necessary for waste located in remote farms (wherein most of the leaking tanks reside) significantly earlier than currently projected. Near Source treatment is intended to address the currently accepted site risk and also provides means to mitigate future issues likely to be faced over the coming decades. This paper

  17. Investigating the Partitioning of Inorganic Elements Consumed by Humans between the Various Fractions of Human Wastes: An Alternative Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The elemental composition of food consumed by astronauts is well defined. The major elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur are taken up in large amounts and these are often associated with the organic fraction (carbohydrates, proteins, fats etc) of human tissue. On the other hand, a number of the elements are located in the extracellular fluids and can be accounted for in the liquid and solid waste fraction of humans. These elements fall into three major categories - cationic macroelements (e.g. Ca, K, Na, Mg and Si), anionic macroelements (e.g. P, S and Cl and 17 essential microelements, (e.g. Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Sr). When provided in the recommended concentrations to an adult healthy human, these elements should not normally accumulate in humans and will eventually be excreted in the different human wastes. Knowledge of the partitioning of these elements between the different human waste fractions is important in understanding (a) developing waste separation technologies, (b) decision-making on how these elements can be recovered for reuse in space habitats, and (c) to developing the processors for waste management. Though considerable literature exists on these elements, there is a lack of understanding and often conflicting data. Two major reasons for these problems include the lack of controlled experimental protocols and the inherently large variations between human subjects (Parker and Gallagher, 1988). We have used the existing knowledge of human nutrition and waste from the available literature and NASA documentation to build towards a consensus to typify and chemically characterize the various human wastes. It is our belief, that this could be a building block towards integrating a human life support and waste processing in a closed system.

  18. Toward environmentally-benign utilization of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as modifier and precursor.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Pejman; Ning, Chao; Ouyang, Weiyi; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Electronic waste, including printed circuit boards, is growing at an alarming rate due to the accelerated technological progress and the shorter lifespan of the electronic equipment. In the past decades, due to the lack of proper economic and environmentally-benign recycling technologies, a major fraction of e-waste generated was either destined to landfills or incinerated with the sole intention of its disposal disregarding the toxic nature of this waste. Recently, with the increasing public awareness over their environment and health issues and with the enaction of more stringent regulations, environmentally-benign recycling has been driven to be an alternative option partially replacing the traditional eco-unfriendly disposal methods. One of the most favorable green technologies has been the mechanical separation of the metallic and nonmetallic fraction of the waste printed circuit boards. Although metallic fraction, as the most profitable component, is used to generate the revenue of the separation process, the nonmetallic fraction (NMF) has been left isolated. Herein, the recent developments in the application of NMF have been comprehensively reviewed and an eco-friendly emerging usage of NMF as a value-added material for sustainable remediation has been introduced.

  19. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  20. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  1. Transporting Radioactive Waste: An Engineering Activity. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    This brochure contains an engineering activity for upper elementary, middle school, and high school students that examines the transportation of radioactive waste. The activity is designed to inform students about the existence of radioactive waste and its transportation to disposal sites. Students experiment with methods to contain the waste and…

  2. Optimizing the performance of microbial fuel cells fed a combination of different synthetic organic fractions in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pendyala, Brahmaiah; Chaganti, Subba Rao; Lalman, Jerald A; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the impact of different steam exploded organic fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW) on electricity production using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In particular, the influence of individual steam exploded liquefied waste components (food waste (FW), paper-cardboard waste (PCW) and garden waste (GW)) and their blends on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, columbic efficiency (CE) and microbial diversity was examined using a mixture design. Maximum power densities from 0.56 to 0.83 W m(-2) were observed for MFCs fed with different feedstocks. The maximum COD removed and minimum CE were observed for a GW feed. However, a reverse trend (minimum COD removed and maximum CE) was observed for the FW feed. A maximum COD removal (78%) accompanied with a maximum CE (24%) was observed for a combined feed of FW, PCW plus GW in a 1:1:1 ratio. Lactate, the major byproduct detected, was unutilized by the anodic biofilm community. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) could serve as a potential feedstock for electricity generation in MFCs; however, elevated protein levels will lead to reduced COD removal. The microbial communities in cultures fed FW and PCW was highly diversified; however, the communities in cultures fed FW or a feed mixture containing high FW levels were similar and dominated by Bacteroidetes and β-proteobacteria.

  3. Optimizing the performance of microbial fuel cells fed a combination of different synthetic organic fractions in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pendyala, Brahmaiah; Chaganti, Subba Rao; Lalman, Jerald A; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the impact of different steam exploded organic fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW) on electricity production using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In particular, the influence of individual steam exploded liquefied waste components (food waste (FW), paper-cardboard waste (PCW) and garden waste (GW)) and their blends on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, columbic efficiency (CE) and microbial diversity was examined using a mixture design. Maximum power densities from 0.56 to 0.83 W m(-2) were observed for MFCs fed with different feedstocks. The maximum COD removed and minimum CE were observed for a GW feed. However, a reverse trend (minimum COD removed and maximum CE) was observed for the FW feed. A maximum COD removal (78%) accompanied with a maximum CE (24%) was observed for a combined feed of FW, PCW plus GW in a 1:1:1 ratio. Lactate, the major byproduct detected, was unutilized by the anodic biofilm community. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) could serve as a potential feedstock for electricity generation in MFCs; however, elevated protein levels will lead to reduced COD removal. The microbial communities in cultures fed FW and PCW was highly diversified; however, the communities in cultures fed FW or a feed mixture containing high FW levels were similar and dominated by Bacteroidetes and β-proteobacteria. PMID:26777306

  4. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, Muddasar; Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products.

  5. Broad spectrum antimutagenic activity of antioxidant active fraction of punica granatum L. peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-12-21

    Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatum peel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80μg/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatum peel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20708098

  6. Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in waste clay sediment discharged through the phosphate beneficiation process in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad Salem; Brumsack, Hans Jurgen; Schnetger, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metal contamination of clay waste through the phosphate beneficiation process is a serious problem faced by scientists and regulators worldwide. Through the beneficiation process, heavy metals naturally present in the phosphate rocks became concentrated in the clay waste. This study evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and their fractions in the clay waste in order to assess the risk of environmental contamination. A five-step sequential extraction method, the risk assessment code (RAC), effects range low (ERL), effects range medium (ERM), the lowest effect level (LEL), the severe effect level (SEL), the redistribution index (U tf), the reduced partition index (I), residual partition index (I R), and the Nemerow multi-factor index (PC) were used to assess for clay waste contamination. Heavy metals were analyzed using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Correlation analyses were carried out to better understand the relationships between the chemical characteristics and the contents of the different phase fractions. Concentrations of Cd and Cu confirmed that both were bound to the exchangeable fraction (F1) and the carbonate fraction (F2), presenting higher mobility, whereas Pb was most abundant in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) and organic matter fraction (F4). The residual fraction (F5) contained the highest concentrations (>60%) of As, Cr, Mo, V, and Zn, with lower mobility. Application of the RAC index showed that Cd and Cu should be considered a moderate risk, whereas As, Cr, Mo, Pb, and Zn presented a low risk. Cadmium and Cu contents in mobile fractions F1 and F2 were higher than ERL but lower than ERM. On the other hand, As, Pb, and Zn contents of mobile fractions F1 and F2 were lower than ERL and ERM guideline values. Moreover, total Pb concentrations in the clay waste were below the lowest effect level (LEL) threshold value period, Cr and

  7. Fraction distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in waste clay sediment discharged through the phosphate beneficiation process in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad Salem; Brumsack, Hans Jurgen; Schnetger, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metal contamination of clay waste through the phosphate beneficiation process is a serious problem faced by scientists and regulators worldwide. Through the beneficiation process, heavy metals naturally present in the phosphate rocks became concentrated in the clay waste. This study evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and their fractions in the clay waste in order to assess the risk of environmental contamination. A five-step sequential extraction method, the risk assessment code (RAC), effects range low (ERL), effects range medium (ERM), the lowest effect level (LEL), the severe effect level (SEL), the redistribution index (U tf), the reduced partition index (I), residual partition index (I R), and the Nemerow multi-factor index (PC) were used to assess for clay waste contamination. Heavy metals were analyzed using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Correlation analyses were carried out to better understand the relationships between the chemical characteristics and the contents of the different phase fractions. Concentrations of Cd and Cu confirmed that both were bound to the exchangeable fraction (F1) and the carbonate fraction (F2), presenting higher mobility, whereas Pb was most abundant in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) and organic matter fraction (F4). The residual fraction (F5) contained the highest concentrations (>60%) of As, Cr, Mo, V, and Zn, with lower mobility. Application of the RAC index showed that Cd and Cu should be considered a moderate risk, whereas As, Cr, Mo, Pb, and Zn presented a low risk. Cadmium and Cu contents in mobile fractions F1 and F2 were higher than ERL but lower than ERM. On the other hand, As, Pb, and Zn contents of mobile fractions F1 and F2 were lower than ERL and ERM guideline values. Moreover, total Pb concentrations in the clay waste were below the lowest effect level (LEL) threshold value period, Cr and

  8. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  9. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system.

    PubMed

    Habib, Muddasar; Miles, Nicholas J; Hall, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products.

  10. PHA production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW): Overcoming the inhibitory matrix.

    PubMed

    Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Mulders, Michel; Veeken, Adrie; Rozendal, Rene; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2016-06-01

    Leachate from the source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was evaluated as a substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Initially, the enrichment step was conducted directly on leachate in a feast-famine regime. Maximization of the cellular PHA content of the enriched biomass yielded to low PHA content (29 wt%), suggesting that the selection for PHA-producers was unsuccessful. When the substrate for the enrichment was switched to a synthetic volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture -resembling the VFA carbon composition of the leachate-the PHA-producers gained the competitive advantage and dominated. Subsequent accumulation with leachate in nutrient excess conditions resulted in a maximum PHA content of 78 wt%. Based on the experimental results, enriching a PHA-producing community in a "clean" VFA stream, and then accumulating PHA from a stream that does not allow for enrichment but does enable a high cellular PHA content, such as OFMSW leachate, makes the overall process much more economically attractive. The estimated overall process yield can be increased four-fold, in comparison to direct use of the complex matrix for both enrichment and accumulation. PMID:27019467

  11. PHA production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW): Overcoming the inhibitory matrix.

    PubMed

    Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Mulders, Michel; Veeken, Adrie; Rozendal, Rene; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2016-06-01

    Leachate from the source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was evaluated as a substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Initially, the enrichment step was conducted directly on leachate in a feast-famine regime. Maximization of the cellular PHA content of the enriched biomass yielded to low PHA content (29 wt%), suggesting that the selection for PHA-producers was unsuccessful. When the substrate for the enrichment was switched to a synthetic volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture -resembling the VFA carbon composition of the leachate-the PHA-producers gained the competitive advantage and dominated. Subsequent accumulation with leachate in nutrient excess conditions resulted in a maximum PHA content of 78 wt%. Based on the experimental results, enriching a PHA-producing community in a "clean" VFA stream, and then accumulating PHA from a stream that does not allow for enrichment but does enable a high cellular PHA content, such as OFMSW leachate, makes the overall process much more economically attractive. The estimated overall process yield can be increased four-fold, in comparison to direct use of the complex matrix for both enrichment and accumulation.

  12. Effect of weathering treatment on the fractionation and leaching behavior of copper in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Li, Wen-Bing; Tang, Mengling; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Feng, Hua-Jun; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    This work describes the effect of weathering of fresh quenched municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash on the fractionation and leaching behavior of Cu. A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the fractionation of Cu in the fresh and weathered MSWI bottom ash samples. It showed that the organic matter bound fraction of Cu decreased drastically from 69% to 37% during the weathering treatment, while the residual fraction, Fe-Mn oxides bound fraction, carbonate bound fraction and exchangeable fraction increased from 24% to 54%, 3% to 4%, 2% to 3% and 2% to 3%, respectively. Furthermore, two standard leaching procedures, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), were carried out on the fresh and weathered samples. The leaching of Cu was attenuated with the process of weathering treatment in the SPLP procedure, but was enhanced in the TCLP procedure. The results suggested that the weathering treatment could change the fractionation and leaching behavior of Cu in MSWI bottom ash. Further research is required to correlate weathering of ash and mobility of Cu. PMID:20832839

  13. Effect of weathering treatment on the fractionation and leaching behavior of copper in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Li, Wen-Bing; Tang, Mengling; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Feng, Hua-Jun; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    This work describes the effect of weathering of fresh quenched municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash on the fractionation and leaching behavior of Cu. A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the fractionation of Cu in the fresh and weathered MSWI bottom ash samples. It showed that the organic matter bound fraction of Cu decreased drastically from 69% to 37% during the weathering treatment, while the residual fraction, Fe-Mn oxides bound fraction, carbonate bound fraction and exchangeable fraction increased from 24% to 54%, 3% to 4%, 2% to 3% and 2% to 3%, respectively. Furthermore, two standard leaching procedures, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), were carried out on the fresh and weathered samples. The leaching of Cu was attenuated with the process of weathering treatment in the SPLP procedure, but was enhanced in the TCLP procedure. The results suggested that the weathering treatment could change the fractionation and leaching behavior of Cu in MSWI bottom ash. Further research is required to correlate weathering of ash and mobility of Cu.

  14. Characterization of activated carbon prepared from chicken waste and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhang; Hong Cui; Riko Ozao; Yan Cao; Bobby I.-T. Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from chicken waste (CW) and coal (E-coal) blended at the ratios of 100:0, 80:20, 50:50, 20:80, and 0:100. The process included carbonization in flowing gaseous nitrogen (300 mL min{sup -1}) at ca. 430{sup o}C for 60 min and successive steam activation (0.1 mL min{sup -1} water injection with a flow of N{sub 2} at 100 mL min{sup -1}) at 650{sup o}C for 30 min. Chicken waste is low in sulfur content but is high in volatile matter (about 55 wt %), and ACs with higher specific surface area were more successfully obtained by mixing with coal. The specific surface area of the CW/Coal blend AC can be estimated by SSA{sub BET} = -65.8x{sup 2} + 158x + 168, where SSA{sub BET} is the specific surface area in m{sup 2} g{sup -1} as determined by the BET method using CO{sub 2} as the adsorbent, where x is the coal fraction by weight in the CW/coal blend ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 (e.g., x = 0.0 signifies the blend contains no coal and x = 1.0 signifies the blend consists of 100% coal). 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended. PMID:17321124

  16. Water and waste load allocation in rivers with emphasis on agricultural return flows: application of fractional factorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Ali; Kerachian, Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Maryam; Estalaki, Siamak Malakpour

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is developed to handle parameter and input uncertainties in water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers by using factorial interval optimization and the Soil, Water, Atmosphere, and Plant (SWAP) simulation model. A fractional factorial analysis is utilized to provide detailed effects of uncertain parameters and their interaction on the optimization model outputs. The number of required optimizations in a fractional factorial analysis can be much less than a complete sensitivity analysis. The most important uncertain inputs and parameters can be also selected using a fractional factorial analysis. The uncertainty of the selected inputs and parameters should be incorporated real time water and waste load allocation. The proposed methodology utilizes the SWAP simulation model to estimate the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow based on the allocated water quantity and quality. In order to control the pollution loads of agricultural dischargers, it is assumed that a part of their return flows can be diverted to evaporation ponds. Results of applying the methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern part of Iran show its effectiveness and applicability for simultaneous water and waste load allocation in rivers. It is shown that in our case study, the number of required optimizations in the fractional factorial analysis can be reduced from 64 to 16. Analysis of the interactive effects of uncertainties indicates that in a low flow condition, the upstream water quality would have a significant effect on the total benefit of the system. PMID:24880723

  17. Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague: chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activities of respective fractions.

    PubMed

    Moein, Mahmoodreza R; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Yavari, Farnoosh; Motamedi, Marjan; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to antibacterial agents has become a serious problem for global health. The current study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and respective fractions of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague. Seeds of the essential oil were extracted and fractionated using column chromatography. All fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the oil and its fractions were assessed using microdilution method. Compounds γ-terpinene (48.07%), ρ-cymene (33.73%), and thymol (17.41%) were determined as major constituents. The effect of fraction II was better than total essential oil, fraction I, and standard thymol. The greater effect of fraction II compared to standard thymol showed the synergistic effects of the ingredients in this fraction. As this fraction and also total oil were effective on the studied microorganism, the combination of these products with current antimicrobial agents could be considered as new antimicrobial compounds in further investigations. PMID:25305209

  18. Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions in olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Halahlih, Fares; Najami, Naim; Brunner, Doris; Faulstich, Martin; Tafesh, Ahmed

    2012-10-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains a substantial amount of valuable antioxidant phenols that can be recovered for industrial application as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The present study was aimed at extracting different phenolic OMW fractions, and determining their antioxidant potential. Five different OMW fractions were obtained using fractionation techniques, their antioxidant potential determined by DPPH, ORAC and a β-carotene bleaching test. The total phenol level ranged between 115 and 170 mg/l. The phenolic compounds present in individual fractions were identified using the HPLC-PAD method, where the main compounds were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The five OMW fractions showed different antioxidant levels depending on the test used. DPPH test showed that the fraction of alkyl aromatic alcohols (AAAs) was the best with EC(50) of 20 mg/l and the pure hydroxytyrosol with 2 mg/l. ORAC test showed that AAA and semi hydrolysed total phenol (s-TP) fractions were significantly better than Trolox when compared to 20 mg/l of Trolox. PMID:23442678

  19. Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hedman, Bjoern . E-mail: bjorn.hedman@chem.umu.se; Burvall, Jan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-07-01

    In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations.

  20. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lindmark, Johan Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Effects of mixing on the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. • Digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion at three mixing intensities were evaluated. • Mixing performed at 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally intermittently. • Increased biogas production rates and yields at lower mixing intensities. - Abstract: Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8 N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3 N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  1. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: dealing with contaminants for a solid oxide fuel cell energy generator.

    PubMed

    Papurello, Davide; Lanzini, Andrea; Leone, Pierluigi; Santarelli, Massimo; Silvestri, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The present work investigates electricity production using a high efficiency electrochemical generator that employs as fuel a biogas from the dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The as-produced biogas contains several contaminants (sulfur, halogen, organic silicon and aromatic compounds) that can be harmful for the fuel cell: these were monitored via an innovative mass spectrometry technique that enables for in-line and real-time quantification. A cleaning trap with activated carbons for the removal of sulfur and other VOCs contained in the biogas was also tested and monitored by observing the different breakthrough times of studied contaminants. The electrochemical generator was a commercial Ni anode-supported planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), tested for more than 300 h with a simulated biogas mixture (CH4 60 vol.%, CO2 40 vol.%), directly fed to the anode electrode. Air was added to promote the direct internal conversion of CH4 to H2 and CO via partial oxidation (POx). The initial breakthrough of H2S from the cleaning section was also simulated and tested by adding ∼1 ppm(v) of sulfur in the anode feed; a full recovery of the fuel cell performance after 24h of sulfur exposure (∼1 ppm(v)) was observed upon its removal, indicating the reliable time of anode exposure to sulfur in case of exhausted guard bed.

  3. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, Johan; Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva

    2014-08-01

    Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process.

  4. The effects of different mixing intensities during anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, Johan; Eriksson, Per; Thorin, Eva

    2014-08-01

    Mixing inside an anaerobic digester is often continuous and is not actively controlled. The selected mixing regime can however affect both gas production and the energy efficiency of the biogas plant. This study aims to evaluate these effects and compare three different mixing regimes, 150 RPM and 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing for both digestion of fresh substrate and post-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The results show that a lower mixing intensity leads to a higher biogas production rate and higher total biogas production in both cases. 25 RPM continuous mixing and minimally intermittent mixing resulted in similar biogas production after process stabilization, while 150 RPM continuous mixing resulted in lower production throughout the experiment. The lower gas production at 150 RPM could not be explained by the inhibition of volatile fatty acids. Cumulative biogas production until day 31 was 295 ± 2.9, 317 ± 1.9 and 304 ± 2.8N ml/g VS added during digestion of fresh feed and 113 ± 1.3, 134 ± 1.1 and 130 ± 2.3N ml/g VS added during post digestion for the 150 RPM, 25 RPM and minimally mixed intensities respectively. As well as increasing gas production, optimal mixing can improve the energy efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. PMID:24814768

  5. Enhancing biogas production from anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste through leachate blending and recirculation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Arjun; Sartaj, Majid; Kennedy, Kevin; Coelho, Nuno M G

    2014-10-01

    Leachate recirculation has a profound advantage on biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in landfills. Mature leachate from older sections of landfills (>10 years) and young leachate were blended and added to organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a series of biomethane potential assay experiments with different mixing ratios of mature and young leachate and their effect on biogas production was monitored. The improvement in biogas production was in the range of 19%-41% depending on the ratio of mixing old and new leachate. The results are conclusive that the biogas generation could be improved by blending the old and new leachate in a bioreactor landfill system as compared with a conventional system employed in bioreactor landfills today for recirculating the same age leachate. PMID:25125510

  6. Thermophilic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes with FOG wastes from a sewage treatment plant: reactor performance and microbial community monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, Lucia; Castro, Rita; Pereira, M Alcina; Alves, M Madalena; Font, Xavier; Vicent, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    Working at thermophilic conditions instead of mesophilic, and also the addition of a co-substrate, are both the ways to intend to improve the anaerobic digestion of the source-collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Addition of sewage treatment plant fat, oil and grease wastes (STP-FOGW), that are nowadays sent to landfill, would represent an opportunity to recover a wasted methane potential and, moreover, improve the whole process. In this study, after a first period feeding only SC-OFMSW, a co-digestion step was performed maintaining thermophilic conditions. During the co-digestion period enhancements in biogas production (52%) and methane yield (36%) were achieved. In addition, monitoring of microbial structure by using PCR-DGGE and cloning techniques showed that bacterial community profiles clustered in two distinct groups, before and after the extended contact with STP-FOGW, being more affected by the STP-FOGW addition than the archaeal one.

  7. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2) to 17.31 (fraction F11). There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP) and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038), respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9) was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11). PMID:21541049

  9. Utilization of the wastes of vital activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gusarov, B. G.; Drigo, Y. A.; Novikov, V. M.; Samsonov, N. M.; Farafonov, N. S.; Chizhov, S. V.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    The recycling of wastes from the biological complex for use in life-support systems is discussed. Topics include laboratory equipment, heat treatment of waste materials, mineralization of waste products, methods for production of ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, the extraction of sodium chloride from mineralized products, and the recovery of nutrient substances for plants from urine.

  10. A steryl glycoside fraction with hemolytic activity from tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1986-10-01

    A hemolytic fraction has been obtained from fresh tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis. The fraction was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose CL6B. It did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and it gave no immunoprecipitin arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. The hemolytic activity of the fraction was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes. The behavior of the fraction in thin-layer chromatography and its positive reaction in Liebermann-Burchard test indicated that the hemolytic activity of the fraction can be attributed to a steryl glycoside(s). PMID:3821135

  11. A steryl glycoside fraction with hemolytic activity from tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1986-10-01

    A hemolytic fraction has been obtained from fresh tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis. The fraction was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose CL6B. It did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and it gave no immunoprecipitin arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. The hemolytic activity of the fraction was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes. The behavior of the fraction in thin-layer chromatography and its positive reaction in Liebermann-Burchard test indicated that the hemolytic activity of the fraction can be attributed to a steryl glycoside(s).

  12. Determining the biomass fraction of mixed waste fuels: A comparison of existing industry and (14)C-based methodologies.

    PubMed

    Muir, G K P; Hayward, S; Tripney, B G; Cook, G T; Naysmith, P; Herbert, B M J; Garnett, M H; Wilkinson, M

    2015-01-01

    (14)C analysis of flue gas by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were used to determine the biomass fraction of mixed waste at an operational energy-from-waste (EfW) plant. Results were converted to bioenergy (% total) using mathematical algorithms and assessed against existing industry methodologies which involve manual sorting and selective dissolution (SD) of feedstock. Simultaneous determinations using flue gas showed excellent agreement: 44.8 ± 2.7% for AMS and 44.6 ± 12.3% for LSC. Comparable bioenergy results were obtained using a feedstock manual sort procedure (41.4%), whilst a procedure based on selective dissolution of representative waste material is reported as 75.5% (no errors quoted). (14)C techniques present significant advantages in data acquisition, precision and reliability for both electricity generator and industry regulator.

  13. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) waste.

    PubMed

    Torras-Claveria, Laura; Jauregui, Olga; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Viladomat, Francesc

    2007-10-17

    The phenolic content of lavandin waste obtained after the distillation of essential oils for the perfume industry was investigated to find an alternative use for this material. The antioxidant activity of different fractions as well as their total phenolic content were evaluated by different methods. Twenty-three phenolic compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to ionspray mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), including phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid derivatives, glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids, none of which have previously been reported in lavandin waste. Some structure-activity relationships were proposed by relating the type of scavenging activity of different fractions with the identified phenolic compounds. Contents of representative phenolic acids of Lamiaceae (chlorogenic and rosmarinic) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and compared with those of other plant species.

  14. Environmental aspects of the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and of solid agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, W; Baier, U; Engeli, H

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain more detailed information for better decision making in future biogenic waste treatment, different processes to treat biogenic wastes in plants with a treatment capacity of 10,000 tons of organic household wastes per year as well as agricultural codigestion plants were compared by life cycle assessments (LCA). With the tool EcoIndicator, anaerobic digestion is shown to be advantageous as compared to composting, incineration or a combination of digestion and composting, mainly because of a better energy balance. The management of the liquid manure in agricultural codigestion of organic solid wastes causes increased gaseous emissions, which have negative effects on the LCA, however. It is recommended to cover the slurry pit and to use an improved manure management in order to compensate for the additional gaseous emissions. In the LCAs, the quality of the digester output could only be taken into account to a small extent; the reasons are discussed. PMID:16180429

  15. Environmental aspects of the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and of solid agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, W; Baier, U; Engeli, H

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain more detailed information for better decision making in future biogenic waste treatment, different processes to treat biogenic wastes in plants with a treatment capacity of 10,000 tons of organic household wastes per year as well as agricultural codigestion plants were compared by life cycle assessments (LCA). With the tool EcoIndicator, anaerobic digestion is shown to be advantageous as compared to composting, incineration or a combination of digestion and composting, mainly because of a better energy balance. The management of the liquid manure in agricultural codigestion of organic solid wastes causes increased gaseous emissions, which have negative effects on the LCA, however. It is recommended to cover the slurry pit and to use an improved manure management in order to compensate for the additional gaseous emissions. In the LCAs, the quality of the digester output could only be taken into account to a small extent; the reasons are discussed.

