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Sample records for activity weight management

  1. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2015-11-01

    Weight management for athletes and active individuals is unique because of their high daily energy expenditure; thus, the emphasis is usually placed on changing the diet side of the energy balance equation. When dieting for weight loss, active individuals also want to preserve lean tissue, which means that energy restriction cannot be too severe or lean tissue is lost. First, this brief review addresses the issues of weight management in athletes and active individuals and factors to consider when determining a weight-loss goal. Second, the concept of dynamic energy balance is reviewed, including two mathematical models developed to improve weight-loss predictions based on changes in diet and exercise. These models are now available on the Internet. Finally, dietary strategies for weight loss/maintenance that can be successfully used with active individuals are given. Emphasis is placed on teaching the benefits of consuming a low-ED diet (e.g., high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food to increase satiety while reducing energy intake. Health professionals and sport dietitians need to understand dynamic energy balance and be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help athletes and active individuals achieve their body-weight goals. PMID:26553496

  2. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  3. Physical activity, genetic, and nutritional considerations in childhood weight management.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, O; Foreyt, J; Bouchard, C; Brownell, K D; Dietz, W H; Ravussin, E; Salbe, A D; Schwenger, S; St Jeor, S; Torun, B

    1998-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of U.S. children are now obese, a dramatic increase of over 20% in the past decade. It is intriguing that the increase in prevalence has been occurring while overall fat consumption has been declining. Body mass and composition are influenced by genetic factors, but the actual heritability of juvenile obesity is not known. A low physical activity (PA) is characteristic of obese children and adolescents, and it may be one cause of juvenile obesity. There is little evidence, however, that overall energy expenditure is low among the obese. There is a strong association between the prevalence of obesity and the extent of TV viewing. Enhanced PA can reduce body fat and blood pressure and improve lipoprotein profile in obese individuals. Its effect on body composition, however, is slower than with low-calorie diets. The three main dietary approaches are: protein sparing modified fast, balanced hypocaloric diets, and comprehensive behavioral lifestyle programs. To achieve long-standing control of overweight, one should combine changes in eating and activity patterns, using behavior modification techniques. However, the onus is also on society to reduce incentives for a sedentary lifestyle and over-consumption of food. To address the key issues related to childhood weight management, the American College of Sports Medicine convened a Scientific Roundtable in Indianapolis. PMID:9475638

  4. 'Small changes' to diet and physical activity behaviors for weight management.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M; Lindstrom, Rachel; Hill, James O

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment. PMID:23711772

  5. Active Videogames and Weight Management: Is There a Future?

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Jull, Andrew; Marsh, Samantha; Direito, Artur; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of an active videogame (AVG) intervention (Sony [Tokyo, Japan] PlayStation(®) EyeToy(®)) compared with non-AVGs on body composition, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and snack food consumption among overweight 10-12-year-old children over 24 weeks. Our research showed a treatment effect on body mass index and percentage body fat in favor of the intervention group. There was no difference between groups for total physical activity levels, but there was an increase in self-reported AVG play and reductions in non-AVG play and snack food consumption in the intervention group. Research is needed to determine how to augment the effects observed in this study. PMID:26196730

  6. Weight Optimization of Active Thermal Management Using a Novel Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William E.; Sherif, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient lightweight power generation and thermal management are two important aspects for space applications. Weight is added to the space platforms due to the inherent weight of the onboard power generation equipment and the additional weight of the required thermal management systems. Thermal management of spacecraft relies on rejection of heat via radiation, a process that can result in large radiator mass, depending upon the heat rejection temperature. For some missions, it is advantageous to incorporate an active thermal management system, allowing the heat rejection temperature to be greater than the load temperature. This allows a reduction of radiator mass at the expense of additional system complexity. A particular type of active thermal management system is based on a thermodynamic cycle, developed by the authors, called the Solar Integrated Thermal Management and Power (SITMAP) cycle. This system has been a focus of the authors research program in the recent past (see Fig. 1). One implementation of the system requires no moving parts, which decreases the vibration level and enhances reliability. Compression of the refrigerant working fluid is accomplished in this scheme via an ejector.

  7. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  8. Integration of Nutrient and Activity Analysis Software into a Worksite Weight Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A weight management program utilized the participant's own data for the participant to (1) understand energy balance; (2) compare his/her diet with U.S. dietary codes; (3) know which food selections were high in calories, fat, and cholesterol, and low in complex carbohydrates and fiber; and (4) understand weight management. (JD)

  9. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  10. Activity Related Energy Expenditure, Appetite and Energy Intake: Potential Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, D.M.; Martin, C.K.; Ravussin, E.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4 years; BMI 23.5 kg/m2) and 42 female (26.9 years; BMI 22.4 kg/m2) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. PMID:23523668

  11. Weight Management and Exercise for Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Laura; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    Obesity may contribute to development and recurrence of cancer, as well as cancer-related and all-cause mortality. This risk factor is also among the most preventable causes of cancer. This article describes current evidence-based guidelines for weight management and physical activity for cancer survivors. The authors also discuss practical interventions to help survivors undertake behavioral changes to manage their weight. PMID:26991704

  12. Using Qualitative Methods to Understand Physical Activity and Weight Management Among Bangladeshis in New York City, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Lindsey; Mili, Saima; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Asians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, coupled with low rates of reported physical activity. We report findings from a qualitative sub-study that was conducted in 2013 among Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City to understand factors that affect physical activity practices and weight management in this community. Methods Qualitative study participants were recruited from community-based settings. Sex-specific focus groups were conducted by trained community health workers. Proceedings were audio-recorded for translation and transcription and coded using a constant comparative approach. Data were coded using Atlas.ti software. Results Six focus groups were completed with a final sample of 67 participants (63% male, 37% female). Mean participant age was 42 years; mean years of residence in the United States was 12. Key themes that emerged were beliefs about modesty and sex-separated facilities that may prevent women from engaging in physical activity. Distinctions were made between men and women about what constitutes exercise versus physical activity; religious prayer was considered to be health-promoting because of the movement involved. Other important themes that emerged were cultural dietary practices and evolving conceptions of healthy weight. Conclusion Tailored interventions that take into account the cultural context of this growing community are needed. Findings may also provide insight into barriers to health promotion experienced by other US Muslim communities, which are growing rapidly. PMID:27390073

  13. Rates and determinants of uptake and use of an internet physical activity and weight management program in office and manufacturing work sites in England: Cohort Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internet-based physical activity (PA) and weight management programs have the potential to improve employees' health in large occupational health settings. To be successful, the program must engage a wide range of employees, especially those at risk of weight gain or ill health. The aim of the study...

  14. The psychological ramifications of weight management.

    PubMed

    Miller-Kovach, K; Hermann, M; Winick, M

    1999-05-01

    It has long been believed that food restriction leads to psychological disturbances, including depression, preoccupation with food, and binge eating. However, recent studies suggest that comprehensive weight loss programs that incorporate behavioral treatment, diet change, and encouragement of physical activity in fact can improve the psychological state, including mood. A study conducted on subjects participating in the Weight Watchers program demonstrated positive psychological changes and improved quality of life. These changes may help motivate overweight people to maintain the physical activity and nutritional practices necessary to lose and maintain weight. Programs that include group support, like Weight Watchers, have been associated with psychological benefits independent of the amount of weight lost. Furthermore, dieters who regain lost weight do not appear to experience adverse psychological consequences. The development or exacerbation of bulimia has been linked by some authors to strict dieting, but more moderate weight control programs do not appear to produce disordered eating and may help reduce binge eating among overweight people. Individuals who successfully lose and maintain weight have been shown to experience improved mood, self-confidence, and quality of life. Additionally, decreasing levels of psychological and behavioral symptoms have been associated with increasing duration of weight loss maintenance. It can be concluded that quality of life and other psychological measures improve in individuals on comprehensive weight management programs. PMID:10839702

  15. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management. PMID:25005949

  16. Survivorship: Nutrition and Weight Management, Version 2.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M. Alma; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor’s body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  17. Short- and Long-Term Theory-Based Predictors of Physical Activity in Women Who Participated in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserkampf, A.; Silva, M. N.; Santos, I. C.; Carraça, E. V.; Meis, J. J. M.; Kremers, S. P. J.; Teixeira, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age…

  18. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  19. Dietary strategies for weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In an 'obesogenic' environment, getting people to eat appropriate amounts is challenging. Several food-based strategies have the potential to promote satiety and moderate energy intake. Components of foods such as macronutrients and functional ingredients can affect satiety; however, for weight management a more comprehensive approach is needed that emphasizes behavioral strategies to improve the overall diet. Research shows that large portions of energy-dense foods facilitate overconsumption and that reductions in portion size and energy density are associated with reduced energy intake. While this suggests that people should eat smaller portions, recent data show that if people lower the energy density of their diet, they can continue to eat their usual amount of food while limiting calories. Furthermore, serving larger portions of low-energy-dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their consumption and reduce dietary energy density, and this has been shown to be associated with decreased energy intake while maintaining satiety. This new understanding of how portion size can be used positively to manage energy intake has the potential to help people achieve sustainable improvements in their energy intake and bodyweight. Science-based strategies that increase the availability of affordable nutrient-rich, lower energy-dense foods are urgently needed. PMID:23128764

  20. Weight management practices among primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, G M; Reifsnider, E; Allan, J D

    2000-04-01

    This pilot study examined how primary care providers manage patients with weight problems, an important component of primary care. A convenience sample of 17 nurse practitioners and 15 physicians were surveyed about assessments and interventions used in practice for weight management along with perceived barriers to providing effective weight management. Practice patterns between gender, profession and practice setting of the nurse practitioners were compared. PMID:11930414

  1. Exercise in weight management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Poirier, P; Després, J P

    2001-08-01

    adaptation of adipose tissue metabolism to aerobic exercise training. Physical training helps counteract the permissive and affluent environment that predisposes reduced-obese subjects to regain weight. An exercise program using weight resistance modalities may also be included safely, and it improved program retention in a multidisciplinary weight management program that was designed for obese children. Thirty to 45 minutes of physical activity of moderate intensity, performed 3 to 5 days a week, should be encouraged. All adults should set a long-term goal to accumulate at least 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, and preferably all days. Public health interventions promoting walking are likely to be the most successful. Indeed, walking is unique because of its safety, accessibility, and popularity. It is noteworthy that there is a clear dissociation between the adaptation of cardiorespiratory fitness and the improvements in the metabolic risk profile that can be induced by endurance training programs. It appears that as long as the increase in energy expenditure is sufficient, low-intensity endurance exercise is likely to generate beneficial metabolic effects that would be essentially similar to those produced by high-intensity exercise. The clinician should therefore focus on the improvement of the metabolic profile rather than on weight loss alone. Realistic goals should be set between the clinician and the patient, with a weight loss of approximately of 0.5 to 1 pound per week. It should be kept in mind that since it generally takes years to become overweight or obese, a weight loss pattern of 0.5 or 1 pound per week will require time and perseverance to reach the proposed target. However, the use of physical activity as a method to lose weight seems inversely related to patients' age and BMI and directly related to the level of education. Thus, public health interventions helping these groups to become physically active remain a

  2. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  3. Dietary Aspects of Weight Management in Cats and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah E; Parker, Valerie J

    2016-09-01

    The optimal weight loss diet for cats and dogs is best determined by obtaining a full dietary history and performing a detailed assessment of the pet, pet owner, and environment in which the pet lives. Incorporating information about pet and owner preferences allows for individualization of the weight management plan and has the potential to increase adherence. Calorie density, macronutrients, and micronutrient concentrations should be considered as part of a weight management plan. Owners should play an active role in the weight loss plan to have the best outcome. PMID:27289252

  4. Protein, weight management, and satiety.

    PubMed

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Westman, Eric; Mattes, Richard D; Wolfe, Robert R; Astrup, Arne; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet

    2008-05-01

    Obesity, with its comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, is a major public health concern. To address this problem, it is imperative to identify treatment interventions that target a variety of short- and long-term mechanisms. Although any dietary or lifestyle change must be personalized, controlled energy intake in association with a moderately elevated protein intake may represent an effective and practical weight-loss strategy. Potential beneficial outcomes associated with protein ingestion include the following: 1) increased satiety--protein generally increases satiety to a greater extent than carbohydrate or fat and may facilitate a reduction in energy consumption under ad libitum dietary conditions; 2) increased thermogenesis--higher-protein diets are associated with increased thermogenesis, which also influences satiety and augments energy expenditure (in the longer term, increased thermogenesis contributes to the relatively low-energy efficiency of protein); and 3) maintenance or accretion of fat-free mass--in some individuals, a moderately higher protein diet may provide a stimulatory effect on muscle protein anabolism, favoring the retention of lean muscle mass while improving metabolic profile. Nevertheless, any potential benefits associated with a moderately elevated protein intake must be evaluated in the light of customary dietary practices and individual variability. PMID:18469287

  5. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  6. Weight Management Counseling for Wrestling Athletes.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Lisa; Donnenwerth, Jesse J; Peterson, Andrew R

    2016-03-01

    Helping a wrestler manage body weight can be a daunting process for a pediatric health care provider. Each high school wrestling program has been mandated by the National Federation of State High School Associations to determine an appropriate weight classification for each individual wrestler. This article discusses how an appropriate weight class is determined, the methods for ascertaining a person's hydration status and body density, and the importance of a fully hydrated and normally nourished state that will allow for optimal athletic performance for a wrestler. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(3):e87-e90.]. PMID:27031316

  7. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating healthy foods, is the best way to lose weight. ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  8. Satisfaction and attrition in paediatric weight management.

    PubMed

    Skelton, J A; Martin, S; Irby, M B

    2016-04-01

    Paediatric obesity treatment experiences unacceptably high rates of attrition. Few studies have explored parent and child perspectives on dropout. This study sought to capture child and parent experience in treatment and expressed contributors to attrition. Children and parents enrolled in a single family-based weight management programme participated in semi-structured interviews, conducted either upon completion of the first intensive phase of treatment or program dropout. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using a multistage inductive approach. Interviews were obtained from 57 parents and 30 children, nearly equal between 'completers' or 'dropouts'. Five themes emerged: overall positive experience with programme; logistical challenges of participation; improved health; discrepancies between child and parent experience and perception, and importance of structure and expectations of weight loss. Primary reasons given for dropout were time commitment; distance from clinic; missed school and work; lack of dedicated adolescent programme; clinic hours; and stress. Few parents or children expressed dissatisfaction. Children reportedly enjoyed 'having someone to talk to' about weight, and spending increased time with family. Children and parents overall reported positive experiences in this weight management programme. Attrition appears more related to logistical issues than low satisfaction. Innovative approaches to help overcome logistical challenges and preserve positive aspects may help in decreasing programme attrition. PMID:27008068

  9. Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, Version 2.2014. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Dizon, Don; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Raza, Muhammad; Rodriguez, M Alma; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-10-01

    Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed. PMID:25313179

  10. Short- and long-term theory-based predictors of physical activity in women who participated in a weight-management program.

    PubMed

    Wasserkampf, A; Silva, M N; Santos, I C; Carraça, E V; Meis, J J M; Kremers, S P J; Teixeira, P J

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial predictors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and evaluated their associations with short- and long-term moderate plus vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and lifestyle physical activity (PA) outcomes in women who underwent a weight-management program. 221 participants (age 37.6 ± 7.02 years) completed a 12-month SDT-based lifestyle intervention and were followed-up for 24 months. Multiple linear regression analyses tested associations between psychosocial variables and self-reported short- and long-term PA outcomes. Regression analyses showed that control constructs of both theories were significant determinants of short- and long-term MVPA, whereas affective and self-determination variables were strong predictors of short- and long-term lifestyle PA. Regarding short-term prediction models, TPB constructs were stronger in predicting MVPA, whereas SDT was more effective in predicting lifestyle PA. For long-term models, both forms of PA were better predicted by SDT in comparison to TPB. These results highlight the importance of comparing health behavior theories to identify the mechanisms involved in the behavior change process. Control and competence constructs are crucial during early adoption of structured PA behaviors, whereas affective and intrinsic sources of motivation are more involved in incidental types of PA, particularly in relation to behavioral maintenance. PMID:25274719

  11. Eating for 1, Healthy and Active for 2; feasibility of delivering novel, compact training for midwives to build knowledge and confidence in giving nutrition, physical activity and weight management advice during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Women in Wales are more likely to be obese in pregnancy than in any other United Kingdom (UK) country. Midwives are ideally placed to explore nutrition, physical activity and weight management concerns however qualitative studies indicate they lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of weight. Acknowledging this and the reality of finite time and resources, this study aimed to deliver compact training on nutrition, physical activity and weight management during pregnancy to increase the knowledge and confidence of midwives in this subject. Methods A compact training package for midwives was developed comprising of evidence based nutrition, physical activity and weight management guidance for pregnancy. Training was promoted via midwifery leads and delivered within the Health Board. Questionnaires based on statements from national public health guidance were used to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and confidence pre and post training. Descriptive statistics were applied and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results 43 midwives registered for training, 32 (74%) attended and completed the questionnaires. Although, pre training knowledge and confidence varied between participants, statistically significant improvements in self-reported knowledge and confidence were observed post training. 97% indicated knowledge of pregnancy specific food and nutrition messages as ‘better’ (95% CI 85 to 100), as opposed to 3% stating ‘stayed the same’ – 60% stated ‘much better’. 83% indicated confidence to explain the risks of raised BMI in pregnancy was either ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 66 to 93), as opposed to 17% stating ‘stayed the same’. 89% indicated confidence to discuss eating habits and physical activity was ‘much’ or ‘somewhat better’ (95% CI 73 to 97) as opposed to 11% stating ‘stayed the same’. Emergent themes highlighted that training was positively received and relevant to midwifery

  12. Mobile Apps for Weight Management: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health concern. Mobile apps for weight loss/management are found to be effective for improving health outcomes in adults and adolescents, and are pursued as a cost-effective and scalable intervention for combating overweight and obesity. In recent years, the commercial market for ‘weight loss apps’ has expanded at rapid pace, yet little is known regarding the evidence-based quality of these tools for weight control. Objective To characterize the inclusion of evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of commercial mobile apps for weight loss/management. Methods An electronic search was conducted between July 2014 and July 2015 of the official app stores for four major mobile operating systems. Three raters independently identified apps with a stated goal of weight loss/management, as well as weight loss/management apps targeted to pediatric users. All discrepancies regarding selection were resolved through discussion with a fourth rater. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form and the evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of included apps was assessed. Evidence-based strategies included: self-monitoring, goal-setting, physical activity support, healthy eating support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies, and social support. Results A total of 393 apps were included in this review. Self-monitoring was most common (139/393, 35.3%), followed by physical activity support (108/393, 27.5%), weight assessment (100/393, 25.4%), healthy eating support (91/393, 23.2%), goal-setting (84/393, 21.4%), motivational strategies (28/393, 7.1%), social support (21/393, 5.3%), and personalized feedback (7/393, 1.8%). Of apps, 0.8% (3/393) underwent scientific evaluation and 0.3% (1/393) reported health care expert involvement. No apps were comprehensive in the

  13. Meeting Weight Management Goals: The Role of Partner Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Dailey, René M; Crook, Brittani; Glowacki, Elizabeth; Prenger, Erica; Winslow, Addie Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Social support research suggests romantic partners could play a vital role in the success of individuals' weight management (WM) efforts, but contradictory findings from previous research have impeded our understanding of how romantic partners influence weight management goal attainment. Employing a confirmation perspective, overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] greater than 25) who were actively trying to manage their weight (N = 53) were asked to respond to daily questionnaires for a period of 2 weeks regarding their interactions with their romantic partner. Diet, exercise, and general weight management goal accomplishment were assessed. HLM was employed to assess the independent and interactive effects of partner acceptance and challenge on each of these goals. Findings suggest that perceiving high levels of both acceptance and challenge from partners was associated with more general WM and diet goal accomplishment. However, greater attainment of exercise goals was associated with only challenge. Fluctuations in partner acceptance and challenge were also examined to determine whether consistency in confirmation behaviors was associated with WM goals. Hierarchical regressions revealed that fluctuations in acceptance, but not challenge, were linked with goal attainment. Specifically, fluctuations in acceptance were helpful for those whose partners were perceived to exhibit lower levels of acceptance, but fluctuations were detrimental for those whose partners exhibited greater acceptance. Implications for communication among couples in which one partner is attempting to lose weight are discussed. PMID:27092591

  14. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  15. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  16. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C.; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Coons, Michael J.; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22 419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  17. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  18. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management. Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD = 13.64). The range and nature of the belief dimensions identified suggest that the Australian public have an understanding of the interaction between internal and external factors that impact on weight gain but also prevent successful weight management. Beliefs about prevention strategies and barriers to effective weight management were found to predict the participants’ actual body mass, even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions: The general public have a good understanding of the multiple contributing factors to weight gain and successful weight management. However, this understanding may not necessarily lead to individuals adopting the required lifestyle changes that result in achievement or maintenance of healthy weight levels. PMID:25750768

  19. The relationship between health professionals' weight status and attitudes towards weight management: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Norman, I J; While, A E

    2011-05-01

    This systematic review aims to address the question of whether health professionals' weight status is associated with attitudes towards weight management. Twelve eligible studies were identified from a search of the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and three Chinese databases, which included 14 independent samples comprising a total of 10 043 respondents. Attitudes towards weight management were classified under eight attitude indicators. Quantitative synthesis of the findings of included studies showed that health professionals of normal weight were more likely to be more confident in their weight management practice, perceive fewer barriers to weight management and have more positive outcome expectations, have stronger role identity and more negative attitudes towards obese individuals than health professionals who were overweight or obese. However, there was no difference between overweight and non-overweight health professionals in their perceptions of the causes and outcomes of obesity. In addition, being female and having relevant knowledge and clinical experience of weight management appeared to predict positive attitudes towards obesity/obese patients and high self-efficacy in weight management, respectively. Future research should focus on prospectively theory-driven studies, and employ appropriately validated instruments and multivariate analyses to identify the relative contribution of weight status to attitudes towards weight management. PMID:21366836

  20. Effectiveness of Workplace Weight Management Interventions: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Weerasekara, Yasoma Kumari; Roberts, Susan B; Kahn, Mira A; LaVertu, Amy E; Hoffman, Ben; Das, Sai Krupa

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials of workplace weight management interventions, including trials with dietary, physical activity, environmental, behavioral, and incentive-based components. Main outcomes were defined as change in weight-related measures. Keywords related to weight management and workplace interventions were used to search relevant databases, and 23 eligible studies were reviewed in detail using a data extraction form and quality assessment checklist. The trials were conducted mainly in the USA and Europe, with four additional countries represented. Interventions were mostly multicomponent and were implemented in both sexes and in a range of employment categories. Intervention effectiveness appeared unrelated to region of the world and was highest in 6-12-month trials. The results ranged widely from clinically significant 8.8-kg weight loss in one trial to less effective than the control treatment in others. Some workplace interventions achieve clinically significant benefits, and further studies are needed to replicate those results in wider sociocultural and geographical contexts. PMID:27023071

  1. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  2. How College Students Search the Internet for Weight Control and Weight Management Information: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senkowski, Valerie; Branscum, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have attempted to examine how young adults search for health information on the Internet, especially information related to weight control and weight management. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine search strategies that college students used for finding information related to weight control and weight…

  3. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  4. Psychosocial processes influencing weight management among persons newly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Xiao, S; Baker, C; Oyewumi, L K

    2012-04-01

    The purpose was to generate a theory of the psychosocial processes influencing weight management among persons newly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications. A grounded theory research design was used to guide the study. Semi-structured interviews were the method of data collection, and analysis was performed using constant comparison. Using theoretical sampling, a sample of 11 participants with first-episode psychosis prescribed atypical antipsychotics for at least 8 weeks, and five participants with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia prescribed atypical antipsychotic medication for at least 3 years were recruited from an outpatient psychiatric programme. Contextual factors influencing weight management were: accessibility to resources, unstructured lifestyle, and others' perception of weight. Conditions influencing weight management were: rapid weight gain, insatiable hunger and lack of motivation boosters. Participants' early responses to weight gain included discontinuing medications, choosing lower-calorie foods, using walking in daily activities as exercise, accepting weight gain and trying to manage weight but giving up. The consequences revealed from data analysis were contemplating weight management and not trying, as the barriers to weight management exceeded the facilitators. The theoretical framework developed in this study can assist with the understanding and management of weight gain among this unique population. PMID:22074295

  5. Effectiveness of Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Behavioral Weight Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolocofsky, David N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Subjects (N=109) completed a behavioral weight-management program either with or without the addition of hypnosis. Both interventions resulted in significant weight reduction. At the eight-month and two-year follow-ups, the hypnosis clients showed significant additional weight loss and were more likely to have achieved and maintained their…

  6. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites can potentially be important locations for weight management programs that contribute to curbing the national obesity epidemic. In published studies, weight loss programs targeting overweight and obese employees have been relatively more effective for weight loss than programs for preventi...

  7. Exercise Clothing for Children in a Weight-Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kate; Alexander, Marina; Spencer, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether clothing can be perceived as a form of encouragement for success in a weight management exercise program. A small (n = 30) sample of children and parents, enrolled in a weight-management exercise program, responded to a survey instrument that included questions regarding fit and comfort of the clothing children wore…

  8. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  9. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD) of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22), or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED) of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38%) compared to HEWLD (-4.11%), (p < 0.001). Weight loss in HEWLD was positively correlated with Anxiety, a facet of Neuroticism. Weight loss in VLED was positively correlated with Neuroticism (r = 0.5, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with Dutifulness and Discipline, facets of Conscientiousness, (p < 0.05 for both). No link was observed between weight loss and the personality trait, Self Control, in either HEWLD or VLED. Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5%) with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000716965 PMID:22112231

  10. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  11. Incorporating a Weight Management Skills Workshop in Pharmacy Curricula in Australia.

    PubMed

    Um, Irene S; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a competency-based weight management skills workshop for undergraduate pharmacy students in an Australian university. Design. A 3-hour workshop titled "Weight Management in Pharmacy" was implemented with a cohort of fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students (n=180). Learning activities used included case-based learning, hands-on experience, role-play, and group discussion. Assessment. A 22-item attitudinal survey instrument and the validated Obesity Risk Knowledge (ORK-10) scale were administered at baseline and postworkshop to evaluate the impact of this educational workshop. There was significant improvement in the students' ORK scores and students' perceived level of self-confidence in performing weight management skills. Conclusion. An educational workshop designed to enhance professional competencies in weight management ensured graduates were "service-ready" and had the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attributes to deliver patient-centered pharmacy-based weight management services. PMID:27293236

  12. Incorporating a Weight Management Skills Workshop in Pharmacy Curricula in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a competency-based weight management skills workshop for undergraduate pharmacy students in an Australian university. Design. A 3-hour workshop titled “Weight Management in Pharmacy” was implemented with a cohort of fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students (n=180). Learning activities used included case-based learning, hands-on experience, role-play, and group discussion. Assessment. A 22-item attitudinal survey instrument and the validated Obesity Risk Knowledge (ORK-10) scale were administered at baseline and postworkshop to evaluate the impact of this educational workshop. There was significant improvement in the students’ ORK scores and students’ perceived level of self-confidence in performing weight management skills. Conclusion. An educational workshop designed to enhance professional competencies in weight management ensured graduates were “service-ready” and had the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attributes to deliver patient-centered pharmacy-based weight management services. PMID:27293236

  13. Pulse Consumption, Satiety, and Weight Management1

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Megan A.; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra E.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show an inverse relationship between pulse consumption and BMI or risk for obesity, but many do not control for potentially confounding dietary and other lifestyle factors. Short-term (≤1 d) experimental studies using meals controlled for energy, but not those controlled for available carbohydrate, show that pulse consumption increases satiety over 2–4 h, suggesting that at least part of the effect of pulses on satiety is mediated by available carbohydrate amount or composition. Randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction. However, few randomized trials have been conducted and most were short term (3–8 wk for whole pulses and 4–12 wk for pulse extracts). Overall, there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (≥1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption. PMID:22043448

  14. Weight management for Mexican American adolescents: school-based program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current study was to assess change in weight over time for children participating in a school-based weight management program. A total of 47 participants between the ages of 10 and 14 who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an intensive intervention (II) o...

  15. Caregiver Preferences regarding Technology's Role in Supporting Adolescent Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi-Hayes, Josette M.; Schoenfeld, Elinor R.; Cataldo, Rosa; Huang, Jiayu; Pati, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Background. Health technology provides a wealth of strategies to address chronic health issues, such as childhood obesity. Few studies have assessed parental preferences regarding use of health technology to support weight management for adolescents. Objective. This study determined caregiver beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards using traditional methods and technology-based health applications to address weight management among overweight adolescents. Methods. Self-administered surveys were distributed to caregivers of children ages 11–18 years in Stony Brook Children's Hospital outpatient offices with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age, gender. The data were entered into StudyTrax research platform and analyzed using SAS. Results.  N = 114. Mean BMI z-score = 1.95 ± 0.50. Two-thirds (65.8%) of caregivers preferred a weight management program that includes both traditional and technology components. Most parents rated involvement in program development (68.1%), access to content (72.4%) as very important. Those who believed their child's weight was a problem (p = 0.01) were more likely than other parents to prefer a program that combined both traditional and technology components. Conclusions. Parents' perceptions of their child's weight drove preferences about incorporating technology elements into a weight management program. Future weight management programs should incorporate parental content preferences and be tailored to different age groups. PMID:27347500

  16. Adherence to a multi-component weight management program for Mexican American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined weight loss among Mexican American students in a weight management program. A total of 358 participants completed a 12-week intervention that incorporated four program components: nutrition education (NE), physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and a snacking interventi...

  17. Pregnant women’s knowledge of weight, weight gain, complications of obesity and weight management strategies in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is increasingly common in the obstetric population. Maternal obesity and excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with increased perinatal risk. There is limited published data demonstrating the level of pregnant women’s knowledge regarding these problems, their consequences and management strategies. We aimed to assess the level of knowledge of pregnant women regarding: (i) their own weight and body mass index (BMI) category, (ii) awareness of guidelines for GWG, (iii) concordance of women’s own expectations with guidelines, (iv) knowledge of complications associated with excess GWG, and (v) knowledge of safe weight management strategies in pregnancy. Methods 364 pregnant women from a single center university hospital antenatal clinic were interviewed by an obstetric registrar. The women in this convenience sample were asked to identify their weight category, their understanding of the complications of obesity and excessive GWG in pregnancy and safe and/or effective weight management strategies in pregnancy. Results Nearly half (47.8%) of the study population were overweight or obese. 74% of obese women underestimated their BMI category. 64% of obese women and 40% of overweight women overestimated their recommended GWG. Women’s knowledge of the specific risks associated with excess GWG or maternal obesity was poor. Women also reported many incorrect beliefs about safe weight management in pregnancy. Conclusions Many pregnant women have poor knowledge about obesity, GWG, their consequences and management strategies. Bridging this knowledge gap is an important step towards improving perinatal outcomes for all pregnant women, especially those who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:23866845

  18. Managing your weight with healthy eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity level Know how many servings of dairy, fruits and vegetables, proteins, and grains and other starches ... piece of string cheese, or yogurt with fresh fruit. Choose different healthy foods from each food group. ...

  19. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a 12-Week Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program Incorporating Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abildso, Christiaan; Zizzi, Sam; Gilleland, Diana; Thomas, James; Bonner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is critical in healthy weight loss, yet there is still much to be learned about psychosocial mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in weight loss. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to assess the physical and psychosocial impact of a 12-week cognitive-behavioral weight management program and explore factors…

  20. Student Activities. Managing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Barbara; And Others

    This monograph suggests ways that college or university administrations can undertake a systematic and careful review of the risks posed by students' activities. Its purpose is to provide guidance in integrating the risk management process into a school's existing approaches to managing student organizations and activities. It is noted that no…

  1. Mobile Phone Interventions to Increase Physical Activity and Reduce Weight

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Janna; Allen, Jerilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review was conducted to determine user satisfaction and effectiveness of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions to promote weight reduction and physical activity. Methods Studies of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions related to the cardiovascular risk factors of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity published between January 2005 and August 2010 were eligible. Studies related to disease management were excluded. Study characteristics and results were gathered and synthesized. Results A total of 36 citations from CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyclNFO, and PubMed were identified; 7 articles were eligible for inclusion. The most frequent outcome measured in the studies was change in the weight of participants (57%). More than half of the studies (71%) reported statistically significant results in at least 1 outcome of weight loss, physical activity, dietary intake, decreased body mass index, decreased waist circumference, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, screen time, and satisfaction or acceptability outcomes. Conclusions All of the technology interventions that were supported by education or an additional intervention demonstrated a beneficial impact of text messaging or smartphone application for reduction of physical inactivity and/or overweight/obesity. More rigorous trials that determine what parts of the technology or intervention are effective as well as establishment of cost-effectiveness are necessary for further evaluation of smartphone and text messaging interventions. PMID:22635061

  2. Adolescents' Perceptions of Relative Weight and Self-Reported Weight Loss Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1990 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine adolescents' perceptions of relative weight and the relationship of these perceptions to physical activity levels, weight loss efforts, and television viewing time. About 25 percent (860) considered themselves too fat and reported little physical activity. (SM)

  3. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    PubMed

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting. PMID:26269258

  4. Predictors of clinically significant weight loss and participant retention in an insurance-sponsored community-based weight management program.

    PubMed

    Abildso, Christiaan G; Zizzi, Sam; Fitzpatrick, Sean J

    2013-07-01

    Health insurance providers are a logical partner in providing third-party payment for behavioral weight loss programming, but little evidence of predictors of improved outcomes or retention in large, insurance-sponsored lifestyle programming is available. The purpose was to determine predictors of weight loss and retention in an insurance-sponsored, community-based weight management program. Current and former participants (N = 2,106) were recruited to complete a program evaluation survey. Respondents' survey and objective outcome data (n = 766) were analyzed using logistic regression procedures to understand the factors predictive of clinically-significant (5%) weight loss and program retention (>6 months). Clinically significant weight loss was predicted by completing more than 6 months of the program, positive ratings of staff interaction, and social support from friends on success. Ratings of positive impact of site hours of operation, nurse calls, and availability of safe places to be active and feeling comfortable at the site were predictive of program retention. Modifiable intervention, social factors, and site-level factors were predictive of clinically significant weight loss and program retention, providing fodder for further study and dissemination to current providers and to a broader network of health promotion professionals. PMID:23075503

  5. Economic evaluation of an internet-based weight management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether a behavioral Internet treatment (BIT) program for weight management is a viable, cost-effective option compared with usual care (UC) in a diverse sample of overweight (average body mass index = 29 kg/m2), healthy adults (mean age = 34 years) serving in the US Air Force. Two-grou...

  6. University Students' Views of Obesity and Weight Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, Ononuju; While, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and views of university students regarding obesity and weight management strategies. Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate university students in a large London university with a diverse student population. Method: The survey was administered online and circulated…

  7. Efficacy comparison of medications approved for chronic weight management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rekha B; Aronne, Louis J

    2015-04-01

    For the first time, patients who are obese are able to benefit from 5 different FDA approved pharmacologic agents for chronic weight management. Although weight loss from all of these medications was limited to 5% to 10% of total body weight loss in the Phase III clinical trials, patients are capable of losing more weight when a cumulative approach of diet, exercise, and multiple medications are used. A pilot study of adding phentermine to lorcaserin yielded double the weight loss than lorcaserin alone. A higher percentage of total body weight is lost with use of combination phentermine/topiramate compared to orlistat, lorcaserin, and bupropion/naltrexone but there are more contraindications to its use and potential cardiovascular adverse effects due to adrenergic agonism. Lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone yielded similar weight loss but carry different adverse effect profiles and interactions with other psychiatric medications may preclude use of one over the other. When choosing a medication for obesity, several factors need to be considered, such as comorbidities, medication interactions, and risk of potential adverse effects. PMID:25900871

  8. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    PubMed

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group. PMID:26923688

  9. Attitudinal familism predicts weight management adherence in Mexican-American women.

    PubMed

    Austin, Julia L; Smith, Jane Ellen; Gianini, Loren; Campos-Melady, Marita

    2013-06-01

    Adherence to behavioral weight management programs is often limited, especially among ethnic minority populations. The current study examined whether attitudinal familism, or attention to the needs of family above those of the self, predicted poorer adherence to a behavioral weight management program in Mexican-American women. One-hundred overweight or obese Mexican-American women from the southwestern United States were enrolled in a group-based weight loss treatment. Zero-order correlations indicated that general commitment to attitudinal familism, as measured by the Attitudinal Familism Scale, was significantly negatively associated with calorie and physical activity goal completion and marginally negatively associated with session attendance. The results of the current study indicate that researchers may consider addressing familism when developing tailored weight management interventions for Mexican-American women. PMID:22487966

  10. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, B J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to ‘eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight. PMID:25033958

  11. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  12. Weight control in the management of hypertension. World Hypertension League.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    This article, which includes a brief description of the mechanisms and some epidemiological findings in obesity and high blood pressure, sums up present knowledge on a complex subject and provides guidance to medical practitioners on the management of obese hypertensive patients. Weight reduction, together with drug therapy in severe and moderate hypertension, and other non-pharmacological methods and continuing observation in mild hypertension are the essential measures to be applied. In addition to the lowering of blood pressure, weight loss offers several other metabolic and haemodynamic benefits. PMID:2670295

  13. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  14. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... light activity such as cleaning house or playing baseball or golf 370 to 460 calories doing activity ... or karate class. You could also join a baseball or bowling team, or even a mall-walking ...

  15. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors. PMID:24608701

  16. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  17. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors. PMID:22105339

  18. The application of the Yerkes-Dodson law in a childhood weight management program: Examining weight dissatisfaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effect of dissatisfaction with one's weight on outcomes in a weight management program. Participants included 149 children between the ages of 11 and 14 years who were enrolled in an intensive weight loss intervention. All participants had a body mass index (BMI) ...

  19. Beverage Consumption and Adult Weight Management: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Flack, Kyle D.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Total energy consumption among United States adults has increased in recent decades, and energy-containing beverages are a significant contributor to this increase. Because beverages are less satiating than solid foods, consumption of energy-containing beverages may increase energy intake and lead to weight gain; trends in food and beverage consumption coinciding with increases in overweight and obesity support this possibility. The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the effect of beverage consumption on short-term (i.e., meal) energy intake, as well as longer-term effects on body weight. Specific beverages addressed include water, other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea), and energy-containing beverages (soft drinks, juices and juice drinks, milk and soy beverages, alcohol). Existing evidence, albeit limited, suggests that encouraging water consumption, and substituting water and other energy-free beverages (diet soft drinks, coffee and tea) for energy-containing beverages may facilitate weight management. Energy-containing beverages acutely increase energy intake, however long-term effects on body weight are uncertain. While there may be health benefits for some beverage categories, additional energy provided by beverages should be compensated for by reduced consumption of other foods in the diet. PMID:19778754

  20. Kid's Choice Program improves weight management behaviors and weight status in school children.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E; Camise, Thomas S

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the Kid's Choice Program (KCP) for increasing children's weight management behaviors, and decreasing body mass index percentile (BMI%) for overweight and average-weight children. It also evaluated KCP characteristics relevant to long-term application in schools. Participants included 382 children assigned to two groups: a KCP group that received token rewards for three "Good Health Behaviors" including eating fruits or vegetables first at meals (FVFIRST), choosing low-fat and low-sugar healthy drinks (HDRINK), and showing 5000 exercise steps recorded on pedometers (EXERCISE), or a control group that received token rewards for three "Good Citizenship Behaviors." School lunch observations and pedometer records were completed for one month under baseline and three months under reward conditions. The school nurse calculated children's BMI% one year before baseline, at baseline, at the end of KCP application, and six months later. The KCP increased FVFIRST, HDRINK, and EXERCISE from baseline through reward conditions, with ANCOVAs demonstrating that these increases were associated with both the offer of reward and nearby peer models. Overweight (n=112) and average-weight (n=200) children showed drops in BMI% after the three-month KCP, but overweight children re-gained weight six months later, suggesting the need for more ongoing KCP application. HDRINK choice was the behavior most associated with BMI% drops for overweight children. Small teams of parent volunteers effectively delivered the KCP, and school staff endorsed parent volunteers as the best personnel to deliver the KCP, which costs approximately two U.S. dollars per child per month of application. PMID:21277924

  1. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan. 