  16. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  17. Evaluation of hormone-like activity of the dissolved organic matter fraction (DOM) of compost and digestate.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Pognani, Michele; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Biomasses are usually applied to soil for their agronomic properties (fertilization and amendment properties). Biomass can also have bio-stimulating effects on plants because of the presence of hormones and hormone-like molecules. Although compost has been the subject for studies of this aspect, no data have yet been reported on the extraction of this kind of molecule from digestate biomass. The aim of this work is to study the auxin- and gibberellin-like activity of pig slurry digestate in comparison with those of pruning and garden wastes compost's dissolved organic fraction (DOM). DOM (i.e., fraction<0.45 μm) is the most reactive among the organic matter fractions readily available to microbial and plant metabolism. No gibberellin-like activities were found for either compost or digestate, whereas digestate showed auxin-like properties which were found to be located in its neutral hydrophobic (NHo) DOM fractions. Hormone activity was due principally to the presence of auxin coming from the anaerobic digestion of aromatic amino acids. PMID:25668284

  18. Evaluation of hormone-like activity of the dissolved organic matter fraction (DOM) of compost and digestate.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Pognani, Michele; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Biomasses are usually applied to soil for their agronomic properties (fertilization and amendment properties). Biomass can also have bio-stimulating effects on plants because of the presence of hormones and hormone-like molecules. Although compost has been the subject for studies of this aspect, no data have yet been reported on the extraction of this kind of molecule from digestate biomass. The aim of this work is to study the auxin- and gibberellin-like activity of pig slurry digestate in comparison with those of pruning and garden wastes compost's dissolved organic fraction (DOM). DOM (i.e., fraction<0.45 μm) is the most reactive among the organic matter fractions readily available to microbial and plant metabolism. No gibberellin-like activities were found for either compost or digestate, whereas digestate showed auxin-like properties which were found to be located in its neutral hydrophobic (NHo) DOM fractions. Hormone activity was due principally to the presence of auxin coming from the anaerobic digestion of aromatic amino acids.

  19. Cementitious Wasteforms for Immobilization of Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Wood, Marcus I.

    2009-07-01

    Solidification of low-activity wastes with cementitious materials is a widely accepted technique that has the advantages of readily accessible materials, low cost, high physical strength, and easy tailoring for various waste streams. Concrete encasement contains and isolates the waste from the hydrologic environment. However, any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages via mass flow and/or diffusion into the surrounding subsurface environment. A better understanding of the interactions of long-lived radionuclides in cemented matrices will ultimately lead to improved predictions of the long-term fate of these sequestered contaminants from cementitious waste forms.

  20. Evaluation of the biological activity of the molluscicidal fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium against non target organisms.

    PubMed

    Bagalwa, Jean-Jacques M; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Sayagh, Charlotte; Bashwira, Augustin S

    2010-10-01

    The evaluation of the biocidal activity of the fruit of Solanum sisymbriifolium involving non target organisms such as aquatic insects, fish and snails lead to the isolation of the steroidal alkaloids, solamargine and β-solamarine, from the active fractions. The fractions A3 and C, with biological activity against fish, snail and aquatic insect and larvae, are able to affect the good functioning of ecosystem found on alimentary chain. The fraction B seems to be less toxic to fish and aquatic insect and larvae. The fraction B could thus be used as molluscicide in the future. PMID:20388535

  1. HANFORD MEDIUM & LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 LAB REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-30

    A fractional crystallization (FC) process is being developed to supplement tank waste pretreatment capabilities provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). FC can process many tank wastes, separating wastes into a low-activity fraction (LAW) and high-activity fraction (HLW). The low-activity fraction can be immobilized in a glass waste form by processing in the bulk vitrification (BV) system.

  2. Balancing Cost and Risk by Optimizing the High-Level Waste and Low-Activity Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2000-02-23

    In the currently used melters, the waste loading for nearly all high-level waste (HLW) is limited by crystallization. Above a certain level of waste loading, precipitation, settling, and accumulation of crystalline phases can cause severe processing problems and shorten the melter lifetime. To decrease the cost without putting the vitrification process at an unreasonable risk, several options, such as developing melters that operate above the liquidus temperature of glass, can be considered. Alternatively, if the melter is stirred, either mechanically, by bubbling, or by temperature gradients in induction heating, the melt can contain a substantial fraction of a crystalline phase that would not settle because it would be removed from the melter with glass. In addition, an induction melter can be nearly completely drained. For current melters that operate at a fixed temperature of 1150C, optimized glass formulation within currently accepted constaints has been developed. This approach is based on mathematically formulated relationships between glass properties and glass composition. Finally, re-evaluating the liquidus-temperature constraint, which may be unnecessarily restrictive for some HLWs, has recently been investigated. An attempt is being made to assess the rate of settling of crystalline phases in the melter and evaluate the risk for melter operation. Based on a reliable estimate of such a risk, waste loading could be increased, and a substantial saving can accrue. For low-activity waste (LAW), the waste loading in glass is limited either by the product quality or by segregation of sulfate during melting. The formulation of constraints on LAW glass in terms of relevant properties has not been completed, and no property-composition relationships have been established so far for this type of waste glass.

  3. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  4. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract. PMID:25133268

  5. Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment 2001 Version [Formerly DOE/RL-97-69] [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-08-01

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-activity fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the byproduct of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste is stored in underground single- and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low-activity and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by vitrification. The US. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at the Hanford Site until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to modify the current Disposal Authorization Statement for the Hanford Site that would allow the following: construction of disposal trenches; and filling of these trenches with ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers.

  6. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste Management: II. Case Studies for Recovering Energy from the Organic Fraction of MSW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery...

  7. Determination of antioxidant activity of bioactive peptide fractions obtained from yogurt.

    PubMed

    Aloğlu, H Sanlıdere; Oner, Z

    2011-11-01

    In this study, physicochemical and microbiological properties of traditional and commercial yogurt samples were determined during 4 wk of storage. Proteolytic activity, which occurs during the storage period of yogurt samples, was also determined. Peptide fractions obtained from yogurts were investigated and the effect of proteolysis on peptide release during storage was determined. The antioxidant activities of peptides released from yogurt water-soluble extracts (WSE) and from HPLC fractions were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The antioxidant activity of WSE from traditional yogurt was greater than that of WSE from commercial yogurts. In analysis by the ABTS method, mean values increased from 7.697 to 8.739 mM Trolox/g in commercial yogurts, and from 10.115 to 13.182 mM Trolox/g in traditional yogurts during storage. Antioxidant activities of peptides released from HPLC fractions of selected yogurt samples increased 10 to 200 times. In all yogurt samples, the greatest antioxidant activity was shown in the F2 fraction. After further fractionation of yogurt samples, the fractions coded as F2.2, F2.3, F4.3, and F4.4 had the highest antioxidant activity values. Total antioxidant activity of yogurts was low but after purification of peptides by fractionation in HPLC, peptide fractions with high antioxidant activity were obtained.

  8. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties. PMID:25054490

  9. Municipal waste stabilization in a reactor with an integrated active and passive aeration system.

    PubMed

    Kasinski, Slawomir; Slota, Monika; Markowski, Michal; Kaminska, Anna

    2016-04-01

    To test whether an integrated passive and active aeration system could be an effective solution for aerobic decomposition of municipal waste in technical conditions, a full-scale composting reactor was designed. The waste was actively aerated for 5d, passively aerated for 35 d, and then actively aerated for 5d, and the entire composting process was monitored. During the 45-day observation period, changes in the fractional, morphological and physico-chemical characteristics of the waste at the top of the reactor differed from those in the center of the reactor. The fractional and morphological analysis made during the entire process of stabilization, showed the total reduction of organic matter measured of 82 wt% and 86 wt% at the respective depths. The reduction of organic matter calculated using the results of Lost of Ignition (LOI) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) showed, respectively, 40.51-46.62% organic matter loss at the top and 45.33-53.39% in the center of the reactor. At the end of the process, moisture content, LOI and TOC at the top were 3.29%, 6.10% and 4.13% higher, respectively, than in the center. The results showed that application of passive aeration in larger scale simultaneously allows the thermophilic levels to be maintained during municipal solid waste composting process while not inhibiting microbial activity in the reactor.

  10. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  11. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Bastos, E M A; Uzeda, M; Carvalho, M A R; Farias, L M; Moreira, E S A; Braga, F C

    2002-04-01

    Propolis collected from a cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was subjected to chromatography on silica gel column and to partition between immiscible solvents. Propolis aqueous-ethanolic extract and fractions obtained were tested for inhibitory activity against periodontitis-causing bacteria. All of the assayed bacterium species were susceptible to propolis extract. The two fractionation methodologies yielded fractions which were active against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 64 to 1024 microg/ml. TLC and HPLC analyses of the extract and of active fractions showed the presence of phenolic compounds of varied polarity. None of the assayed fractions was more active than the extract, suggesting that the antibacterial activity is probably due to the synergistic effect of several compounds.

  12. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  13. Lipase inhibitory activity of chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Three compounds (chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol) were isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii extract. The three compounds had two- to fourfold lower lipase inhibitory activity than that of the CHCl3:MeOH (C:M) (100:1) fraction (fraction I, 83.78% at 1 mg/mL). These results suggested that the high lipase inhibitory activity of fraction I was attributable to the actions of the three compounds. Therefore, S. thunbergii has potential for application as an anti-obesity agent.

  14. In vitro anti-influenza virus activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Zhen; Xie, Hao-Gui; Yang, La-Wei; Liao, Zao-Hui; Yu, Jie

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, in vitro anti-influenza virus activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis were investigated. Cytotoxicities and antiviral activities of Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharides (PGL), Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide fraction-1 (GL-1), Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide fraction-2 (GL-2) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide fraction-3 (GL-3) were studied by the Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the inhibitory effect against Human influenza virus H1-364 induced cytopathic effect (CPE) on MDCK cells were observed by the CPE method. In addition, the antiviral mechanism of PGL was explored by Plaque forming unit (PFU), MTT and CPE methods. The results showed: i) Cytotoxicities were not significantly revealed, and H1-364 induced CPE was also reduced treated with sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis; ii) Antiviral activities were associated with the mass percentage content of sulfate groups in polysaccharide fractions, which was about 13%, in polysaccharides (PGL and GL-2) both of which exhibited higher antiviral activity; iii) A potential antiviral mechanism to explain these observations is that viral adsorption and replication on host cells were inhibited by sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria lemaneiformis. In conclusion, Anti-influenza virus activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis were revealed, and the antiviral activities were associated with content of sulfate groups in polysaccharide fractions.

  15. Determining the biomass fraction of mixed waste fuels: A comparison of existing industry and {sup 14}C-based methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, G.K.P.; Hayward, S.; Tripney, B.G.; Cook, G.T.; Naysmith, P.; Herbert, B.M.J.; Garnett, M.H; Wilkinson, M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compares industry standard and {sup 14}C methods for determining bioenergy content of MSW. • Differences quantified through study at an operational energy from waste plant. • Manual sort and selective dissolution are unreliable measures of feedstock bioenergy. • {sup 14}C methods (esp. AMS) improve precision and reliability of bioenergy determination. • Implications for electricity generators and regulators for award of bio-incentives. - Abstract: {sup 14}C analysis of flue gas by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were used to determine the biomass fraction of mixed waste at an operational energy-from-waste (EfW) plant. Results were converted to bioenergy (% total) using mathematical algorithms and assessed against existing industry methodologies which involve manual sorting and selective dissolution (SD) of feedstock. Simultaneous determinations using flue gas showed excellent agreement: 44.8 ± 2.7% for AMS and 44.6 ± 12.3% for LSC. Comparable bioenergy results were obtained using a feedstock manual sort procedure (41.4%), whilst a procedure based on selective dissolution of representative waste material is reported as 75.5% (no errors quoted). {sup 14}C techniques present significant advantages in data acquisition, precision and reliability for both electricity generator and industry regulator.

  16. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa). The hydrolysates and their peptide fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes <3 kDa had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced surface hydrophobicity when compared with peptides >3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p < 0.05) when compared to low molecular weight peptide fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p < 0.05) reducing power and ability to chelate metal ions except for the pepsin hydrolysate and its membrane fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders. PMID:27156453

  17. Environmental and agronomic aspects of municipal-solid-waste heavy fraction used for turfgrass production

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In a field plot experiment using Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), measurements of sod strength taken 8.5 and 9.5 months after seeding were greater for sod grown in topsoil amended with heavy fraction than for turf grown in topsoil only. In a container study, physical properties of a loam topsoil were altered 16 months after addition of heavy fraction. Bulk density and particle density were reduced and organic matter content increased by soil incorporation of this by-product. Total porosity and air porosity of the topsoil increased whereas water porosity decreased with increasing amount of applied heavy fraction. Soil fertility was enhanced and soil pH raised by addition of heavy fraction. Concentrations of extractable NH[sub 4]-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn in soil were increased by the application of heavy fraction, as were concentrations of K, Ca, S, Mg, and Mn in leachate collected in lysimeter studies. Improved fertility resulted in greater aesthetic quality, clipping yields, and tissue N content for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Lysimeter studies indicted that the greatest environmental concern associated with the use of heavy fraction for turfgrass production appears to be the potential for leaching of NO[sub 3]-N during turf establishment.

  18. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Pineda, E Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J; Compadre, Cesar M; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source. PMID:26425129

  19. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Pineda, E Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J; Compadre, Cesar M; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  20. Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Ahmad, Muhammad Zamharir; Salam, Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works

  1. Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Shahzad; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Ahmad, Muhammad Zamharir; Salam, Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works

  2. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

    PubMed

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood.

  3. Antioxidant activity of commercial wild rice and identification of flavonoid compounds in active fractions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Liu, Qin; Beta, Trust

    2009-08-26

    The health benefits of whole grain consumption have been attributed to their content of complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemical constituents. Wild rice is a whole grain finding applications in gourmet foods due to its nutritional value and unique taste. However, little is known about its antioxidant properties and phytochemical components. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wild rice. Eleven commercial wild rice samples (raw, mixed, and processed) were extracted with acetone and fractionated using a Sephadex LH-20 column. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and total phenolic content were evaluated to determine the antioxidant properties of wild rice. The antioxidant activity of wild rice was found to be 30 times greater than that of the control white rice. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in antioxidant activities were found among raw, mixed, and processed samples. For raw samples, DPPH(*) radical scavenging activities and ORAC values ranged from 611 to 917 micromol of Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and from 4069 to 6064 micromol of TE/100 g, respectively. For mixed and processed wild rice, DPPH(*) radical scavenging activities were 373 and 441 micromol of TE/100 g, respectively. The corresponding ORAC values were 2284 and 2557 micromol of TE/100 g. Total phenolic content (TPC) of raw wild rice varied from 2472 to 4072 mg of ferulic acid equivalent (FAE)/kg, higher than that of the mixed sample (1460 mg of FAE/kg) and processed sample (2076 mg of FAE/kg). TPC was highly correlated with total antioxidant activity of wild rice (r = 0.92). Tandem mass spectrometric techniques revealed the antioxidants identified in wild rice to be flavonoid glycosides (diglucosyl apigenin, glucosyl-arabinosyl apigenin, and diarabinosyl apigenin) in factions 2 and 3 and flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, and oligomeric procyanidin) in

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-17

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste.

  5. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides) and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

  6. Insights on the phytochemical profile (cyclopeptides) and biological activities of Calotropis procera latex organic fractions.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9  μ g/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7  μ g/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

  7. Hypoglycemic activity of leaf organic extracts from Smallanthus sonchifolius: Constituents of the most active fractions.

    PubMed

    Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Mercado, María I; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A; Sánchez, Sara S

    2010-04-29

    The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of five organic extracts and enhydrin obtained from yacon leaves. The main constituents of the most active fraction were identified. Five organic extracts and pure crystalline enhydrin were administered to normoglycemic, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were estimated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and dose optimization of each extract. We found that the methanol, butanol and chloroform extracts showed effective hypoglycemic activity at minimum doses of 50, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for further experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of each extract produced a slight lowering effect in the fasting blood glucose level of normal healthy rats, whereas each extract tempered significantly the hyperglycemic peak after food ingestion. Daily administration of each extract for 8 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals with an increase in the plasma insulin level. Phytochemical analysis of the most active fraction, the butanol extract, showed that caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids were significant components. Additionally, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of yacon leaves, was also effective to reduce post-prandial glucose and useful in the treatment of diabetic animals (minimum dose: 0.8mg/kg body weight). The results presented here strongly support the notion that the phenolic compounds above as well as enhydrin are important hypoglycemic principles of yacon leaves that could ameliorate the diabetic state.

  8. Antimalarial activity of fractions of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    PubMed Central

    Alli, Lukman Adewale; Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Adeola Oluwakanyinsola

    2016-01-01

    Background: The problem of resistance of malarial parasites to available antimalarial drugs makes the development of new drugs imperative, with natural plant products providing an alternative source for discovering new drugs. Aim: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of eluted fractions of Acacia nilotica root extract and determine the phytochemicals responsible for its antimalarial activity. Materials and Methods: The extract was eluted successively in gradients of solvent mixture (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) in multiples of 100 ml, and each fraction was collected separately. Eluates that showed similar thin layer chromatographic profiles and Rf values were combined to produce 4 main fractions (F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4), which were tested separately for antimalarial activity using the curative test. Changes in body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume (PCV) were also recorded. Results: Fraction F-1 of A. nilotica at 50 and 100 mg/kg b/w produced significant and dose-dependent reduction in parasite count in Plasmodium berghei infected mice compared to the control, and also significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared to the control group. This fraction also ameliorated the malaria-induced anemia by improving PCV in treated mice. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of extract of A. nilotica root is probably localized in the F-1 fraction of the extract, which was found to be rich in alkaloids and phenolics. Further study will provide information on the chemical properties of the active metabolites in this fraction. PMID:27104040

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added).

  10. Distribution and fractionation of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a calcareous sandy soil receiving municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohsen; Arfania, Hamed

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degree of mobility and fractionation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) after the addition of municipal solid sewage sludge (MSS) in a sandy calcareous soil. Treatments were (1) soil application of MSS, (2) soil application of enriched municipal solid waste compost (EMSS), and (3) control soil. The MSS application represented a dose of 200 Mg dry weight per hectare. Soil columns were incubated at room temperature for 15 days and irrigated daily with deionized water to make a total of 505 mm. At the end of leaching experiments, soil samples from each column were divided into 14 layers, each being 1 cm down to 10 and 2.5 cm below that and analyzed for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The fractionation of the heavy metals in the top five layers of the surface soil samples was investigated by the sequential extraction method. All soil layers of the columns receiving MSS and EMSS had significantly higher concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals than control soil. The maximum concentration of heavy metals in treated soil was in the surface layer and declined significantly with depth. Sequential extraction results showed that in the treated soil, a major proportion of Cd, Pb, and Ni was associated with organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXCH) fractions, and a major proportion of Cu and Zn was associated with residual (RES) and OM fractions. Based on relative percent, Pb, Cd, and Ni in the EXCH fraction was higher than Cu and Zn in soil leached with MSS and EMSS, suggesting that application of this MSS to a sandy calcareous soil, at the loading rate used here, may pose a risk in terms of groundwater contamination with Pb, Cd, and Ni.

  11. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-11-01

    Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost. PMID:26344493

  12. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (-4.3 to -16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from -27.5 to -25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic carbonate

  13. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (‑4.3 to ‑16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from ‑27.5 to ‑25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic

  14. Comparison of hemolytic activities of coal fly ash and its soluble and insoluble fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Wong, M.H.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    1986-08-01

    Coal fly ash of a particle diameter smaller than 10 ..mu..m was collected from the precipitator of a power plant in Hong Kong. Comparison of hemolytic activities between fly ash and free silica showed that fly ash had a lower biological effect than free silica. The hemolytic activities of the soluble and insoluble fractions of fly ash were further compared by two methods: total hemoglobin method and cyanmethemoglobin method. An analysis of results showed significant differences for fly ash and its soluble fraction between methods. Fly ash, which contained a silicate level similar to its insoluble fraction, had a hemolytic activity higher than the summation of both its soluble and insoluble fractions. This indicates that the hemolytic activity was independent of the silicate content in the fly ash samples.

  15. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  16. Removing inorganics from nonmetal fraction of waste printed circuit boards by triboelectric separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangwen; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xing; Xie, Weining; He, Yaqun

    2016-03-01

    Metals recycling from WPCBs has been studied for a long time, which results in the appearance of many proven techniques. However, the nonmetal fraction in WPCBs has not been fully recycled due to hybridpropertiesof inorganic and organic composition. In order to improve the usability of the nonmetal fraction from WPCBs, nonmetal materials separation by using a laboratory triboelectric separation system was carried out to improve the reuse efficiency of WPCBs nonmetal fraction. The optimum tribocharger material was investigated by using the charge-mass ratio measurement system, and PMMA is the optimum tribocharger material compared with PVC, PPFT, PPR, SS. The effects of airflow, voltage and feed rate on triboelectric separation were investigated. The product LOI of positive plate is up to 77.26% with recovery rate of 25.49%, while the product LOI of negative plate is down to 47.35% with recovery rate of 35.37%, and the remove rate of inorganics is up to 43.02% by triboelectric separation. The analysis results of X-ray diffraction indicate that the main inorganic materials mixed in nonmetal fraction are SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Cu, Fe, Sn. The X-ray fluorescence analysis shows that the triboelectric separation can effectively remove the content of SiO2 and Al2O3. The scanning electron microscope images show that inorganics tribocharge positively and distribute in product collection grooves that close to negative plate. PMID:26777553

  17. Characterization of Size-Fractionated Airborne Particles Inside an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Acute Toxicity Testing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ho; Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Touati, Abderrahmane; Krantz, Q Todd; Dye, Janice A; Linak, William P; Gullett, Brian; Gilmour, M Ian

    2015-10-01

    Disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in landfills, incinerators, or at rudimentary recycling sites can lead to the release of toxic chemicals into the environment and increased health risks. Developing e-waste recycling technologies at commercial facilities can reduce the release of toxic chemicals and efficiently recover valuable materials. While these e-waste operations represent a vast improvement over previous approaches, little is known about environmental releases, workplace exposures, and potential health impacts. In this study, airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured at various locations within a modern U.S.-based e-waste recycling facility that utilized mechanical processing. In addition, composite size fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) samples were collected, extracted, chemically analyzed, and given by oropharyngeal aspiration to mice or cultured with lung slices for lung toxicity tests. Indoor total PM concentrations measured during the study ranged from 220 to 1200 μg/m(3). In general, the coarse PM (2.5-10 μm) was 3-4 times more abundant than fine/ultrafine PM (<2.5 μm). The coarse PM contained higher levels of Ni, Pb, and Zn (up to 6.8 times) compared to the fine (0.1-2.5 μm) and ultrafine (<0.1 μm) PM. Compared to coarse PM measurements from a regional near-roadway study, Pb and Ni were enriched 170 and 20 times, respectively, in the indoor PM, with other significant enrichments (>10 times) observed for Zn and Sb, modest enrichments (>5 times) for Cu and Sr, and minor enrichments (>2 times) for Cr, Cd, Mn, Ca, Fe, and Ba. Negligible enrichment (<2 times) or depletion (<1 time) were observed for Al, Mg, Ti, Si, and V. The coarse PM fraction elicited significant pro-inflammatory responses in the mouse lung at 24 h postexposure compared to the fine and ultrafine PM, and similar toxicity outcomes were observed in the lung slice model. We conclude that exposure to coarse PM from the facility caused substantial inflammation in the

  18. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  19. Source analysis of heavy metals and arsenic in organic fractions of municipal solid waste in a mega-city (Shanghai).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-03-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic contamination in municipal solid waste (MSW) and its treatment products has garnered increasing attention. This study investigated the heavy metals and arsenic flows in organic fractions of MSW (OFMSW) in Shanghai, China, through a one-year monitoring program. The OFMSW separated directly from the source (source-separated, pure organic waste), obtained from the treatment facilities were sampled and compared with pure foodstuffs. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the source-separated OFMSW resembled those in foodstuffs, whereas the OFMSW from the treatment facilities was significantly contaminated with heavy metals and arsenic and failed to meet the government standards for land use. Using flow analysis, > 80% of heavy metals and arsenic were from extrinsic inorganic waste with high ash content that was combined with OFMSW during MSW collection, transfer, transportation, and storage stages. Based on source analysis of heavy metals and arsenic, suggestions for reducing heavy metals and arsenic contents in the current MSW management system in Shanghai are presented.