  2. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  3. Physically active rats lose more weight during calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Smyers, Mark E; Bachir, Kailey Z; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Novak, Colleen M

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  4. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed. PMID:25487846

  5. Safety and tolerability of medications approved for chronic weight management.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Ken

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 we have 4 new weight loss medications and one older medication with very different mechanisms of action – all approved for chronic weight management. Each medication has its own unique risk profile that makes patient selection important. Knowledge of the contraindications and safety issues can guide physicians to the most appropriate choice for a particular patient. Obesity medicine is entering a new era where our available options for prescribing have been very well studied. There should be no surprises, because bupropion, naltrexone, phentermine, topiramate and liraglutide have been prescribed for many years in millions of patients and lorcaserin has high specificity for a single receptor subtype. The FDA demanded very detailed risk-oriented studies to have these medications approved. In addition, the FDA has established REMS programs or risk management strategies to help ensure that the patients do not receive inappropriate medications. These medications were approved by the US FDA after very thorough testing. The decision to approve these medications was based on the benefits out-weighing the risks. Thus, if following the appropriate guidelines according to package labels, the practitioner can feel safe in prescribing these medications. PMID:25900872

  6. Weight management interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of weight management interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and obesity using recommendations from current clinical guidelines for the first line management of obesity in adults. Full papers on lifestyle modification interventions published between 1982 to 2011 were sought by searching the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases. Studies were evaluated based on 1) intervention components, 2) methodology, 3) attrition rate 4) reported weight loss and 5) duration of follow up. Twenty two studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions were classified according to inclusion of the following components: behaviour change alone, behaviour change plus physical activity, dietary advice or physical activity alone, dietary plus physical activity advice and multi-component (all three components). The majority of the studies had the same methodological limitations: no sample size justification, small heterogeneous samples, no information on randomisation methodologies. Eight studies were classified as multi-component interventions, of which one study used a 600 kilocalorie (2510 kilojoule) daily energy deficit diet. Study durations were mostly below the duration recommended in clinical guidelines and varied widely. No study included an exercise program promoting 225–300 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical activity per week but the majority of the studies used the same behaviour change techniques. Three studies reported clinically significant weight loss (≥ 5%) at six months post intervention. Current data indicate weight management interventions in those with ID differ from recommended practice and further studies to examine the effectiveness of multi-component weight management interventions for adults with ID and obesity are justified. PMID:24060348

  7. Weight management interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Melville, Craig Andrew; Hankey, Catherine Ruth

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of weight management interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and obesity using recommendations from current clinical guidelines for the first line management of obesity in adults. Full papers on lifestyle modification interventions published between 1982 to 2011 were sought by searching the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases. Studies were evaluated based on (1) intervention components, (2) methodology, (3) attrition rate (4) reported weight loss and (5) duration of follow up. Twenty two studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions were classified according to inclusion of the following components: behaviour change alone, behaviour change plus physical activity, dietary advice or physical activity alone, dietary plus physical activity advice and multi-component (all three components). The majority of the studies had the same methodological limitations: no sample size justification, small heterogeneous samples, no information on randomisation methodologies. Eight studies were classified as multi-component interventions, of which one study used a 600 kilocalorie (2510 kilojoule) daily energy deficit diet. Study durations were mostly below the duration recommended in clinical guidelines and varied widely. No study included an exercise program promoting 225-300 minutes or more of moderate intensity physical activity per week but the majority of the studies used the same behaviour change techniques. Three studies reported clinically significant weight loss (≥ 5%) at six months post intervention. Current data indicate weight management interventions in those with ID differ from recommended practice and further studies to examine the effectiveness of multi-component weight management interventions for adults with ID and obesity are justified. PMID:24060348

  8. Impact of parental weight status on a school-based weight management programme designed for Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impa...

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management.

    PubMed

    Stern, Judith S; Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

    2013-06-01

    The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m². Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400 mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000 kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30 min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2 kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2 kg/m²; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9 cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3 cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

  10. Responding to Pediatric Providers’ Perceived Barriers to Adolescent Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Wu, Philip; Pearson, John; Stevens, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    Primary care clinics are an ideal setting for early identification and possibly treatment of adolescent obesity. However, despite practice recommendations promoting preventive screening and monitoring of obesity, implementation has been modest. In this study we interviewed providers to determine barriers to managing pediatric obesity, perceived skill in obesity interventions, and interest in additional training. The sensitivity of weight-related discussions and time were the two most significant barriers reported. We designed a brief training program, implemented it within a larger randomized controlled trial, and surveyed providers regarding its utility. The training was satisfactory to attendees and led to reported changes in practice patterns. Providers who received more complete training reported greater ease working with overweight teens and greater confidence that they could motivate teen patients to make healthy lifestyle changes compared with those who received less training. A fairly modest training intervention could improve patient care in the primary care setting. PMID:22964862

  11. Responding to pediatric providers' perceived barriers to adolescent weight management.

    PubMed

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; DeBar, Lynn L; Wu, Philip; Pearson, John; Stevens, Victor J

    2012-11-01

    Primary care clinics are an ideal setting for early identification and possibly treatment of adolescent obesity. However, despite practice recommendations promoting preventive screening and monitoring of obesity, implementation has been modest. In this study, we interviewed providers to determine barriers to managing pediatric obesity, perceived skill in obesity interventions, and interest in additional training. The sensitivity of weight-related discussions and time were the 2 most significant barriers reported. We designed a brief training program, implemented it within a larger randomized controlled trial, and surveyed providers regarding its utility. The training was satisfactory to attendees and led to reported changes in practice patterns. Providers who received more complete training reported greater ease working with overweight teens and greater confidence that they could motivate teen patients to make healthy lifestyle changes compared with those who received less training. A fairly modest training intervention could improve patient care in the primary care setting. PMID:22964862

  12. Body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices of high school students--United States, 1990.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Among adults, overweight is associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes and is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Youth who are overweight and remain overweight as adults may increase their risk for certain chronic diseases in adulthood. However, overemphasis on thinness during adolescence may contribute to potentially harmful weight-management practices and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This report presents self-reported body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices among high school students in the United States. PMID:1921967

  13. Smartloss: A Personalized Mobile Health Intervention for Weight Management and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. Anne; Apolzan, John W; Myers, Candice A; Thomas, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Background Synonymous with increased use of mobile phones has been the development of mobile health (mHealth) technology for improving health, including weight management. Behavior change theory (eg, the theory of planned behavior) can be effectively encapsulated into mobile phone-based health improvement programs, which is fostered by the ability of mobile phones and related devices to collect and transmit objective data in near real time and for health care or research professionals and clients to communicate easily. Objective To describe SmartLoss, a semiautomated mHealth platform for weight loss. Methods We developed and validated a dynamic energy balance model that determines the amount of weight an individual will lose over time if they are adherent to an energy intake prescription. This model was incorporated into computer code that enables adherence to a prescribed caloric prescription determined from the change in body weight of the individual. Data from the individual are then used to guide personalized recommendations regarding weight loss and behavior change via a semiautomated mHealth platform called SmartLoss, which consists of 2 elements: (1) a clinician dashboard and (2) a mobile phone app. SmartLoss includes and interfaces with a network-connected bathroom scale and a Bluetooth-connected accelerometer, which enables automated collection of client information (eg, body weight change and physical activity patterns), as well as the systematic delivery of preplanned health materials and automated feedback that is based on client data and is designed to foster prolonged adherence with body weight, diet, and exercise goals. The clinician dashboard allows for efficient remote monitoring of all clients simultaneously, which may further increase adherence, personalization of treatment, treatment fidelity, and efficacy. Results Evidence of the efficacy of the SmartLoss approach has been reported previously. The present report provides a thorough description

  14. Health economics of weight management: evidence and cost.

    PubMed

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    is too much reliance on health workers to treat the problem, especially doctors, who have not been given additional resources to manage obesity outside a typical doctor's consultation. Gross has recommended that further changes should be made to Medicare, private health insurance, and workplace and tax legislation to give people financial incentives to change their behaviour because obesity should not just be treated by governments as a public health problem but also as a barrier to productivity and a drain on resources. A Special Report of the WMCACA (Weight Management Code Administration Council of Australia) (www.weightcouncil.org) on the "Health Economics of Weight Management" has been published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition in September 2006. This report explores the cost benefit analysis of weight management in greater detail. PMID:17392129

  15. Healthy Eating and Exercise: Strategies for Weight Management in the Rural Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has increased dramatically in the United States. Rural areas have been especially affected, yet few weight management studies have been conducted in these populations. This study was designed to assess weight management attitudes and strategies used when rural adults in particular attempt to lose weight, employing measures that…

  16. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. PMID:26836279

  17. Weight management for overweight and obese men delivered through professional football clubs: a pilot randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing, but men are less likely than women to attend existing weight management programmes. We have taken a novel approach to reducing perceived barriers to weight loss for men by using professional football (soccer) clubs to encourage participation in a weight management group programme, gender-sensitised in content and style of delivery. Football Fans in Training (FFIT) provides 12 weeks of weight loss, physical activity and healthy eating advice at top professional football clubs in Scotland. This pilot randomized trial explored the feasibility of using these clubs as a setting for a randomized controlled trial of 12 month weight loss following men’s participation in FFIT. Methods A two-arm pilot trial at two Scottish Premier League football clubs (one large, one smaller), with 103 men (aged 35–65, body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2) individually randomized to the intervention (n=51, received the pilot programme (p-FFIT) immediately) and waitlist comparison (n=52, received p-FFIT after four months) groups. Feasibility of recruitment, randomization, data collection and retention were assessed. Objective physical measurements (weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, body composition) and questionnaires (self-reported physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, psychological outcomes) were obtained from both groups by fieldworkers trained to standard protocols at baseline and 12 weeks, and from the intervention group at 6 and 12 months. Qualitative methods elicited men’s experiences of participation in the pilot trial. Results Following a short recruitment period, the recruitment target was achieved at the large, but not smaller, club. Participants’ mean age was 47.1±8.4 years; mean BMI 34.5±5.0 kg/m2. Retention through the trial was good (>80% at 12 weeks and 6 months; >75% at 12 months), and 76% attended at least 80% of available programme delivery sessions. At 12 weeks, the intervention group lost

  18. Weight management using the internet: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most weight-loss research targets obese individuals who desire large weight reductions. However, evaluation of weight-gain prevention in overweight individuals is also critical as most Americans become obese as a result of a gradual gain of 1-2 pounds per year over many years. This study evaluated t...

  19. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management.

    PubMed

    Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Venditti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, several studies have recently evaluated the beneficial effects of red orange juice (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its active components in weight management and obesity. Moro orange is a cultivar of red orange, particularly rich in active compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone glycosides and ascorbic acid, which displays anti-obesity effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this clinical study, the effect of a Moro juice extract (Morosil(®), 400 mg/die) supplementation was evaluated in overweight healthy human volunteers for 12 weeks. Results showed that Moro juice extract intake was able to induce a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) after 4 weeks of treatment (p < 0.05). Moreover, in subjects treated with Moro extract, body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference were significantly different from the placebo group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it could be suggested that the active compounds contained in Moro juice have a synergistic effect on fat accumulation in humans and Moro juice extract can be used in weight management and in the prevention of human obesity. PMID:25588369

  20. Delayed healing of a navicular stress fracture, following limited weight-bearing activity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 21-year-old man, a semiprofessional football (soccer) player, with a navicular stress fracture. It highlights the difficulty in diagnosing the condition and the complications arising from inadequate management. The case discusses the optimal management of these stress fractures and the detrimental role of weight-bearing recovery. The diagnosis of navicular stress fractures is challenging, and a high index of suspicion is required. The available literature indicates that limited weightbearing is not an appropriate treatment for navicular stress injuries. Non-weight-bearing (NWB) cast immobilisation for 6–8 weeks appears to be the gold standard treatment; however, open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) has similar success rates and an equal return-to-play time but should also be followed by a period of NWB. NWB cast immobilisation for 6 weeks remains a good second option at any time following failed limited weight-bearing activity. PMID:24618870

  1. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors. PMID:27337622

  2. Outcomes of weight management in obese pet dogs: what can we do better?

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is arguably the biggest health and welfare issue affecting pet dogs. Although successful weight loss has health benefits, current strategies are far from ideal. Many obese dogs that start a weight programme fail to lose weight, or subsequently regain the weight they have lost. Given that current weight loss strategies are not perfect, clinicians need to focus carefully on tailoring the programme, perhaps setting a pragmatic target for weight loss, so as to ensure the benefits are maximised. This review will summarise key findings from recent clinical research into pet obesity, and present a framework for improving success, by better tailoring weight management regimens and end points to the individual. PMID:27132635

  3. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  4. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  5. Weight Management and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among US High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M.; McKenna, Mary L.; Galuska, Deborah A.; Kann, Laura K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Consumption of fruits and vegetables is often recommended to promote healthy weight. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between fruit and vegetable intake and common weight management behaviors among US high school students who were trying to lose or stay the same weight. Methods: Data from the 1999, 2001, and 2003…

  6. Designing for Psychological Change: Individuals’ Reward and Cost Valuations in Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Blandford, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the psychological constructs that underlie behavior offers valuable design opportunities for persuasive systems. We use the decision theory, which describes how behavior is underpinned by reward-cost valuations, as a framework for investigating such psychological constructs to deliver design objectives for weight management technologies. Objective We applied a decision theory–based analysis in the domain of weight management to understand the rewards and costs that surround individuals’ weight management behaviors, with the aim of uncovering design opportunities for weight management technologies. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 15 participants who were or had been trying to lose weight. Thematic analysis was used to extract themes that covered the rewards and costs surrounding weight management behaviors. We supplemented our qualitative study with a quantitative survey of 100 respondents investigating the extent to which they agreed with statements reflecting themes from the qualitative study. Results The primary obstacles to weight management were the rewards associated with unhealthy choices, such as the pleasures of unhealthy foods and unrestricted consumption in social situations, and the significant efforts required to change habits, plan, and exercise. Psychological constructs that supported positive weight management included feeling good after making healthy choices, being good to oneself, experiencing healthy yet still delicious foods, and receiving social support and encouraging messages (although opinions about encouraging messages was mixed). Conclusions A rewards-costs driven enquiry revealed a wide range of psychological constructs that contribute to discouraging and supporting weight management. The constructs extracted from our qualitative study were verified by our quantitative survey, in which the majority of respondents also reported similar thoughts and feelings. This understanding of the rewards and

  7. [Relation between physical activity, weight balance and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Maître, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies, with a good methodology, support the evidence of the positive role of regular physical activity on primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer on the risk of recurrence and mortality. This relation depends on the level of total energy expenditure by week, which helps balance weight on lifetime, an essential part of benefit. The beneficial effects of physical activity are linked to many interrelated additional mechanisms: in a short-term, contraction of skeletal muscles involves aerobic metabolism which utilizes glucose and amino acids like glutamine, improves insulin sensitivity and lowers plasma insulin; in a long-term, physical activity produces favorable changes in body composition, decreasing body fat and increasing lean mass. That is a key point to reduce the intake of energy substrates stimulating carcinogenesis, to improve insulin sensitivity, to change the ratio of leptin and adiponectin, to enhance cellular immunity and to block cellular pathways of cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity well balanced with energy intake is it a goal for prevention of breast cancer. PMID:23566614

  8. Level of interest in a weight management program among adult U.S. military dependents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information on the extent to which different challenged populations with high rates of overweight and obesity have interest in participating in weight management programs. The purpose of this study was to identify potential rates of enrollment in a weight management program among adu...

  9. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages,…

  10. Environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. The nature and magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. Within the United States, operational DOE facilities, as well as the decontamination and decommissioning of inactive facilities, have produced significant amounts of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. In order to ensure worker safety and the protection of the public, DOE must: (1) assess, remediate, and monitor sites and facilities; (2) store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The EM directive necessitates looking beyond domestic capabilities to technological solutions found outside US borders. Following the collapse of the Soviet regime, formerly restricted elite Soviet scientific expertise became available to the West. EM has established a cooperative technology development program with Russian scientific institutes that meets domestic cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Russian EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) increasing US private sector opportunities in Russian in EM-related areas.

  11. Information needs of cancer patients and survivors regarding diet, exercise and weight management: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    James-Martin, G; Koczwara, B; Smith, E L; Miller, M D

    2014-05-01

    While advanced cancer is often associated with weight loss, curative cancer treatment is often associated with weight gain. Weight gain during treatment may be associated with greater risk of cancer recurrence and development of lifestyle diseases. Currently, limited resources are available to cancer patients focussed on weight control. This study assessed the information needs of patients undergoing curative chemotherapy regarding diet, exercise and weight management for the purpose of developing weight management resources. Focus groups were held with oncology practitioners, patients and survivors to determine current information provision and needs. Focus groups highlighted a perception that information provision regarding diet, exercise and weight management is insufficient and no routine assessment of weight occurs during chemotherapy. Barriers to information provision described included lack of resources and time, and practitioners' uncertainty regarding appropriate messages to provide. Patients wanted more information regarding diet, exercise and weight during treatment time. The findings of this study suggest an increase in provision of diet, exercise and weight management information is needed. This information should be evidence-based and delivered at an appropriate time by the preferred health care professional. It would also be beneficial to implement protocols regarding assessment of weight during treatment. PMID:24299170

  12. Development of an Evidence-Based mHealth Weight Management Program Using a Formative Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Dorey, Enid; Ball, Kylie; Maddison, Ralph; Myers Smith, Katie; Crawford, David; Jiang, Yannan; Gu, Yulong; Michie, Jo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a critical need for weight management programs that are effective, cost efficient, accessible, and acceptable to adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. mHealth (delivered via mobile phone and Internet) weight management programs have potential to address this need. To maximize the success and cost-effectiveness of such an mHealth approach it is vital to develop program content based on effective behavior change techniques, proven weight management programs, and closely aligned with participants’ needs. Objective This study aims to develop an evidence-based mHealth weight management program (Horizon) using formative research and a structured content development process. Methods The Horizon mHealth weight management program involved the modification of the group-based UK Weight Action Program (WAP) for delivery via short message service (SMS) and the Internet. We used an iterative development process with mixed methods entailing two phases: (1) expert input on evidence of effective programs and behavior change theory; and (2) target population input via focus group (n=20 participants), one-on-one phone interviews (n=5), and a quantitative online survey (n=120). Results Expert review determined that core components of a successful program should include: (1) self-monitoring of behavior; (2) prompting intention formation; (3) promoting specific goal setting; (4) providing feedback on performance; and (5) promoting review of behavioral goals. Subsequent target group input confirmed that participants liked the concept of an mHealth weight management program and expressed preferences for the program to be personalized, with immediate (prompt) and informative text messages, practical and localized physical activity and dietary information, culturally appropriate language and messages, offer social support (group activities or blogs) and weight tracking functions. Most target users expressed a preference for at least one text message

  13. Feasibility Study for Establishing a Weight Management Center at Harper College. Research Report Series Volume XIV, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmons, Nicki; Lucas, John A.

    William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Illinois conducted a study to determine the feasibility of establishing a Weight Management Center (WMC) at the college to provide a comprehensive program of nutrition education, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and psychological support. An interest questionnaire and a description of the…

  14. Environmental Management vitrification activities

    SciTech Connect

    Krumrine, P.H.

    1996-05-01

    Both the Mixed Waste and Landfill Stabilization Focus Areas as part of the Office of Technology Development efforts within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Division have been developing various vitrification technologies as a treatment approach for the large quantities of transuranic (TRU), TRU mixed and Mixed Low Level Wastes that are stored in either landfills or above ground storage facilities. The technologies being developed include joule heated, plasma torch, plasma arc, induction, microwave, combustion, molten metal, and in situ methods. There are related efforts going into development glass, ceramic, and slag waste form windows of opportunity for the diverse quantities of heterogeneous wastes needing treatment. These studies look at both processing parameters, and long term performance parameters as a function of composition to assure that developed technologies have the right chemistry for success.

  15. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  16. Thermodynamically weighted ART (THWART): a finite-temperature activated algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkema, Gerard; Mousseau, Normand

    2004-03-01

    Much effort has been invested in the last decade to develop accelerated algorithms. Many of these methods are limited either by having to work effectively at T=0 (ART, eigenvector-following or dimer method) or by the complexity level of the system under study (hyper-MD, TAD, etc.). The thermodynamically weighted activation-relaxation technique (THWART) overcomes some of these limitations. Coupling molecular dynamics with ART, this algorithm can be shown to sample the configurational space with the correct ensemble, while generating a trajectory that can go over large activation barriers. Preliminary simulations show that the method is many orders of magnitude faster than MD for sampling the configurational space of amorphous silicon at T=800 K and small peptides at 300 K. This work is supported in part by NSERC (Canada) and FRQNT (Québec). The simulations were performed on the supercomputers of the RQCHP. NM is a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation.