  20. Assessment of phytochemicals, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extract and fractions from Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous system of medicine for treatment of conditions like diabetes, cancer, fever, asthma, toothache, stomach troubles and kidney disorders. This study evaluated the crude methanol extract of F. olivieri (FOM) and its derived fractions for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the classes of phytochemical. Methods Dried powder of whole plant of F. olivieri was extracted with methanol (FOM) and the resultant was fractionated to give n-hexane fraction (FOH), chloroform fraction (FOC), ethyl acetate fraction (FOE), n-butanol fraction (FOB) and residual aqueous fraction (FOA). Methanol extract and its derived fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Also the extract and fractions were assayed for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities using agar well diffusion technique, agar tube dilution method and brine shrimps lethality test, respectively. Results The results obtained for phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of saponins and alkaloids in all the tested extract and fractions while anthraquinones were not detected. The results showed that all the bacterial strains tested in this study were susceptible to at least one of the fractions tested. However, FOE and FOB were the best antibacterial fractions and showed antibacterial activity against maximum number of bacterial strains. The results showed that Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacterium while Bordetella bronchiseptica and Enterobacter aerogenes were less susceptible against various fractions. Maximum percent inhibition for growth was recorded for the fungus Aspergillus flavus with FOE whereas growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani was inhibited by FOM and its all derived fractions. Minimum LC50 (24.07 mg/L) for brine shrimp assay was recorded for FOE followed by LC50 of FOC (26.1 mg/L) and FOB (30.05 mg/L) whereas maximum LC50 was

  1. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Campos, Maira R.; Peralta-González, Fanny; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A.; Betancur-Ancona, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%). Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides' inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (%) ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 (IC50 = 6.7 μg/mL) from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 (IC50 = 4.78 μg/mL) from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry. PMID:24224169

  2. Effect of aqueous extract and fractions of Fagonia arabica on in vitro anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Sweta R; Kashyap, Rajpal Singh; Deopujari, Jayant Y; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F

    2014-11-01

    Fagonia arabica (FA) is a deobstruent and blood purifier, which possesses thrombolytic and antioxidant activities. In this study, the anticoagulant effects of FA and its derived fractions were evaluated. Plasma recalcification was performed with multisolvent extracts of FA and then with extracts prepared successively with increasing polarity of the solvents. Aqueous extract was the most potent anticoagulant extract, which was fractionated by thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography. Five fractions collected were checked for their anticoagulation effect. The most potent fraction was screened for phytoconstituents. Aqueous extract of FA is the most active anticoagulant (31 minutes). Results were statistically significant when compared to heparin (38 minutes) and saline (4.04 minutes; P > .001). The Fifth fraction (FA5), the most potent fraction (27 minutes), was found positive for flavonoids, saponin, tannin, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, and monosaccharides. Aqueous FA and fraction FA5 were most active in in vitro anticoagulation, and any of the phytochemicals identified could be considered the active component. PMID:23814169

  3. Microvascular protective activity of flavonoid glucuronides fraction from Tulipa gesneriana.

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, J; Korzeniowska, K; Chmara, E; Mrozikiewicz, A

    1999-03-01

    A mixture of flavonoid glucuronides, consisting of 7-O-glucuronides of kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-rutinosides, 3-O-gentiobiosides and 3-O-glucosides, was isolated from the perianths of Tulipa gesneriana L. var. 'Paradae'. It showed protective activity against the increased (both chloroform and histamine) skin vascular permeability in rabbits. The protective effect, measured as the reduction in leakage of Evans blue, was 59.8% after peritoneal treatment at a dose of 25 mg/kg, while that of troxerutin was 45.5%.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP

  5. Bioactive fraction of Saraca indica prevents diabetes induced cataractogenesis: An aldose reductase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Gauresh; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Saraca indica (SI) flowers extract and different bioactive fraction on in vitro aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity, high glucose-induced cataract in goat lens and in vivo streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg, i.p) induced cataract in rats. Methods: Extract of flowers of SI tested for inhibition against rat lens AR. Furthermore, bioactive fraction was investigated against high glucose-induced opacification of the lens in vitro lens culture and STZ induced diabetic cataract in rats. Identification of the bioactive component was attempted through high-performance thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica (EASI) produced maximum inhibition that may be due to high phenolic content. Goat lenses in media containing glucose developed a distinctly opaque ring in 72 h and treatment with EASI fraction lowered lens opacity in 72 h. Prolonged treatment with EASI to STZ-induced diabetic rats inhibited the AR activity and delayed cataract progression in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica fraction has potential to inhibit rat lens AR enzyme and prevent cataractogenesis not only in goat lens model (in vitro), but also in STZ induced diabetic rats (in vivo). This study is suggestive of the anticataract activity of EASI fraction that could be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in the same. PMID:25709218

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of different fractions of Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots extract

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Vladimir; Matic, Sanja; Mišic, Danijela; Solujic, Slavica; Stanic, Snežana; Katanic, Jelena; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions obtained from Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots methanolic extract. The main secondary metabolites sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrine were quantified in G. asclepiadea root extracts using HPLC-DAD analysis. Amount of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins was also determined. The antigenotoxic potential of extracts from roots of G. asclepiadea was assessed using the standard in vivo procedure for the detection of sex linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the most abundant secoiridoid in G. asclepiadea roots was gentiopicrine and its content in the n-butanol fraction (442.89 mg/g) was the highest. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolics (146.64 GAE/g), flavonoids (44.62 RUE/g), flavonols (22.71 RUE/g) and gallotannins (0.99 mg GAE/g) content. All the fractions showed antioxidant activity using in vitro model systems and the results have been correlated with total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins content. In addition to antioxidant activity, G. asclepiadea root extract fractions possess an antigenotoxic effect against DNA damage induced by alkylation with EMS. The antioxidant activity exhibited by G. asclepiadea depended on the phenolic compounds content of the tested extracts, while there was no significant difference in the antigenotoxic potential between fractions. PMID:26622219

  7. Current-use and organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and anaerobic digest.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Anna; Nilsson, Marie-Louise; Kylin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Several current-use (≤ 80 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤ 15 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤ 18 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digest.

  8. Phase 1 immobilized low-activity waste operational source term

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1998-03-06

    This report presents an engineering analysis of the Phase 1 privatization feeds to establish an operational source term for storage and disposal of immobilized low-activity waste packages at the Hanford Site. The source term information is needed to establish a preliminary estimate of the numbers of remote-handled and contact-handled waste packages. A discussion of the uncertainties and their impact on the source term and waste package distribution is also presented. It should be noted that this study is concerned with operational impacts only. Source terms used for accident scenarios would differ due to alpha and beta radiation which were not significant in this study.

  9. Antioxidant activity of fractions from oregano essential oils obtained by molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Ruben; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of fractions separated from oregano essential oil by short-path molecular distillation. Two residue (R1 and R2) and two distillate (D1 and D2) fractions were prepared by molecular distillation. The major components were: carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene in R1 and R2; and γ-terpinene, α-terpineol and sabinene in D1 and D2. Free-radical scavenging activity was observed in all fractions and was highest in R2 (77.2%). D1 and D2 showed a smaller amount of volatile oxidation compounds produced from sunflower oil stored at 60°C for 14days. The greatest antioxidant activity was observed in D1 and D2. The thermal stability of oregano essential oil and its fractions was also analysed. R1 and R2 presented an increased carvacrol concentration and thermal stability. The short-path molecular distillation fractions can be used to prepare fractions from oregano essential oil with a higher antioxidant activity.

  10. Antioxidant activity of fractions from oregano essential oils obtained by molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Ruben; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of fractions separated from oregano essential oil by short-path molecular distillation. Two residue (R1 and R2) and two distillate (D1 and D2) fractions were prepared by molecular distillation. The major components were: carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene in R1 and R2; and γ-terpinene, α-terpineol and sabinene in D1 and D2. Free-radical scavenging activity was observed in all fractions and was highest in R2 (77.2%). D1 and D2 showed a smaller amount of volatile oxidation compounds produced from sunflower oil stored at 60°C for 14days. The greatest antioxidant activity was observed in D1 and D2. The thermal stability of oregano essential oil and its fractions was also analysed. R1 and R2 presented an increased carvacrol concentration and thermal stability. The short-path molecular distillation fractions can be used to prepare fractions from oregano essential oil with a higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24629960

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, E B; Li, D W; Hyun, J E; Kim, I H; Whang, W K

    2001-10-01

    The methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark was evaluated on anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities in animal models. The extract produced a significant inhibition of vascular permeability at doses of 1 and 3 g/kg, p.o. in mice and of leucocyte emigration at doses of 0.15 and 0.3 g/rat, s.c., in CMC-pouch of rats. However, the extract (0.25 and 3 g/kg, p.o.) did not show anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema of rats. The extract at a dose of 2.5 g/kg, p.o. inhibited writhing syndromes, whereas it did not exhibit anti-nociceptive in Randall-Selitto assay. The methanol extract was then partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol to give each soluble fraction and finally water soluble fraction. Among those fractions, the inhibitory effect on vascular permeability in mice was produced by ethyl acetate soluble fraction in this activity-guided fractionation. The methanol extract showed low acute toxicity in mice. These results suggest that the methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark has an anti-inflammatory activity which is distributed in the ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:11535364

  12. [Interaction of surface-active base with fraction of membrane-bound Williams's protons].

    PubMed

    Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S; Motovilov, K A; Volkov, E M; Eremeev, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the process of mitochondrial respiratory H(+)-pumps functioning, the fraction membrane-bound protons (R-protons), which have an excess of free energy is formed. According to R.J. Williams this fraction is included as energy source in the reaction of ATP synthesis. Previously, in our laboratory was found the formation of this fraction was found in the mitochondria and on the outer surface of mitoplast. On the mitoslast model we strictly shown that non-equilibrium R-proton fraction is localized on the surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this paper a surface-active compound--anion of 2,4,6-trichloro-3-pentadecylphenol (TCP-C15) is described, which selectively interacts with the R-protons fraction in mitochondria. A detailed description of the specific interaction of the TCP-C15 with R-protons fraction in mitochondria is presented. Moreover, in this work it was found that phosphate transport system reacts with the R-protons fraction in mitochondria and plays the role of the endogenous volume regulation system of this fraction. The results of experiments are discussed in the terms of a local coupling model of the phosphorylation mechanism.

  13. Assessment of New Calculation Method for Toxicological Sums-of-Fractions for Hanford Tank Farm Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2006-10-18

    The toxicological source terms used for potential accident assessment in the Hanford Tank Farms DSA are based on toxicological sums-of-fractions (SOFs) that were calculated based on the Best Basis Inventory (BBI) from May 2002, using a method that depended on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of the compositions of liquid and solid phases. The present report describes a simplified SOF-calculation method that is to be used in future toxicological updates and assessments and compares its results (for the 2002 BBI) to those of the old method.

  14. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations. PMID:24250446

  15. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    PubMed Central

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  16. Antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, antioxidant and hemagglutination activities of organic fractions of Arisaema tortuosum.

    PubMed

    Azam, Sadiq; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Zar, Faisal; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Ibrar; Zeb, Zermina; Khan, Imran

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, the antimicrobial, phytotoxic, haemagglutination and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract (Crd. MeOH Ext.) and four organic fractions of Arisaema tortuosum was investigated. All fractions have been screened for antimicrobial properties against eight bacterial pathogens and six fungal pathogens using agar well diffusion and tube dilution method, respectively. Furthermore, the organic fractions were also screened for its phytotoxicity against Lemna minor. Haemagglutination was performed against all human blood groups while free radical scavenging activity was performed to investigate the antioxidant potential of A. tortuosum. Results obtained for antibacterial activity exhibited various degree of zone of inhibition and significant activity was observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.16±0.60) followed by Bacillus cereus (18.55±0.69) for Crd. MeOH Ext. and chloroform (CHCl3) fraction, respectively while some strains showed resistant at same concentration. Similarly, non-significant antifungal activity was observed for the plant extracts. However, the highest activity among the strains was observed for Alternaria alternata (22±1.24%) and Aspergillus niger (20±1.00%) for ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction and Crd. MeOH Ext., respectively. The plant extracts showed good phytotoxic activity with 77.06% inhibition for n-hexane fraction at 1000µg/mL. The result of Nitric Oxide (NO) reducing assay revealed that the plant has less antioxidant activity with 46.06% inhibition for CHCl(3) fraction at 900μg/mL. For haemagglutination assay, the result displayed no agglutination in all the testing concentration. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that A. tortuosum has significant antimicrobial and moderate phytotoxic potential and therefore can leads to antibiotics and herbicide production. PMID:27166544

  17. Pharmacological mechanisms underlying gastroprotective activities of the fractions obtained from Polygonum minus in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Qader, Suhailah Wasman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Lee Suan; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Polygonum minus were fractionated using an eluting solvent to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the anti-ulcerogenic activity of P. minus. Different P. minus fractions were obtained and evaluated for their ulcer preventing capabilities using the ethanol induction method. In this study, Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-200 g were used. Different parameters were estimated to identify the active fraction underlying the mechanism of the gastroprotective action of P. minus: the gastric mucus barrier, as well as superoxide dismutase, total hexosamine, and prostaglandin synthesis. Amongst the five fractions from the ethanolic extract of P. minus, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction (F2) significantly (p < 0.005) exhibited better inhibition of ulcer lesions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rats pre-treated with F2 showed a significant elevation in superoxide dismutase (SOD), hexosamine and PGE2 levels in the stomach wall mucosa in a dose-dependent matter. Based on these results, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction was considered to be the best fraction for mucous protection in the ethanol induction model. The mechanisms underlying this protection were attributed to the synthesis of antioxidants and PGE2. PMID:22408403

  18. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. PMID:26836619

  19. Inhibition of lactogenic activities of bovine mammary gland explants by the whey fraction of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Shinder, D A; Bruckental, I; Silanikove, N

    1997-09-01

    The regulation of milk constituents, synthesis and secretion in tissue cultures of the bovine mammary gland was altered by a whey fraction of bovine milk. alpha-Casein gene expression, casein secretion and fatty acid synthesis were inhibited by the whey fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The whey fraction inhibited the enhancement activity of prolactin on alpha-casein gene expression and fatty acid synthesis, and also inhibited casein secretion to the medium, in explants cultured in a medium with or without prolactin. No effect on the expression of the beta-lactoglobulin gene was found. PMID:9570895

  20. Studies on the immunomodulatory activity of flavonoidal fraction of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Damre, A S; Gokhale, A B; Phadke, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2003-04-01

    The flavonoid fraction of Tephrosia purpurea (FFTP) was studied for its effect on cellular and humoral functions and on macrophage phagocytosis in mice. Oral administration of FFTP (10-40 mg/kg) significantly inhibited sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. It also produced a significant, dose-related decrease in sheep erythrocyte-specific haemagglutination antibody titre. However, the fraction failed to show a significant change in the macrophage phagocytic activity. The results obtained indicate the ability of the flavonoidal fraction of T. purpurea to modulate both the cell-mediated and the humoral components of the immune system.

  1. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal waste with paperboard mill sludge and gelatin solid waste for enhancement of hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Elsamadony, M; Tawfik, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the bio-H2 production via dry anaerobic co-fermentation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with protein and calcium-rich substrates such as gelatin solid waste (GSW) and paperboard mill sludge (PMS). Co-fermentation of OFMSW/GSW/PMS significantly enhanced the H2 production (HP) and H2 yield (HY). The maximum HP of 1082.5±91.4 mL and HY of 144.9±9.8 mL/gVSremoved were achieved at a volumetric ratio of 70% OFMSW:20% GSW:10% PMS. COD, carbohydrate, protein and lipids conversion efficiencies were 60.9±4.4%, 71.4±3.5%, 22.6±2.3% and 20.5±1.8% respectively. Co-fermentation process reduced the particle size distribution which is favorably utilized by hydrogen producing bacteria. The mean particle size diameters for feedstock and the digestate were 939.3 and 115.2μm, respectively with reduction value of 8.15-fold in the mixtures. The volumetric H2 production increased from 4.5±0.3 to 7.2±0.6 L(H2)/L(substrate) at increasing Ca(+2) concentrations from 1.8±0.1 to 6.3±0.5 g/L respectively. PMID:25989091

  2. Co-composting of gelatin industry sludge combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste and poultry waste employing zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    This work illustrates the co-composting of gelatin industry sludge (GIS) combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and poultry waste (PW) employing 10% zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacteria consortium (ENBC). Five piles of GIS were prepared mixed with OFMSW and PW at 2:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5, 6:1:0.5 and 8:1:0.5 and without GIS 0:1:0.5 (dry weight basis) served as control, while 10% zeolite mixed with ENBC was inoculated in all piles and composted for 42days. The Pile-4 with GIS, OFMSW and PW ratio 6:1:0.5 and 10% zeolite+ENBC were drastically reduced the nitrogen loss and enhance the mineralization rate as compare to other piles. The co-amendment of 6% GIS effectively buffered the pH between ∼7.5 to 8.0 and shortened the compost maturity period, while lower concentration of GIS was comparatively delayed the early decomposition. Therefore, our results suggested that suitability of 10% zeolite+ENBC with initial feedstock ratio 6:1:0.5 as the best formulation for the composting of GIS into value-added stable product.

  3. Co-composting of gelatin industry sludge combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste and poultry waste employing zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    This work illustrates the co-composting of gelatin industry sludge (GIS) combined with organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and poultry waste (PW) employing 10% zeolite mixed with enriched nitrifying bacteria consortium (ENBC). Five piles of GIS were prepared mixed with OFMSW and PW at 2:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5, 6:1:0.5 and 8:1:0.5 and without GIS 0:1:0.5 (dry weight basis) served as control, while 10% zeolite mixed with ENBC was inoculated in all piles and composted for 42days. The Pile-4 with GIS, OFMSW and PW ratio 6:1:0.5 and 10% zeolite+ENBC were drastically reduced the nitrogen loss and enhance the mineralization rate as compare to other piles. The co-amendment of 6% GIS effectively buffered the pH between ∼7.5 to 8.0 and shortened the compost maturity period, while lower concentration of GIS was comparatively delayed the early decomposition. Therefore, our results suggested that suitability of 10% zeolite+ENBC with initial feedstock ratio 6:1:0.5 as the best formulation for the composting of GIS into value-added stable product. PMID:26897474

  4. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal waste with paperboard mill sludge and gelatin solid waste for enhancement of hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Elsamadony, M; Tawfik, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the bio-H2 production via dry anaerobic co-fermentation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with protein and calcium-rich substrates such as gelatin solid waste (GSW) and paperboard mill sludge (PMS). Co-fermentation of OFMSW/GSW/PMS significantly enhanced the H2 production (HP) and H2 yield (HY). The maximum HP of 1082.5±91.4 mL and HY of 144.9±9.8 mL/gVSremoved were achieved at a volumetric ratio of 70% OFMSW:20% GSW:10% PMS. COD, carbohydrate, protein and lipids conversion efficiencies were 60.9±4.4%, 71.4±3.5%, 22.6±2.3% and 20.5±1.8% respectively. Co-fermentation process reduced the particle size distribution which is favorably utilized by hydrogen producing bacteria. The mean particle size diameters for feedstock and the digestate were 939.3 and 115.2μm, respectively with reduction value of 8.15-fold in the mixtures. The volumetric H2 production increased from 4.5±0.3 to 7.2±0.6 L(H2)/L(substrate) at increasing Ca(+2) concentrations from 1.8±0.1 to 6.3±0.5 g/L respectively.

  5. Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear-waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: main report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year-old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of as vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum-integrity packages at relatively high heat loading in a separate region of the repository. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. 37 figures, 58 tables.

  6. Antispasmodic activity of fractions and cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus on guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Emendörfer, Fernanda; Emendörfer, Fabiane; Bellato, Fernanda; Noldin, Vânia Floriani; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Delle Monache, Franco; Cardozo, Alcíbia Maia

    2005-05-01

    This study describes the antispasmodic activity of some fractions and cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Cynara scolymus, cultivated in Brazil, against guinea-pig ileum contracted by acetylcholine. The dichloromethane fraction showed the most promising biological effects, with an IC(50) of 0.93 (0.49-1.77) mg/ml. Its main active component, the sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin, exhibited potent activity, with IC(50) of 0.065 (0.049-0.086) mg/ml, being about 14-fold more active than dichloromethane fraction and having similar potency to that of papaverine, a well-known antispasmodic agent. The results confirm the popular use of artichoke for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, and encourage new studies on this compound, in order to obtain new antispasmodic agents.

  7. Facile characterization of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) for mechanical recycling.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Rosa; Pozzi, Paolo; Zanasi, Tania

    2010-12-01

    In view of the environmental problem involved in the management of WEEE, and then in the recycling of post-consumer plastic of WEEE there is a pressing need for rapid measurement technologies for simple identification of the various commercial plastic materials and of the several contaminants, to improve the recycling of such wastes. This research is focused on the characterization and recycling of two types of plastics, namely plastic from personal computer (grey plastic) and plastic from television (black plastic). Various analytical techniques were used to monitor the compositions of WEEE. Initially, the chemical structure of each plastic material was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Polymeric contaminants of these plastics, in particular brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were detected in grey plastics only using different techniques. These techniques are useful for a rapid, correct and economics identification of a large volumes of WEEE plastics.

  8. Fractionation of an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract and in vitro antioxidative activity testing.

    PubMed

    Juadjur, A; Mohn, C; Schantz, M; Baum, M; Winterhalter, P; Richling, E

    2015-01-15

    The incidence of chronic diseases increases with advancing age of the population. A commonly discussed cause of chronic diseases is oxidative stress, which occurs in the body when there is an imbalance between the formation and inactivation of so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Epidemiological data suggest that a 'healthy diet', with a high content of flavonoids indicates preventive properties and correlates with an inverse effect with respect to the risk of chronic diseases. Berries (especially bilberries, Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are an important source of these flavonoids. In this study, we investigated, in vitro, the antioxidative properties of fractions obtained from a commercially available anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (BE). As markers for antioxidative activity, the intracellularly generated ROS levels, oxidative DNA damage, and total glutathione (tGSH) levels were determined in the human colon cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29. In Caco-2 cells, the ROS levels and, in both cell lines, the oxidative DNA damage, were significantly reduced in the presence of the original BE and phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction. Total GSH levels were slightly increased after pretreatment with BE, phenolcarbonic acid and the polymeric fractions, but not with the anthocyanin fraction. In summary, the BE and the therefrom-isolated phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent antioxidative activity whereas the polymeric and anthocyanin-rich fraction, in total, were less active.

  9. Characteristics of products from fast pyrolysis of fractions of waste square timber and ordinary plywood using a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Seon-Jin; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Fractions of waste square timber and waste ordinary plywood were pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and a dual char separation system. The maximum bio-oil yield of about 65 wt.% was obtained at reaction temperatures of 450-500 °C for both feed materials. For quantitative analysis of bio-oil, the relative response factor (RRF) of each component was calculated using an effective carbon number (ECN) that was multiplied by the peak area of each component detected by a GC-FID. The predominant compounds in the bio-oils were methyl acetate, acids, hydroxyacetone, furfural, non-aromatic ketones, levoglucosan and phenolic compounds. The WOP-derived bio-oil showed it to have relatively high nitrogen content. Increasing the reaction temperature was shown to have little effect on nitrogen removal. The ash and solid contents of both bio-oils were below 0.1 wt.% due to the excellent performance of the char separation system. PMID:22513256

  10. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (μg) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ≥ underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

  11. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (μg) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ≥ underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil.

  12. Enhancement in hydrogen production by thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge--optimization of treatment conditions.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Angériz Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, C J; Romero García, L I

    2014-07-01

    Batch dry-thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge (SS) for hydrogen production was studied under several sludge combinations (primary sludge, PS; waste activated sludge, WAS; and mixed sludge, MS), TS concentrations (10-25%) and mixing ratios of OFMSW and SS (1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1, 10:1). The co-digestion of OFMSW and SS showed a 70% improvement in hydrogen production rate over the OFMSW fermentation only. The co-digestion of OFMSW with MS showed 47% and 115% higher hydrogen production potential as compared with OFMSW+PS and OFMSW+WAS, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 51 mL H2/g VS consumed was observed at TS concentration of 20% and OFMSW to MS mixing ratio of 5:1, respectively. The acetic and butyric acids were the main acids in VFAs evolution; however, the higher butyric acid evolution indicated that the H2 fermentation was butyrate type fermentation.

  13. Hybrid solid anaerobic digestion batch: biomethane production and mass recovery from the organic fraction of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina; Zadra, Claudia; Massaccesi, Luisa

    2013-08-01

    An experimental apparatus was constructed to perform hybrid solid anaerobic digestion batch processing of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The preliminary process was carried out with a high total solids concentration of about 33% w w(-1) and with an initial organic load of about 340 kg VS kg(-1). The fresh organic fraction to inoculum ratio used to enhance the anaerobic process start-up was 0.910 kg VS kg VS(-1). The process was conducted by spreading the percolate on top of the mixture. The percolate was stored in a separate section of the apparatus with a mean hydraulic retention time of about 1 day. During the process, acetate, butyrate and propionate in the percolate reached concentrations ranging from 3000 to 11 000 mg L(-1). In spite of these high concentrations, the biomethane produced from both the solid and the percolate was quite high, at about 210 NL kg VS(-1). The digestate obtained at the end of the run showed rather good features for being classified as an organic fertilizer according to Italian law. However, a residual phytotoxicity level was detected by a standardized test showing a germination index of about 50%. PMID:23444150

  14. Hybrid solid anaerobic digestion batch: biomethane production and mass recovery from the organic fraction of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina; Zadra, Claudia; Massaccesi, Luisa

    2013-08-01

    An experimental apparatus was constructed to perform hybrid solid anaerobic digestion batch processing of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The preliminary process was carried out with a high total solids concentration of about 33% w w(-1) and with an initial organic load of about 340 kg VS kg(-1). The fresh organic fraction to inoculum ratio used to enhance the anaerobic process start-up was 0.910 kg VS kg VS(-1). The process was conducted by spreading the percolate on top of the mixture. The percolate was stored in a separate section of the apparatus with a mean hydraulic retention time of about 1 day. During the process, acetate, butyrate and propionate in the percolate reached concentrations ranging from 3000 to 11 000 mg L(-1). In spite of these high concentrations, the biomethane produced from both the solid and the percolate was quite high, at about 210 NL kg VS(-1). The digestate obtained at the end of the run showed rather good features for being classified as an organic fertilizer according to Italian law. However, a residual phytotoxicity level was detected by a standardized test showing a germination index of about 50%.