  17. A Psychophysiological Mechanism Underlying Women's Weight-Management Goals: Women Desire and Strive for Greater Weight Loss Near Peak Fertility.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Andrea L; McNulty, James K; Miller, Saul L; Baker, Levi R

    2015-07-01

    Three studies demonstrated that conception risk was associated with increased motivations to manage weight. Consistent with the rationale that this association is due to ovulatory processes, Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that it was moderated by hormonal contraceptive (HC) use. Consistent with the rationale that this interactive effect should emerge when modern appearance-related concerns regarding weight are salient, Study 3 used a 14-day diary to demonstrate that the interactive effects of conception risk and HC use on daily motivations to restrict eating were further moderated by daily motivations to manage body attractiveness. Finally, providing evidence that this interactive effect has implications for real behavior, daily fluctuations in the desire to restrict eating predicted daily changes in women's self-reported eating behavior. These findings may help reconcile prior inconsistencies regarding the implications of ovulatory processes by illustrating that such implications can depend on the salience of broader social norms. PMID:25979634

  18. Evaluation of a Family-Centred Children's Weight Management Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinks, Annette; English, Sue; Coufopoulos, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct an in-depth quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a family-based weight loss and healthy life style programme for clinically obese children in England. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed method case study evaluation used included obtaining pre and post measurements of anthropometry and a…

  19. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. PMID:24720565

  20. Weigh Forward: a clinical audit of weight management in Australian general practice.

    PubMed

    Hemmes, R A; Adam, N; Dixon, J B

    2016-06-01

    Weigh Forward was a prospective clinical audit, aimed to assess the use and efficacy of 12-week weight management program in general practice. Twenty-eight practitioners participated in the audit, with a total of 258 patients observed. Of these, 147 (57%) were retained to 24 weeks. Practices were asked to implement a structured 12-week weight loss program, and encouraged to utilize relevant weight management guidelines as necessary. Patients were followed up regularly, and comprehensively assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Evaluations were made of patient weight loss, practitioner willingness to utilize available weight loss interventions, practitioner set weight loss goals and the appropriateness of such goals. Overall, the 57% of completing patients lost an average of 6.1% ± 0.5% body weight, with 27.2% losing ≥10% body weight. Practitioners were hesitant to intensify treatment, and those with comorbidities were less likely (odds ratio 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.4) to receive intensified treatment than those without. Practitioners also tended to set high weight loss goals, with a mean goal of 17.3% body-weight loss. The clinically significant mean weight loss demonstrates that practitioners are able to generate meaningful weight loss in primary care settings, however, could benefit from increased use of available interventions. PMID:27166135

  1. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and weight among US youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have reported inconsistent findings for the relationship between active commuting to school (ACS) and physical activity or weight status/adiposity among youth. These mixed findings may be due to reliance on self-report measures of physical activity, samples drawn from specific populations, i...

  2. Your Health Buddies Matter: Preferential Selection and Social Influence on Weight Management in an Online Health Social Network.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    A growing number of online social networks are designed with the intention to promote health by providing virtual space wherein individuals can seek and share information and support with similar others. Research has shown that real-world social networks have a significant influence on one's health behavior and outcomes. However, there is a dearth of studies on how individuals form social networks in virtual space and whether such online social networks exert any impact on individuals' health outcomes. Built on the Multi-Theoretical Multilevel (MTML) framework and drawing from literature on social influence, this study examined the mechanisms underlying the formation of an online health social network and empirically tested social influence on individual health outcomes through the network. Situated in a weight management social networking site, the study tracked a health buddy network of 709 users and their weight management activities and outcomes for 4 months. Actor-based modeling was used to test the joint dynamics of preferential selection and social influence among health buddies. The results showed that baseline, inbreeding, and health status homophily significantly predicted preferential selection of health buddies in the weight management social networking site, whereas self-interest in seeking experiential health information did not. The study also found peer influence of online health buddy networks on individual weight outcomes, such that an individual's odds of losing weight increased if, on average, the individual's health buddies were losing weight. PMID:27055008

  3. Resistance training volume, energy balance and weight management: Rationale and design of a 9 month trial

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Smith, Bryan K.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Marquis, Janet; Herrmann, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity and the lack of treatment success both argue for the design and evaluation of strategies to prevent the development of overweight and obesity. To date, the role of resistance training (RT) in this regard is largely unexplored. RT may be effective for weight management as a result of increased fat-free mass (FFM), which may result in increased resting metabolic rate and increased physical activity energy expenditure. However, the literature relative to the efficacy of RT protocols recommended for healthy adults to alter the aforementioned parameters is inconsistent or inadequately evaluated. We will conduct a 9 month randomized controlled efficacy trial to compare changes in body composition (fat mass, FFM, % body fat) and energy balance in response to 2 volumes of RT (1 vs. 3 sets vs. non-exercise control) both at the completion of training (9 months) and 1 year later (body composition). This investigation will be conducted in a sample of healthy, normal and overweight, sedentary, young adult men and women; a group at high risk for development of overweight and obesity. Our results will provide information relative to the minimum volume of RT that may be associated with body weight/fat gain which may inform the development of guidelines for RT to prevent weight gain or to alter body composition. PMID:22446169

  4. Parent-Adolescent Conversations about Eating, Physical Activity and Weight: Prevalence across Sociodemographic Characteristics and Associations with Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of parent-adolescent conversations about eating, physical activity and weight across sociodemographic characteristics and to examine associations with adolescent BMI, dietary intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Data from two linked epidemiological studies were used for cross-sectional analysis. Parents (n=3,424; 62% females) and adolescents (n=2,182; 53.2% girls) were socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse. Fathers reported more parent-adolescent conversations about healthful eating and physical activity with their sons and mothers reported more weight-focused conversations with their daughters. Parents of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Hmong youth and parents from lower SES categories engaged in more conversations about weight and size. Adolescents whose mothers or fathers had weight-focused conversations with them had higher BMI percentiles. Adolescents who had two parents engaging in weight-related conversations had higher BMI percentiles. Healthcare providers may want to talk about the types of weight-related conversations parents are having with their adolescents and emphasize avoiding conversations about weight specifically. PMID:24997555

  5. Cultivation practices and manufacturing processes to produce Hoodia gordonii extract for weight management products.

    PubMed

    Knight, Tamsin L; Swindells, Chris M; Craddock, Andrew M; Maharaj, Vinesh J; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille; Ismaili, Smail Alaoui; McWilliam, Simon C

    2012-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii (Masson) Sweet ex Decne., is a succulent shrub, indigenous to the arid regions of southern Africa. Indigenous people have historically utilised certain species of Hoodia, including H. gordonii, as a source of food and water. Studies by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, South Africa) identified that extracts of H. gordonii had appetite suppressant activity associated with specific steroid glycosides. A programme to develop weight management products based around this discovery was implemented in 1998. An agronomy programme was established which demonstrated that it was possible to cultivate this novel crop on a commercial scale (in excess of 70 ha). In parallel, a food grade manufacturing process was developed consisting of four main steps: harvesting of H. gordonii plant stems, comminution, drying under controlled conditions and extraction using food grade solvents. Appropriate Quality Control (QC) procedures were developed. The extraction process is capable of delivering a consistent composition despite natural variations in the composition of the dried H. gordonii. Specifications were developed for the resulting extract. The intended use of the standardised H. gordonii extract was as a functional food ingredient for weight management products. Other development studies on characterisation, toxicology and pharmacology are reported separately. PMID:22410259

  6. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in adult weight management.

    PubMed

    Jortberg, Bonnie; Myers, Eileen; Gigliotti, Linda; Ivens, Barbara J; Lebre, Monica; Burke March, Susan; Nogueira, Isadora; Nwankwo, Robin; Parkinson, Meredith R; Paulsen, Barbara; Turner, Tonya

    2015-04-01

    Weight management encompasses the inter-relationship of nutrition, physical activity, and health behavior change. Nutrition is key for the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and maintenance of overall health. Thus, the Weight Management Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Adult Weight Management as a resource for RDNs working in weight management. This document allows RDNs to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this expanding practice area. This document describes the current standards for weight management practice for RDNs. The Standards of Practice represent the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for RDNs working in weight management. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in weight management. PMID:25819519

  7. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  8. Process Evaluation Results from an Environmentally Focused Worksite Weight Management Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Padilla, Heather M.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Parker, Kristin B.; Della, Lindsay J.; Roemer, Enid C.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently much interest in exploring environmental approaches to combat weight gain and obesity. This study presents process evaluation results from a workplace-based study that tested two levels of environmentally focused weight management interventions in a manufacturing setting. The moderate treatment featured a set of relatively…

  9. An AHP-Based Weighted Analysis of Network Knowledge Management Platforms for Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chung-Ping; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to quantify important knowledge management behaviors and to analyze the weight scores of elementary school students' behaviors in knowledge transfer, sharing, and creation. Based on the analysis of Expert Choice and tests for validity and reliability, this study identified the weight scores of…

  10. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (p<0.05) than those reporting lower quality training. Conclusion Across all non-physician health professionals, nutrition professionals were identified as best suited to provide routine weight management counseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  11. The Biggest Loser Thinks Long-Term: Recency as a Predictor of Success in Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Koritzky, Gilly; Rice, Chantelle; Dieterle, Camille; Bechara, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of participants in behavioral weight management lose weight significantly. The ability to predict who is likely to benefit from weight management can improve the efficiency of obesity treatment. Identifying predictors of weight loss can also reveal potential ways to improve existing treatments. We propose a neuro-psychological model that is focused on recency: the reliance on recent information at the expense of time-distant information. Forty-four weight-management patients completed a decision-making task and their recency level was estimated by a mathematical model. Impulsivity and risk-taking were also measured for comparison. Weight loss was measured in the end of the 16-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, successful dieters (n = 12) had lower recency scores than unsuccessful ones (n = 32; p = 0.006). Successful and unsuccessful dieters were similar in their demographics, intelligence, risk taking, impulsivity, and delay of gratification. We conclude that dieters who process time-distant information in their decision making are more likely to lose weight than those who are high in recency. We argue that having low recency facilitates future-oriented thinking, and thereby contributes to behavior change treatment adherence. Our findings underline the importance of choosing the right treatment for every individual, and outline a way to improve weight-management processes for more patients. PMID:26696930

  12. Undergrad and Overweight: An Online Behavioral Weight Management Program for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Berino, Jean; Pope, Lizzy; Gold, Beth Casey; Leonard, Heather; Belliveau, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Explore the feasibility of an online behavioral weight management program for college students. Methods: The program focused on behavioral strategies to modify eating and exercise behaviors of students interested in losing weight and/or developing a healthy lifestyle. Specific tools included weekly chat meetings with a facilitator,…

  13. The Biggest Loser Thinks Long-Term: Recency as a Predictor of Success in Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Koritzky, Gilly; Rice, Chantelle; Dieterle, Camille; Bechara, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of participants in behavioral weight management lose weight significantly. The ability to predict who is likely to benefit from weight management can improve the efficiency of obesity treatment. Identifying predictors of weight loss can also reveal potential ways to improve existing treatments. We propose a neuro-psychological model that is focused on recency: the reliance on recent information at the expense of time-distant information. Forty-four weight-management patients completed a decision-making task and their recency level was estimated by a mathematical model. Impulsivity and risk-taking were also measured for comparison. Weight loss was measured in the end of the 16-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, successful dieters (n = 12) had lower recency scores than unsuccessful ones (n = 32; p = 0.006). Successful and unsuccessful dieters were similar in their demographics, intelligence, risk taking, impulsivity, and delay of gratification. We conclude that dieters who process time-distant information in their decision making are more likely to lose weight than those who are high in recency. We argue that having low recency facilitates future-oriented thinking, and thereby contributes to behavior change treatment adherence. Our findings underline the importance of choosing the right treatment for every individual, and outline a way to improve weight-management processes for more patients. PMID:26696930

  14. Effect of swimming activity on relative weight and body composition of juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries managers often assess body condition using relative weight (Wr) because it provides a comparative measure of fish plumpness among individuals and populations. However, it is not known whether the morphological information that Wr summarizes reflects physiological measures, such as relative lipid reserves, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The purpose of this study was to determine whether swimming activity affects either the Wr or proximate body composition of juvenile (total length, 170-260 mm) rainbow trout. When rainbow trout from a hatchery were fed ad libitum for 147 d, inactive (no current) and active (15 cm/s current velocity) fish did not differ in Wr However, inactive rainbow trout maintained relatively constant lipid levels, whereas active fish declined in lipid content. Relative weight may provide a comparable measure of body form, but it is not an accurate index of lipid content between active and inactive rainbow trout fed an excess ration. For assessing the physiological condition of rainbow trout, measurement of proximate body composition appears to be more accurate than indices based on length and weight.

  15. Jerk analysis of active body-weight-transfer.

    PubMed

    Baldinotti, Ivan; Timmann, Dagmar; Kolb, Florian P; Kutz, Dieter F

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that whole-body vibration improves posture and gait control in stroke patients. Patients with degenerative cerebellar disease suffer from ataxic gait also which is characterised by the variation of gait pattern. Our interest is to test whole-body vibration as a method for rehabilitation treatment in cerebellar patients and to assess the success of the treatment using dynamic tests. The aim of this study was to introduce a method for quantifying movement dynamics during an active voluntary sidestep that results in a body-weight-transfer. Subjects had to perform a step from a feet-apart-position to a feet-together-position and back again. The algorithms presented in this study allow automatic identification of the timing of the dynamic phases by analysing the centre of pressure trajectory. For this study the time flow of averaged speed, acceleration, and jerk was calculated for the active movement only. This study demonstrates that jerk provides a sensitive measure for the improvement in gait in rehabilitation and during training. PMID:20940098

  16. Accuracy of Heart Rate Watches: Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established. Aim To determine the accuracy of four wrist-worn devices (Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, Samsung Gear S and Mio Alpha) to measure heart rate and energy expenditure at rest and during exercise. Methods Twenty-two healthy volunteers (50% female; aged 24 ± 5.6 years) completed ~1-hr protocols involving supine and seated rest, walking and running on a treadmill and cycling on an ergometer. Data from the devices collected during the protocol were compared with reference methods: electrocardiography (heart rate) and indirect calorimetry (energy expenditure). Results None of the devices performed significantly better overall, however heart rate was consistently more accurate than energy expenditure across all four devices. Correlations between the devices and reference methods were moderate to strong for heart rate (0.67–0.95 [0.35 to 0.98]) and weak to strong for energy expenditure (0.16–0.86 [-0.25 to 0.95]). All devices underestimated both outcomes compared to reference methods. The percentage error for heart rate was small across the devices (range: 1–9%) but greater for energy expenditure (9–43%). Similarly, limits of agreement were considerably narrower for heart rate (ranging from -27.3 to 13.1 bpm) than energy expenditure (ranging from -266.7 to 65.7 kcals) across devices. Conclusion These devices accurately measure heart rate. However, estimates of energy expenditure are poor and would have implications for people using these devices for weight loss. PMID:27232714

  17. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss. PMID:24438736

  18. The Relationship of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour with Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ruifrok, Anneloes E.; Althuizen, Ellen; Oostdam, Nicolette; van Mechelen, Willem; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relationship of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour with gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth weight. Design. Combined data from two prospective studies: (1) nulliparous pregnant women without BMI restrictions and (2) overweight and obese pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes. Methods. Daily PA and sedentary behaviour were measured with an accelerometer around 15 and at 32–35 weeks of gestation. The association between time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and in sedentary activities with GWG and birth weight was determined. Main outcome measures were GWG between 15 and 32 weeks of gestation, average GWG per week, and birth weight. Results. We studied 111 women. Early in pregnancy, 32% of women spent ≥30 minutes/day in at least moderate PA versus 12% in late pregnancy. No significant associations were found between time spent in MVPA or sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. Conclusions. We found no relation between MVPA and sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. The small percentage of women meeting the recommended levels of PA indicates the need to inform and support pregnant women to maintain regular PA, as there seems to be no adverse effect on birth weight and maintaining PA increases overall health. PMID:25309754

  19. Long-term follow-up after weight management in obese cats.

    PubMed

    Deagle, Gabrielle; Holden, Shelley L; Biourge, Vincent; Morris, Penelope J; German, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Feline obesity is a prevalent medical disease and the main therapeutic strategy is dietary energy restriction. However, at present there are no data regarding long-term outcome in this species. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if, as in other species, some cats regain weight following successful weight loss, and to identify any influencing factors in a cohort of client-owned cats with naturally occurring obesity. Twenty-six cats were included, all of which had successfully completed a weight management programme. After weight loss, cats were periodically monitored. The median duration of follow-up was 954 d (72-2162 d). Ten cats (39 %) maintained their completion weight (±5 %), four (15 %) lost >5 % additional weight and 12 (46 %) gained >5 % weight. Seven of the rebounding cats (58 %) regained over 50 % of their original weight lost. Older cats were less likely to regain weight than younger cats (P = 0·024); with an approximately linear negative association between the cat's age and the amount of weight regained (Kendall's τ = -0·340, P = 0·016). Furthermore, cats whose energy intake during weight loss was greater were also more likely to regain weight (P = 0·023). When the characteristics of weight regain in cats were compared with those from a similar cohort of dogs, cats that rebounded were more likely to regain >50 % of the weight they had lost. These results suggest that weight regain, after successful weight loss, is common in obese cats, and that young cats (<7 years of age) are most at risk. PMID:26101594

  20. Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n = 420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (β = 0.36, p < 0.01), and fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived skills, perceived barriers, professional role identity and teamwork beliefs and weight management practices. The final model constructed in this study demonstrated a good fit to the data [χ2 (14) =13.90, p = 0.46; GFI = 0.99; AGFI = 0.98; NNFI = 1.00; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA = 0.00; AIC = 57.90], accounting for 38.4% and 43.2% of the variance in weight management practices and self-efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the

  1. Mobile Phone and Web 2.0 Technologies for Weight Management: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Widespread diffusion of mobile phone and Web 2.0 technologies make them potentially useful tools for promoting health and tackling public health issues, such as the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. Research in this domain is growing rapidly but, to date, no review has comprehensively and systematically documented how mobile and Web 2.0 technologies are being deployed and evaluated in relation to weight management. Objective To provide an up-to-date, comprehensive map of the literature discussing the use of mobile phone and Web 2.0 apps for influencing behaviors related to weight management (ie, diet, physical activity [PA], weight control, etc). Methods A systematic scoping review of the literature was conducted based on a published protocol (registered at PROSPERO: CRD42014010323). Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched 16 multidisciplinary electronic databases for original research documents published in English between 2004 and 2014. We used duplicate study selection and data extraction. Using an inductively developed charting tool, selected articles were thematically categorized. Results We identified 457 articles, mostly published between 2013 and 2014 in 157 different journals and 89 conference proceedings. Articles were categorized around two overarching themes, which described the use of technologies for either (1) promoting behavior change (309/457, 67.6%) or (2) measuring behavior (103/457, 22.5%). The remaining articles were overviews of apps and social media content (33/457, 7.2%) or covered a combination of these three themes (12/457, 2.6%). Within the two main overarching themes, we categorized articles as representing three phases of research development: (1) design and development, (2) feasibility studies, and (3) evaluations. Overall, articles mostly reported on evaluations of technologies for behavior change (211/457, 46.2%). Conclusions There is an extensive body of research on mobile phone and Web 2

  2. Systematic review of the effectiveness of weight management schemes for the under fives.

    PubMed

    Bond, M; Wyatt, K; Lloyd, J; Taylor, R

    2011-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in pre-school children are an increasing problem, with poor diet and exercise habits laying the foundation for serious health risks in later life. Yet most research into childhood obesity has focused on school-age children. Two previous systematic reviews of pre-school children have included uncontrolled designs and self-report outcomes potentially biasing the results in favour of the interventions. We have conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of weight management schemes for the under fives restricting the inclusion criteria to controlled trials with objective measures. We found four effectiveness randomized controlled trials of prevention. No treatment or cost-effectiveness studies were found. Only one study in a Latino community showed a statistically significant advantage from the intervention in a slower rate of increase in body mass index. However, trends in decrease in body mass index and weight loss favoured the intervention groups in other studies. From the studies characteristics we hypothesize that important features to include in future interventions may be; cultural sensitivity, sustained moderate to vigorous exercise, active engagement of the parents in the programme and as role models of healthy living and active engagement of the children in nutrition education. Further randomized controlled trials are needed in this population. PMID:20149120

  3. Can foster care ever be justified for weight management?

    PubMed

    Williams, G M G; Bredow, Maria; Barton, John; Pryce, Rebekah; Shield, J P H

    2014-03-01

    Article nine of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child states that 'Children must not be separated from their parents unless it is in the best interests of the child.' We describe the impact that placing a child into care can have on long-standing and intractable obesity when this is a component of a child safeguarding strategy. Significant weight loss was documented in a male adolescent following his placement into foster care due to emotional harm and neglect within his birth family. The child's body mass index (BMI) dropped from a peak of 45.6 to 35 over 18 months. We provide brief details of two further similar cases and outcomes. Childhood obesity is often not the sole concern during safeguarding proceedings. Removal from an 'obesogenic' home environment should be considered if failure by the parents/carers to address the obesity is a major cause for concern. It is essential that all other avenues have been explored before removing a child from his birth family. However, in certain circumstances we feel it may be justified. PMID:24225275

  4. Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John

    2010-01-01

    Functional food products promote claims such as 'freedom from hunger' and 'feel fuller for longer'. A legislative framework has been established by the European Food Safety Authority to evaluate the validity of such claims: a claim must be substantiated by scientific evidence and should be clearly understood by consumers. Since consumed foods influence appetite by means of a system of physiological satiety signals, functional foods could in principle act by increasing the potency and/or duration of these signals. Importantly, what constitutes a useful action: a reduction in hunger, an increase in fullness, a change in food intake at a meal, an adjustment in daily energy balance or a reduction in body weight? Any claim should not go beyond the scientific evidence of an effect, and methods exist to scientifically evaluate claims. The wording of a claim is, therefore, critical. The difference between a proof of concept and a guarantee of success is an important point that needs to be conveyed to the consumer. PMID:20010971

  5. Next generation of weight management medications: implications for diabetes and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Wharton, S; Serodio, K J

    2015-05-01

    Since the 1980s, the prevalence of obesity has almost doubled worldwide. Treatments for obesity include lifestyle modification, medications and surgery. Newer anti-obesity medications have been shown to be effective at inducing initial weight management in addition to successful long-term weight maintenance. Historically, weight management medications have been associated with public safety concerns that have resulted in the majority being withdrawn from the market or never receiving medicinal authorization. Recently, several countries have approved some newer generation weight management medications which may be beneficial to combat obesity. These medications have varying effects on cardiometabolic parameters, both positive and potentially negative. This review will outline the mechanisms of action of these medications and their implications for both diabetes and cardiovascular risks. PMID:25894803

  6. Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended. PMID:20646282

  7. Association of Self-Reported Weight Change and Quality of Life, and Exercise and Weight Management Behaviors Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The SHIELD Study.

    PubMed

    Grandy, Susan; Fox, Kathleen M; Bazata, Debbra D

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined the association between self-reported weight change and quality of life, and exercise and weight management behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. In the US SHIELD study, respondents reported whether they had lost or gained weight compared with 1 year earlier and completed the SHIELD-WQ-9 quality of life questionnaire as well as provided information on their exercise and weight management behaviors in the past 12 months. Results. Sixteen percent of the respondents reported gaining weight (n = 460), and 30% reported losing weight (n = 895). More respondents who reported losing weight exercised regularly, limited calorie and fat intake, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P < 0.01). For all nine aspects of daily life, a significantly greater proportion of respondents who reported losing weight reported improved well-being (12%-44%) compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Self-reported weight loss was associated with improved well-being, better exercise, and weight management behaviors among individuals with T2DM. PMID:22645696

  8. Association of Self-Reported Weight Change and Quality of Life, and Exercise and Weight Management Behaviors Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The SHIELD Study

    PubMed Central

    Grandy, Susan; Fox, Kathleen M.; Bazata, Debbra D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined the association between self-reported weight change and quality of life, and exercise and weight management behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. In the US SHIELD study, respondents reported whether they had lost or gained weight compared with 1 year earlier and completed the SHIELD-WQ-9 quality of life questionnaire as well as provided information on their exercise and weight management behaviors in the past 12 months. Results. Sixteen percent of the respondents reported gaining weight (n = 460), and 30% reported losing weight (n = 895). More respondents who reported losing weight exercised regularly, limited calorie and fat intake, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P < 0.01). For all nine aspects of daily life, a significantly greater proportion of respondents who reported losing weight reported improved well-being (12%–44%) compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Self-reported weight loss was associated with improved well-being, better exercise, and weight management behaviors among individuals with T2DM. PMID:22645696

  9. Adherence and weight loss outcomes associated with food-exercise diary preference in a military weight management program.

    PubMed

    Shay, Laura E; Seibert, Diane; Watts, Dorraine; Sbrocco, Tracy; Pagliara, Claire

    2009-12-01

    The more consistently someone records their food intake the more likely they are to lose weight. We hypothesized that subjects who kept track via their preferred method would demonstrate higher adherence and therefore improved outcomes compared to those who used a non-preferred method. Participants were randomly assigned to use a paper, PDA, or Web-based diary and classified as "Preferred" if they used their preferred method and "Non-Preferred" if they did not. Days adherent to diary use were collected for 12 weeks. Weight, % body fat, waist circumference, and self-efficacy scores were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty nine participants completed the 12 week study. Fifty nine percent were male. The mean age was 35 and mean baseline BMI was 33 kg/m(2) (+/-3.5). Forty four % (n=17) used their "Preferred" diary method and 56% (n=22) did not. Participants who used their preferred diary were more adherent to recording both food intake (64.2% vs. 43.4%, p=.015) and exercise (60.6% vs. 31.2%, p=.001). Though no difference was seen between groups on weight management outcomes, these results suggest that diary preference affects adherence to diary use. PMID:19778751

  10. The Role of Social Media in Online Weight Management: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Vineet; Zhang, Catherine; Woolford, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    Background Social media applications are promising adjuncts to online weight management interventions through facilitating education, engagement, and peer support. However, the precise impact of social media on weight management is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to systematically describe the use and impact of social media in online weight management interventions. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for English-language studies published through March 25, 2013. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of electronically retrieved articles. Randomized controlled trials of online weight management interventions that included a social media component for individuals of all ages were selected. Studies were evaluated using 2 systematic scales to assess risk of bias and study quality. Results Of 517 citations identified, 20 studies met eligibility criteria. All study participants were adults. Because the included studies varied greatly in study design and reported outcomes, meta-analysis of interventions was not attempted. Although message boards and chat rooms were the most common social media component included, their effect on weight outcomes was not reported in most studies. Only one study measured the isolated effect of social media. It found greater engagement of participants, but no difference in weight-related outcomes. In all, 65% of studies were of high quality; 15% of studies were at low risk of bias. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of social media, few studies have quantified the effect of social media in online weight management interventions; thus, its impact is still unknown. Although social media may play a role in retaining and engaging participants, studies that are designed to measure its effect are needed to understand whether and how social media may meaningfully improve weight management. PMID:24287455

  11. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  12. Bioelectrochemical activity of an electroactive macromolecular weight coenzyme derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pu; Zheng, Haitao; Nie, Pingping; Wei, Yaotian; Feng, Zhenchao; Sun, Tao

    2009-07-01

    As coenzyme utilized by more than hundreds of dehydrogenases, the efficient immobilization and regeneration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are of great importance and have practical applications in industrial, analytical and biomedical field. In this paper, an electroactive macromolecular weight coenzyme derivative (PEI-DHBNAD) was prepared by attaching both NAD+ and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHB) to a water-soluble polyelectrolyte, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). The functional polymer exhibited both electrochemical properties of catechol unites and coenzymatic activity of NAD moieties. The macromolecular NAD analogue showed a substantial degree of efficiency relative to free NAD+ with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and a litter higher Michaelis-Menton constant (Km) was obtained for the coenzyme derivative than free NAD+. The bioelectrochemical properties of PEI-DHB-NAD were investigated by using G6PDH as the model enzyme, and both of them were retained on electrode surface by ultrafiltration membrane. The modified electrode showed typical response to substrate without the addition of free coenzyme, which indicated that PEI-DHB-NAD can carry out the electron transfer between electrode and NAD-dependent dehydrogenase. The utilization of polymer-based PEI-DHB-NAD is convenient for the immobilization of both electron mediator and coenzyme, and offers a practical approach for the construction of reagentless biosensors.

  13. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  14. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of…

  15. Is consuming yoghurt associated with weight management outcomes? Results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Eales, J; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; King, S; Wood, H; Kok, F J; Shamir, R; Prentice, A; Edwards, M; Glanville, J; Atkinson, R L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Yoghurt is part of the diet of many people worldwide and is commonly recognised as a ‘health food'. Epidemiological studies suggest that yoghurt may be useful as part of weight management programs. In the absence of comprehensive systematic reviews, this systematic review investigated the effect of yoghurt consumption by apparently healthy adults on weight-related outcomes. Methods: An extensive literature search was undertaken, as part of a wider scoping review, to identify yoghurt studies. A total of 13 631 records were assessed for their relevance to weight-related outcomes. Results: Twenty-two publications were eligible according to the review protocol. Cohort studies (n=6) and cross-sectional studies (n=7) all showed a correlation between yoghurt and lower or improved body weight/composition. Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one controlled trial had various limitations, including small size and short duration. One RCT showed significant effects of yoghurt on weight loss, but was confounded by differences in calcium intake. One trial showed nonsignificant weight gain and the remaining five trials showed nonsignificant weight losses that were greater in yoghurt consumers. Conclusions: Yoghurt consumption is associated with lower body mass index, lower body weight/weight gain, smaller waist circumference and lower body fat in epidemiological studies. RCTs suggest weight reduction effects, but do not permit determination of a cause–effect relationship. Well-controlled, adequately powered trials in research and community settings appear likely to identify a modest but beneficial effect of yoghurt consumption for prevention of weight gain and management of obesity. The ready availability of yoghurt (a nutrient-dense food) and its ease of introduction to most diets suggests that educating the public to eat yoghurt as part of a balanced and healthy diet may potentially contribute to improved public health. Future carefully designed RCTs

  16. Clinical Care Providers’ Perspectives on Body Size and Weight Management Among Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Allison M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Coa, Kisha I; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Peairs, Kimberly S.; Shockney, Lillie D.; Klassen, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical care providers’ perspectives on cancer survivors’ body size and weight management Study Design In-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews Methods Interviews were conducted with 33 providers (e.g., oncologists, surgeons, primary care providers, nurses, dietitians) across academic and community clinical settings. They were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using constant comparative analysis. Results Providers conceptualized weight in relation to acute treatment, cancer outcomes, or overall health/comorbidities. These patterns were reflected in their reported framing of weight discussions, although providers indicated that they counsel patients on weight to varying extents. Perspectives differed based on professional roles and patient populations. Providers reported that survivors are motivated to lose weight, particularly due to comorbidity concerns, but face numerous barriers to doing so. Conclusion Providers described survivor-level and capacity-level factors influencing survivors’ weight management. Differences by provider type highlighted the role of provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs in clinical encounters. Opportunities for research and intervention include developing and disseminating evidence-based clinical resources for weight management among cancer survivors, addressing capacity barriers, and exploring communication strategies at interpersonal and population levels. PMID:25716349

  17. Do weight management programmes delivered at professional football clubs attract and engage high risk men? A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    enabled men to join a weight management programme in circumstances that felt ‘right’ rather than threatening to themselves as men. FFIT is an example of how to facilitate health promotion activities in a way that is consistent with, rather than challenging to, common ideals of masculinity. PMID:24443845

  18. Fit and Strong! Plus: design of a comparative effectiveness evaluation of a weight management program for older adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Schiffer, Linda; Shah, Amy; Huber, Gail M; Braunschweig, Carol; Campbell, Richard T; Hughes, Susan L

    2014-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition and principal cause of disability among older adults. The current obesity epidemic has contributed to this high prevalence rate. Fortunately both OA symptoms and obesity can be ameliorated through lifestyle modifications. Physical activity (PA) combined with weight management improves physical function among obese persons with knee OA but evidence-based interventions that combine PA and weight management are limited for this population. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based PA program for adults with lower extremity (LE) OA, Fit and Strong!, against an enhanced version that also addresses weight management based on the evidence-based Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT). Adult participants (n=400) with LE OA, age 60+, overweight/obese, and not meeting PA requirements of ≥ 150 min per week, are randomized to one of the two programs. Both 8-week interventions meet 3 times per week and include 60 min of strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercise instruction followed by 30 min of education/group discussion. The Fit and Strong! education sessions focus on using PA to manage OA; whereas Fit and Strong! Plus addresses PA and weight loss management strategies. Maintenance of behavior change is reinforced in both groups during months 3-24 through telephone calls and mailed newsletters. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes are dietary change at 2 months followed by weight loss at 6 months that is maintained at 24 months. Secondary outcomes assess PA, physical performance, and anxiety/depression. PMID:24316240

  19. Fit and Strong! Plus: Design of a Comparative Effectiveness Evaluation of a Weight Management Program for Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ray, Renae L.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Schiffer, Linda; Shah, Amy; Huber, Gail M.; Braunschweig, Carol; Campbell, Richard T.; Hughes, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition and principal cause of disability among older adults. The current obesity epidemic has contributed to this high prevalence rate. Fortunately both OA symptoms and obesity can be ameliorated through lifestyle modifications. Physical activity (PA) combined with weight management improves physical function among obese persons with knee OA but evidence-based interventions that combine PA and weight management are limited for this population. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness trial testing an evidence-based PA program for adults with lower extremity (LE) OA, Fit and Strong!, against an enhanced version that also addresses weight management based on the evidence-based Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT). Adult participants (n=400) with LE OA, age 60+, overweight/obese, and not meeting PA requirements of >=150 minutes per week, are randomized to one of the two programs. Both 8-week interventions meet 3 times per week and include 60 minutes of strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercise instruction followed by 30 minutes of education/group discussion. The Fit and Strong! education sessions focus on using PA to manage OA; whereas Fit and Strong! Plus addresses PA and weight loss management strategies. Maintenance of behavior change is reinforced in both groups during months 3 - 24 through telephone calls and mailed newsletters. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes are dietary change at 2 months followed by weight loss at 6 months that is maintained at 24 months. Secondary outcomes assess PA, physical performance, and anxiety/depression. PMID:24316240

  20. The adoption of mobile weight management services in a virtual community: the perspective of college students.

    PubMed

    Jen, Wen-Yuan

    2010-05-01

    Obesity among Taiwan college students is increasing every year. To help college students manage their weight, a prototype mobile weight management service system, the We Care for You Virtual Community (WCU VC), was designed, which would provide Web-based and cell-phone-based information services to individual participants. Conducted prior to system implementation, this study identified the factors affecting college student's intention in adopting the WCU VC as part of their weight control program. Employing the Technology Acceptance Model, factors associated with the college student's intention toward WCU VC were explored. Structural equation modeling analysis of collected data revealed that "perceived importance of health management" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting WCU VC services. Both "perceived importance of health management" and "perceived ease of use" had an indirect effect via "perceived usefulness" upon user's behavioral intention as well. With this knowledge of factors affecting student intention in participating in a Web-based and cell-phone-based weight control social support VC, a WCU VC system can be designed, which will promote the development of good weight management habits and contribute to the reduction in obesity-related chronic diseases among college students. PMID:20507202

  1. A brief intervention for weight management in primary care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity affects 25% of the UK adult population but modest weight loss can reduce the incidence of obesity-related chronic disease. Some effective weight loss treatments exist but there is no nationally available National Health Service (NHS) treatment service, and general practitioners (GPs) rarely discuss weight management with patients or support behavior change. Evidence shows that commercial weight management services, that most primary care trusts have 'on prescription', are more effective than primary care treatment. Methods/design We propose a controlled trial where patients will be randomized to receive either the offer of help by referral to a weight management service and follow-up to assess progress, or advice to lose weight on medical grounds. The primary outcome will be weight change at 12-months. Other questions are: what actions do people take to manage their weight in response to the two GP intervention types? How do obese patients feel about GPs opportunistically discussing weight management and how does this vary by intervention type? How do GPs feel about raising the issue opportunistically and giving the two types of brief intervention? What is the cost per kg/m2 lost for each intervention? Research assistants visiting GP practices in England (n = 60) would objectively measure weight and height prior to GP consultations and randomize willing patients (body mass index 30+, excess body fat, 18+ years) using sealed envelopes. Full recruitment (n = 1824) is feasible in 46 weeks, requiring six sessions of advice-giving per GP. Participants will be contacted at 3 months (postintervention) via telephone to identify actions they have taken to manage their weight. We will book appointments for participants to be seen at their GP practice for a 12-month follow-up. Discussion Trial results could make the case for brief interventions for obese people consulting their GP and introduce widespread simple treatments akin to the NHS Stop

  2. Health and weight control management among wrestlers. A proposed program for high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Perriello, V A; Almquist, J; Conkwright, D; Cutter, D; Gregory, D; Pitrezzi, M J; Roemmich, J; Snyders, G

    1995-01-01

    Weight loss is a part of any competitive sport which matches participants of equal weight or sports where participating at lower weights or with a thinner body habitus is considered an advantage. For some wrestlers, weight loss is excessive and often accomplished by methods that lead to loss of lean body mass and total body water. There is convincing evidence that this excessive weight loss is unhealthy for all individuals who follow these practices. Even greater harm is experienced by high school wrestlers who have not yet completed their growth and development. These health consequences include growth retardation, decreased academic performance, altered endocrine or hormonal function and damage to many vital organs. "cycling" of weight results in decrease in strength, power and endurance which would effect adversely a wrestler's likelihood of success. The VHSL has begun an educational program to inform coaches, wrestlers and parents about the hazards inherent in these weight loss practices. History suggests that education alone will not alter the present practices of weight loss. Therefore a weight management program similar to ones initiated in other states is being pursued by the VHSL. The pilot program this year is scheduled to be followed next year by a more wide-spread voluntary program across the Commonwealth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7612683

  3. A Scoping Review of Behavioral Weight Management Interventions in Overweight/Obese African American Females.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Jenkins, Carolyn H; Nemeth, Lynne S

    2016-08-01

    African American females are adversely affected by overweight and obesity and accompanying physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences. Behavioral weight management interventions are less effective in addressing the needs of overweight and obese African American females. The objective of this scoping review was to explore weight management research in this population to identify key concepts, gaps in the literature, and implications for future research. Analyses revealed a broad array in purpose, theoretical frameworks, settings, study designs, interventions, intervention strategies, and outcome variables, making comparison difficult. Many of the articles included in this review did not provide a rich description of methods, which hinder their use in the development of future studies. Consistent application of a combined theory may address the gaps identified in this review by providing a reliable method for assessing needs, developing interventions, and evaluating the effectiveness and fidelity of behavioral weight management interventions in overweight and obese African American females. PMID:26927607

  4. Weight management in type 2 diabetes: current and emerging approaches to treatment.

    PubMed

    Van Gaal, Luc; Scheen, André

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes is a growing global health concern, as is obesity. Diabetes and obesity are intrinsically linked: obesity increases the risk of diabetes and also contributes to disease progression and cardiovascular disease. Although the benefits of weight loss in the prevention of diabetes and as a critical component of managing the condition are well established, weight reduction remains challenging for individuals with type 2 diabetes due to a host of metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is not enough to achieve weight loss, and alternative options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. However, many traditional glucose-lowering medications may lead to weight gain. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies and on emerging approaches in development to support the glycemic and weight-loss goals of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight and those developed primarily to induce weight loss that have a favorable effect on blood glucose control. Finally, the potential of combination therapies for the management of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is discussed. PMID:25998297

  5. Virtual worlds as a tool to facilitate weight management for young people

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael; Taylor, Dave; Kulendran, Myutan; Gately, Paul; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious problem in the UK, with around 20% of children aged 10-11 being overweight or obese. Lifestyle interventions can be effective, but there is limited evidence of their effectiveness in delivering sustained weight loss. The present research explored potential of web-based, 3-dimensional virtual worlds (VWs) for facilitation of weight-management, well-being and patient and public involvement (PPI) for young people. Attendees of a weight management camp took part in induction sessions for use of the VW of Second Life. All participants successfully learned how to interact with one another and navigate the virtual environment. Participant appraisals of Second Life were varied. Some found it complicated and difficult to use, and some found it fun and the majority stated that they would choose to use VWs again. There is considerable potential for use of VWs to promote weight management, and Second Life or a similar VW could be used to deliver this. Potential barriers include members of the target sample having limited access to computers with necessary system requirements for running VWs, and that some may find VW-based educational experiences unappealing or challenging to navigate. For some however, VWs may provide a useful mode for provision of education, PPI and support relating to weight management.