  15. Heat of Hydration of Low Activity Cementitious Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nasol, D.

    2015-07-23

    During the curing of secondary waste grout, the hydraulic materials in the dry mix react exothermally with the water in the secondary low-activity waste (LAW). The heat released, called the heat of hydration, can be measured using a TAM Air Isothermal Calorimeter. By holding temperature constant in the instrument, the heat of hydration during the curing process can be determined. This will provide information that can be used in the design of a waste solidification facility. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the heat of hydration and other physical properties are being collected on grout prepared using three simulants of liquid secondary waste generated at the Hanford Site. From this study it was found that both the simulant and dry mix each had an effect on the heat of hydration. It was also concluded that the higher the cement content in the dry materials mix, the greater the heat of hydration during the curing of grout.

  16. Biological activity of barbados cherry (acerola fruits, fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC) extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Noboru; Wakabayashi, Hidetsugu; Kurihara, Teruo; Fukushima, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomoko; Kawase, Masami; Sohara, Yoshitaka; Tani, Satoru; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Nakashima, Hideki; Molnár, Annamária; Spengler, Gabriella; Gyémánt, Nóra; Ugocsai, Katalin; Molnár, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    Fractionation of barbados cherry (acerola fruit, a fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC.) extracts were performed by organic solvent extractions and column chromatographies, using two extraction methods. Higher cytotoxic activity was concentrated in fractions A4 and A6 (acetone extract), and H3 and HE3 (hexane extract). These four fractions showed higher cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines such as human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) and human submandibular gland carcinoma (HSG), when compared with that against normal cells such as human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HE2 (hexane extract), AE2 (ethyl acetate extract), AE3, AE4, AE5, A8, A9 and A10 showed some relatively higher anti-bacterial activity on the Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228 but were ineffective on the representative Gram-negative species E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa. The fractions were inactive against Helicobacter pylori, two representative Candida species, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). H3, H4 and HE3, which displayed higher tumor-specific cytotoxicity also showed higher multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, than (+/-)-verapamil as positive control. ESR spectroscopy shows that the radical-mediated oxidation is not involved in the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. The tumor specific cytotoxic activity and MDR reversal activity of barbados cherry may suggest its possible application for cancer therapy.

  17. [Enzyme activity in the subcellular fractions of the liver of rats following a flight on board the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Vetrova, E G; Abraham, S; Lin, C; Klein, H

    1983-01-01

    The activities of malate, isocitrate, and lactate dehydrogenases were measured in the liver mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic fractions of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. The activities of the oxidative enzymes, malate and isocitrate dehydrogenases, in the mitochondrial fraction and those of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, in the cytoplasmatic fraction were found to decrease.

  18. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  19. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV) of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results: The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o) were found to be more effective (P<0.01) in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion: Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain. PMID:22144770

  20. Arsenic fractions and enzyme activities in arsenic-contaminated soils by groundwater irrigation in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Tripathy, Subhasish; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Seok-Hwi

    2008-09-01

    A study for the effect of arsenic (As) contamination on beta-glucosidase, urease, acid-/alkaline-phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities was conducted in As contaminated soils of West Bengal, India. The studied soils show low total As contents relative to those in other As-contaminated sites. A sequential extraction technique was used to quantify water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe/Mn oxide bound, organic bound, and residual As fractions. Arsenic concentrations in the two most labile fractions (i.e., water soluble and exchangeable fractions) were generally low. The studied enzymes were significantly and negatively correlated with water soluble and exchangeable As forms but did not show any significant correlations with other forms, indicating that water soluble and exchangeable forms exert a strong inhibitory effect on the soil enzyme activities. It is thus suggested that the enzyme activity can be helpful in assessing the effects of As on biochemical quality of soils.

  1. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release.

  2. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  3. Bacterivory Rate Estimates and Fraction of Active Bacterivores in Natural Protist Assemblages from Aquatic Systems†

    PubMed Central

    González, Juan M.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the fraction of active bacterioplankton, the fraction of active bacterivores (i.e., those involved in grazing) during a specified time period has not been studied yet. Fractions of protists actively involved in bacterivory were estimated assuming that the distributions of bacteria and fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB) ingested by protists follow Poisson distributions. Estimates were compared with experimental data obtained from FLB uptake experiments. The percentages of protists with ingested FLB (experimental) and the estimates obtained from Poisson distributions were similar for both flagellates and ciliates. Thus, the fraction of protists actively grazing on natural bacteria during a given time period could be estimated. The fraction of protists with ingested bacteria depends on the incubation time and reaches a saturating value. Aquatic systems with very different characteristics were analyzed; estimates of the fraction of protists actively grazing on bacteria ranged from 7 to 100% in the studied samples. Some nanoflagellates appeared to be grazing on specific bacterial sizes. Evidence indicated that there was no discrimination for or against bacterial surrogates (i.e., FLB); also, bacteria were randomly encountered by bacterivorous protists during these short-term uptake experiments. These analyses made it possible to estimate the ingestion rates from FLB uptake experiments by counting the number of flagellates containing ingested FLB. These results represent the first reported estimates of active bacterivores in natural aquatic systems; also, a proposed protocol for estimating in situ ingestion rates by protists represents a significant improvement and simplification to the current protocol and avoids the tedious work of counting the number of ingested FLB per protist. PMID:10103238

  4. Bacterivory rate estimates and fraction of active bacterivores in natural protist assemblages from aquatic systems

    PubMed

    Gonzalez

    1999-04-01

    Unlike the fraction of active bacterioplankton, the fraction of active bacterivores (i.e., those involved in grazing) during a specified time period has not been studied yet. Fractions of protists actively involved in bacterivory were estimated assuming that the distributions of bacteria and fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB) ingested by protists follow Poisson distributions. Estimates were compared with experimental data obtained from FLB uptake experiments. The percentages of protists with ingested FLB (experimental) and the estimates obtained from Poisson distributions were similar for both flagellates and ciliates. Thus, the fraction of protists actively grazing on natural bacteria during a given time period could be estimated. The fraction of protists with ingested bacteria depends on the incubation time and reaches a saturating value. Aquatic systems with very different characteristics were analyzed; estimates of the fraction of protists actively grazing on bacteria ranged from 7 to 100% in the studied samples. Some nanoflagellates appeared to be grazing on specific bacterial sizes. Evidence indicated that there was no discrimination for or against bacterial surrogates (i.e., FLB); also, bacteria were randomly encountered by bacterivorous protists during these short-term uptake experiments. These analyses made it possible to estimate the ingestion rates from FLB uptake experiments by counting the number of flagellates containing ingested FLB. These results represent the first reported estimates of active bacterivores in natural aquatic systems; also, a proposed protocol for estimating in situ ingestion rates by protists represents a significant improvement and simplification to the current protocol and avoids the tedious work of counting the number of ingested FLB per protist.

  5. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  6. Influence of trichlorfon and fractionated irradiation on hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Koćmierska-Grodzka, D

    1976-03-01

    Investigations into the hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues (small intestine and colon) of rats after fractionated irradiation (5 X 150 R) were carried out. There was found marked postirradiation enhancement of lipase activity in pancreas and duodenal part of intestine and increase of B-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activity in nearly all parts of the examined intestinal tissues. Fractionated irradiation resulted in an increase of pancreatic catheptic (proteolytic) activity causing simultaneous decrease of proteolytic activity in intestine and colon. Preventive administration of Trichlorfon (ten days before irradiation) in the dose of 10 mg or 30 mg/kg evoked modification of hydroproteolytic activity in intestinal tissues of healthy and irradiated rats. Trichlorfon applied in the dose of 30 mg/kg exerted antilipolytic and anticatheptic effects in pancreas and intestinal tissues of irradiated rats. PMID:1258099

  7. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    PubMed

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa

    2010-01-01

    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tons of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass. The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 degrees C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass. The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  8. Zinc stable isotope fractionation upon accelerated oxidative weathering of sulfidic mine waste.

    PubMed

    Matthies, R; Krahé, L; Blowes, D W

    2014-07-15

    Accelerated oxidative weathering in a reaction cell (ASTM D 5744 standard protocol) was performed over a 33 week period on well characterized, sulfidic mine waste from the Kidd Creek Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Canada. The cell leachate was monitored for physicochemical parameters, ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of zinc. Filtered zinc concentrations (<0.45 μm) in the leachate ranged between 4.5 mg L(-1) and 1.9 g L(-1)-potentially controlled by pH, mineral solubility kinetics and (de)sorption processes. The zinc stable isotope ratios varied mass-dependently within +0.1 and +0.52‰ relative to IRMM 3702, and were strongly dependent on the pH (rpH-d66Zn=0.65, p<0.005, n=31). At a pH below 5, zinc mobilization was governed by sphalerite oxidation and hydroxide dissolution-pointing to the isotope signature of sphalerite (+0.1 to +0.16‰). Desorption processes resulted in enrichment of (66)Zn in the leachate reaching a maximum offset of +0.32‰ compared to the proposed sphalerite isotope signature. Over a period characterized by pH=6.1 ± 0.6, isotope ratios were significantly more enriched in (66)Zn with an offset of ≈ 0.23‰ compared to sphalerite, suggesting that zinc release may have been derived from a second zinc source, such as carbonate minerals, which compose 8 wt.% of the tailings. This preliminary study confirms the benefit of applying zinc isotopes alongside standard monitoring parameters to track principal zinc sources and weathering processes in complex multi-phase matrices.

  9. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    De Gioannis, G.; Muntoni, A.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ► Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ► More than 80 publications on H{sub 2} production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ► Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ► For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H{sub 2} production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is

  10. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa

    2010-01-15

    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tonnes of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass. The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 deg. C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass. The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  11. Partitioning of Inorganic Elements Consumed by Humans Between the Various Fractions of Human Wastes: A Review and Analysis of Existing Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, K.; Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh A.

    2003-01-01

    The nutritional requirements of humans and astronauts are well defined and show consistency, but the same cannot be said of human wastes. Nutrients taken up by humans can be considered to fall into two major categories - organic and inorganic fractions. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur are elements that are associated with the organic fraction. These elements are taken up in large amounts by humans and when metabolized released in wastes often in gaseous forms or as water. On the other hand, a large number of the elements are simply exchanged and can be accounted for in the liquid and solid wastes of humans. These elements fall into three major categories - cationic macroelements (e.g. Ca, K, Na, Mg and Si), anionic macroelements (e.g P, S and Cl), 17 essential microelements, (e.g. Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Sr). When provided in the recommended concentrations to an adult human, these elements should not normally accumulate in humans, but will be excreted in the different human wastes. Knowledge of the partitioning of these elements between the different human waste fractions is fundamental to understanding (a) how these elements can be recovered for reuse in space habitats, and (b) to developing the processors for waste management. The current literature is exhaustive but sometimes also conflicting. We have used the existing knowledge of nutrition and waste from medical literature and NASA documentation to develop a consensus to typify and chemically characterize the various human wastes. The partitioning of these elements has been developed into a functional model.

  12. Mercury availability by operationally defined fractionation in granulometric distributions of soils and mine wastes from an abandoned cinnabar mine.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, R; Loredo, J; Ordóñez, A; Rucandio, I

    2014-05-01

    Mercury contamination from historic cinnabar mines represents a potential risk to the environment. Asturias, in Northern Spain, was one of the largest metallurgic and mining producer areas of Hg in Europe during the 20th century until the end of activities in 1974. Mining operations have caused Hg release and dispersion throughout the area. In this study, soils collected from calcine piles and surrounding soils at an abandoned Hg mine and metallurgical plant in Mieres (Asturias, Spain) were distributed in different particle-size subsamples. Fractionation of Hg was performed by means of a Hg-specific sequential extraction procedure complemented with the selective determination of organic Hg fraction by a specific extraction method. Extremely high concentrations of total Hg were found in calcine piles. Concentrations and mobility of Hg decreased markedly with the distance in soils located 25 m both above and below the chimney of the metallurgical plant. The sequential extraction results indicated that Hg is primarily found as elemental Hg followed by sulfide Hg in the finest subsamples. However, this distribution is inverted in the coarser grain fractions where sulfide Hg prevails. Calcine piles exhibited exceptionally high values of mobile Hg (up to 5350 μg g(-1) in the finest subsample). Accumulation of Hg in the elemental Hg fraction was observed at decreasing grain size which is indicative of deposition of Hg vapors from the metallurgical plant. Enrichment of sulfide Hg was found in the finest subsamples of soils sampled below the chimney (up to 99 μg g(-1)). Significant organic Hg contents were observed in the soil samples (up to 2.8 μg g(-1)), higher than those found in other abandoned Hg mining sites. A strong correlation was observed between organic Hg and Hg humic and fulvic complexes, as well as with the elemental Hg fraction. This indicates that both humic and fulvic material and elemental Hg must be the primary variables controlling Hg methylation in

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit.

    PubMed

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  15. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  16. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient.

  17. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:25442547

  18. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report.

  19. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  20. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  1. Induction of active immunity with membrane fractions from Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Burans, J P; Lynn, M; Solotorovsky, M

    1983-01-01

    Using Escherichia coli strain E-1 as a model, we developed procedures for the preparation of outer- and inner-membrane-enriched fractions as structural units. These procedures could be used to prepare relatively pure inner and outer membrane fractions as determined by succinate dehydrogenase activity, ketodeoxyoctonate levels, and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. The use of these procedures to fractionate membrane components from Haemophilus influenzae type b strains H-2 and H-E led to good separation of outer- and inner-membrane-enriched fractions as determined by succinate dehydrogenase and ketodeoxyoctonate levels but incomplete separation as determined by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Although there were differences between the electrophoresis profiles of outer membrane fractions of strains H-2 and H-E, immunization with outer membrane of either strain led to the induction of a high degree of immunoprotection against challenge with the H-2 strain. Protection could also be elicited with inner membrane preparations, but such protection may be due to contamination with outer membrane. Extracted membrane protein induced levels of protection that were comparable to those induced by whole membrane fractions. Images PMID:6602769

  2. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, R S; Sambathkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as "Arogyappacha" meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  3. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bachhav, R. S.; Sambathkumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as “Arogyappacha” meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  4. Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: appendices

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. Volume II contains appendices for: (1) thermal analysis supplement; (2) fractionation process experimental results supplement; (3) cost analysis supplement; and (4) radiological risk analysis supplement.

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from Swiss waste incineration plants and determination of the ash fraction in the nanometer range.

    PubMed

    Buha, Jelena; Mueller, Nicole; Nowack, Bernd; Ulrich, Andrea; Losert, Sabrina; Wang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Waste incineration had been identified as an important source of ultrafine air pollutants resulting in elaborated treatment systems for exhaust air. Nowadays, these systems are able to remove almost all ultrafine particles. However, the fate of ultrafine particles caught in the filters has received little attention so far. Based on the use of engineered nano-objects (ENO) and their transfer into the waste stream, it can be expected that not only combustion generated nanoparticles are found in fly ashes but that many ENO finally end up in this matrix. A more detailed characterization of the nanoparticulate fraction of fly ashes is therefore needed. Physical and chemical characterizations were performed for fly ashes from five selected waste incineration plants (WIPs) with different input materials such as municipal waste, wood and sewage sludge. The intrinsic densities of the fly ashes were in the range of 2.7-3.2 g/cm(3). When the fly ash particle became airborne, the effective density depended on the particle size, increasing from 0.7-0.8 g/cm(3) for 100-150 nm to 2 g/cm(3) for 350-500 nm. The fly ash samples were fractionated at 2 μm, yielding fine fractions (<2 μm) and coarse fractions (>2 μm). The size distributions of the fine fractions in the airborne form were further characterized, which allowed calculation of the percentage of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. We found the highest mass-based percentage was about 0.07%; the number percentage in the fine fraction was in the range of 4.8% to 22%. Comparison with modeling results showed that ENO may constitute a considerable part of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. Chemical analyses showed that for the municipal waste samples Ca and Al were present in higher concentrations in the coarse fraction; for the mixed wood and sludge sample the P concentration was higher in the coarse fraction; for most other samples and elements they were enriched in the fine fraction. Electron microscopic images of fly ashes

  6. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal E; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342 μg g(-1) of copper, 487 μg g(-1) of lead, 793 μg g(-1) of zinc, 27 μg g(-1) of nickel and 2.3 μg g(-1) of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3 gdry weight L(-1) waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  7. RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity in cell fractions and mutants of Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Bhattachryya, J.

    1980-01-01

    RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity was tested in different cell fractions of Neurospora crassa cell types and its morphological mutants. This RSDP was found localized in the microsomal pellet fraction and absent in the purified nuclear pellets isolated from different N. crassa cell types: conidia, germinated conidia, and mycelia. This enzyme is capable of synthesizing a DNA product only in the presence of all four deoxyribonucleoside-5'-triphosphates and Mg/sup 2 +/. Removal of RNA from the pellet fraction by RNase strongly inhibited the DNA synthesis. The endogenous synthesis of DNA in the microsomal pellet fraction was associated with the formation of an RNA:DNA hybrid as analyzed by Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium density gradient centrifugation. The DNA product after alkali hydrolysis hybridizes with the RNA isolated from the same pellet fraction, as analyzed by elution from hydroxylapatite column at 60 C. This DNA product did not hybridize with poly(A). A few mutants tested showed this RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity.

  8. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  9. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  10. Effect of biologically active fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Jo, Il-Joo; Choi, Sun Bok; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Seo, Sang-Wan; Shin, Yong Kook; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) has the potential to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Mice were administered the biologically active fraction of NJ, i.e., the 4th fraction (NJ4), intraperitoneally, and then injected with the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein hourly for 6 h. Six hours after the last cerulein injection, the pancreas, lung, and blood were harvested for morphological examination, measurement of cytokine expression, and examination of neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: NJ4 administration attenuated the severity of AP and lung injury associated with AP. It also reduced cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration and resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, NJ4 and its biologically active fraction, NJ4-2 inhibited the cerulein-induced death of acinar cells by inducing HO-1 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NJ4 may be a candidate fraction offering protection in AP and NJ4 might ameliorate the severity of pancreatitis by inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:22783046

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes and waste activated sludge: dynamic model and material balances.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifei; Wang, Dian; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Tianle

    2013-10-01

    The organic matter degradation process during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste-activated sludge (WAS) under different organic loading rates (OLRs) was investigated in bench-scale and pilot-scale semi-continuous stirred tank reactors. To better understand the degradation process of MBW and WAS co-digestion and provide theoretical guidance for engineering application, anaerobic digestion model No.1 was revised for the co-digestion of MBW and WAS. The results showed that the degradation of organic matter could be characterized into three different fractions, including readily hydrolyzable organics, easily degradable particulate organics, and recalcitrant particle organics. Hydrolysis was the rate-limiting step under lower OLRs, and methanogenesisis was the rate-limiting step for an OLR of 8.0 kg volatile solid (VS)/(m3 x day). The hydrolytic parameters of carbohydrate, protein, and lipids were 0.104, 0.083, and 0.084 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(kg COD x hr), respectively, and the reaction rate parameters of lipid fermentation were 1 and 1.25 kg COD/(kg COD x hr) for OLRs of 4.0 and 6.0 kg VS/(m3 x day). A revised model was used to simulate methane yield, and the results fit well with the experimental data. Material balance data were acquired based on the revised model, which showed that 58.50% of total COD was converted to methane.

  12. In vitro Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Activity of Root Extract/Fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii infection causes toxoplasmosis, an infectious disease with worldwide prevalence. The limited efficiency of drugs against this infection, their side effects and the potential appearance of resistant strains make the search of novel drugs an essential need. We examined Eurycoma longifolia root extract and fractions as potential sources of new compounds with high activity and low toxicity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the anti-T. gondii activity of crude extract (TACME) and four fractions (TAF 273, TAF 355, TAF 191 and TAF 401) from E. longifolia, with clindamycin as the positive control. Methods In vitro toxoplasmacidal evaluation was performed using Vero cells as host for T. gondii. Light microscopy technique was used to study in situ antiparasitic activity. Results Significant anti-T. gondii activity was observed with clindamycin (EC50 = 0.016 μg/ml), follow by TAF 355 (EC50 = 0.369 μg/ml) and TAF 401 (EC50 = 0.882 μg/ml). Light microscopy revealed that most Vero cells were infected after 3 h of exposure to T. gondii. After 36 h of exposure to the E. longifolia fraction, the host Vero cells showed no visible intracellular parasite and no remarkable morphological changes. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that TAF 355 and TAF401 fractions may be the sources of new anti-T. gondii compounds. PMID:22781137

  13. Screening of Alkaloidal Fraction of Conium maculatum L. Aerial Parts for Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Madaan, Reecha; Kumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1st h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum. PMID:23716876

  14. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  15. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. Results: All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. SUMMARY Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations. PMID:26941536

  16. Brucella fractions behave as nonspecific mitogens and polyclonal B-cell activators for human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, J P; Rabesandratana, H; Huguet, M F; Cannat, A; Serre, A

    1985-01-01

    Two lipid-A-free fractions which were extracted from Brucella melitensis and were designated PI and SF stimulated human unsensitized mononuclear cells to proliferate and to secrete immunoglobulins. Both of these effects were observed in cultures of peripheral blood, tonsils, and cord blood lymphocytes. Neither B cells nor T cells alone proliferated in the presence of these fractions, whereas the proliferative response of T cells plus B cells was largely independent of accessory cells. Polyclonal activation was estimated by counting the cells which secreted immunoglobulins of different isotypes into culture supernatants. This phenomenon was strongly T dependent. PMID:3876286

  17. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d.

  18. Economic and environmental sustainability of an AnMBR treating urban wastewater and organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Moñino, P; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic and environmental sustainability of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating urban wastewater (UWW) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at ambient temperature in mild/hot climates. To this aim, power requirements, energy recovery from methane (biogas methane and methane dissolved in the effluent), consumption of reagents for membrane cleaning, and sludge handling (polyelectrolyte and energy consumption) and disposal (farmland, landfilling and incineration) were evaluated within different operating scenarios. Results showed that, for the operating conditions considered in this study, AnMBR technology is likely to be a net energy producer, resulting in considerable cost savings (up to €0.023 per m(3) of treated water) when treating low-sulphate influent. Life cycle analysis (LCA) results revealed that operating at high sludge retention times (70 days) and treating UWW jointly with OFMSW enhances the overall environmental performance of AnMBR technology. PMID:27179448

  19. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical antioxidant and bioactive properties of the water (WF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) derived from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract (DFE). HPLC analysis showed the presence of both luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside in the DFE, which contributed to noted in vitro antioxidant and Caco-2 cell cytotoxic activities. Both WF and EAF of DFE exhibited free radical scavenging activities in a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical model and reduced the breakage of supercoiled DNA strand induced by both non-site-specific and site-specific hydroxyl radical. Oxidation of structured phosphatidylcholine liposome induced by peroxyl radical was reduced in the presence of both EAF and WF. EAF had greater (p < 0.05) affinity to scavenge peroxyl radical than WF, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene. At low concentration, prooxidant activity of both fractions was observed in Cu(2+)-induced structured liposome and hLDL oxidation models, thus indicating that the reducing power of the DFE had resulted in generation of reactive cuprous ion. However, at high concentrations the EAF did not promote oxidation in the presence of Cu(2+), suggesting that the free radical scavenging activity of this fraction was sufficient to minimize the potential oxidative mechanism attributed to the metal ion reducing activity associated with prooxidant activity.

  20. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical antioxidant and bioactive properties of the water (WF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) derived from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract (DFE). HPLC analysis showed the presence of both luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside in the DFE, which contributed to noted in vitro antioxidant and Caco-2 cell cytotoxic activities. Both WF and EAF of DFE exhibited free radical scavenging activities in a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical model and reduced the breakage of supercoiled DNA strand induced by both non-site-specific and site-specific hydroxyl radical. Oxidation of structured phosphatidylcholine liposome induced by peroxyl radical was reduced in the presence of both EAF and WF. EAF had greater (p < 0.05) affinity to scavenge peroxyl radical than WF, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene. At low concentration, prooxidant activity of both fractions was observed in Cu(2+)-induced structured liposome and hLDL oxidation models, thus indicating that the reducing power of the DFE had resulted in generation of reactive cuprous ion. However, at high concentrations the EAF did not promote oxidation in the presence of Cu(2+), suggesting that the free radical scavenging activity of this fraction was sufficient to minimize the potential oxidative mechanism attributed to the metal ion reducing activity associated with prooxidant activity. PMID:12502425

  1. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  2. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, L; Colturato, L F; Font, X; Vicent, T

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38+/-0.02 L g VS(feed)(-1) to 0.55+/-0.05 L g VS(feed)(-1) as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, L; Colturato, L F; Font, X; Vicent, T

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38+/-0.02 L g VS(feed)(-1) to 0.55+/-0.05 L g VS(feed)(-1) as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW. PMID:20400285

  6. Global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of fractional-order neural networks with discontinuous activations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhixia; Shen, Yi; Wang, Leimin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization for a class of fractional-order neural networks with discontinuous activations (FNNDAs). We give the concept of Filippov solution for FNNDAs in the sense of Caputo's fractional derivation. By using a singular Gronwall inequality and the properties of fractional calculus, the existence of global solution under the framework of Filippov for FNNDAs is proved. Based on the nonsmooth analysis and control theory, some sufficient criteria for the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of FNNDAs are derived by designing a suitable controller. The proposed results enrich and enhance the previous reports. Finally, one numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:26562442

  7. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P < 0.05). These fractions did not contain lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action. PMID:22185934

  8. Comparative studies on antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lan, Gaoshuang; Zhang, Likang

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated using three esteblished methods, specifically the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radica-scavenging activity assay, the inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate (MDA) assay and the ferric reducing power (FRP) assay. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extracts and fractions were determined by spectrophotometric methods and the content of icariin was determined by HPLC. The results showed that all the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities at different magnitudes of potency. The leaf extract and fractions demonstrated superior antioxidant activity in most of the assays. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities among the extracts/fractions assayed through the three methods were found to be n-BuOH fraction>ethyl acetate fraction>ethanol extract>petroleum ether fraction>water fraction. A positive correlation was found between the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and icariin and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.9935, 0.9944 and 0.9997, respectively) and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation (R(2) = 0.9987, 0.9830 and 0.9886, respectively). The results suggested that Icariin was one of the main constituents contribute to the antioxidant activity of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and the n-BuOH fractions of leaf extract might be valuable antioxidant natural sources. PMID:24426024

  9. Fractionation of biogas plant sludge material improves metaproteomic characterization to investigate metabolic activity of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, Fabian; Wolter, Sophie; Benndorf, Dirk; Heyer, Robert; Hoffmann, Marcus; Rapp, Erdmann; Bremges, Andreas; Sczyrba, Alexander; Schlüter, Andreas; Reichl, Udo

    2015-10-01

    With the development of high resolving mass spectrometers, metaproteomics evolved as a powerful tool to elucidate metabolic activity of microbial communities derived from full-scale biogas plants. Due to the vast complexity of these microbiomes, application of suitable fractionation methods are indispensable, but often turn out to be time and cost intense, depending on the method used for protein separation. In this study, centrifugal fractionation has been applied for fractionation of two biogas sludge samples to analyze proteins extracted from (i) crude fibers, (ii) suspended microorganisms, and (iii) secreted proteins in the supernatant using a gel-based approach followed by LC-MS/MS identification. This fast and easy method turned out to be beneficial to both the quality of SDS-PAGE and the identification of peptides and proteins compared to untreated samples. Additionally, a high functional metabolic pathway coverage was achieved by combining protein hits found exclusively in distinct fractions. Sample preparation using centrifugal fractionation influenced significantly the number and the types of proteins identified in the microbial metaproteomes. Thereby, comparing results from different proteomic or genomic studies, the impact of sample preparation should be considered. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001508 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001508).