  6. Determinants of bone density among athletes engaged in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Brooks, George A.; Steiger, Peter; Stubbs, Harrison A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of weight bearing activity on the bone density was investigated in athletes by comparing the measures of bone density of athletes engaged in weight-training programs with those of polo players and nonexercising subjects. All subjects had measurements of spinal trabecular and integral bone density by quantitative tomography, as well as determinations of hip bone density by dual photon absorptiometry. Results confirmed previous findings by Block et al. (1987) of significantly greater bone density among highly trained athletes compared with nonexercising subjects of similar age. Results also indicated that athletes engaged in non-weight-bearing forms of rigorous exercise had greater levels of bone density. However, as the participants in this study were exceptional athletes, engaged in a strenuous sport with both aerobic and heavy resistance components, a confirmation of these data is needed, using larger samples of individuals.

  7. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  8. Appetite suppression and weight reduction by a centrally active aminosterol.

    PubMed

    Ahima, Rexford S; Patel, Hiralben R; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Qi, Yong; Hileman, Stanley M; Zasloff, Michael A

    2002-07-01

    The rise in obesity and its complications has generated enormous interest in the regulation of feeding and body weight. We show that a spermine metabolite of cholesterol (MSI-1436) decreases body weight, specifically fat, by suppressing feeding and preventing the reduction in energy expenditure, hormonal changes, and patterns of neuropeptide expression normally associated with weight loss. MSI-1436 enters the brain after peripheral injection and is more potent when injected into the cerebral ventricle (intracerebroventricular [ICV]). Systemic or ICV MSI-1436 administration induced similar patterns of Fos immunoreactivity in the brain, especially the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). This brain region integrates neural signals from hypothalamic and brain stem nuclei and regulates feeding behavior, autonomic function, and neuroendocrine function. Microinjection of MSI-1436 into the PVN potently suppressed feeding and reduced body weight for several days. Unlike caloric restriction, MSI-1436 decreased mRNA levels of agouti-related peptide and neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that MSI-1436 acts in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, likely through suppression of orexigenic hypothalamic pathways. PMID:12086938

  9. Effectiveness of a publicly funded clinical paediatric weight management program on obesity outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Serodio, Kristin J; Berall, Glenn B; Flanders, Daniel I; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a publicly funded, paediatric weight management clinic in decreasing obesity. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients four to 16 years of age, from 2006 to 2009, was performed at a medically supervised weight management clinic (n=121). Patients participated in monthly visits and were educated about the cognitive behavioural and nutritional aspects of weight management. RESULTS: The sample included 51 male and 70 female patients with a mean (± SD) initial age of 11.7±3.0 years. Patients participated in 6.4±6.5 visits (range one to 31 visits) over 13.7±15.5 months and 7.4% of patients discontinued treatment after their initial visit. Of the patients who attended the clinic >1 time, 66.1% attended for at least four months, 48.2% attended for >8 months and 33.0% attended for >1 year. Over the course of their treatment, patients experienced a weight gain of 3.8±9.5 kg, but a reduction in body mass index (BMI) percentile (−1.1±3.6%). Post-treatment, the prevalence of obesity decreased from 96.7% to 87.5%. Patients with longer treatment times (>12 months) attained significantly lower final BMI percentiles than patients with shorter treatment times; however, there was no difference in the rate of reduction. Initial treatment age, sex and medical conditions were not related to BMI percentile change. CONCLUSIONS: This paediatric weight management program effectively reduced the prevalence of obesity. Patients who had longer treatment times experienced greater reductions in obesity. Overall, the present study highlights that long-term patient attendance may be needed to better support paediatric weight management patients. PMID:26744553

  10. Parent Interest in a School-Based, School Nurse-Led Weight Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lee, Jiwoo

    2014-01-01

    Because one in three children is already overweight or obese, school-based interventions targeting secondary obesity prevention merit consideration. This study assessed parent interest in participating in a school-based, school nurse-led weight management program for young school-aged children. A random sample of parents ("n" = 122) of…

  11. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  12. A Guide to Care and Management of Very Low Birth Weight Infants. A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl J., Ed.

    The 14 articles, which make up the bulk of this book provide an interdisciplinary guide to the management of very low birth weight infants. Following an introduction, the first section, titled "Family Considerations," presents three papers discussing, respectively, parent-infant interaction, cultural variables in pediatric care, and parents'…

  13. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  14. The Efficacy of a Multifaceted Weight Management Program for Children and Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kihm, Holly Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity among children and young adolescents remains unacceptably high and places our youth at risk for several negative outcomes. Recognizing the need for a youth-focused weight management program in our community, the researcher developed, implemented, and evaluated a small pilot study, FitKids. The aims of…

  15. Body Power! School-Based Weight Management for Middle School Adolescents. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennee, Phyllis M.; And Others

    This leader's manual contains the materials required to present a school-based weight management curriculum that may be offered both in school and outside the school setting for middle-school adolescents. The first section contains instructor information regarding the following topics: need for the program; program objectives; timeline and…

  16. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  17. Dissemination of an effective weight management program for Mexican American children in schools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of child obesity are epidemic in the United States, and Mexican American children are at particular risk. We have found an intensive, multi-component, school-based, weight management intervention to be efficacious at reducing standardized body mass index (zBMI) in overweight children. Our ...

  18. Systematic review and meta analysis of the relationship between whole-grain consumption and weight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Whole grain is recognized as an important component of a healthy diet, however with the rising incidence of obesity we considered that assessment of the evidence relating to its role in weight management was timely. Objective: This systematic review of the scientific literature and meta...

  19. Quality of life in Mexican American children following a weight management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in at-risk for overweight and overweight Mexican American children after participating in 6 months of intensive weight management or self-help. Eighty sixth- and seventh-grade at-risk for overweight (BMI >= 85th to < 95th percentile) and overweight...

  20. Predictors of Low-income, Obese Mothers' Use of Healthful Weight Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Brown, Roger; Baumann, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of personal and environmental factors on healthful weight management behaviors mediated through self-efficacy among low-income obese mothers. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Wisconsin. Participants: Two hundred eighty-four obese…

  1. The Effect of a "Mindful Restaurant Eating" Intervention on Weight Management in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a "Mindful Restaurant Eating" intervention on weight management. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants: Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention: The intervention, using 6 weekly 2-hour, small group sessions,…

  2. Primary care-based, targeted screening programme to promote sustained weight management

    PubMed Central

    Järvenpää, Salme; Kautiainen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To identify overweight and obese subjects at increased cardiovascular risk in the community, and provide them with lifestyle counselling that is possible to implement in real life. Design. Longitudinal cohort study. Setting. The communities of Harjavalta and Kokemäki in south-western Finland. Subjects. A tape for measurement of waist and a risk factor questionnaire was mailed to home-dwelling inhabitants aged 45–70 years (n = 6013). Of the 4421 respondents, 2752 with at least one cardiovascular risk factor were examined by a public health nurse. For the subjects with high cardiovascular risk (n = 1950), an appointment with a physician was scheduled. The main goal of lifestyle counselling for the 1608 high-risk subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was weight reduction of at least 5%. Among these, 906 had completed self-administrated questionnaires at baseline and form the present study population. Main outcome measure. Success in weight management. Results. At the three-year follow-up visit, 18% of subjects had lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight and 70% had stabilized their weight, while 12% had gained weight ≥ 5%. Newly diagnosed glucose disorder (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.02–1.84]) predicted success in weight management, whereas depressive symptoms (OR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42–0.90]), excess alcohol use (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.44–0.90]), and number of drugs used (OR 0.91 [95% CI 0.83–0.99]) at baseline predicted poor outcome. Conclusions. A primary care screening programme to identify overweight or obese individuals can promote sustained weight management. Psychological factors, especially depressive symptoms, are a critical component to consider before attempts to change the lifestyle of an individual. PMID:24592894

  3. Integrating mobile technology with routine dietetic practice: the case of myPace for weight management.

    PubMed

    Harricharan, Michelle; Gemen, Raymond; Celemín, Laura Fernández; Fletcher, David; de Looy, Anne E; Wills, Josephine; Barnett, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The field of Mobile health (mHealth), which includes mobile phone applications (apps), is growing rapidly and has the potential to transform healthcare by increasing its quality and efficiency. The present paper focuses particularly on mobile technology for body weight management, including mobile phone apps for weight loss and the available evidence on their effectiveness. Translation of behaviour change theory into weight management strategies, including integration in mobile technology is also discussed. Moreover, the paper presents and discusses the myPace platform as a case in point. There is little clinical evidence on the effectiveness of currently available mobile phone apps in enabling behaviour change and improving health-related outcomes, including sustained body weight loss. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent these apps have been developed in collaboration with health professionals, such as dietitians, and the extent to which apps draw on and operationalise behaviour change techniques has not been explored. Furthermore, presently weight management apps are not built for use as part of dietetic practice, or indeed healthcare more widely, where face-to-face engagement is fundamental for instituting the building blocks for sustained lifestyle change. myPace is an innovative mobile technology for weight management meant to be embedded into and to enhance dietetic practice. Developed out of systematic, iterative stages of engagement with dietitians and consumers, it is uniquely designed to complement and support the trusted health practitioner-patient relationship. Future mHealth technology would benefit if engagement with health professionals and/or targeted patient groups, and behaviour change theory stood as the basis for technology development. Particularly, integrating technology into routine health care practice, rather than replacing one with the other, could be the way forward. PMID:25804507

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of newly obtained low molecular weight scorpion chitosan and medium molecular weight commercial chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Asan-Ozusaglam, Meltem; Erdogan, Sevil

    2016-06-01

    In this study the antimicrobial activity of low molecular weight (3.22 kDa) chitosan, obtained for the first time from a species belonging to the Scorpiones, was screened against nine pathogenic microorganisms (seven bacteria and two yeasts) and compared with that of medium molecular weight commercial chitosan (MMWCC). It was observed that the antimicrobial activity of the low molecular weight scorpion chitosan (LMWSC) was specific to bacterial species in general rather than gram-negative or gram-positive bacterial groups. It was also determined that LMWSC had a stronger inhibitory effect than the MMWCC, particularly on the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and the yeast Candida albicans, which are important pathogens for public health. In addition, it was recorded that the MMWCC had a greater inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis than LMWSC. According to the results obtained by the disc diffusion method, the antibacterial activity of both LMWSC and MMWCC against B. subtilis and Salmonella enteritidis was higher than the widely used antibiotic Gentamicin (CN, 10 μg/disc). PMID:26702952

  5. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Outcomes of a 1:1 Multidisciplinary Weight Management Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Desley; Haboubi, Nadim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity management in Wales includes the provision of a 1:1 Multidisciplinary Weight Management Clinic (MDWMC). Strategic management of obesity in Wales is guided by The All Wales Obesity Pathway and recommends MDWMCs for people with obesity who have one or more co-morbidities and who have tried several interventions without success, or who have complex emotional relationships with food. No known previous studies have included a qualitative evaluation of a MDWMC. Objectives: To conduct a service evaluation of a 1:1 Multi-disciplinary Weight Management Clinic to evaluate associated physiological benefits and qualitative data about the service. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 180 patients attending the MDWMC at Aneurin Bevan Hospital, Ebbw Vale, Wales. Results: The MDWMC supports weight loss with 95% of patients reporting loss. For those for whom baseline data was available 73% lost at least 5% of initial body weight. Eighty-eight percent of patients prefer individual appointments and over 90% of patients who see each team member find consultations useful. Sixty-nine percent of patients report improved health mainly due to a decrease in obesity-related symptoms, and of patients taking obesity-related medication 48% report a reduction in dose of medication for asthma, 42% report a reduction in dose of antidepressants, and 36% report a reduction in dose for medication for diabetes. Of employed patients, 30% report a reduction of days taken off work due to sickness. Ninety-six percent of patients would recommend the clinic to others. Conclusions: A 1:1 Multi-disciplinary Weight Management Clinic provides value in reducing obesity and symptoms of obesity-related diseases. It also is a treatment choice favoured by patients.

  7. Satiety-enhancing products for appetite control: science and regulation of functional foods for weight management.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2012-05-01

    The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims. PMID:22401600

  8. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  9. Challenges in interdisciplinary weight management in primary care: lessons learned from the 5As Team study.

    PubMed

    Asselin, J; Osunlana, A M; Ogunleye, A A; Sharma, A M; Campbell-Scherer, D

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, research is directed at advancing methods to address obesity management in primary care. In this paper we describe the role of interdisciplinary collaboration, or lack thereof, in patient weight management within 12 teams in a large primary care network in Alberta, Canada. Qualitative data for the present analysis were derived from the 5As Team (5AsT) trial, a mixed-method randomized control trial of a 6-month participatory, team-based educational intervention aimed at improving the quality and quantity of obesity management encounters in primary care practice. Participants (n = 29) included in this analysis are healthcare providers supporting chronic disease management in 12 family practice clinics randomized to the intervention arm of the 5AsT trial including mental healthcare workers (n = 7), registered dietitians (n = 7), registered nurses or nurse practitioners (n = 15). Participants were part of a 6-month intervention consisting of 12 biweekly learning sessions aimed at increasing provider knowledge and confidence in addressing patient weight management. Qualitative methods included interviews, structured field notes and logs. Four common themes of importance in the ability of healthcare providers to address weight with patients within an interdisciplinary care team emerged, (i) Availability; (ii) Referrals; (iii) Role perception and (iv) Messaging. However, we find that what was key to our participants was not that these issues be uniformly agreed upon by all team members, but rather that communication and clinic relationships support their continued negotiation. Our study shows that firm clinic relationships and deliberate communication strategies are the foundation of interdisciplinary care in weight management. Furthermore, there is a clear need for shared messaging concerning obesity and its treatment between members of interdisciplinary teams. PMID:26815638

  10. Phone and e-mail counselling are effective for weight management in an overweight working population: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Wier, Marieke F; Ariëns, Geertje AM; Dekkers, J Caroline; Hendriksen, Ingrid JM; Smid, Tjabe; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Background The work setting provides an opportunity to introduce overweight (i.e., Body Mass Index ≥ 25 kg/m2) adults to a weight management programme, but new approaches are needed in this setting. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle counselling by phone or e-mail on body weight, in an overweight working population. Secondary purposes were to establish effects on waist circumference and lifestyle behaviours, and to assess which communication method is the most effective. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three treatments: intervention materials with phone counselling (phone group); a web-based intervention with e-mail counselling (internet group); and usual care, i.e. lifestyle brochures (control group). The interventions used lifestyle modification and lasted a maximum of six months. Subjects were 1386 employees, recruited from seven companies (67% male; mean age 43 (SD 8.6) y; mean BMI 29.6 (SD 3.5) kg/m2). Body weight was measured by research personnel and by questionnaire. Secondary outcomes fat, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity and waist circumference were assessed by questionnaire. Measurements were done at baseline and after six months. Missing body weight was multiply imputed. Results Body weight reduced 1.5 kg (95% CI -2.2;-0.8, p < 0.001) in the phone group and 0.6 kg (95% CI -1.3; -0.01, p = 0.045) in the internet group, compared with controls. In completers analyses, weight and waist circumference in the phone group were reduced with 1.6 kg (95% CI -2.2;-1.0, p < 0.001) and 1.9 cm (95% CI -2.7;-1.0, p < 0.001) respectively, fat intake decreased with 1 fatpoint (1 to 4 grams)/day (95% CI -1.7;-0.2, p = 0.01) and physical activity increased with 866 METminutes/week (95% CI 203;1530, p = 0.01), compared with controls. The internet intervention resulted in a weight loss of 1.1 kg (95% CI -1.7;-0.5, p < 0.001) and a reduction in waist circumference of 1.2 cm (95% CI -2.1;-0.4, p = 0

  11. A process evaluation of an adolescent weight management intervention: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Lau, Christine; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Hill, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Process evaluation is valuable in guiding development of effective intervention programmes but rare in adolescent weight management. This paper presents a process evaluation of the Loozit(®) randomized controlled trial, a community-based behavioural lifestyle intervention for obese 13-16 year olds. Adolescents were randomized to receive the two-phase Loozit(®) group programme, with (n = 73) or without (n = 78), additional therapeutic contact (telephone coaching, short message service and/or emails) in Phase 2. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected. Facilitators used a standardized evaluation form to document participant attendance, and comment on lesson adherence and process delivery. Adolescents and parents completed satisfaction questionnaires at 2-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Following the intervention, 14 adolescents who provided informed written consent were interviewed about their experience with additional therapeutic contact. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests to compare group means, and thematic analyses. Group attendance rates averaged 85 and 47% during Phases 1 (0-2 months) and 2 (3-24 months), respectively. Facilitators frequently noted that participants reported making healthy lifestyle changes. Elements enjoyed in the sessions included practical activities, fun active games, resistance training and forming new friendships. Adolescents struggled with setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) goals. Overall, participants were satisfied with the help received including the telephone and electronic contact. More than 80% of participants found the programme changed adolescents' eating and physical activity habits, and 89% of parents reported changing parenting strategies. Future adolescent group-based programmes may enhance participant engagement and programme effectiveness by including more interactive and frequent telephone and electronic contact. PMID

  12. Decision-making, sensitivity to reward, and attrition in weight-management

    PubMed Central

    Koritzky, Gilly; Dieterle, Camille; Rice, Chantelle; Jordan, Katie; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attrition is a common problem in weight-management. Understanding the risk factors for attrition should enhance professionals’ ability to increase completion rates and improve health outcomes for more individuals. We propose a model that draws upon neuropsychological knowledge on reward-sensitivity in obesity and overeating to predict attrition. Design & Methods 52 participants in a weight-management program completed a complex decision-making task.Decision-making characteristics – including sensitivity to reward – were further estimated using a quantitative model. Impulsivity and risk-taking measures were also administered. Results Consistent with the hypothesis that sensitivity to reward predicted attrition, program dropouts had higher sensitivity to reward than completers (p < 0.03). No differences were observed between completers and dropouts in initial BMI, age, employment status, or the number of prior weight-loss attempts (p ≥ 0.07). Completers had a slightly higher education level than dropouts, but its inclusion in the model did not increase predictive power. Impulsivity, delay of gratification, and risk-taking did not predict attrition, either. Conclusions Findings link attrition in weight-management to the neural mechanisms associated with reward-seeking and related influences on decision-making. Individual differences in the magnitude of response elicited by rewards may account for the relative difficulty experienced by dieters in adhering to treatment. PMID:24771588

  13. Description and preliminary results from a structured specialist behavioural weight management group intervention: Specialist Lifestyle Management (SLiM) programme

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adrian; Gouldstone, Amy; Fox, Emily; Field, Annmarie; Todd, Wendy; Shakher, Jayadave; Bellary, Srikanth; Teh, Ming Ming; Azam, Muhammad; John, Reggie; Jagielski, Alison; Arora, Teresa; Thomas, G Neil; Taheri, Shahrad

    2015-01-01

    Background Specialist Lifestyle Management (SLiM) is a structured patient education and self-management group weight management programme. Each session is run monthly over a 6-month period providing a less intensive long-term approach. The groups are patient-centred incorporating educational, motivational, behavioural and cognitive elements. The theoretical background, programme structure and preliminary results of SLiM are presented. Subjects/methods The study was a pragmatic service evaluation of obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidity or ≥40 kg/m2 without comorbidity referred to a specialist weight management service in the West Midlands, UK. 828 patients were enrolled within SLiM over a 48-month period. Trained facilitators delivered the programme. Preliminary anonymised data were analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. The primary outcome measure was weight loss at 3 and 6 months with comparisons between completers and non-completers performed. The last observation carried forward was used for missing data. Results Of the 828 enrolled within SLiM, 464 completed the programme (56%). The mean baseline weight was 135 kg (BMI=49.1 kg/m2) with 87.2% of patients having a BMI≥40 kg/m2 and 12.4% with BMI≥60 kg/m2. The mean weight change of all patients enrolled was −4.1 kg (95% CI −3.6 to −4.6 kg, p=0.0001) at the end of SLiM, with completers (n=464) achieving −5.5 kg (95% CI −4.2 to −6.2 kg, p=0.0001) and non-completers achieving −2.3 kg (p=0.0001). The majority (78.6%) who attended the 6-month programme achieved weight loss with 32.3% achieving a ≥5% weight loss. Conclusions The SLiM programme is an effective group intervention for the management of severe and complex obesity. PMID:25854970

  14. Findings from an online behavioural weight management programme provided with or without a fortified diet beverage.

    PubMed

    Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C; Lagrotte, Caitlin; Klotz, Alicia A; Oliver, Tracy L; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Foster, Gary D; Jebb, Susan A; Moore, Carmel; Roberts, Susan A; Reeves, Rebecca S; Bolton, Mary Pat; Foreyt, John P

    2014-01-28

    The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact. PMID:23920353

  15. Development of weight and cost estimates for lifting surfaces with active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. D.; Flora, C. C.; Nelson, R. M.; Raymond, E. T.; Vincent, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Equations and methodology were developed for estimating the weight and cost incrementals due to active controls added to the wing and horizontal tail of a subsonic transport airplane. The methods are sufficiently generalized to be suitable for preliminary design. Supporting methodology and input specifications for the weight and cost equations are provided. The weight and cost equations are structured to be flexible in terms of the active control technology (ACT) flight control system specification. In order to present a self-contained package, methodology is also presented for generating ACT flight control system characteristics for the weight and cost equations. Use of the methodology is illustrated.