  10. Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Tweneboah, Samuel Nana A; Ervasti, Tuomas; Axel Zeitler, J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique has been used to ascertain the change in the optical properties, as a function of changing porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), of training sets of pharmaceutical tablets. Four training sets of pharmaceutical tablets were compressed with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) excipient and indomethacin API by varying either the porosity, height, and API mass fraction or all three tablet parameters. It was observed, as far as we know, for the first time, that the THz time-domain and frequency-domain effective refractive index, as well as, the frequency-domain effective absorption coefficient both show linear correlations with the porosity and API mass fraction for training sets of real pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that, the observed linear correlations can be useful in basic research and quality inspection of pharmaceutical tablets. Additionally, we propose a novel optical strain parameter, based on THz measurement, which yields information on the conventional strain parameter of a tablet as well as on the change of fill fraction of solid material during compression of porous pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that the THz measurement and proposed method of data analysis, in addition to providing an efficient tool for basic research of porous media, can serve as one of the novel quality by design (QbD) implementation techniques to predict critical quality attributes (CQA) such as porosity, API mass fraction and strain of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets before production. PMID:27288937

  11. Induction of Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryos and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells by an Active Fraction Isolated from the Root of Astragalus membranaceus using Bioassay-guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Cheng, Ling; Yu, Hua; Lau, Ching-Po; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 3H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), 3H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. PMID:25379465

  12. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  13. Two New FRET Imaging Measures: Linearly Proportional to and Highly Contrasting the Fraction of Active Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yamao, Masataka; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yukinawa, Naoto; Ishii, Shin; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Naoki, Honda

    2016-01-01

    We developed two new FRET imaging measures for intramolecular FRET biosensors, called linearly proportional (LP) and highly contrasting (HC) measures, which can be easily calculated by the fluorescence intensities of donor and acceptor as a ratio between their weighted sums. As an alternative to the conventional ratiometric measure, which non-linearly depends on the fraction of active molecule, we first developed the LP measure, which is linearly proportional to the fraction of active molecules. The LP measure inherently unmixes bleed-through signals and is robust against fluorescence noise. By extending the LP measure, we furthermore designed the HC measure, which provides highly contrasting images of the molecular activity, more than the ratiometric measure. In addition to their advantages, these measures are insensitive to the biosensor expression level, which is a fundamental property of the ratiometric measure. Using artificial data and FRET imaging data, we showed that the LP measure effectively represents the fraction of active molecules and that the HC measure improves visual interpretability by providing high contrast images of molecular activity. Therefore, the LP and HC measures allow us to gain more quantitative and qualitative insights from FRET imaging than the ratiometric measure. PMID:27780260

  14. Comparative azo reductase activity of red azo dyes through caecal and hepatic microsomal fraction in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Das, M; Khanna, S K

    1997-09-01

    In order to study the rate of formation of toxic aromatic amines, anaerobic reduction of four red azo dyes viz. amaranth, carmoisine, fast Red E and ponceau 4R was investigated by incubating caecal content and hepatic microsomal fraction of rats with 37.5 microM concentration of dyes in sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 using NADPH generating system, glucose oxidase system and nitrogen as the gaseous phase. Caecal suspension exhibited higher azo reductase activity than that of hepatic microsomal fraction using any of the 4 azo dyes. Caecal microbes showed maximal azo reductase activity when ponceau 4R was used as a substrate followed by fast Red E and carmoisine, while with amaranth the activity was minimum. Similarly ponceau 4 R exhibited maximum hepatic microsomal azo reductase activity followed by fast Red E and carmoisine whereas, amaranth had minimum activity. Caecal flora possessed almost 17 fold higher degradative capability of ponceau 4 R and fast Red E colourants than the hepatic microsomal fraction. The higher reductive ability through caecal flora for ponceau 4R and fast Red E signifies the formation of more aromatic amines which may be re-absorbed through the intestine to be either eliminated through urine as conjugates or retained in the target tissues to elicit toxic effects.

  15. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (<1 kDa) with IC50 of 30.3 and 51.8 μg/mL values for the P. lunatus with Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  16. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Nirmal Kumar; Rahman, S. M. Abdur; Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. PMID:26977173

  17. Active and Secretory IgA-Coated Bacterial Fractions Elucidate Dysbiosis in Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Džunková, Mária; Moya, Andrés; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F; Artacho, Alejandro; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran; D'Auria, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The onset of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment alters the activity of gut commensals and may result in modified patterns of immune responses to pathogens. To study these mechanisms during CDI, we separated bacteria with high cellular RNA content (the active bacteria) and their inactive counterparts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the fecal bacterial suspension. The gut dysbiosis due to the antibiotic treatment may result in modification of immune recognition of intestinal bacteria. The immune recognition patterns were assessed by FACS of bacterial fractions either coated or not with intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). We described the taxonomic distributions of these four bacterial fractions (active versus inactive and SIgA coated versus non-SIgA coated) by massive 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantified the proportion of C. difficile toxin genes in the samples. The overall gut microbiome composition was more robustly influenced by antibiotics than by the C. difficile toxins. Bayesian networks revealed that the C. difficile cluster was preferentially SIgA coated during CDI. In contrast, in the CDI-negative group Fusobacterium was the characteristic genus of the SIgA-opsonized fraction. Lactobacillales and Clostridium cluster IV were mostly inactive in CDI-positive patients. In conclusion, although the proportion of C. difficile in the gut is very low, it is able to initiate infection during the gut dysbiosis caused by environmental stress (antibiotic treatment) as a consequence of decreased activity of the protective bacteria. IMPORTANCE C. difficile is a major enteric pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its expansion is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disturb the normal gut microbiome. In this study, the DNA sequencing of highly active bacteria and bacteria opsonized by intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIg

  18. Active and Secretory IgA-Coated Bacterial Fractions Elucidate Dysbiosis in Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Andrés; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F.; Artacho, Alejandro; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The onset of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment alters the activity of gut commensals and may result in modified patterns of immune responses to pathogens. To study these mechanisms during CDI, we separated bacteria with high cellular RNA content (the active bacteria) and their inactive counterparts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the fecal bacterial suspension. The gut dysbiosis due to the antibiotic treatment may result in modification of immune recognition of intestinal bacteria. The immune recognition patterns were assessed by FACS of bacterial fractions either coated or not with intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). We described the taxonomic distributions of these four bacterial fractions (active versus inactive and SIgA coated versus non-SIgA coated) by massive 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantified the proportion of C. difficile toxin genes in the samples. The overall gut microbiome composition was more robustly influenced by antibiotics than by the C. difficile toxins. Bayesian networks revealed that the C. difficile cluster was preferentially SIgA coated during CDI. In contrast, in the CDI-negative group Fusobacterium was the characteristic genus of the SIgA-opsonized fraction. Lactobacillales and Clostridium cluster IV were mostly inactive in CDI-positive patients. In conclusion, although the proportion of C. difficile in the gut is very low, it is able to initiate infection during the gut dysbiosis caused by environmental stress (antibiotic treatment) as a consequence of decreased activity of the protective bacteria. IMPORTANCE C. difficile is a major enteric pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its expansion is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disturb the normal gut microbiome. In this study, the DNA sequencing of highly active bacteria and bacteria opsonized by intestinal secretory immunoglobulin

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of extract and fractions from Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham.

    PubMed

    Miceli, N; Taviano, M F; Giuffrida, D; Trovato, A; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2005-02-28

    Several species of Nepeta genus are utilized in folk medicine for treatment of contusions, rheumatic pains, fever, cutaneous eruptions. Some species are employed for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this paper, we report the results of phytochemical studies on aerial parts of Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham (Lamiaceae), an endemic plant of Greece. The bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract led to the isolation of ursolic acid and polyphenol fraction. By HPLC, we determined some phenolics: chlorogenic acid (0.315 mg/g) and the flavonoids rutin (0.091 mg/g), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (0.387 mg/g) and a luteolin derivative. We assayed the radical scavenging activity of Nepeta sibthorpii methanol extract by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, we studied the anti-inflammatory activity of Nepeta sibthorpii methanol extract (50 mg/kg, os), ursolic acid and polyphenol fraction (dose corresponding to 50 mg/kg of methanol extract, os) in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rat. In this experimental model, we observed a significant inhibition of paw oedema. We suppose that the anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract could be related to the free radical scavenging activity and that it depends on a synergic action of all the components of the methanol extract, even if ursolic acid can be considered the main responsible for this activity.

  20. Antioxidant activity of four color fractions of bee pollen from Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Vit, Patricia; Rivas, Efraín; Sciortino, Rosa; Sosa, Angel; Tejada, Daniel; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2012-12-01

    Bee pollen has been reported to show antioxidant and radical scavenging activities; contributing to anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties. Venezuelan honeybee pollen has been little studied, but is consumed because its properties are known from other countries reports. On the basis of these reports, water, ethanol and methanol soluble fractions were prepared from dried bee-pollen commercially available and produced by La Montaña farm (Mérida, Venezuela). These fractions were evaluated for their functional properties, specifically, polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity. Pollen samples were separated by color in four fractions: yellow, brown, orange and ochre. Polyphenol content ranged between 396.7 to 1286.7 gallic acid equivalents GAE/100 g pollen; it was highest in pollen homogenates obtained with ethanol, followed by those obtained with methanol and water. The antioxidant activity ranged from 0.50 to 1.84 micromoles Trolox equivalents TEAC/100 g for water and ethanol homogenates respectively. The results presented in this work suggest that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent antioxidant activity, comparable to human plasma, probably due to total polyphenol content of bee pollen. This is important because the bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food. PMID:24020258

  1. Microbiological activity of whole and fractionated crude extracts of tea (Camellia sinensis), and of tea components.

    PubMed

    Yam, T S; Shah, S; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1997-07-01

    Aqueous extracts of teas (Camellia sinensis) of different types and from various sources inhibited a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Tea extracts were bactericidal to staphylococci and Yersinia enterocolitica at well below 'cup of tea' concentrations. Activity was confined to one of four fractions obtained from a green tea extract by partition chromatography. Testing of pure tea compounds and closely related chemicals suggested that the antibacterial activity of extracts of green tea can be explained by its content of epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. In black tea extracts, theaflavin and its gallates are additional antibacterially active components. PMID:9228784

  2. [Erythropoietin-forming and esterase activity of rat kidney subcellular fractions during stimulation of erythropoiesis].

    PubMed

    Novikov, N M; Voronkov, S F; Voloshchenko, L G; Mikhaĭlova, S N

    1977-01-01

    Stimulation of erythropoiesis in rats (hemolytic-phenylhydrazine and acute posthemorrhagic anemia, effect of hypoxic hypoxia) was accompanied by an increased erythropoietine-formating activity in kidney microsomes and light mitochondria. The phenomenon correlated with an increased esterase activity in hypotonic supernatant of kidney homogenate mainly due to the enzymatic fraction, corresponding to alpha2-globulin by its mobility. Histochemical examination of kidney showed that the most distinct alterations in the esterase activity were observed in epithelial cells of nephron proximal part and in capillary endothelium.

  3. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity in subcellular fractions of normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    PubMed

    Kunze, D; Rüstow, B; Olthoff, D; Jung, K

    1985-03-15

    Biopsy samples from normal and dystrophic human muscle (Duchenne type) were fractionated by differential centrifugation and microsomes, mitochondria and cytosol were assayed for phosphatidic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4) and marker enzymes of mitochondria and cytosol. The activity of phosphatidic acid phosphatase was significantly lower in microsomes and higher in cytosol and mitochondria of dystrophic muscle than in the corresponding subcellular fractions of normal muscle. The results support an explanation of earlier findings that there is reduced G3P incorporation into diglycerides and phosphatidylcholine and a qualitative and quantitative change in the amount of phosphatidylcholine in dystrophic microsomes. The possible reasons for the reduction in the activity of only microsomal PA-P-ase were discussed.

  4. Radiological and instrumental neutron activation analysis determined characteristics of size-fractionated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Peppas, T K; Karfopoulos, K L; Karangelos, D J; Rouni, P K; Anagnostakis, M J; Simopoulos, S E

    2010-09-15

    The concentration of trace elements and radionuclides in fly ash particles of different size can exhibit significant variation, due to the various processes taking place during combustion inside a coal-fired power plant. An investigation of this effect has been performed by analyzing samples of fly ash originating in two different coal-fired power plants, after separation into size fractions by sieving. The samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry, including low-energy techniques, radon exhalation measurement and instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of Al, As, Ga, K, La, Na, Mn, Mg, Sr, Sc, and V. Variations are observed in the results of various samples analyzed, while the activity balances calculated from the results of individual size fractions are consistent with those of the raw ash samples. Correlations among the radionuclides examined are also observed, while individual nuclide behavior varies between the two types of fly ash examined. PMID:20605322

  5. Identification of metabolites from an active fraction of Cajanus cajan seeds by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tekale, Satishkumar S; Jaiwal, Bhimrao V; Padul, Manohar V

    2016-11-15

    Antioxidants are important food additives which prolong food storage due to their protective effects against oxidative degradation of foods by free radicals. However, the synthetic antioxidants show toxic properties. Alternative economical and eco-friendly approach is screening of plant extract for natural antioxidants. Plant phenolics are potent antioxidants. Hence, in present study Cajanus cajan seeds were analyzed for antioxidant activity, Iron chelating activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed 71.3% inhibition and 65.8% Iron chelating activity. Total 37 compounds including some short peptides and five major abundant compounds were identified in active fraction of C. cajan seeds. This study concludes that C. cajan seeds are good source of antioxidants and Iron chelating activity. Metabolites found in C. cajan seeds which remove reactive oxygen species (ROS), may help to alleviate oxidative stress associated dreaded health problem like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27283694

  6. Operational strategies for thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in continuously stirred tank reactors.

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, I; Cui, J; Chen, X; Kaparaju, P

    2006-08-01

    Three operational strategies to reduce inhibition due to ammonia during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) rich in proteins were investigated. Feed was prepared by diluting SS-OFMSW (ratio of 1:4) with tap water or reactor process water with or without stripping ammonia. Three continuously stirred tank reactors were operated at 55 degrees C with 11.4 gVS d(-1) loading rate and 15 d retention time. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) level in the reactor fed with recirculated water alone was spiked to 3.5 and 5.5 g-N l(-1) through ammonium bicarbonate additions. Dilution of SS-OFMSW with fresh water showed a stable performance with volatile fatty acids of < 1g l(-1) and methane yield of 0.40 m3 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS). Use of recirculated process water after stripping ammonia showed even better performance with a methane yield of 0.43 m3 kg(-1) VS. Recirculation of process water alone on the other hand, resulted in process inhibition at both TAN levels of 3.5 and 5.5 g-N l(-1). However, after a short period, the process recovered and adapted to the tested TAN levels. Thus, use of recirculated process water after stripping ammonia would not only evade potential inhibition due to ammonia but could avoid the use of fresh water for dilution of high solids protein-rich SS-OFMSW.

  7. Organic matter bioavailability controls the active bacterial fraction in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. M.; Giuliano, L.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-04-01

    Deep-sea sediments, covering more than 60% of the earth surface, represent the largest Earth's ecosystem. Bacteria are the most abundant component and the major players of biogeochemical transformations. However, the knowledge of the physiological and metabolic state of bacterial cells in deep-sea sediments is still extremely poor, thus limiting our actual comprehension of bacterial role on C cycling and early diagenesis on global scale. The recent discovery that a large bacterial fraction is dead and/or inactive suggests that the rather constant bacterial number in the deep sea might be due to the inappropriate methodology of estimation. We investigated the abundance of nucleoid-containing cells (NuCC), assumed to be the active bacterial fraction, and their relative contribution to total bacterial counts in Mediterranean deep-sea sediments (from 670 to 2570 m depth), together with measurements of sedimentary organic matter. Our results indicate that living bacterial cells accounted for 14 to 70% of total bacterial number. The active bacterial abundance decreased by 4 times with increasing station depth. Moreover, NuCC abundance strongly decreased with increasing depth in the sediment, together with the decrease of organic matter concentrations (in terms of protein, carbohydrates and pigments). Our findings indicate that the bioavailable fraction of organic matter exert a strong control on activity and turnover rates of microbial assemblages in deep sea.

  8. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  9. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  10. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo-Earl, Galia; Roman-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II). The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol) which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester. PMID:24812568

  11. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  12. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  13. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes. PMID:25909724

  14. Evolution of organic matter fractions after application of co-compost of sewage sludge with pruning waste to four Mediterranean agricultural soils. A soil microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lomas, A L; Delgado, G; Párraga, J; Delgado, R; Almendros, G; Aranda, V

    2010-10-01

    The effect of co-compost application from sewage sludge and pruning waste, on quality and quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four Mediterranean agricultural soils (South Spain), was studied in soil microcosm conditions. Control soil samples (no co-compost addition) and soils treated with co-composts to a rate equivalent of 140 Mg ha(-1) were incubated for 90 days at two temperatures: 5 and 35 degrees C. The significances of incubation temperature and the addition of co-compost, on the evolution of the different fractions of SOC, were studied using a 2(3) factorial design. The co-compost amendment increased the amounts of humic fractions: humic acids (HA) (1.9 times), fulvic acids (FA) (3.3 times), humin (1.5 times), as well as the free organic matter (1.4 times) and free lipids (21.8 times). Incubation of the soils enhanced its biological activity mainly in the amended soils and at 35 degrees C, leading to progressive SOC mineralization and humification, concomitant to the preferential accumulation of HA. The incubation results show large differences depending on temperature and soil types. This fact allows us to select suitable organic amendment for the soil when a rapid increase in nutrients through mineralization is preferred, or in cases intending the stabilization and preservation of the SOC through a process of humification. In soils with HA of more than 5 E(4)/E(6) ratio, the incubation temperature increased rates of mineralization and humification, whereas lower temperatures limited the extent of both processes. In these soils the addition of co-compost in spring or summer is the most recommendable. In soils with HA of lower E(4)/E(6) ratio (<5), the higher temperature favoured mineralization but not humification, whereas the low temperature maintained the SOC levels and even increased the HA/FA ratio. In these soils the moment of addition of organic amendment should be decided depending on the effect intended. On the other hand, the lower the SOC

  15. Comparison of the mopping ability of chemically modified and unmodified biological wastes on crude oil and its lower fractions.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Ezenweke, Linus Obi; Ezenwa, Emmanuel Tagbo

    2008-11-01

    Activated and unactivated powders of goat hair and coir (coconut husk) separated into two particle sizes were used to mop up spills of crude oil, diesel, kerosene and petrol. It was observed that the materials (sorbents) mopped up appreciable volumes of the hydrocarbon liquids (sorbates) within 90 min of contact. Activation, particle size of sorbents and molecular weight (chain length) of sorbates (hydrocarbon) are major determining factors. Carbonization and particle size enhanced the mopping ability as follows--carbonized 325 microm > uncarbonized 325 microm > carbonized 625 microm > uncarbonized 625 microm, thus activated sorbents with large surface area (small particle size) mopped more hydrocarbons than unactivated of the same particle size. The sorbates were mopped in the order--crude oil > diesel > kerosene > petrol. It was further observed that goat hair (keratin protein) with oleophilic and aquaphobic properties adsorbed more of all the hydrocarbons than coir at all sizes and treatment. Large quantities of the mopped oils were recovered by mere pressing while the waste sorbents with 0.5-2.0% leachable residual oil could be utilized as alternative to fire wood.

  16. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe

    2016-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  17. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  18. Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-27

    The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

  19. Application of the IWA ADM1 model to simulate anaerobic co-digestion of organic waste with waste activated sludge in mesophilic condition.

    PubMed

    Derbal, K; Bencheikh-Lehocine, M; Cecchi, F; Meniai, A-H; Pavan, P

    2009-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion model no. 1 model of international water association was applied to a full scale anaerobic co-digestion process for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes along with activated sludge wastes originating from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. This operation was carried out in a digester of 2000 m(3) in volume. It is operates at an average hydraulic retention time of 26.9 days with an average organic loading rate of 1.01 kg TVS/m(3) day, at a temperature of 37 degrees C with an average gas production rate of 0.296 m(3)/m(3) day. The aim of the present study is to compare the results obtained from the simulation with the experimental values. The simulated results showed a good fit for pH, methane and carbon dioxide percentages, biogas volume, chemical oxygen demand, total volatile fatty acids, inorganic nitrogen and inorganic carbon.

  20. Threshold bedrock channels in tectonically active mountains with frequent mass wasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Codilean, A.; Oguchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of how mountain belts grow and erode through time largely rely on the paradigm of fluvial bedrock incision as the main motor of response to differences in rock uplift, thus setting base levels of erosion in tectonically active landscapes. Dynamic feedbacks between rock uplift, bedrock river geometry, and mass wasting have been encapsulated within the concept of threshold hillslopes that attain a mechanically critical inclination capable of adjusting to fluvial incision rates via decreased stability and commensurately more frequent landsliding. Here we provide data that challenge the widely held view that channel steepness records tectonic forcing more faithfully than hillslope inclination despite much robust empirical evidence of such links between bedrock-river geometry and hillslope mass wasting. We show that the volume mobilized by mass wasting depends more on local topographic relief and the sinuosity of bedrock rivers than their mean normalized channel steepness. We derive this counterintuitive observation from an unprecedented inventory of ~300,000 landslides covering the tectonically active Japanese archipelago with substantial differences in seismicity, lithology, vertical surface deformation, topography, and precipitation variability. Both total landslide number and volumes increase nonlinearly with mean local relief even in areas where the fraction of steepest channel segments attains a constant threshold well below the maximum topographic relief. Our data document for the first time that mass wasting increases systematically with preferential steepening of flatter channel segments. Yet concomitant changes in mean channel steepness are negligible such that it remains a largely insensitive predictor of landslide denudation. Further, minute increases in bedrock-river sinuosity lead to substantial reduction in landslide abundance and volumes. Our results underline that sinuosity (together with mean local relief) is a key morphometric variable for

  1. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  2. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  3. Direct and Indirect Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol- and Isothiocyanate-Enriched Fractions from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Boyunegmez Tumer, Tugba; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]-isothiocyanate and 4-[(4′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  4. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. PMID:27351340

  5. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  6. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    PubMed

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  7. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Geórgea V.; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L.; Frois, Gisele R. A.; Ribas, João L. C.; Verdan, Maria H.; Kassuya, Cândida A. L.; Stefanello, Maria E.; Zampronio, Aleksander R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  8. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  9. Fractionation and Biological Activities of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Sclerotium of Tiger Milk Medicinal Mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Keong, Choong Yew; B, Vimala; Daker, Maelinda; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mohamad, Shaiful Azuar; Lan, Jin; Chen, Xiangdong; Yang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and the direct cytotoxic effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis fractions, especially the polysaccharide fraction, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. L. rhinocerotis crude extract was obtained through hot water extraction. The precipitate saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate was purified with ion-exchanged chromatography. Gel permeation chromatography multiangle laser light scattering analysis equipped with light scattering and UV signals revealed two district groups of polymers. A total of four peaks were observed in the total carbohydrate test. Fraction C, which was the second region of the second peak eluted with 0.3 M NaOH, showed the highest integrated molecular weight, whereas fraction E had the lowest integrated molecular weight of 19,790 Da. Fraction A contained the highest β-D-glucan content. Enzymatic analysis showed that most of the polysaccharide fractions contained β-1-3 and β-1-6 skeletal backbones. The peak eluted with 0.6 M NaOH was separated in fraction D (flask 89-92) and fraction E (93-96). The results showed that fraction E expressed higher antioxidant activities than fraction D whereas fraction D expressed higher chelating activity than fraction E. The extract saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate exhibited higher reducing power than the extract saturated with 100% ammonium sulfate. Fractions D and E significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. There was no apparent difference in the viability of cells exposed or unexposed to L. rhinocerotis fractions. PMID:27279536

  10. Optimization of the extraction of polysaccharides from tobacco waste and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanqiu; Gao, Yuzhen; Wang, Weifeng; Cheng, Yuyuan; Lu, Ping; Ma, Cong; Zhang, Yuehua

    2016-10-01

    A response surface methodology was used to optimize the parameters for extracting the polysaccharides from tobacco waste (TWPs) using hot water. The extraction process, carried out under the following optimized parameters: an extraction temperature of 90°C, a ratio of water to raw material of 54, and an extraction time of 115min, allowed an experimental yield of 28.32±1.78%. The chemical composition analysis showed that TWPs were composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose with the following molecular ratio: 1.00:2.69:1.29:2.29:5.23:6.90:3.92. The molecular weights of its four major fractions were 0.558, 1.015, 16.286, and 151.194kDa. Bioactivity experiments showed that TWPs not only decreased the reactive oxygen species level in salt-stressed tomato seedlings, but also possessed significant antioxidant activities in vitro. Antioxidant activity in vivo further showed that TWPs could significantly increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), and decrease the level of malondialodehyde (MDA). In addition, according to the acute toxicity test, TWPs did not cause behavioral changes or any death of mice. This study provides an effective method to utilize tobacco waste resources. PMID:27211300

  11. Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Bino; Kayarohanam, Saminathan; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic β-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 μg/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes. PMID:24991104

  12. Organic removal activity in biofilm and suspended biomass fractions of MBBR systems.

    PubMed

    Piculell, Maria; Welander, Thomas; Jönsson, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) wastewater treatment process is usually designed based on the assumption that all activity in the process occurs in the biofilm on the MBBR carriers, although there is always some active biomass in the bulk liquid due to biofilm sloughing and, sometimes, free-growing bacteria. In this study the removal of organic matter is evaluated in laboratory-scale MBBR reactors under varying load, hydraulic retention time (HRT), oxygen concentration and volumetric filling degree of carriers in order to determine the heterotrophic activity in the different fractions of the MBBR biomass. The results showed that the heterotrophic conversions in an MBBR can show the same type of diffusion limited dependency on oxygen as nitrification, even for easily degradable substrates such as acetate. The contribution to the removal from the suspended biomass is shown to vary depending on HRT, as the amount of suspended solids changes. The developed method in this report is a useful tool for determining heterotrophic activity in the separate fractions of biomass in MBBRs.

  13. Activation of peritoneal macrophages to cytoxicity against B16 melanoma cells by Serratia marcescens polyribosome fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Serratia marcescens polyribosomes (SMPR) have been shown to elicit an anti-tumor response in vivo. The in-vitro effects of SMPR on macrophages as the nonspecific mediators of the anti-tumor response have not previously been examined. The first objective of this research project is to corroborate and analyze the in-vivo results by the development and application of an in-vitro cytotoxicity assay. The second objective is to examine the effect of SMPR upon previously unstimulated peritoneal macrophages as representing the mechanism of cytotoxicity. The third objective is to identify the minimal effective component of SMPR responsible for an effect on macrophages. Results revealed that SMPR preparations exert a number of effects upon macrophages. Morphologic changes included increased spreading and increased perinuclear vacuolization. Macrophages were shown to be metabolically activate by two lines of evidence. SMPR-treated macrophages exhibited increased cellular metabolism by the increased uptake of /sup 3/H-thymidine and by the increased levels of secreted leucine aminopeptidase as compared to control macrophages. Results also showed that SMPR activates macrophages to cytotoxicity against syngeneic tumor target cells. Buoyant-density fractions were isolated and assayed for macrophage activating ability. Results showed 50S ribosomal subunits to be the smallest fraction effective for macrophage activation. Both the RNA and protein were necessary for complete effectiveness.

  14. Potential use of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in anaerobic co-digestion with wastewater in submerged anaerobic membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Moñino, P; Jiménez, E; Barat, R; Aguado, D; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-10-01

    Food waste was characterized for its potential use as substrate for anaerobic co-digestion in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor pilot plant that treats urban wastewater (WW). 90% of the particles had sizes under 0.5mm after grinding the food waste in a commercial food waste disposer. COD, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 100, 2 and 20 times higher in food waste than their average concentrations in WW, but the relative flow contribution of both streams made COD the only pollutant that increased significantly when both substrates were mixed. As sulphate concentration in food waste was in the same range as WW, co-digestion of both substrates would increase the COD/SO4-S ratio and favour methanogenic activity in anaerobic treatments. The average methane potential of the food waste was 421±15mLCH4g(-1)VS, achieving 73% anaerobic biodegradability. The anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with WW is expected to increase methane production 2.9-fold. The settleable solids tests and the particle size distribution analyses confirmed that both treatment lines of a conventional WWTP (water and sludge lines) would be clearly impacted by the incorporation of food waste into its influent. Anaerobic processes are therefore preferred over their aerobic counterparts due to their ability to valorise the high COD content to produce biogas (a renewable energy) instead of increasing the energetic costs associated with the aeration process for aerobic COD oxidation.

  15. Potential use of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in anaerobic co-digestion with wastewater in submerged anaerobic membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Moñino, P; Jiménez, E; Barat, R; Aguado, D; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-10-01

    Food waste was characterized for its potential use as substrate for anaerobic co-digestion in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor pilot plant that treats urban wastewater (WW). 90% of the particles had sizes under 0.5mm after grinding the food waste in a commercial food waste disposer. COD, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 100, 2 and 20 times higher in food waste than their average concentrations in WW, but the relative flow contribution of both streams made COD the only pollutant that increased significantly when both substrates were mixed. As sulphate concentration in food waste was in the same range as WW, co-digestion of both substrates would increase the COD/SO4-S ratio and favour methanogenic activity in anaerobic treatments. The average methane potential of the food waste was 421±15mLCH4g(-1)VS, achieving 73% anaerobic biodegradability. The anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with WW is expected to increase methane production 2.9-fold. The settleable solids tests and the particle size distribution analyses confirmed that both treatment lines of a conventional WWTP (water and sludge lines) would be clearly impacted by the incorporation of food waste into its influent. Anaerobic processes are therefore preferred over their aerobic counterparts due to their ability to valorise the high COD content to produce biogas (a renewable energy) instead of increasing the energetic costs associated with the aeration process for aerobic COD oxidation. PMID:27436236

  16. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE`s nuclear waste site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE`s relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult.

  17. The effect of the labile organic fraction in food waste and the substrate/inoculum ratio on anaerobic digestion for a reliable methane yield.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Minako; Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuaki; Niwa, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Toda, Tatsuki

    2014-04-01

    Influence of the labile organic fraction (LOF) on anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in different S/I ratio of 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0g-VSsubstrate/g-VSinoculum. Two types of substrate, standard food waste (Substrate 1) and standard food waste with the supernatant (containing LOF) removed (Substrate 2) were used. Highest methane yield of 435ml-CH4g-VS(-1) in Substrate 1 was observed in the lowest S/I ratio, while the methane yield of the other S/I ratios were 38-73% lower than the highest yield due to acidification. The methane yields in Substrate 2 were relatively stable in all S/I conditions, although the maximum methane yield was low compared with Substrate 1. These results showed that LOF in food waste causes acidification, but also contributes to high methane yields, suggesting that low S/I ratio (<0.33) is required to obtain a reliable methane yield from food waste compared to other organic substrates.

  18. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  19. [Baroreflex activation therapy. A novel interventional approach to treat heart failure with reduced ejection fraction].

    PubMed

    Halbach, M; Fritz, T; Madershahian, N; Pfister, R; Reuter, H

    2015-11-01

    Sympathovagal imbalance plays an important role in the progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT), i. e. electrical stimulation of baroreceptors located at the carotid sinus, can reduce sympathetic and enhance parasympathetic tone. Large animal studies on BAT demonstrated improvements in cardiac function, arrhythmogenic risk and a survival benefit compared to untreated controls. The recently published Neo Randomized Heart Failure Study, the first multicenter, randomized and controlled trial of optimal medical and device therapy alone or plus BAT in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35 %, demonstrated a reasonable safety profile of BAT in this severely ill patient population and no relevant interactions with other devices. The study found significant improvements in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class of heart failure, quality of life as well as 6 min walking distance and data pointed to a reduction in hospitalization rates. Moreover, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were significantly reduced. This review gives an overview on BAT for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, from the rationale and animal experiments to the most recent clinical data and future perspectives.

  20. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Gomes, Luciana A.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Ramos, Aline de S.; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Vermelho, Alane B.; Rodrigues, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent. PMID:25045693

  1. Liposomal formulation of turmerone-rich hexane fractions from Curcuma longa enhances their antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Gomes, Luciana A; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Ramos, Aline de S; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S; Vermelho, Alane B; Rodrigues, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent.

  2. In vitro & in vivo estrogenic activity of glycoside fractions of Solanum nigrum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jisha, S.; Sreeja, S.; Manjula, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The mature fruits of Solanum nigrum contains steroidal glycosides. These are often used as vegetable and there are evidences on tribal use of these fruits as an oral contraceptive. The present study was carried out to evaluate the estrogenic potential of S. nigrum fruits by in vitro and in vivo assays. Methods: Defatted methanol extract of dried S. nigrum fruits was column fractionated and the glycoside positive fractions pooled. Definite concentrations of the fraction were used for in vitro and in vivo assays. The effect on cell viability was analyzed in MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay followed by in vitro evaluation of estrogenicity by hydroxy apatite (HAP) binding assay. The results were further evaluated in vivo by performing uterotrophic assay in ovariectomized mouse models. Results: At low concentration (40 μg/ml), SNGF induced a dose-dependent increase in MCF-7 cell proliferation, while higher extract concentrations (80-320 μg/ml) caused progressive cell growth inhibition. The competitive binding assay using 3H-E2 suggests that this effect is mediated by estrogen receptor. Mouse uterotrophic assay revealed a classical uterotrophic response in ovariectomized mice in response to S. nigrum glycoside fraction (SNGF). SNGF at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body wt induced the maximum height of luminal epithelial cells which indicated an increase of 30.8 per cent over control (P<0.01) with a correlated increase in uterine wet wt (150% increase over control). Higher doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body wt) of SNGF did not induce any uterotrophic effect. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary data demonstrate the hormone like activity of Solanum glycosides both in vitro and in vivo in mouse, which needs to be further explored to evaluate the possible mechanism and clinical implications. PMID:21985821

  3. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (Fabaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Vanine Gomes; de Carvalho, Fabíola Lélis; de Morais, Liana Clébia Soares Lima; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Alencar, Jacicarlos Lima

    2011-01-01

    Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (CFDv) in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg), as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg). Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg) decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity. PMID:21776190

  4. Guarana powder polysaccharides: characterisation and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a pectic fraction.

    PubMed

    Dalonso, Nicole; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2012-10-15

    Guarana is a fruit from the Amazon whose seeds are used to produce guarana powder. Guarana powder is consumed by the population mainly for its stimulant activity. It has been shown that guarana seeds contain low-molar-mass compounds; however, no data have been reported concerning the polysaccharides. In this work, the polysaccharides present in guarana powder were investigated. A pectic fraction and a xylan were isolated and characterised. Antioxidant activity tests were performed with a methanolic extract and the pectic fraction at concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml. The methanolic extract exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (90.9% at 10 mg/ml). At the same concentration, the polysaccharide showed a DPPH(·)-scavenging activity of 68.4%. At a higher concentration, the methanolic extract and the polysaccharide exhibited similar hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects (~70%). The results suggest that the polysaccharides present in guarana can contribute to the possible biological effects of guarana powder. PMID:23442624

  5. Stimulatory activities of a T cell proteoglycan fraction (T-PGF)

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, D.; Olmstead, L.

    1986-03-01

    The authors had demonstrated previously that T lymphocytes synthesize and secrete chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (PG). To analyze whether this PG possessed immunoregulatory activity, mouse T cell hybridomas were created and screened for secretion of /sup 35/S-PG. The PG secreted by high producer lines was purified primarily by anion exchange chromatography. Analysis of isolated material indicated the presence of uronic acid, a major sugar in glycosaminoglycans. SDS-PAGE of radio-iodinated T-PGF revealed two bands at 70 kd and 50 kd, which was confirmed by silver staining. The T-PGF stimulated mouse splenic B cell fractions to proliferate and differentiate into plaque-forming cells; no induction or costimulation (with Con A) of T cells fraction or thymocyte proliferation was detected. The T-PGF stimulated activated (Percoll low density, increased forward light scattering) B cells better than resting populations; induction of resting cells could be enhanced by simultaneous addition of low concentrations of a protein mitogen, STM. Biochemically and functionally, T-PGF co-migrates with PG in the void volume of Sephacryl S-200 columns. The precise nature of the relationship between B cell stimulatory activity and PG is unknown; however, the recent production of monoclonal antibodies against T-PGF should help clarify these questions.

  6. Guarana powder polysaccharides: characterisation and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a pectic fraction.

    PubMed

    Dalonso, Nicole; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2012-10-15

    Guarana is a fruit from the Amazon whose seeds are used to produce guarana powder. Guarana powder is consumed by the population mainly for its stimulant activity. It has been shown that guarana seeds contain low-molar-mass compounds; however, no data have been reported concerning the polysaccharides. In this work, the polysaccharides present in guarana powder were investigated. A pectic fraction and a xylan were isolated and characterised. Antioxidant activity tests were performed with a methanolic extract and the pectic fraction at concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml. The methanolic extract exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (90.9% at 10 mg/ml). At the same concentration, the polysaccharide showed a DPPH(·)-scavenging activity of 68.4%. At a higher concentration, the methanolic extract and the polysaccharide exhibited similar hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects (~70%). The results suggest that the polysaccharides present in guarana can contribute to the possible biological effects of guarana powder.

  7. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. PMID:27177462

  8. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extract from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liancai; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu; He, Rui; Liu, Yuping; Zheng, Chao

    2009-10-01

    Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb is used as the tonic for asthenia and fatigue in China. Considering that the energizing effect might be correlated with antioxidant properties, we investigated the antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb by assessing radical-scavenging and anti-lipid-peroxidation abilities. We found that AE shows a moderate antioxidant activity to scavenge DPPH*, O2(-)* and *OH and inhibit beta-carotene bleaching with IC(50) values of 13.0, 33.2, 351, and 11.9 microg/ml, respectively, while its AcOEt-soluble fraction (ESF) and BuOH soluble fraction (BSF) exhibit remarkable efficiencies. The ESF's IC(50) values of scavenging DPPH*, O2(-)*, and *OH, and inhibiting beta-carotene bleaching are 5.6, 5.8, 171, and 7.6 mircog/ml, respectively, and those of BSF are 7.5, 8.4, 82.0, and 6.2 microg/ml, respectively. In addition, we found that there is a significant correlation between total phenol content and the antioxidant activity determined by O2(-)* and *OH scavenging, and beta-carotene-bleaching assays. Furthermore, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of quercetin, hyperoside, quercitrin, taxifoliol, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and rutin in Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Thus, we suggest that the extracts from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, could be considered as natural antioxidant sources and dietary nutritional supplements to prevent oxidation-related diseases. PMID:19842137

  9. Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dioscorea bulbifera is an African medicinal plant used to treat microbial infections. In the present study, the methanol extract, fractions (DBB1 and DBB2) and six compounds isolated from the bulbils of D. bulbifera, namely bafoudiosbulbins A (1), B (2), C (3), F (4), G (5) and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene (6), were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria involving multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the above samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicated that when tested alone, the crude extract, fractions DBB1 and DBB2 as well as compounds 2 to 5 were able to prevent the growth of all the fifteen studied microorganisms, within the concentration range of 8 to 256 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract and fractions (16 μg/mL) was obtained with DBB1 and DBB2 on E, coli AG100A and DBB2 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTCS2. The lowest value for individual compounds (8 μg/mL) was recorded with compound 3 on M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis ATCC and MTCS2 strains respectively. The activity of the samples on many MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes EA289, CM64, Klebsiella pneumoniae KP63 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA124 was better than that of chloramphenicol. When tested in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most of the samples increased. MBC values not greater than 512 μg/mL were recorded on all studied microorganisms with fraction DBB2 and compounds 2 to 5. Conclusions The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract D. bulbifera as well as some of the compounds and mostly compounds 3 could be considered as potential antimicrobial

  10. Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential from Waste Transfer Station Activity

    PubMed Central

    Godri, Krystal J.; Duggan, Sean T.; Fuller, Gary W.; Baker, Tim; Green, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Mudway, Ian S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory health is associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The highest PM concentrations in London occur in proximity to waste transfer stations (WTS), sites that experience high numbers of dust-laden, heavy-duty diesel vehicles transporting industrial and household waste. Objective Our goal was to quantify the contribution of WTS emissions to ambient PM mass concentrations and oxidative potential. Methods PM with a diameter < 10 μm (PM10) samples were collected daily close to a WTS. PM10 mass concentrations measurements were source apportioned to estimate local versus background sources. PM oxidative potential was assessed using the extent of antioxidant depletion from a respiratory tract lining fluid model. Total trace metal and bioavailable iron concentrations were measured to determine their contribution to PM oxidative potential. Results Elevated diurnal PM10 mass concentrations were observed on all days with WTS activity (Monday–Saturday). Variable PM oxidative potential, bioavailable iron, and total metal concentrations were observed on these days. The contribution of WTS emissions to PM at the sampling site, as predicted by microscale wind direction measurements, was correlated with ascorbate (r = 0.80; p = 0.030) and glutathione depletion (r = 0.76; p = 0.046). Increased PM oxidative potential was associated with aluminum, lead, and iron content. Conclusions PM arising from WTS activity has elevated trace metal concentrations and, as a consequence, increased oxidative potential. PM released by WTS activity should be considered a potential health risk to the nearby residential community. PMID:20368130

  11. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  12. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy.

  13. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  14. Linking Microbial Activity with Arsenic Fate during Cow Dung Disposal of Arsenic-Bearing Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, T. M.; Reddy, R.; Tan, J.; Hayes, K. F.; Raskin, L.

    2014-12-01

    To address widespread arsenic contamination of drinking water sources numerous technologies have been developed to remove arsenic. All technologies result in the production of an arsenic-bearing waste that must be evaluated and disposed in a manner to limit the potential for environmental release and human exposure. One disposal option that is commonly recommended for areas without access to landfills is the mixing of arsenic-bearing wastes with cow dung. These recommendations are made based on the ability of microorganisms to create volatile arsenic species (including mono-, di-, and tri-methylarsine gases) to be diluted in the atmosphere. However, most studies of environmental microbial communities have found only a small fraction (<0.1 %) of the total arsenic present in soils or rice paddies is released via volatilization. Additionally, past studies often have not monitored arsenic release in the aqueous phase. Two main pathways for microbial arsenic volatilization are known and include methylation of arsenic during methanogenesis and methylation by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase. In this study, we compare the roles of these two pathways in arsenic volatilization and aqueous mobilization through mesocosm experiments with cow dung and arsenic-bearing wastes produced during drinking water treatment in West Bengal, India. Arsenic in gaseous, aqueous, and solid phases was measured. Consistent with previous reports, less than 0.02% of the total arsenic present was volatilized. A much higher amount (~5%) of the total arsenic was mobilized into the liquid phase. Through the application of molecular tools, including 16S rRNA sequencing and quantification of gene transcripts involved in methanogenesis, this study links microbial community activity with arsenic fate in potential disposal environments. These results illustrate that disposal of arsenic-bearing wastes by mixing with cow dung does not achieve its end goal of promoting arsenic volatilization

  15. Nanocarriers for the delivery of active ingredients and fractions extracted from natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Feng, Nianping

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years with a recent increase in popularity. Despite promising biological activities of active ingredients and fractions from TCM, their poor solubility, poor stability, short biological half-life, ease of metabolism and rapid elimination hinder their clinical application. Therefore, overcoming these problems to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TCM preparations is a major focus of pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, nanocarriers have drawn increasing attention for their excellent and efficient delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions. This review discusses problems in the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions; focuses on recent advances in nanocarriers that represent potential solutions to these problems, including lipid-based nanoparticles and polymeric, inorganic, and hybrid nanocarriers; and discusses unanswered questions in the field and criteria for the development of better nanocarriers for the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions to be focused on in future studies.

  16. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  17. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  18. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications. PMID:23369502

  19. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  20. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR), as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5) and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1) and (E)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8). Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:21269424

  2. Fractions: Activities and Exercises for Teaching Fractions in Secondary Schools. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This document contains materials from a half day workshop held at Petit Secondary School for mathematics teachers at Petit Bordel and Troumaca Ontario Secondary School on the island of St. Vincent in the Caribbean. This book advocates the use of activity-based mathematics as a teaching methodology in secondary schools and demonstrates the use of…

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Different Fractions of Methanolic Extract of the Golden Chanterelle Mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub; Khalili, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds with antioxidant activity can be useful for treatment of reactive oxygen species-related diseases, comprising atherosclerosis, inflammatory injury, cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, autism, and aging. The current study was perform to assay the antioxidant activity different fractions of methanolic extract of golden chanterelle mushroom Cantharellus cibarius, a mushroom found in the north of Iran. Different fractions of methanolic extract of this mushroom, including n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water, were evaluated for antioxidant activity using six in vitro assay systems. Mushroom fruit was obtained from the local market, Sari (northern Iran). The n-hexane fraction had higher amounts of flavonoids contents (40.01 ± 1.30 mg quercetin equivalent g-1 of extract) and the highest exhibition of nitric oxide scavenging activity (77.21 ± 1.48%). The highest content of phenol was observed in the n-butanol fraction, which was 40.97 ± 0.99 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1 of extract. Among all the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction was found to show higher DPPH scavenging activity (33.43 ± 1.30%) and the aqueous fraction to display the most reducing power. The highest Fe2+ chelating activity was observed in the chloroform fraction and then in the n-hexane fraction (86.13 ± 1.61 and 80.68 ± 2.07, respectively). The results all together signify C. cibarius as a valuable source of natural bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

  4. Activation and waste management considerations of fusion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, E. T.; Saji, G.

    1994-09-01

    Inconel-625 (Ni625), SS316, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64), ferritic steel (FS), reduced activity ferritic steel (RAFS), manganese steel (Mn-steel), and V5Cr5Ti (V55), were examined for a near-term experimental D-T fueled fusion power reactor with respect to waste management. Activation calculations for these materials were performed assuming one year continuous operation at 1 MW/m 2 wall loading. The results show that the blanket components made of V55, Ti64, Mn-steel, and FS will be allowed for transfer to an on-site dry storage facility after 10 years of cooling after discharge. To transport the discharged blanket components to a permanent disposal site, the cooling time needed can be within 10 years for Ti64 and V55, provided that the impurities (mainly Ni, Nb and Mo) be controlled to an acceptable level. The RAFS and Mn-steel will need about 30 y cooling time because of its Fe and Mn contents. Ni625, 316SS, and FS, however, will require more than 50000 y cooling time because of their Nb and Mo contents. The RAFS, Mn-steel, Ti64 and V55 can be shallow-land wastes if the impurity level for Nb and Mo is dropped below 10 ppm.

  5. Fractional vesamicol receptor occupancy and acetylcholine active transport inhibition in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R; Rogers, G A; Fehlmann, C; Parsons, S M

    1989-09-01

    Vesamicol [(-)-(trans)-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol] receptor binding and inhibition of acetylcholine (AcCh) active transport by cholinergic synaptic vesicles that were isolated from Torpedo electric organ were studied for 23 vesamicol enantiomers, analogues, and other drugs. Use of trace [3H]vesamicol and [14C]AcCh allowed simultaneous determination of the concentrations of enantiomer, analogue, or drug required to half-saturate the vesamicol receptor (Ki) and to half-inhibit transport (IC50), respectively. Throughout a wide range of potencies for different compounds, the Ki/IC50 ratios varied from 1.5 to 24. Compounds representative of the diverse structures studied, namely deoxyvesamicol, chloroquine, and levorphanol, were competitive inhibitors of vesamicol binding. It is concluded that many drugs can bind to the vesamicol receptor and binding to only a small fraction of the receptors can result in AcCh active transport inhibition. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:2550778

  6. Use of narrow-band spectra to estimate the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for using high-spectral resolution imagers to estimate the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation adsorbed, f(apar), by vegetated land surfaces. In comparison to approaches using broad-band vegetation indices, the proposed method appears to be relatively insensitive to the reflectance of nonphotosynthetically active material beneath the canopy, such as leaf litter or soil. The method is based on a relationship between the second derivative of the reflectance vs wavelength function for terrestrial vegetation and f(apar). The relationship can be defined by the second derivatives in either of two windows, one in the visible region centered at 0.69 micron, another in the near-infrared region centered at 0.74 micron.

  7. Impact of pH Management Interval on Biohydrogen Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes by Mesophilic Thermophilic Anaerobic Codigestion.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Chaudhry; Sattar, Asma; Changying, Ji; Nasir, Abdul; Mari, Irshad Ali; Bakht, Muhammad Zia

    2015-01-01

    The biohydrogen productions from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) were studied under pH management intervals of 12 h (PM12) and 24 h (PM24) for temperature of 37 ± 0.1°C and 55 ± 0.1°C. The OFMSW or food waste (FW) along with its two components, noodle waste (NW) and rice waste (RW), was codigested with sludge to estimate the potential of biohydrogen production. The biohydrogen production was higher in all reactors under PM12 as compared to PM24. The drop in pH from 7 to 5.3 was observed to be appropriate for biohydrogen production via mesophilic codigestion of noodle waste with the highest biohydrogen yield of 145.93 mL/g CODremoved under PM12. When the temperature was increased from 37°C to 55°C and pH management interval was reduced from 24 h to 12 h, the biohydrogen yields were also changed from 39.21 mL/g COD removed to 89.67 mL/g COD removed, 91.77 mL/g COD removed to 145.93 mL/g COD removed, and 15.36 mL/g COD removed to 117.62 mL/g COD removed for FW, NW, and RW, respectively. The drop in pH and VFA production was better controlled under PM12 as compared to PM24. Overall, PM12 was found to be an effective mean for biohydrogen production through anaerobic digestion of food waste.