  16. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (P<0.01) reduced T2 weight in men (b=-0.91 kg; 95% CI:-1.4 to-0.42 kg) and women (b=-2.14 kg; 95% CI:-2.93 to-1.35 kg). Mean NAS had a greater effect on T2 weight as T1 weight increased, and the relationship was dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual physical activity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  17. Physical Activity: An Important Adaptative Mechanism for Body-Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  18. Physical activity: an important adaptative mechanism for body-weight control.

    PubMed

    Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina

    2012-01-01

    We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208

  19. Shoulder Musculature Activity and Stabilization During Upper Extremity Weight-Bearing Activities

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Marisa; Kremenic, Ian J.; McHugh, Malachy P.; Mullaney, Michael J.; Tyler, Timothy F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Upper extremity weight-bearing exercises are routinely used in physical therapy for patients with shoulder pathology. However, little evidence exists regarding the demand on the shoulder musculature. Objective To examine changes in shoulder muscle activity and center of pressure during upper extremity weight-bearing exercises of increasing difficulty. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) and kinetic data were recorded from both shoulders of 15 healthy subjects (10 male and 5 female). Participants were tested in a modified tripod position under three conditions of increasing difficulty: (1) hand directly on the force plate, (2) on a green Stability Trainer™ and (3) on a blue Stability Trainer™. Ground reaction forces were recorded for each trial. Surface EMG was recorded from the serratus anterior, pectoralis major, upper trapezius, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, and the lateral head of the triceps muscles. Results Mean deviation from center of pressure significantly increased when using the Stability Trainer™ pads. The activities of the triceps, serratus anterior, and anterior deltoid muscles significantly increased as each trial progressed, irrespective of stability condition. Additionally, activity in the anterior deltoid, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles significantly decreased with increasing difficulty, whereas activity in the triceps muscles significantly increased. Discussion and Conclusion Balancing on a foam pad made it more difficult to maintain the upper extremity in a stable position. However, this activity did not alter the proprioceptive stimulus enough to elicit an increase in shoulder muscle activation. While the results on this study support the use of different level Stability Trainers™ to facilitate neuromuscular re-education, a less compliant unstable surface may produce larger training effects. PMID:21522206

  20. Design and Methods of a Synchronous Online Motivational Interviewing Intervention for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    DiLillo, Vicki; Ingle, Krista; Harvey, Jean Ruth; West, Delia Smith

    2016-01-01

    Background While Internet-based weight management programs can facilitate access to and engagement in evidence-based lifestyle weight loss programs, the results have generally not been as effective as in-person programs. Furthermore, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promise as a technique for enhancing weight loss outcomes within face-to-face programs. Objective This paper describes the design, intervention development, and analysis of a therapist-delivered online MI intervention for weight loss in the context of an online weight loss program. Methods The MI intervention is delivered within the context of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an 18-month, group-based, online behavioral weight control program plus individually administered, synchronous online MI sessions relative to the group-based program alone. Six individual 30-minute MI sessions are conducted in private chat rooms over 18 months by doctoral-level psychologists. Sessions use a semistructured interview format for content and session flow and incorporate core MI components (eg, collaborative agenda setting, open-ended questions, reflective listening and summary statements, objective data, and a focus on evoking and amplifying change talk). Results The project was funded in 2010 and enrollment was completed in 2012. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected in 2016. Conclusions This is the first trial to test the efficacy of a synchronous online, one-on-one MI intervention designed to augment an online group behavioral weight loss program. If the addition of MI sessions proves to be successful, this intervention could be disseminated to enhance other distance-based weight loss interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01232699; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01232699 PMID:27095604

  1. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…

  2. Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27181165

  3. Development of an Internet/Population-Based Weight Management Program for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Tiffany; May, Sandra; Allen, H. Raymond; Bathalon, Col. Gaston P.; Lavergne, Guy; Sigrist, Lori; Ryan, Donna; Williamson, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of Army soldiers are sufficiently overweight to exceed the maximum weight allowances defined by the Army weight control program (AR600-9). Also, the body weights of a substantial number of soldiers approach the maximum weight allowances. These soldiers should not gain additional weight if they are to meet Army weight allowances. The conventional approach to this overweight problem is assigning soldiers to remedial physical training and mandatory referral for nutrition counseling by a health care provider. An alternative to this conventional approach is to target the entire population of soldiers (population-based intervention) to promote weight loss in overweight soldiers and weight gain prevention in soldiers who are approaching overweight status. To accomplish this objective, the Healthy Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Training Headquarters (H.E.A.L.T.H.) program was developed. This article describes the rationale for developing the program, the components of the program, and the utilization promotion strategies of the program. The H.E.A.L.T.H. program includes two primary components: (1) a Web site tailored to the standards established in Field Manual 21-20, Physical Fitness Training, Army physical fitness test, and AR600-9, the army weight control program, and (2) a health promotion program designed to promote awareness of the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site and to facilitate use of the Web site by soldiers and their family members. The Web site is equipped with personalized planning tools and progress tracking over time related to fitness, caloric intake, and lifestyle behavior change goals. The health promotion program includes media advertisements and “ground roots” efforts to facilitate use by soldiers. PMID:19885186

  4. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions. PMID:26758710

  5. The impact of a worksite weight management program on obesity: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeff; Clark, Bobby; Lewis, Geraint; Duncan, Ian

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of a worksite weight management program on the reduction of weight and lipid levels in employees and their dependents. This retrospective study examined the impact of a one-on-one worksite weight management program. Patients with a body mass index (BMI)>30, or a BMI>25 and 2 or more risk factors were eligible for inclusion. Laboratory and biometric readings at study end were compared to those at baseline. In addition, the percentage change of patients reaching recommended guideline levels was reported. Of the 310 employees enrolled, 157 completed the program (50.6%) with an average weight loss of 5.6%. Improvement was realized for pre-post weight (-6.0 lbs.; P≤.0001), BMI (-0.9; P≤.0001), blood pressure (systolic: -2.6; P≤.0001; diastolic: -1.9; P≤.0001), total cholesterol (-5.9; P=.0485), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL; -4.7; P=.0004), and triglycerides (-7.6; P=.0060). The proportion moving to within guideline levels increased for the following metrics: normal BMI category (2.6%; P=.0060),<30 BMI (10%; P≤.0001), systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings (7.7%; P=.0011 and 6.1; P=.0056, respectively), total cholesterol (6.5%; P=.0020), LDL (3.9%; P=.0396), and triglycerides (4.8; P=.0137). Retention in the worksite program was almost twice that seen in some commercial weight loss programs and significant improvements in laboratory and biometric readings were achieved. This study suggests that employer worksite-based programs may have an important role in improving the health of an employee population, which is of particular interest given the high prevalence of obesity and its attendant costs. PMID:24735259

  6. An Analysis of Behaviour Change Techniques Used in a Sample of Gestational Weight Management Trials

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, H.; Arden, M. A.; Duxbury, A. M. S.; Fair, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with multiple adverse outcomes. There is a lack of clarity on the specific components of effective interventions to support pregnant women with gestational weight management. Method. All 44 studies within a preexisting review of lifestyle interventions, with a potential to impact on maternal weight outcomes, were considered for content analysis. Interventions were classified using Behaviour Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy clusters to explore which categories of BCT were used in interventions and their effectiveness in managing gestational weight gain. Results. The most commonly used BCTs were within the categories of “feedback and monitoring,” “shaping knowledge,” “goals and planning,” “repetition and substitution,” “antecedents,” and “comparison of behaviours.” For diet and mixed interventions “feedback and monitoring,” “shaping knowledge,” and “goals and planning” appeared the most successful BCT categories. Conclusions. Poor reporting within studies in defining the BCTs used, in clarifying the differences in processes between intervention and control groups, and in differentiating between the intervention and research processes made BCT classification difficult. Future studies should elaborate more clearly on the behaviour change techniques used and report them accurately to allow a better understanding of the effective ingredients for lifestyle interventions during pregnancy. PMID:27034836

  7. Weight-gain misperceptions and the third-person effect in Black and White college-bound females: potential implications for healthy weight management.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J

    2013-08-01

    Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. PMID:23910760

  8. Weight-Gain Misperceptions and the Third-Person Effect in Black and White College-bound Females: Potential Implications for Healthy Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jennifer B.; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.; Lee, Shanique J.

    2013-01-01

    Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the “Freshman 15”, belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. PMID:23910760

  9. Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss intervention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12-18; BMI range: 22-36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass. PMID:27058280

  10. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  11. Weight management by phone conference call: A comparison with a traditional face-to-face clinic. Rationale and design for a randomized equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, Kate; Washburn, Richard A.; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art treatment for weight management consists of a behavioral intervention to facilitate decreased energy intake and increased physical activity. These interventions are typically delivered face-to-face (FTF) by a health educator to a small group of participants. There are numerous barriers to participation in FTF clinics including availability, scheduling, the expense and time required to travel to the clinic site, and possible need for dependent care. Weight management clinics delivered by conference call have the potential to diminish or eliminate these barriers. The conference call approach may also reduce burden on providers, who could conduct clinic groups from almost any location without the expenses associated with maintaining FTF clinic space. A randomized trial will be conducted in 395 overweight/obese adults (BMI 25–39.9 kg/m2) to determine if weight loss (6 months) and weight maintenance (12 months) are equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies and pre-packaged meals delivered by either a conference call or the traditional FTF approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity and will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and extensive process evaluation will be completed. PMID:22664647

  12. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  13. Maternal physical activity, birth weight and perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Briend, A

    1980-11-01

    As a result of the acquisition of upright posture, adaptation to muscular exercise seems to be unique in man. It involves a redistribution of the cardiac output mediated by the sympathetic system towards priority organs which apparently do not include the pregnant uterus. This could explain the poor tolerance of the human fetus to maternal exercise. The hypothesis is supported by the independence of a detrimental effect of work from the effect of maternal nutrition and by an influence of maternal posture in late pregnancy on its outcome. Possible relations between maternal activity before and during late pregnancy and perinatal mortality are discussed in the context of this hypothesis. PMID:7005626

  14. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  15. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  16. Neighborhood factors associated with physical activity and adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, and adequate weight gain are all associated with maternal health and fetal growth during pregnancy. Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechani...

  17. The role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R

    2015-01-01

    Summary The majority of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) show only modest weight loss with exercise intervention alone, and slight increases in weight loss when exercise intervention is added to dietary restriction. In most RCTs, the energy deficit produced by the prescribed exercise is far smaller than that usually produced by dietary restriction. In prospective studies that prescribed high levels of exercise, enrolled individuals achieved substantially greater weight loss—comparable to that obtained after similar energy deficits were produced by caloric restriction. High levels of exercise might, however, be difficult for overweight or obese adults to achieve and sustain. RCTs examining exercise and its effect on weight-loss maintenance demonstrated mixed results; however, weight maintenance interventions were usually of limited duration and long-term adherence to exercise was problematic. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional, and prospective correlation studies suggest an essential role for physical activity in weight-loss maintenance, and post hoc analysis of prospective trials shows a clear dose–response relationship between physical activity and weight maintenance. This article reviews the role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss. We focus on prospective, RCTs lasting at least 4 months; however, other prospective trials, meta-analyses and large systematic reviews are included. Limitations in the current body of literature are discussed. PMID:17581621

  18. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  19. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J.; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women. Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later. At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%–6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status. Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  20. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially influence macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Rayahin, Jamie E.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Zhang, Yu; Koh, Timothy J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic diversity permitting wide-ranging roles in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Hyaluronic acid, a major glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to have differential signaling based on its molecular weight. With this in mind, the main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on macrophage activation and reprogramming. Changes in macrophage activation were assessed by activation state selective marker measurement, specifically quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine enzyme-linked immunoassays, after macrophage treatment with differing molecular weights of hyaluronic acid under four conditions: the resting state, concurrent with classical activation, and following inflammation involving either classically or alternatively activated macrophages. Regardless of initial polarization state, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid induced a classically activated-like state, confirmed by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including nos2, tnf, il12b, and cd80, and enhanced secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid promoted an alternatively activated-like state, confirmed by up regulation of pro-resolving gene transcription, including arg1, il10, and mrc1, and enhanced arginase activity. Overall, our observations suggest that macrophages undergo phenotypic changes dependent on molecular weight of hyaluronan that correspond to either (1) pro-inflammatory response for low molecular weight HA or (2) pro-resolving response for high molecular weight HA. These observations bring significant further understanding of the influence of extracellular matrix polymers, hyaluronic acid in particular, on regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages. This knowledge can be used to guide the design of HA-containing biomaterials to better utilize the natural response to HAs. PMID:26280020

  1. Prospective relationships between body weight and physical activity: an observational analysis from the NAVIGATOR study

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, David; Thomas, Laine E; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Haffner, Steven M; Gill, Jason M R; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Holman, Rury R; McMurray, John J; Califf, Robert M; Kraus, William E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While bidirectional relationships exist between body weight and physical activity, direction of causality remains uncertain and previous studies have been limited by self-reported activity or weight and small sample size. We investigated the prospective relationships between weight and physical activity. Design Observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study, a double-blinded randomised clinical trial of nateglinide and valsartan, respectively. Setting Multinational study of 9306 participants. Participants Participants with biochemically confirmed impaired glucose tolerance had annual measurements of both weight and step count using research grade pedometers, worn for 7 days consecutively. Along with randomisation to valsartan or placebo plus nateglinide or placebo, participants took part in a lifestyle modification programme. Outcome measures Longitudinal regression using weight as response value and physical activity as predictor value was conducted, adjusted for baseline covariates. Analysis was then repeated with physical activity as response value and weight as predictor value. Only participants with a response value preceded by at least three annual response values were included. Results Adequate data were available for 2811 (30%) of NAVIGATOR participants. Previous weight (χ2=16.8; p<0.0001), but not change in weight (χ2=0.1; p=0.71) was inversely associated with subsequent step count, indicating lower subsequent levels of physical activity in heavier individuals. Change in step count (χ2=5.9; p=0.02) but not previous step count (χ2=0.9; p=0.34) was inversely associated with subsequent weight. However, in the context of trajectories already established for weight (χ2 for previous weight measurements 747.3; p<0.0001) and physical activity (χ2 for previous step count 432.6; p<0.0001), these effects were of limited clinical importance. Conclusions While a

  2. Filling the treatment gap in the weight management of overweight and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Gesundheit, N

    2012-01-01

    Approximately two out of three adult Americans are overweight or obese. Despite widespread recognition of this disorder, there has been little progress in the past 20 years in finding effective noninvasive treatments for weight loss. The consequences of obesity are increasingly well recognized and include increases in blood pressure, plasma lipids, the onset of type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, asthma, osteoarthritis and a variety of cancers. Obesity can increase the rate of pregnancy complications and fetal malformations in normoglycemic women. Current medical approaches to obesity, including intensive lifestyle interventions and drug therapies, have been successful in achieving modest weight loss of 4–7%, less than the 1998 NIH Guidelines target of 10%. Surgical approaches, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, are much more successful, achieving weight loss of 15–50%. A treatment gap therefore exists in the management of obese and overweight patients, because many patients desire and would receive great health benefits by achieving weight loss of 7–15%. This review will discuss the dilemma of the treatment gap and explore possible ways by which it may be filled in the future by the use of innovative approaches. PMID:25018869

  3. Weight-activity associations with cardiometabolic risk factors among U.S. youth.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2015-10-01

    Research among adult populations suggests that underweight is associated with worse cardiometabolic health and that adequate engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may help to counteract the cardiometabolic consequences of overweight/obesity. Whether these findings are also true in children and adolescents (hereafter 'youth') is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether underweight and overweight/obese youth who engage in relatively more MVPA have better or similar cardiometabolic risk factors than normal weight youth who engage in relatively less MVPA. Data were extracted from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=2268). Four cardiometabolic risk factors assessed included C-reactive protein, mean arterial pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Weight status was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. MVPA was assessed via accelerometry. Six weight-activity groups were created: 1) Underweight and Inactive; 2) Normal Weight and Inactive; 3) Overweight/Obese and Inactive; 4) Underweight and Active; 5) Normal Weight and Active; and, 6) Overweight/Obese and Active. An overall cardiometabolic risk score was calculated by summing the frequency with which each individual participant scored in the worst quartile for each of the 4 cardiometabolic parameters. Compared to those who were Normal Weight and Inactive, youth who were Underweight and Active (β=-0.05, p=0.78) had a similar overall cardiometabolic risk score. In contrast, Overweight/Obese and Active youth (β=1.1, p<0.001) had a higher overall cardiometabolic risk score when compared to Normal Weight and Inactive youth. These cross-sectional findings suggest that MVPA may not fully counteract the cardiometabolic consequences of overweight/obesity in youth. Rather, maintaining a normal weight may be of a more important factor related to cardiometabolic risk in youth. PMID:26056077

  4. Does reading keep you thin? Leisure activities, cultural tastes, and body weight in comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    While sedentary leisure-time activities such as reading, going to movies, attending cultural events, attending sporting events, watching TV, listening to music, and socializing with friends would seem to contribute to excess weight, a perspective focusing on SES differences in cultural tastes suggests the opposite, that some sedentary activities are associated with lower rather than higher body weight. This study aims to test theories of cultural distinction by examining relationships between leisure-time activities and body weight. Using 2007 data on 17 nations from the International Social Survey Program, the analysis estimates relationships between the body mass index and varied leisure-time activities while controlling for SES, physical activities, and sociodemographic variables. Net of controls for SES and physical activities, participation time in cultural activities is associated with lower rather than higher body weight, particularly in high-income nations. The results suggest that both cultural activities and body weight reflect forms of distinction that separate SES-based lifestyles. PMID:21707664

  5. Technology-Assisted Weight Management Interventions: Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Janna; Patel, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese, which greatly increases their risks for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. Busy healthcare professionals need effective tools and strategies to facilitate healthy eating and increase physical activity, thus promoting weight loss in their patients. Communication technologies such as the Internet and mobile devices offer potentially powerful methodologies to deliver behavioral weight loss interventions, and researchers have studied a variety of technology-assisted approaches. Materials and Methods: The literature from 2002 to 2012 was systematically reviewed by examining clinical trials of technology-assisted interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance among overweight and obese adults. Results: In total, 2,011 citations from electronic databases were identified; 39 articles were eligible for inclusion. Findings suggest that the use of technology-assisted behavioral interventions, particularly those that incorporate text messaging or e-mail, may be effective for producing weight loss among overweight and obese adults. Conclusions: Only a small percentage of the 39 studies reviewed used mobile platforms such as Android® (Google, Mountain View, CA) phones or the iPhone® (Apple, Cupertino, CA), only two studies incorporated cost analysis, none was able to identify which features were most responsible for changes in outcomes, and few reported long-term outcomes. All of these areas are important foci for future research. PMID:25409001

  6. Personalized Weight Management Interventions for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Viable Option for African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C; Arena, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an independent contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major driving force behind racial/ethnic and gender disparities in risk. Due to a multitude of interrelating factors (i.e., personal, social, cultural, economic and environmental), African-American (AA) women are disproportionately obese and twice as likely to succumb to CVD, yet they are significantly underrepresented in behavioral weight management interventions. In this selective review we highlight components of the limited interventions shown to enhance weight loss outcomes in this population and make a case for leveraging Web-based technology and artificial intelligence techniques to deliver personalized programs aimed at obesity treatment and CVD risk reduction. Although many of the approaches discussed are generally applicable across populations burdened by disparate rates of obesity and CVD, we specifically focus on AA women due to the disproportionate impact of these non-communicable diseases and the general paucity of interventions targeted to this high-risk group. PMID:26908050

  7. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods. PMID:24781877

  8. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2) engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22). Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p < .001) and to a lesser extent by evaluative body image (p < .05). Treatment had significant effects on 12-month eating behavior change, which were fully mediated by investment and partially mediated by evaluative body image (effect ratios: .68 and .22, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols. PMID:21767360

  9. Improved weight management using genetic information to personalize a calorie controlled diet

    PubMed Central

    Arkadianos, Ioannis; Valdes, Ana M; Marinos, Efstathios; Florou, Anna; Gill, Rosalynn D; Grimaldi, Keith A

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene-environment studies demonstrate variability in nutrient requirements depending upon individual variations in genes affecting nutrient metabolism and transport. This study investigated whether the inclusion of genetic information to personalize a patient's diet (nutrigenetics) could improve long term weight management. Methods Patients with a history of failures at weight loss were offered a nutrigenetic test screening 24 variants in 19 genes involved in metabolism. 50 patients were in the nutrigenetic group and 43 patients attending the same clinic were selected for comparison using algorithms to match the characteristics: age, sex, frequency of clinical visits and BMI at initial clinic visit. The second group of 43 patients did not receive a nutrigenetic test. BMI reduction at 100 and > 300 days and blood fasting glucose were measured. Results After 300 days of follow-up individuals in the nutrigenetic group were more likely to have maintained some weight loss (73%) than those in the comparison group (32%), resulting in an age and gender adjusted OR of 5.74 (95% CI 1.74–22.52). Average BMI reduction in the nutrigenetic group was 1.93 kg/m2(5.6% loss) vs. an average BMI gain of 0.51 kg/m2(2.2% gain) (p < 0.023). Among patients with a starting blood fasting glucose of > 100 mg/dL, 57% (17/30) of the nutrigenetic group but only 25% (4/16) of the non-tested group had levels reduced to < 100 mg/dL after > 90 days of weight management therapy (OR for lowering glucose to < 100 mg/dL due to diet = 1.98 95%CI 1.01, 3.87, p < 0.046). Conclusion Addition of nutrigenetically tailored diets resulted in better compliance, longer-term BMI reduction and improvements in blood glucose levels. PMID:17945020

  10. [Anticoagulant activity of low-molecular-weight heparins obtained using a hydrolase complex].