  8. Impact of pH Management Interval on Biohydrogen Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes by Mesophilic Thermophilic Anaerobic Codigestion

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Chaudhry; Sattar, Asma; Changying, Ji; Nasir, Abdul; Ali Mari, Irshad; Zia Bakht, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The biohydrogen productions from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) were studied under pH management intervals of 12 h (PM12) and 24 h (PM24) for temperature of 37 ± 0.1°C and 55 ± 0.1°C. The OFMSW or food waste (FW) along with its two components, noodle waste (NW) and rice waste (RW), was codigested with sludge to estimate the potential of biohydrogen production. The biohydrogen production was higher in all reactors under PM12 as compared to PM24. The drop in pH from 7 to 5.3 was observed to be appropriate for biohydrogen production via mesophilic codigestion of noodle waste with the highest biohydrogen yield of 145.93 mL/g CODremoved under PM12. When the temperature was increased from 37°C to 55°C and pH management interval was reduced from 24 h to 12 h, the biohydrogen yields were also changed from 39.21 mL/g CODremoved to 89.67 mL/g CODremoved, 91.77 mL/g CODremoved to 145.93 mL/g CODremoved, and 15.36 mL/g CODremoved to 117.62 mL/g CODremoved for FW, NW, and RW, respectively. The drop in pH and VFA production was better controlled under PM12 as compared to PM24. Overall, PM12 was found to be an effective mean for biohydrogen production through anaerobic digestion of food waste. PMID:26819952

  9. Getting waste ready for shipment to the WIPP: integration of characterization and certification activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkule, B.; Knudsen, K.; Rogers, P.

    1996-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) serve as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The WIPP WAC address fulfillment of WIPP`s operational safety and performance assessment criteria, compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, and preparation of waste packages that meet all transportation criteria. At individual generator sites, preparation of transuranic waste for final disposal at WIPP includes characterizing the waste to meet the requirements of the transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) and certifying waste containers to meet the WIPP WAC and the Transuranic Package Transporter-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC). This paper compares the quality assurance and quality control requirements specified in the WIPP WAC, QAPP, and TRAMPAC and discusses the potential to consolidate activities to comply with the TRU waste characterization and certification program requirements.

  10. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  11. Scenarios for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-03-17

    Scenarios describing representative exposure cases associated with the disposal of low activity waste from the Hanford Waste Tanks have been defined. These scenarios are based on guidance from the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and previous Hanford waste disposal performance assessments.

  12. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory waste management technology development activities. Summary progress report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    Summary reports on the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy-sponsored waste management technology development projects at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory describe progress for calendar year 1979. Activities in airborne, low-level, and transuranic waste management areas are discussed. Work progress on waste assay, treatment, disposal, and environmental monitoring is reviewed.

  13. Converting the organic fraction of solid waste from the city of Abu Dhabi to valuable products via dark fermentation--Economic and energy assessment.

    PubMed

    Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2015-06-01

    Landfilling the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) leads to greenhouse gas emissions and loss of valuable resources. Sustainable and cost efficient solutions need to be developed to solve this problem. This study evaluates the feasibility of using dark fermentation (DF) to convert the OFMSW to volatile fatty acids (VFAs), fertilizer and H2. The VFAs in the DF effluent can be used directly as substrate for subsequent bioprocesses or purified from the effluent for industrial use. DF of the OFMSW in Abu Dhabi will be economically sustainable once VFA purification can be accomplished on large scale for less than 15USD/m(3)(effluent). With a VFA minimum selling price of 330 USD/tCOD, DF provides a competitive carbon source to sugar. Furthermore, DF is likely to use less energy than conventional processes that produce VFAs, fertilizer and H2. This makes DF of OFMSW a promising waste treatment technology and biorefinery platform.

  14. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of a Bioactive Polyphenolic Fraction Isolated from the Brewing Process

    PubMed Central

    Tatullo, Marco; Simone, Grazia Maria; Tarullo, Franco; Irlandese, Gianfranco; Vito, Danila De; Marrelli, Massimo; Santacroce, Luigi; Cocco, Tiziana; Ballini, Andrea; Scacco, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying natural bioactive compounds that can improve mitochondrial functionality and regulate apoptosis. The brewery industry generates wastewater that could yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. Polyphenols act as antioxidants and have been documented to protect the human body from degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases or cancer. The main aims of our research were to determine the phenolic profile of a crude extract obtained (at pilot scale) from a brewery waste stream and to evaluate the biochemical activity of this extract on the mitochondrial function of a cancer cell line (SH-SY5Y). This work is a basic translational pilot study. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay, which revealed that 2.30% of the extract consisted of phenolic compounds. The polyphenols, identified and quantified by reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS), were mainly flavonoids. After cell culture, the tumoral cells treated with the polyphenolic extract showed enhanced mitochondrial oxidative function, which is likely related to a decrease in oxidative stress and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. This type of brewery waste stream, properly treated, may be a promising source of natural antioxidants to replace the synthetic antioxidants currently used in the food industry. PMID:27786308

  15. Assessment of the environmental impact of management measures for the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste in São Paulo City.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mara Regina; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing concern about landfilling of biodegradable wastes. Therefore, biological treatment processes such as composting and biogasification have been considered as alternative strategies for managing those wastes. In this work, life cycle assessment was employed to compare the environmental impacts of landfilling, composting, and biological treatment of municipal solid waste in São Paulo City, Brazil. Energy consumption, recovered resources, and emissions to air and water were quantified and analyzed in terms of their potential contribution to global warming, acidification, and nutrient enrichment impact. The results demonstrated that processes that require high levels of energy consumption, such as wastewater treatment, play an important role in the outcome of environmental impact potentials. It was found that the landfilling of all waste is generally the worst strategy from an environmental point of view. However, significant reductions in the resulting impacts can be accomplished through biogasification and composting of the biodegradable fraction. Regarding composting, the application of a biofilter for gas treatment reduced significantly the gaseous emissions.

  16. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  17. Analysis of flame retardant additives in polymer fractions of waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) by means of HPLC-UV/MS and GPC-HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Schlummer, Martin; Brandl, Fritz; Mäurer, Andreas; van Eldik, Rudi

    2005-01-28

    An HPLC-UV/MS method has been developed to identify and quantify flame retardants in post-consumer plastics from waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation spectra of 15 brominated and phosphate-based flame retardants were recorded and interpreted. The method was applied to detect flame retardant additives in polymer extracts obtained from pressurised liquid extraction of solid polymers. In addition, a screening method was developed for soluble styrene polymers to isolate a flame retardant fraction through the application of gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This fraction was transferred to an online-coupled HPLC column and detected by UV spectroscopy, which allowed a reliable qualitative and quantitative analysis of brominated flame retardants in the polymer solutions.

  18. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  19. Fluorescence fingerprints and Cu2+-complexing ability of individual molecular size fractions in soil- and waste-borne DOM.

    PubMed

    Knoth de Zarruk, K; Scholer, G; Dudal, Y

    2007-09-01

    Land spreading of organic materials introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into the soil. DOM has the ability to form stable complexes with heavy metals and can facilitate their transport towards the groundwater. The effects on soil processes are difficult to assess, because different DOM components might react differently towards metal ions. The objective of this study was to investigate the fluorescence signature and the Cu2+-binding capacity of individual molecular size fractions of DOM from various sources. DOM extracted from leaf compost, chicken manure, sugar cane vinasse and a fulvic hypercalcaric cambisol was fractionated by the means of dialysis into four molecular size classes: MW<500, 50012000-14000 Da. Vinasse and leaf compost contained around 80% and 70%, respectively, of the total organic carbon in the fractions with low molecular weight (MW<3500 Da); in chicken manure and soil these fractions accounted for 40% and 50% only. Fluorescence was highest in the fraction MW>12000 Da for leaf compost, chicken manure and soil. The opposite result was obtained for vinasse, where the fractions with low molecular weight showed highest fluorescence intensities, distinguishing it from all other samples. Vinasse showed the greatest ability to bind Cu2+ with a resulting complex concentration of 6.31mgl(-1) while in contact with an excess of Cu2+. Leaf compost, soil and chicken manure followed with 2.69, 1.12, and 0.85mgl(-1), respectively. Within vinasse, the fraction MW<500 Da was able to form the most DOM-Cu complexes, indicating the importance of low molecular weight fractions in metal binding. PMID:17498777

  20. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant. PMID:23179511

  1. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  2. Isolation and prebiotic activity of water-soluble polysaccharides fractions from the bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hanju; Wang, Junhui; Cao, Xiaodong; Ye, Yongkang

    2016-10-20

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox) (WBP) were isolated, and the characterizations as well as prebiotic activities were investigated. The yield of WBP was 7.58±0.31% under optimal hot-water extraction conditions. Two fractions, i.e., WBP-1 and WBP-2 with molecular weight of 83.50kDa and 80.08kDa, respectively, were purified by chromatography. Both the polysaccharides fractions were identified as heteropolysaccharides-protein complexes composed of 15 kinds of common amino acids in protein part and rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios in polysaccharide part. The existence of α- and β-glycosidic linkages between the sugar units was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectra. Compared with the blank control and the reference of FOS, WBP-1 and WBP-2 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium bifidum (P<0.05), which contributed to the production of organic acids, suggesting that the polysaccharides have potential prebiotic properties. PMID:27474570

  3. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation. PMID:22494441

  4. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Activated sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Activated-sludge process: Waste treatment. (Latest citations from the biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the activated sludge process in waste and wastewater treatment. Topics include biochemistry of the activated sludge process, effects of various pollutants on process activity, effects of environmental variables such as oxygen and water levels, and nutrient requirements of microorganisms employed in activated sludge processes. The citations also explore use of the process to treat specific wastes, such as halocarbons, metallic wastes, and petrochemical effluents; and wastes from pharmaceutical and dairy processes. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Identification of antihyperuricemic peptides in the proteolytic digest of shark cartilage water extract using in vivo activity-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Murota, Itsuki; Taguchi, Satoko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Park, Eun Young; Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Kenji

    2014-03-19

    A peptide that exerts antihyperuricemic activity after oral administration was identified from a microbial protease (alcalase) digest of the water extract of shark cartilage by in vivo activity-guided fractionation, using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Water extract of shark cartilage was first fractionated by preparative ampholine-free isoelectric focusing, followed by preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalse digests of the obtained fractions was evaluated using an animal model. Alcalase digests of the basic and hydrophobic fractions exerted antihyperuricemic activity. A total of 18 peptides were identified in the alcalase digest of the final active fraction. These peptides were chemically synthesized and evaluated for antihyperuricemic activity. Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr and Ser-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Pro-Tyr lowered the serum uric acid level via intravenous injection at 5 mg/kg of body weight. Furthermore, orally administered Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr showed antihyperuricemic activity. Therefore, these peptides are at least partially responsible for the antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalase digest of shark cartilage.

  9. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L.; McCabe, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  10. Synergic co-activation of muscles in elbow flexion via fractional Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyang; Hsyu, Ming-Chun; Cheng, Hsiu-Yao; Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu

    2008-12-31

    In reflex and volitional actions, co-activations of agonist and antagonist muscles are believed to be present. Recent studies indicate that such co-activations can be either synergic or dyssynergic. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the co-activations of biceps brachii, brachialis, and triceps brachii during volitional elbow flexion are in the synergic or dyssynergic state. In this study, two groups with each containing six healthy male volunteers participated. Each person of the first group performed 30 trials of volitional elbow flexion while each of the second group performed 30 trials of passive elbow flexion as control experiments. Based on the model of fractional Brownian motion, the intensity and frequency information of the surface electromyograms (EMGs) could be extracted simultaneously. No statistically significant changes were found in the control group. As to the other group, results indicated that the surface EMGs of all five muscle groups were temporally synchronized in frequencies with persistent intensities during each elbow flexion. In addition, the mean values of fractal dimensions for rest and volitional flexion states revealed significant differences with P < 0.01. The obtained positive results suggest that these muscle groups work together synergically to facilitate elbow flexion during the co-activations.

  11. Radioisotope Characterization of HB Line Low Activity Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.J.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this document is to provide a physical, chemical, hazardous and radiological characterization of Low-Level Waste (LLW) generated in HB-Line as required by the 1S Manual, Savannah River Site Waste Acceptance Criteria Manual.

  12. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  13. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: a comparative study with four different fractions.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-11

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14±2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  14. Antioxidant and relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala jacquem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current work is an attempt to know about additional chemical profile of Artemisia macrocephala. Antioxidant activity is performed as the plant is reported to contain flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity in general. Relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract is performed to know in which fraction(s) the relaxant constituents concentrate as we have already reported that its crude methanol has relaxant activity. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil is also performed as the plant is rich with essential oil. Methods Phytochemical profile of the plant is performed. Free radical scavenging activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Relaxation activity tests of fractions and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala were performed on sections of rabbits’ jejunum. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of plant extracts and its essential oil. Results We detected carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins in A. macrocephala. At concentration 0.005 mg/ml, free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 121.5 ± 2.02% of ascorbic acid. n- hexane fraction relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Essential oil relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.8 ± 0.034 mg/ml. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions relaxed both spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions suggesting its possible mode through calcium channels. Constructing calcium chloride curves, the test fractions showed a right shift in the EC50. Essential oil at concentration 0.1 mg/ml produced right shift with EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.08 ± 0.08 vs. control with EC50 -2.47 ± 0.07. The curve resembled the curves of verapamil, which caused a right shift at 0.1 μM, with EC50 -1.7 ±0.07 vs. control EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.45 ± 0.06. Conclusions Crude methanol and its fractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol) are rich sources of antioxidant constituents. The relaxing constituents following

  15. Extraction chromatographic separation of promethium from high active waste solutions of Purex origin

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanujam, A.; Achuthan, P.V.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Kannan, R.; Mathur, J.N.

    1995-03-01

    An extraction chromatographic procedure for the separation of {sup 147}Pm from High Active Waste solutions of Purex process has been developed. Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide(CMPO) and 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (KSM-17), both sorbed separately on an inert support(chromosorb-102) have been sequentially employed for this purpose. In the CMPO column, the rare earths and the trivalent actinides are sorbed together with uranium, plutonium and traces of few other fission products. The elution of this column with 0.04 M HNO{sub 3} gives an eluate containing trivalent actinides and lanthanides. This solution, after adjusting the pH to 2.0, is used as feed for the second extraction chromatographic column based on KSM-17. All the trivalent metal ions are sorbed on the column leaving the trace impurities in the effluent. Fractional elution of the metal ions from this column is carried out with nitric acid of varying concentrations. At 0.09 M HNO{sub 3}, the pure beta emitting fraction of {sup 147}Pm has been obtained. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables. PMID:27547805

  17. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.

  18. Photoinductive activity of humic acid fractions with the presence of Fe(III): the role of aromaticity and oxygen groups involved in fractions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-06-01

    Relationship between the photoinductive activity and the properties of humic acids (HA) fractions were investigated with and without Fe(III). Three fractions were separated based on the molecular weight (M(w)) and were obtained following the order of M(w): F(A)>F(B)>F(C). Compared to F(A) and F(B), photodegradation of atrazine under simulated sunlight was much faster in solution containing F(C), whose structure was dominated by greater aromaticity, more oxygen groups and fluorophores. The interaction of HA fractions and Fe(III) was studied using fluorescence spectrometry and F(C) had the largest quenching constant. The capacity of electron transfer, estimated from the amount of photoformed Fe(II), was also highest for F(C). Thus, the Fe(III)-F(C) complex was efficient in phototransformation of atrazine in nearly neutral aqueous solutions. These results suggest that the aromaticity and oxygen groups content of HA exert great influence on the binding ability of metals and on the fate of pollutants in natural waters.

  19. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  20. Measurement of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Marker of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomi, Erkanda; Rothstein, Robin D.; Ehrlich, Adam C.; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Definitive diagnosis of IBD requires endoscopic and pathologic confirmation. These tools are also used to classify disease activity. Our aim was to determine if the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be utilized to screen for IBD and assess for disease activity. Methods We matched weighted IBD cases and controls from the 2009–2010 NHANES dataset. All subjects underwent measurement of FeNO using standardized techniques. We assessed for potential confounders for FeNO measurement including age, height, and asthma. For IBD subjects, we used the presence of diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss as a proxy for IBD activity. Laboratory parameters examined to estimate disease activity included anemia (≤ 10 g/dl), iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 20 ng/ml), hypoalbuminemia (≤ 3.2 g/dl), and CRP (≥ 1.1 mg/dl). Results The weighted sample represented 199,414,901 subjects. The weighted prevalence of IBD was 2,084,895 (1.0%). IBD subjects had nearly the same FeNO level as those without IBD (17.0 ± 16.2 vs. 16.7 ± 14.5 ppb). The odds of a FeNO > 25 ppb was half (OR=0.501; 95% CI 0.497–0.504) for subjects with IBD compared to those without IBD after controlling for confounders. The AUROC curve for FeNO was 0.47 (0.35–0.59). FeNO levels were not higher in patients with laboratory values suggestive of active disease. FeNO levels were higher in IBD patients with diarrhea, rectal urgency, and fatigue but were lower in those with unintentional weight loss. Conclusion Measurement of FeNO does not appear to be useful to screen for IBD or assess disease activity. PMID:27398403

  1. Determination of fission neutron transmission through waste matrix material using neutron signal correlation from active assay of {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Hollas, C.L.; Arnone, G.; Brunson, G.; Coop, K.

    1996-09-01

    The accuracy of TRU (transuranic) waste assay using the differential die-away technique depends upon significant corrections to compensate for the effects of the matrix material in which the TRU waste is located. The authors have used a new instrument, the Combined Thermal/Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) instrument for the assay of TRU waste, to develop methods to improve the accuracy of these corrections. Neutrons from a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator are moderated in the walls of the CTEN cavity and induce fission in the TRU material. The prompt neutrons from these fission events are detected in cadmium-wrapped {sup 3}He neutron detectors. They report new methods of data acquisition and analysis to extract correlation in the neutron signals resulting form fission during active interrogation. They use the correlation information in conjunction with the total number of neutrons to determine the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted through the matrix material into the {sup 3}He detectors. This determination allows them to cleanly separate the matrix effects into two processes: matrix modification upon the neutron interrogating flux and matrix modification upon the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted to the neutron detectors. This transmission information is also directly applied in a neutron multiplicity analysis in the passive assay of {sup 240}Pu.

  2. Polyphenolics from various extracts/fractions of red onion (Allium cepa) peel with potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Singh, D P; Sarma, B K; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    In order to determine antioxidant activity, the five extracts/fractions of red onion peel were studied for their total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), assayed by DPPH radical in the terms of anti-radical power (ARP) and reducing power (RP), expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml. High TPC (384.7 +/- 5.0 mg GAE/g), TFC (165.2+/- 3.2 mg QE/g), AOA (97.4 +/- 7.6%), ARP (75.3 +/-4.5) and RP (1.6 +/-0.3 ASE/ml) were found for the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction. EA fraction had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventive or scavenging capacities against FeCl3-induced lipid peroxidation, protein fragmentation, hydroxyl (site-specific and non-site-specific), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. EA fraction also showed dose dependent antimutagenic activity by following the inhibition of tobacco-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA102) and hydroxyl radical-induced nicking in plasmid pUC18 DNA. HPLC and MS/MS analysis showed the presence of ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic acids, quercetin and kaempferol. The large amount of polyphenols contained in EA fraction may cause its strong antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. This information shows that EA fraction of red onion peel can be used as natural antioxidant in nutraceutical preparations. PMID:19425188

  3. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    N’Guessan, Benoit Banga; Dosso, Kassim; Gnangoran, Boua Narcisse; Amoateng, Patrick; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Yapo, Angoue Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane) produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:25883517

  4. Design requirements document for project W-520, immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-06

    This design requirements document (DRD) identifies the functions that must be performed to accept, handle, and dispose of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) private treatment contractors and close the facility. It identifies the requirements that are associated with those functions and that must be met. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized Low-Activity Waste disposal facility project (W-520) and provides traceability from the program-level requirements to the project design activity.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis: identification of a phospholipase A-dependent hemolytic activity in a vesicular subcellular fraction.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; González-Salazar, Francisco; Lozano-Garza, Hector G; Cortes-Gutierrez, Elva I; Palaclos-Corona, Rebeca; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia G; Ramírez-Bon, Enrique; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2003-02-01

    Trichomonad total extracts (TTE), or vesicular (P30) and soluble (530) subcellular fractions from 3 pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis strains (GT-3. GT-13. and GT-15), lysed both human and Sprague-Dawley rat erythrocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The entire hemolytic activity of TTE was located in P30, showing 2 peaks of maximum activity, one at pH 6.0 and another at pH 8.0. in the presence of 1 mM Ca2+. Hemolytic activity on rat erythrocytes was greater at pH 6.0 16.71 +/- 0.33 hemolytic units IHU]/mg/hr to 11.60 +/- 0.24 HU/mg/hr) than at pH 8.0 (3.81 +/- 0.30 HU/mg/hr to 5.75 +/- 0.65 HU/mg/hr). and it was greater than that on human red blood cells at pH 6.0 (2.67 +/- 0.19 HU/mg/hr to 4.08 +/- 0.15 HU/mg/hr) or pH 8.0 (2.24 +/- 0.0 9 HU/mg/hr to 2.81 +/- 0.06 HU/mg/hr). The alkaline and acidic hemolytic activity diminished (60-93% at pH 6.0 and 78-93% at pH 8.0) by the effect of 80 microM Rosenthal's inhibitor, which also inhibited 27-45% and 29-54% trichomonad alkaline and acidic phospholipase A activities, respectively. Vesicles, vacuoles, and hydrogenosomes were rich in P30. Trichomonas vaginalis has a hemolytic PLA, which could be involved in its cytopathogenic mechanism. PMID:12659311

  6. Short fungal fractions of β-1,3 glucans affect platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Vancraeyneste, Hélène; Charlet, Rogatien; Guerardel, Yann; Choteau, Laura; Bauters, Anne; Tardivel, Meryem; François, Nadine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Soloviev, Dmitry; Poulain, Daniel; Sendid, Boualem; Jawhara, Samir

    2016-09-01

    Platelets are capable of binding, aggregating, and internalizing microorganisms, which enhances the elimination of pathogens from the blood. The yeast Candida albicans is a pathobiont causing life-threatening invasive infections. Its cell wall contains β-1,3 glucans that are known to trigger a wide range of host cell activities and to circulate during infection. We studied the effect of β-1,3 glucan fractions (BGFs) consisting of diglucosides (Glc2), tetraglucosides (Glc4), and pentaglucosides (Glc5) on human platelets, their mechanisms of action, and their possible impact on host defenses. The effect of BGFs on the coagulation process was determined by measuring thrombin generation. Platelets pretreated with BGFs were analyzed in terms of activation, receptor expression, aggregation, and adhesion to neutrophils and to C. albicans The results show that BGFs affected the endogenous thrombin potential in a concentration-dependent manner. For platelet activation, BGFs at a low concentration (2 μmol/l) reduced ATP release and prevented the phosphorylation of protein kinase C. BGFs diminished the expression of P-selectin and the activation of αIIbβ3 BGFs decreased platelet aggregation and the interaction between thrombin-stimulated platelets and neutrophils, fibrinogen, and C. albicans GLc5 decreased ATP release and TGF-β1 production in response to TLR4 upregulation in thrombin-stimulated platelets, but TLR4 blockage abolished the effect of BGFs on platelets. This study provides evidence that fungal pentaglucosides modulate platelet activity mediated via TLR4 stimulation and reduce platelet-neutrophil interaction. PMID:27288438

  7. Renin-Angiotensin Activation and Oxidative Stress in Early Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Negi, Smita I; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Shukrullah, Irfan; Veleder, Emir; Jones, Dean P; Fan, Tai-Hwang M; Varadarajan, Sudhahar; Danilov, Sergei M; Fukai, Tohru; Dudley, Samuel C

    2015-01-01

    Animal models have suggested a role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation and subsequent cardiac oxidation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Nevertheless, RAS blockade has failed to show efficacy in treatment of HFpEF. We evaluated the role of RAS activation and subsequent systemic oxidation in HFpEF. Oxidative stress markers were compared in 50 subjects with and without early HFpEF. Derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (DROMs), F2-isoprostanes (IsoPs), and ratios of oxidized to reduced glutathione (E h GSH) and cysteine (E h CyS) were measured. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels and activity were measured. On univariate analysis, HFpEF was associated with male sex (p = 0.04), higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.003), less oxidized E h CyS (p = 0.001), lower DROMs (p = 0.02), and lower IsoP (p = 0.03). Higher BMI (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and less oxidized E h CyS (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4) maintained associations with HFpEF on multivariate analysis. Though ACE levels were higher in early HFpEF (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), ACE activity was similar to that in controls. HFpEF is not associated with significant systemic RAS activation or oxidative stress. This may explain the failure of RAS inhibitors to alter outcomes in HFpEF. PMID:26504834

  8. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    PubMed

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

  9. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    PubMed

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: an analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramamurthy, Perumal; Santhiya, Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Mentha extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Four solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water) of ethanolic extract of dried leaves powder of M. spicata were analyzed for total antioxidant activity (TAA) and relative antioxidant activity (RAA) and compared with standard antioxidants such as Quercetin, beta-carotene, L-ascorbic acid and glutathione using ABTS*+ decolorization assay (ABTS/Potassium persulphate). The antioxidant activity was assumed to be from the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract. Total phenolics are found to be highest in ethyl acetate fraction (54 mg/g) and least in hexane fraction (13 mg/g) and more or less similar in water and chloroform fractions (30-32 mg/g). TAA is found to be less in hexane and chloroform fractions (<53% at 50 microg/ml) and highest in ethyl acetate (95% at 20 microg/ml) and water (84% at 30 microg/ml) fractions. The RAA of ethyl acetate fraction is 1.1 compared to quercetin (at 5 microM/ml), but greater when compared to beta-carotene (15 microM/ml), L-ascorbic acid (15 microM/ml) and glutathione (15 microM/ml). The RAAs with these antioxidants are in the range of 1.31 -1.6. The values of RAAs for water fraction also show similar trend and are in the range of 1.0-1.4. The antioxidant activities of the solvent factions are closely related to the content of total phenolics present in them.

  11. Defining the Active Fraction of Daptomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Using a Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Garonzik, Samira M.; Lenhard, Justin R.; Forrest, Alan; Holden, Patricia N.; Bulitta, Jϋrgen B.; Tsuji, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to study the pharmacodynamics of daptomycin in the presence of varying concentrations of human serum (HS) in vitro to quantify the fraction of daptomycin that is ‘active’. Time kill experiments were performed with daptomycin (0 to 256 mg/L) against two MRSA strains at log-phase growth, in the presence of HS (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) combined with Mueller-Hinton broth. Daptomycin ≥ 2 mg/L achieved 99.9% kill within 8 h at all HS concentrations; early killing activity was slightly attenuated at higher HS concentrations. After 1 h, bacterial reduction of USA300 upon exposure to daptomycin 4 mg/L ranged from -3.1 to -0.5 log10CFU/mL in the presence of 0% to 70% HS, respectively. Bactericidal activity was achieved against both strains at daptomycin ≥ 4 mg/L for all fractions of HS exposure. A mechanism-based mathematical model (MBM) was developed to estimate the active daptomycin fraction at each %HS, comprising 3 bacterial subpopulations differing in daptomycin susceptibility. Time-kill data were fit with this MBM with excellent precision (r2 >0.95). The active fraction of daptomycin was estimated to range from 34.6% to 25.2% at HS fractions of 10% to 70%, respectively. Despite the reported low unbound fraction of daptomycin, the impact of protein binding on the activity of daptomycin was modest. The active fraction approach can be utilized to design in vitro experiments and to optimize therapeutic regimens of daptomycin in humans. PMID:27284923

  12. A high fraction of double-peaked narrow emission lines in powerful active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Yang; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-01

    1 per cent of redshift z ˜ 0.1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show velocity splitting of a few hundred km s-1 in the narrow emission lines in spatially integrated spectra. Such line profiles have been found to arise from the bulk motion of ionized gas clouds associated with galactic-scale outflows, merging pairs of galaxies each harbouring a supermassive black hole (SMBH), and/or galactic-scale disc rotation. It remains unclear, however, how the frequency of narrow-line velocity splitting may depend on AGN luminosity. Here we study the correlation between the fraction of Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked narrow emission lines and AGN luminosity as indicated by [O III] λ5007 emission-line luminosity L_[O III]. We combine the sample of Liu et al. at z ˜ 0.1 with a new sample of 178 Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked [O III] emission lines at z ˜ 0.5. We select the new sample from a parent sample of 2089 Type 2 AGNs from the SDSS-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a statistically significant (˜4.2σ) correlation between L_[O III] and the fraction of objects that exhibit double-peaked narrow emission lines among all Type 2 AGNs, corrected for selection bias and incompleteness due to [O III] line width, equivalent width, splitting velocity, and/or equivalent width ratio between the two velocity components. Our result suggests that galactic-scale outflows and/or merging pairs of SMBHs are more prevalent in more powerful AGNs, although spatially resolved follow-up observations are needed to resolve the origin(s) for the narrow-line velocity splitting for individual AGNs.

  13. OBSCURING FRACTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: IMPLICATIONS FROM RADIATION-DRIVEN FOUNTAIN MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction f{sub obs} for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, f{sub obs} for N{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2} increases from ∼0.2 to ∼0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} in the L{sub X} = 10{sup 42–44} erg s{sup −1} range, but f{sub obs} becomes small (∼0.4) above a luminosity (∼10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1}). The behaviors of f{sub obs} can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given L{sub AGN}, f{sub obs} is always smaller (∼0.2–0.3) for a larger column density (N{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  14. Obscuring Fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei: Implications from Radiation-driven Fountain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction fobs for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, fobs for NH ≥ 1022 cm‑2 increases from ∼0.2 to ∼0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity LX in the LX = 1042–44 erg s‑1 range, but fobs becomes small (∼0.4) above a luminosity (∼1045 erg s‑1). The behaviors of fobs can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given LAGN, fobs is always smaller (∼0.2–0.3) for a larger column density (NH ≥ 1023 cm‑2). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  15. Flourensia cernua: Hexane Extracts a Very Active Mycobactericidal Fraction from an Inactive Leaf Decoction against Pansensitive and Panresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; González-Hernández, Silvia; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of decoction in extracting mycobactericidal compounds from Flourensia cernua (Hojasé) leaves and fractionation with solvents having ascending polarity was compared with that of (i) ethanol extraction by still maceration, extraction with a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration, followed by fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol; (ii) sequential extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, by still maceration, using a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration. The in vitro mycobactericidal activity of each preparation was measured against drug-sensitive (SMtb) and drug-resistant (RMtb) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The results of which were expressed as absolute mycobactericidal activity (AMA). These data were normalized to the ΣAMA of the decoction fraction set. Although decoction was inactive, the anti-RMtb normalized ΣAMA (NAMA) of its fractions was comparable with the anti-RMtb NAMA of the still maceration extracts and significantly higher than the anti-SMtb and anti-RMtb NAMAs of every other ethanol extract and serial extract and fraction. Hexane extracted, from decoction, material having 55.17% and 92.62% of antituberculosis activity against SMtb and RMtb, respectively. Although the mycobactericidal activity of decoction is undetectable; its efficacy in extracting F. cernua active metabolites against M. tuberculosis is substantially greater than almost all pharmacognostic methods. PMID:21584254

  16. [In vitro transdermal delivery of the active fraction of xiangfusiwu decoction based on principal component analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Hao; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Li, Wei; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a method based on principal component analysis (PCA) for the study of transdermal delivery of multiple components in Chinese medicine, and to choose the best penetration enhancers for the active fraction of Xiangfusiwu decoction (BW) with this method. Improved Franz diffusion cells with isolated rat abdomen skins were carried out to experiment on the transdermal delivery of six active components, including ferulic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, protopine, tetrahydropalmatine and tetrahydrocolumbamine. The concentrations of these components were determined by LC-MS/MS, then the total factor scores of the concentrations at different times were calculated using PCA and were employed instead of the concentrations to compute the cumulative amounts and steady fluxes, the latter of which were considered as the indexes for optimizing penetration enhancers. The results showed that compared to the control group, the steady fluxes of the other groups increased significantly and furthermore, 4% azone with 1% propylene glycol manifested the best effect. The six components could penetrate through skin well under the action of penetration enhancers. The method established in this study has been proved to be suitable for the study of transdermal delivery of multiple components, and it provided a scientific basis for preparation research of Xiangfusiwu decoction and moreover, it could be a reference for Chinese medicine research. PMID:23984531

  17. Characterization and mesenteric lymph node cells-mediated immunomodulatory activity of litchi pulp polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Juan; Su, Dongxiao; Yi, Yang; Wang, Guangjin; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2016-11-01

    Three water-soluble hetero-polysaccharides, designated LP1-3, were isolated from litchi pulp. Their structures, solution properties and immunomodulatory activities were evaluated. LP1 contained (1→4,6)-β-d-Glc and (1→4)-α-l-Gal, while LP2 contained (1→3)-α-l-Ara and (l→2)-β-d-Gal, and LP3 contained α-l-Ara and (l→4)-β-Rha. Their molecular weights ranged from 105,880 to 986,470g/mol. LP1 had a spherical conformation with hyper-branched structure and LP2 was semi-flexible chain, while the polysaccharide chains of LP3 were cross linked to form network-like conformation in solution. In addition, all fractions strongly stimulated mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation, IFN-γ and IL-6 secretion in the dose range of 25-100μg/mL compared with untreated control group (p<0.05). LP1 exhibited the strongest stimulation of mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, which may be attributed to its unique chemical structure and chain conformation. This is the first report on the solution properties and intestinal immunity activities of polysaccharides from litchi pulp. PMID:27516297

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  19. Super Saver Investigators: An Elementary, Interdisciplinary, Environmental Studies Activity Guidebook about Solid Waste and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, David; And Others

    This is an elementary, interdisciplinary, environmental studies activity guidebook about solid waste and natural resources. "Super Saver Investigators" what solid waste is, where it is generated, how we manage it and could manage it better, and the consequence of mismanagement. It contains many hands-on, skill enhancing activities for elementary…

  20. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  1. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  2. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  3. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  4. 40 CFR 61.154 - Standard for active waste disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (20″×14″) upright format signs specified in 29 CFR 1910.145(d)(4) and this paragraph; and (iii... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for active waste disposal... for Asbestos § 61.154 Standard for active waste disposal sites. Each owner or operator of an...

  5. Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development. PMID:24185049

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of household municipal solid waste: start-up procedure for continuously stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Angelidaki, Irini; Chen, Xingxing; Cui, Junbo; Kaparaju, Prasad; Ellegaard, Lars

    2006-08-01

    Two feeding strategies for start-up of continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) treating source-sorted organic fraction of household municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) at 55 degrees C were evaluated. Two reactors were started up separately with a limited amount of initial inoculum (i.e. 10% of the final volume of 3.5l) and operated in a fed batch mode until the reactors were filled (30 days). A reference reactor was filled up with 3.5l of inoculum and fed at a constant rate (11.4 g volatile solids (VS)/d). Loading at progressively increasing rate (from 1.7 to 15 gVS/d), as calculated based on an activated biomass concept, showed superior process performance compared to a fixed feed rate (5.7 gVS/d). Methane yield of 0.32 m(3)/kg VS was produced during the start-up in reactor filled at progressively increasing rate and was comparable to the reference reactor. On the contrary, significant inhibition due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) build-up, mainly due to butyrate, was noticed in the reactor filled at constant rate. Thus, low initial and progressive increasing inoculum loading rate could be used as a strategy for a successful start-up of CSTR treating SS-OFMSW as it allowed a gradual acclimation of the biomass. Lab-scale results were further reaffirmed from the start-up of a full-scale plant (7000 m(3) total capacity) which was supplied with inoculum corresponding to approx. 16% of final volume and operated in a fed batch mode until the reactors were filled (58 days). Stable biogas production with low VFA (<3 g/L; based on titration method) were noticed during the start-up period when fed at progressively increasing rate. Thus, a controlled and reliable start-up procedure was found essential, which could allow rapid process stabilization and time to focus on other technical aspects of plant operation. In addition, the influence of substrate to inoculum amount (1.5-30% TS) and temperature (5-65 degrees C) on anaerobic degradation and methane production of SS-OFMSW was

  7. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion.

  8. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    PubMed

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion. PMID:26123979

  9. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mercier, Theresa M.; Russell, Renee L.; Cozzi, Alex; Daniel, William E.; Eibling, Russell E.; Hansen, E. K.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  10. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferative activity between Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers polysaccharides (KCCP) and fraction PII separated by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jing, Siqun; Chai, Wenjie; Guo, Gai; Zhang, Xiaoming; Dai, Jun; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2016-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells between Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers polysaccharides (KCCP) and its fraction PII that were separated by Biologic low pressure (LP) chromatography system followed by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. Results of in vitro experiments showed that the reducing power and the scavenging capacity of KCCP towards hydroxyl radicals (OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased in a concentration dependent manner and were stronger than that of fraction PII. Results of the antiproliferative effect of KCCP and fraction PII on cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophagus cancer Eca109 cells, and mouse ascites hepatomas H22 cells indicated that both KCCP and its fraction PII possessed inhibitory activity on all the tested cancer cells at a dose- and time-dependent manner, with KCCP showing higher inhibitory activity than that of fraction PII. The present study demonstrates that KCCP and its fraction PII have antioxidant properties that may help fight cancers. PMID:26809376

  11. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  12. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling.

  13. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude extracts, separated fractions, groups of chemical substances, and individual compounds from natural sources are all evaluated stepwise while performing purifications in in-house bioassays. In a stepwise fashion proceeding from crude extracts to fractions and on to pure compounds, decisions ar...

  14. Wastes from selected activities in two light-water reactor fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.R.; Hill, O.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents projected volumes and radioactivities of wastes from the production of electrical energy using light-water reactors (LWR). The projections are based upon data developed for a recent environmental impact statement in which the transuranic wastes (i.e., those wastes containing certain long-lived alpha emitters at concentrations of at least 370 becquerels, or 10 nCi, per gram of waste) from fuel cycle activities were characterized. In addition, since the WG.7 assumed that all fuel cycle wastes except mill tailings are placed in a mined geologic repository, the nontransuranic wastes from several activities are included in the projections reported. The LWR fuel cycles considered are the LWR, once-through fuel cycle (Strategy 1), in which spent fuel is packaged in metal canisters and then isolated in geologic formations; and the LWR U/Pu recycle fuel cycle (Strategy 2), wherein spent fuel is reprocessed for recovery and recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWRs. The wastes projected for the two LWR fuel cycles are summarized. The reactor operations and decommissioning were found to dominate the rate of waste generation in each cycle. These activities account for at least 85% of the fuel cycle waste volume (not including head-end wastes) when normalized to per unit electrical energy generated. At 10 years out of reactor, however, spent fuel elements in Strategy 1 represent 98% of the fuel cycle activity but only 4% of the volume. Similarly, the packaged high-level waste, fuel hulls and hardware in Strategy 2 concentrate greater than 95% of the activity in 2% of the waste volume.

  15. HAZ-ED Classroom Activities for Understanding Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Superfund Program investigates and cleans up hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Part of this program is devoted to informing the public and involving people in the process of cleaning up hazardous waste sites from beginning to end. The Haz-Ed program was developed to assist the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)…

  16. Adjuvant effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin active fraction on antivirulent property of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Vadekeetil, Anitha; Alexandar, V; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) act as antivirulent agents since quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in regulating pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, application of single QSI may not be effective as pathogen is vulnerable to successful mutations. In such conditions, combination of QSIs can be exploited as there can be synergistic or adjuvant action. In the present study, we evaluated the antivirulence efficacy of combination of Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidin active fraction (PAF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) at their sub-MICs using standard methods followed by analysis of their mode of action on QS using TLC and molecular docking. There was significant improvement in action of CIP when it was combined with PAF in reducing the QS controlled virulence factors (p < 0.05), motilities and biofilm of P. aeruginosa. TLC profiles of QS signals [(Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)] indicated that CIP in combination with PAF, besides showing inhibitory action on production of AHLs, also modulated production and inactivation of PQS. Docking scores also supported the observation. We therefore hypothesize that PAF-CIP combination, having improved anti-virulence property; can be exploited as a potent drug pairing against P. aeruginosa. PMID:26620081

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    PubMed

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  18. Reconstitution of coronary vasculature by an active fraction of Geum japonicum in ischemic hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Cheng, Lei; Lin, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiaping; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Ming

    2014-02-01

    Chronic coronary heart disease (cCHD) is characterized by atherosclerosis, which progressively narrows the coronary artery lumen and impairs myocardial blood flow. Restoration of occluded coronary vessels with newly formed collaterals remains an ideal therapeutic approach due to the need for redirecting blood flow into the ischemic heart. In this study, we investigated the effect of an active fraction isolated from Geum joponicum (AFGJ) on angiogenesis in cCHD hearts. Our results demonstrated that AFGJ not only enhanced capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, but also promoted the growth of new coronary collaterals (at the diameter 0.021-0.21 mm) in the ischemic region of hearts in rat cCHD model. Our study also indicated that the growth of new collaterals in ischemic hearts resulted in improved functional recovery of the cCHD hearts as demonstrated by ECG and echocardiography analyses. These data suggest that AFGJ may provide a novel therapeutic method for effective treatment of cCHD.

  19. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  20. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for

  1. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ersahin, M. Evren; Yangin Gomec, Cigdem; Dereli, R. Kaan; Arikan, Osman; Ozturk, Izzet

    2011-01-01

    Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE·day; XSS-OFMSW = 50 g TS/PE·day). PMID:21274432

  2. Fractionation and fluxes of metals and radionuclides during the recycling process of phosphogypsum wastes applied to mineral CO₂ sequestration.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Pérez-López, R; Gázquez, M J; Morales-Flórez, V; Santos, A; Esquivias, L; Bolívar, J P

    2015-11-01

    The industry of phosphoric acid produces a calcium-rich by-product known as phosphogypsum, which is usually stored in large stacks of millions of tons. Up to now, no commercial application has been widely implemented for its reuse because of the significant presence of potentially toxic contaminants. This work confirmed that up to 96% of the calcium of phosphogypsum could be recycled for CO2 mineral sequestration by a simple two-step process: alkaline dissolution and aqueous carbonation, under ambient pressure and temperature. This CO2 sequestration process based on recycling phosphogypsum wastes would help to mitigate greenhouse gasses emissions. Yet this work goes beyond the validation of the sequestration procedure; it tracks the contaminants, such as trace metals or radionuclides, during the recycling process in the phosphogypsum. Thus, most of the contaminants were transferred from raw phosphogypsum to portlandite, obtained by dissolution of the phosphogypsum in soda, and from portlandite to calcite during aqueous carbonation. These findings provide valuable information for managing phosphogypsum wastes and designing potential technological applications of the by-products of this environmentally-friendly proposal.

  3. Characterization of typical household food wastes from disposers: fractionation of constituents and implications for resource recovery at wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Chowdhury, M M I; Nakhla, G; Keleman, M

    2015-05-01

    Food wastes with typical US food composition were analyzed to characterize different constituents in both particulate and soluble phases i.e., solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P). Relationships between various pollutants were also investigated using 50 samples. One gram of dry food waste generated 1.21 g COD, 0.58 g BOD5, 0.36 g Total SS, 0.025 g Total N, and 0.013 g Total P. Distribution of constituents between particulate and aqueous phases indicated that 40% of COD and 30% of nitrogen were present in soluble form. Relative mass ratios of COD and nitrogen to solids were three to five times higher in particulates than in aqueous phase. However, COD/N ratios were higher in aqueous form than particulates at 63:1 versus 42:1. Detailed relationships between parameters showed that COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulates are 200%, 3.6%, and 3.5% of the volatile suspended solids.

  4. Antioxidant activity of fractionated extracts of rhizomes of high-altitude Podophyllum hexandrum: role in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Raman; Arora, Rajesh; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Surendar; Sagar, Ravinder; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep; Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Puri, Satish Chander; Dhar, Kanaya Lal; Handa, Geeta; Gupta, Vinay Kumar; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2005-05-01

    Whole extract of rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum has been reported earlier by our group to render whole-body radioprotection. High-altitude P. hexandrum (HAPH) was therefore fractionated using solvents of varying polarity (non-polar to polar) and the different fractions were designated as, n-hexane (HE), chloroform (CE), alcohol (AE), hydro-alcohol (HA) and water (WE). The total polyphenolic content (mg% of quercetin) was determined spectrophotometrically, while. The major constituents present in each fraction were identified and characterized using LC-APCI/MS/MS. In vitro screening of the individual fractions, rich in polyphenols and lignans, revealed several bioactivities of direct relevance to radioprotection e.g. metal-chelation activity, antioxidant activity, DNA protection, inhibition of radiation (250 Gy) and iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO). CE exhibited maximum protection to plasmid (pBR322) DNA in the plasmid relaxation assay (68.09% of SC form retention). It also showed maximal metal chelation activity (41.59%), evaluated using 2,2'-bipyridyl assay, followed by AE (31.25%), which exhibited maximum antioxidant potential (lowest absorption unit value: 0.0389 +/- 0.00717) in the reducing power assay. AE also maximally inhibited iron/ascorbate-induced and radiation-induced LPO (99.76 and 92.249%, respectively, at 2000 microg/ml) in mouse liver homogenate. Under conditions of combined stress (radiation (250 Gy) + iron/ascorbate), at a concentration of 2000 microg/ml, HA exhibited higher percentage of inhibition (93.05%) of LPO activity. HA was found to be effective in significantly (p < 0.05) lowering LPO activity over a wide range of concentrations as compared to AE. The present comparative study indicated that alcoholic (AE) and hydro-alcoholic (HA) fractions are the most promising fractions, which can effectively tackle radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  5. Influences of use activities and waste management on environmental releases of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wigger, Henning; Hackmann, Stephan; Zimmermann, Till; Köser, Jan; Thöming, Jorg; von Gleich, Arnim

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) offer enhanced or new functionalities and properties that are used in various products. This also entails potential environmental risks in terms of hazard and exposure. However, hazard and exposure assessment for ENM still suffer from insufficient knowledge particularly for product-related releases and environmental fate and behavior. This study therefore analyzes the multiple impacts of the product use, the properties of the matrix material, and the related waste management system (WMS) on the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) by applying nine prospective life cycle release scenarios based on reasonable assumptions. The products studied here are clothing textiles treated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), since they constitute a controversial application. Surprisingly, the results show counter-intuitive increases by a factor of 2.6 in PEC values for the air compartment in minimal AgNP release scenarios. Also, air releases can shift from washing to wearing activity; their associated release points may shift accordingly, potentially altering release hot spots. Additionally, at end-of-life, the fraction of AgNP-residues contained on exported textiles can be increased by 350% when assuming short product lifespans and globalized WMS. It becomes evident that certain combinations of use activities, matrix material characteristics, and WMS can influence the regional PEC by several orders of magnitude. Thus, in the light of the findings and expected ENM market potential, future assessments should consider these aspects to derive precautionary design alternatives and to enable prospective global and regional risk assessments.

  6. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Lockwood, M.; Mursula, K.; Owens, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-nineteenth century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. A daisy-chain regression method is usually applied to inter-calibrate the observers, which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method for calibrating the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900 - 1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [ SS] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than SS and report all the groups larger than SS. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method, we construct a correction matrix for each observer from the reference data set. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximated by a linear regression or proportionality. We emphasize that corrections based on a linear proportionality between annually averaged data lead to serious biases and distortions of the data. The correction matrices are applied to the original sunspot-group records reported by the observers for each day, and finally the composite corrected series is produced for the period since 1748. The corrected series is provided as supplementary material in electronic form and displays secular minima around 1800 (Dalton Minimum) and 1900 (Gleissberg Minimum), as well as the Modern Grand Maximum of activity in the second half of the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the grand maximum is confirmed for the last 250 years. We show that the adoption of a linear relationship between the data of Wolf and Wolfer results in grossly inflated group numbers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in some reconstructions.

  7. Effect of sparging rate on permeate quality in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW).

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the treatment of leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). Operation of the SAMBR for this type of high strength wastewater was shown to be feasible at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT), 10 L min(-1) (LPM) biogas sparging rate and membrane fluxes in the range of 3-7 L m(-2) hr(-1) (LMH). Under these conditions, more than 90% COD removal was achieved during 4 months of operation without chemical cleaning the membrane. When the sparging rate was reduced to 2 LPM, the transmembrane pressure increased dramatically and the bulk soluble COD concentration increased due to a thicker fouling layer, while permeate soluble COD remained constant. Permeate soluble COD concentration increased by 20% when the sparging rate increased to 10 LPM.

  8. Evolution of process parameters and determination of kinetics for co-composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Petric, Ivan; Helić, Azra; Avdić, Edisa Avdihodžić

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to monitor the process parameters and to determine kinetics in composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and poultry manure. The experiments were carried out with three different mixtures. The results showed that the mixture 60% OFMSW, 20% poultry manure, 10% mature compost and 10% sawdust provided the most appropriate conditions for composting process. Using nine kinetic models and nonlinear regression method, kinetic parameters were estimated and the models were analyzed with four statistical indicators. Kinetic models with four measured variables proved to be better than models with less number of measured variables. The number of measured experimental variables influences kinetics more than the number of kinetic parameters. Satisfactory fittings of proposed kinetic model to the experimental data of OM were achieved. The model is more suitable for data obtained from composting of mixtures with much higher percentage of OFMSW than percentage of poultry manure. PMID:22609720

  9. Evolution of process control parameters during extended co-composting of green waste and solid fraction of cattle slurry to obtain growing media.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Coromina, Narcís; Malińska, Krystyna; Marfà, Oriol

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to monitor process parameters when two by-products (green waste - GW, and the solid fraction of cattle slurry - SFCS) were composted to obtain growing media. Using compost in growing medium mixtures involves prolonged composting processes that can last at least half a year. It is therefore crucial to study the parameters that affect compost stability as measured in the field in order to shorten the composting process at composting facilities. Two mixtures were prepared: GW25 (25% GW and 75% SFCS, v/v) and GW75 (75% GW and 25% SFCS, v/v). The different raw mixtures resulted in the production of two different growing media, and the evolution of process management parameters was different. A new parameter has been proposed to deal with attaining the thermophilic temperature range and maintaining it during composting, not only it would be useful to optimize composting processes, but also to assess the hygienization degree. PMID:25553571

  10. Evolution of process control parameters during extended co-composting of green waste and solid fraction of cattle slurry to obtain growing media.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Coromina, Narcís; Malińska, Krystyna; Marfà, Oriol

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to monitor process parameters when two by-products (green waste - GW, and the solid fraction of cattle slurry - SFCS) were composted to obtain growing media. Using compost in growing medium mixtures involves prolonged composting processes that can last at least half a year. It is therefore crucial to study the parameters that affect compost stability as measured in the field in order to shorten the composting process at composting facilities. Two mixtures were prepared: GW25 (25% GW and 75% SFCS, v/v) and GW75 (75% GW and 25% SFCS, v/v). The different raw mixtures resulted in the production of two different growing media, and the evolution of process management parameters was different. A new parameter has been proposed to deal with attaining the thermophilic temperature range and maintaining it during composting, not only it would be useful to optimize composting processes, but also to assess the hygienization degree.

  11. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J A; Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P

    1998-11-06

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A&XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that employs

  12. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-2000 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai; Ar