    PubMed

    Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Bannikova, G E; Miftakhova, N T; Lapikova, E S; Makarov, V A; Varlamov, V P

    2007-01-01

    The anticoagulant activity of low-molecular weight heparins (LMWH-PC) with average distribution of molecular weights within 3.4-5.8 kD was investigated. The samples of LMWH-PC were obtained from unfractionated heparin using immobilized enzyme complex of protease C. The LMWH-PC derivatives inhibited the activity of blood coagulation factors IIa (thrombin) and Xa. The LMWH-PC derivatives had an anti-factor-Xa activity up to 131-208 IU/mg and anti-factor-IIa activity up to 81-175 IU/mg. All LMWH-PC derivatives form complexes with protamine sulfate during electrophoresis in agarose gel. The anticoagulant activity of rabbit plasma exhibits a doze-dependent increase upon the intravenous or subcutaneous injection of LMWH-PC with a molecular weight of 5.4 kD. PMID:18318190

  11. The need of a weight management control program in judo: a proposal based on the successful case of wrestling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Judo competitions are divided into weight classes. However, most athletes reduce their body weight in a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast weight reduction, athletes use a number of aggressive nutritional strategies so many of them place themselves at a high health-injury risk. In collegiate wrestling, a similar problem has been observed and three wrestlers died in 1997 due to rapid weight loss regimes. After these deaths, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had implemented a successful weight management program which was proven to improve weight management behavior. No similar program has ever been discussed by judo federations even though judo competitors present a comparable inappropriate pattern of weight control. In view of this, the basis for a weight control program is provided in this manuscript, as follows: competition should begin within 1 hour after weigh-in, at the latest; each athlete is allowed to be weighed-in only once; rapid weight loss as well as artificial rehydration (i.e., saline infusion) methods are prohibited during the entire competition day; athletes should pass the hydration test to get their weigh-in validated; an individual minimum competitive weight (male athletes competing at no less than 7% and females at no less than 12% of body fat) should be determined at the beginning of each season; athletes are not allowed to compete in any weight class that requires weight reductions greater than 1.5% of body weight per week. In parallel, educational programs should aim at increasing the athletes', coaches' and parents' awareness about the risks of aggressive nutritional strategies as well as healthier ways to properly manage body weight. PMID:20441594

  12. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program.

    PubMed

    Zizzi, Sam J; Lima Fogaca, Jana; Sheehy, Tammy; Welsh, Myia; Abildso, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal) from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight) and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise. PMID:27413546

  13. Changes in Weight Loss, Health Behaviors, and Intentions among 400 Participants Who Dropped out from an Insurance-Sponsored, Community-Based Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Zizzi, Sam J.; Lima Fogaca, Jana; Sheehy, Tammy; Welsh, Myia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of weight management research is based on data from randomized controlled studies conducted in clinical settings. As these findings are translated into community-based settings, additional research is needed to understand patterns of lifestyle change and dropout. The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for and consequences associated with dropout (or removal) from an insurance-funded weight management program. Using a mixed methods approach with objectively measured changes in body weight and attendance along with quantitative and qualitative survey data, patterns of intention and behavior change were explored. The results from a sample of 400 respondents support the idea that there are both positive and negative consequences of program participation. Overall, 1 in 5 respondents lost a clinically significant amount of weight during the program (>5% of baseline body weight) and 1 in 3 experienced a positive consequence, while only 6% expressed a negative outcome of participation. Additionally, nearly 90% of all of the consequences that emerged from the data were positive. Attitude change was a major theme, including positive health intentions, perceived success, learning skills, and new appreciation of exercise. PMID:27413546

  14. Evaluation of a multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management service for adults with morbid obesity, or obesity and comorbidities, based in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, A; Hughes, C A; Kumaravel, B; Bachmann, M O; Steel, N; Capehorn, M; Cheema, K

    2014-01-01

    A multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management service in primary care recruited patients with a body mass index ≥40 kg·m−2, or 30 kg·m−2 with obesity-related co-morbidity to a 1-year programme. A cohort of 230 participants was recruited and evaluated using the National Obesity Observatory Standard Evaluation Framework. The primary outcome was weight loss of at least 5% of baseline weight at 12 months. Diet was assessed using the two-item food frequency questionnaire, activity using the General Practice Physical Activity questionnaire and quality of life using the EuroQol-5D-5L questionnaire. A focus group explored the participants' experiences. Baseline mean weight was 124.4 kg and mean body mass index was 44.1 kg·m−2. A total of 102 participants achieved 5% weight loss at 12 months. The mean weight loss was 10.2 kg among the 117 participants who completed the 12-month programme. Baseline observation carried forward analysis gave a mean weight loss of 5.9 kg at 12 months. Fruit and vegetable intake, activity level and quality of life all improved. The dropout rate was 14.3% at 6 months and 45.1% at 1 year. Focus group participants described high levels of satisfaction. It was possible to deliver a Tier 3 weight management service for obese patients with complex co-morbidity in a primary care setting with a full multidisciplinary team, which obtained good health outcomes compared with existing services. PMID:25825858

  15. The association between worksite physical environment and employee nutrition, and physical activity behavior and weight status

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fabio A.; Wall, Sarah S.; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M.; Hill, Jennie L.; Krippendorf, Blake E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Methods Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6,261) completed a brief health survey prior to participation in a weight loss program. Results Employees’ access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower BMI, while access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines were directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Conclusions Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status; providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss. PMID:24988105

  16. Adapting a tertiary-care pediatric weight management clinic to better reach Spanish-speaking families.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Angelica; Irby, Megan B; Pulgar, Camila; Skelton, Joseph A

    2012-06-01

    Pediatric obesity continues to be an epidemic, affecting Hispanic children disproportionately. Recent recommendations outline a step-wise approach to the treatment of overweight and obese children, culminating in tertiary-care, multidisciplinary programs. We detail here how our tertiary-care, family-based, pediatric weight management clinic addressed the problem of few Spanish-speaking families enrolling in treatment after referral by adding a Bilingual Case Manager. Utilizing a family-centered, high-contact, personal approach, our program increased the number of Hispanic families enrolling over ten-fold. Further, outcomes in Hispanic families were equal to or better than other racial/ethnic groups. Lessons learned from this experience may benefit other obesity treatment programs trying to improve care of Spanish-speaking families. PMID:21909984

  17. Associations of Weight Status, Social Factors, and Active Travel among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Behrens, Timothy K.; Velecina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active travel (AT) is associated with various health benefits and may help prevent the decline in physical activity during college years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of several factors with AT to campus by weight status. Methods: Students at a large northeastern US campus completed an online…

  18. Safety and toxicological evaluation of Meratrim®: an herbal formulation for weight management.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Zainulabedin M; Sengupta, Krishanu; Krishnaraju, Alluri V; Trimurtulu, Golakoti; Lau, Francis C; Lugo, James P

    2015-04-01

    Meratrim is a unique dietary ingredient consisting of extracts from Sphaeranthus indicus flower heads and Garcinia mangostana fruit rind. Clinical studies have demonstrated that Meratrim is effective and well-tolerated in weight management. Herein we assessed the broad spectrum safety of Meratrim in a battery of in vitro and animal toxicological studies including a sub-chronic repeated-dose 13-week oral toxicity study to determine the no-observable-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL). The LD50 levels of Meratrim in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, as determined by the acute oral and dermal toxicity studies, were >5000 and >2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The primary skin and eye irritation tests classified Meratrim as non-irritating to the skin and mildly irritating to the eye. Genotoxicity studies showed that Meratrim is non-mutagenic. In the repeated-dose 13-week oral toxicity study, SD rats were orally gavaged with Meratrim at 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day. No morbidity, mortality, or significant adverse events were observed either during the course of the study or on the 13th week. The NOAEL of Meratrim was concluded to be 1000 mg/kg of body weight/day in male and female SD rats. These results, combined with the tolerability of Meratrim in the human clinical trials, demonstrate the broad spectrum safety of Meratrim. PMID:25680508

  19. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  20. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  1. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  2. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    PubMed

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M; Horowitz, Carol R; Kleinman, Lawrence C; Galvez, Maida P

    2016-07-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child's health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3-15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children's weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child's weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child's weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  3. Effects of Title IX and sports participation on girls' physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between girls' participation in high school sports and the physical activity, weight, body mass, and body composition of adolescent females during the 1970s when girls' sports participation was dramatically increasing as a result of Title IX. We found that increases in girls' participation in high school sports, a proxy for expanded athletic opportunities for adolescent females, were associated with an increase in physical activity and an improvement in weight and body mass among girls. In contrast, adolescent boys experienced a decline in physical activity and an increase in weight and body mass during the period when girls' athletic opportunities were expanding. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that Title IX and the increase in athletic opportunities among adolescent females it engendered had a beneficial effect on the health of adolescent girls. PMID:19548549

  4. The effect of increase in baggage weight on elderly women's lower extremity muscle activation during gait.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Nam, Chan-Woo; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of increased baggage weight on the muscle activation of elderly women's lower extremities during gait. A total of 24 elderly women who were residing in communities in Daegu, South Korea aged 79.6±6.2, 149.7±7.0cm in height, and 53.5±7.2kg in weight participated in this study. The muscle activation of each muscle was measured three times at 2kg, 3kg, and 4kg of baggage weight while the subjects were conducting treadmill walking wearing backpacks. Electrodes were placed on four muscles: the quadriceps muscle (rectus femoris), the hamstring muscle (semitendinosus), the tibialis anterior muscle, and the soleus muscle. The results show that the rates of increase in muscle activation in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles according to baggage weight increase were higher than those in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (<0.05). These results indicate that the heavier weight loads increase the activation of muscles that control the ankle joints causing muscle fatigue. Moreover, a decrease in balance ability through muscle fatigue can be a risk factor for falls. Thus, elderly people should be instructed not to carry heavy objects. PMID:25179442

  5. Comparison of two measures of weight criticism in youth: associations with physical activity engagement and attitudes, weight status, and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gayes, Laurie A; Steele, Ric G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the degree to which 2 measures of weight criticism, the Weight Criticism During Physical Activity (WCA) scale and the Perceptions of Teasing Scale (POTS), represent distinct constructs and in what circumstances each is most appropriately used. A community sample of 307 fourth and fifth graders completed these measures, as well as measures of health-related quality of life, physical activity engagement, and attitudes toward physical activity. Body mass index was also calculated. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WCA scale and the POTS represented correlated but distinct constructs and related differently to measures of physical activity and weight status. Findings suggested that the WCA scale may be representing criticism regarding athletic competency, not criticism of weight status as described in the literature. The POTS subscales appear to be accurately described and used in the literature. PMID:25281194

  6. Effects of weight gain induced by controlled overfeeding on physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Han, Hongmei; Redman, Leanne M.; Martin, Corby K.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether physical activity changes following long-term overfeeding and in response to different dietary protein intakes. Twenty-five (16 males, 9 females) healthy adults (18–35 yr) with BMI ranging from 19 to 30 kg/m2 enrolled in this inpatient study. In a parallel group design, participants were fed 140% of energy needs, with 5, 15, or 25% of energy from protein, for 56 days. Participants wore an RT3 accelerometer for at least 59 days throughout baseline and during overfeeding and completed 24-h whole room metabolic chamber assessments at baseline and on days 1, 14, and 56 of overfeeding and on day 57, when the baseline energy intake was consumed, to measure percent of time active and spontaneous physical activity (SPA; kcal/day). Changes in activity were also assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW). From accelerometry, vector magnitude (VM), a weight-independent measure of activity, and activity energy expenditure (AEE) increased with weight gain during overfeeding. AEE remained increased after adjusting for changes in body composition. Activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) from DLW and percent activity and SPA in the metabolic chamber increased with overfeeding, but SPA was no longer significant after adjusting for change in body composition. Change in VM and AEE were positively correlated with weight gain; however, change in activity was not affected by protein intake. Overfeeding produces an increase in physical activity and in energy expended in physical activity after adjusting for changes in body composition, suggesting that increased activity in response to weight gain might be one mechanism to support adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:25294214

  7. Smart conjugated polymer nanocarrier for healthy weight loss by negative feedback regulation of lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Lei; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Pei-Jian; Yao, Xi-Kuang; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhang, Can; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2016-02-14

    Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution. PMID:26790821

  8. Antioxidant activity of low molecular weight alginate produced by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelishomi, Zahra Habibi; Goliaei, Bahram; Mahdavi, Hossein; Nikoofar, Alireza; Rahimi, Mahmood; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Mamashli, Fatemeh; Bigdeli, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    By definition, antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Therefore, such compounds have very important clinical roles. In this study alginate polymer was depolymerized by heat treatment. The resulting low molecular weight alginates were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy, Viscometry, Dynamic light scattering and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. Antioxidant properties of these heat products were studied by ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Results showed that heating caused breaks in the polymer chain and so generation of low molecular weight alginates. Antioxidant measurements confirmed antioxidant activity of alginate increased upon a decrease in molecular weight. Therefore, low molecular weight alginate produced by heating could be considered as a stronger antioxidant than alginate polymer. These products could be useful for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:26593570

  9. ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF SCAPULAR MUSCLES DURING DIAGONAL PATTERNS USING ELASTIC RESISTANCE AND FREE WEIGHTS

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Nancy; Kotowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Abnormalities in glenohumeral rhythm and neuromuscular control of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles have been identified in individuals with shoulder pain. Upper extremity diagonal or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns have been suggested as effective means of activating scapular muscles, yet few studies have compared muscular activation during diagonal patterns with varying modes of resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine which type of resistance and PNF pattern combination best elicits electromyographic (EMG) activity of the scapular muscles. Methods: Twenty one healthy subjects with no history of scapulohumeral dysfunction were recruited from a population of convenience. Surface electrodes were applied to the SA, UT, MT and LT and EMG data collected for each muscle as the subject performed resisted UE D1 flexion, UE D1 extension, UE D2 flexion and UE D2 extension with elastic resistance and a three pound weight. Results: No significant differences were found between scapular muscle activity during D1 flexion when using elastic resistance and when using a weight. UT, MT and LT values were also not significantly different during D2 flexion when using elastic resistance vs. using a weight. The activity of the SA remained relatively the same during all patterns. The LT activity was significantly greater during D2 flexion with elastic resistance than during the D1 flexion and D1 extension with elastic resistance. MT activity was significantly greater during D2 flexion with elastic resistance as compared to all other patterns except D2 flexion with a weight. UT activity was significantly greater during flexion patterns than extension patterns. Conclusions: The upper extremity PNF pattern did significantly affect the mean UT, MT and LT activity but was not found to significantly affect SA activity. The type of resistance did not significantly

  10. Smart conjugated polymer nanocarrier for healthy weight loss by negative feedback regulation of lipase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Lei; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Pei-Jian; Yao, Xi-Kuang; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhang, Can; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution.Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution

  11. [Anticoagulant activity of low-molecular-weight sulfated derivatives of galactomannan from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) seeds].

    PubMed

    Mestechkina, N M; Shcherbukhin, V D; Bannikova, G E; Varlamov, V P; Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Makarov, V A; Tikhonov, V E

    2008-01-01

    Galactomannan from seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (guar) was depolymerized using immobilized enzymatic preparation celloviridin. A set of fragments whose molecular weights varied from 12.6 to 245.6 kDa was obtained. Sulfated derivatives of components of all fractions were synthesized, in which the content of HSO3(-) groups was 48.05% +/- 2.31. All preparations exhibited anticoagulant activity, which was recorded in vitro in two tests--aIIa and aXa. The antithrombin activity (aIIa) was high (up to 65-87 U/mg) and did not depend on the molecular weight of a sulfated derivative; in the second test (aXa), the effect of molecular weight was observed. Biospecific electrophoresis allowed us to detect the ability of galactomannan sulfates to form complexes with protamine sulfate, a classic antidote to heparin. PMID:18491607

  12. A data management system for weight control and design-to-cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The definition of the mass properties data of aircraft changed on a daily basis as do design details of the aircraft. This dynamic nature of the definition has generally encouraged those responsible for the data to update the data on a weekly or monthly basis. The by-product of these infrequent updates was the requirement of manual records to maintain daily activity. The development of WAVES changed the approach to management of mass properties data. WAVES has given the ability to update the data on a daily basis thereby eliminating the need for manual records. WAVES has demonstrated that a software product can support a data management system for engineering data.

  13. Expected Satiety: Application to Weight Management and Understanding Energy Selection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Ciarán G.; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the approaches used to quantify expectations of satiation and satiety have led to a better understanding of how humans select and consume food, and the associated links to energy intake regulation. When compared calorie for calorie some foods are expected to deliver several times more satiety than others, and multiple studies have demonstrated that people are able to discriminate between similar foods reliably and with considerable sensitivity. These findings have implications for the control of meal size and the design of foods that can be used to lower the energy density of diets. These methods and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for weight management. The current paper also highlights why expected satiety may also play an important role beyond energy selection, in moderating appetite sensations after a meal has been consumed, through memory for recent eating and the selection of foods across future meals. PMID:26627096

  14. Repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life among behavioral weight management participants.

    PubMed

    Truong, Erin A K; Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2016-08-01

    Repressive coping has been associated with elevated risk of disease and negative health outcomes in past studies. Although a prior study of healthy men found that repression was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), no study has examined repressive coping among obese individuals. This study examined the relationship of repressive coping with BMI and obesity-relevant psychosocial factors among 104 overweight and obese participants in a behavioral weight management program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life. BMI was objectively measured. Repressors reported lower stigmatization, anxiety, and depression as well as higher emotional and weight-related quality of life. Repressors and non-repressors had equivalent BMI and reported similar impairment in physical quality of life, but stigmatization moderated the relationship between repressive coping and physical quality of life (b=0.31, p=0.039), reflecting better physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization. Obese individuals who engage in repressive coping may tend to underreport psychological symptoms, social difficulties, and impairments in quality of life. Higher physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization may reflect a combined influence of coping and social processes in physical quality of life among obese individuals. PMID:27304361

  15. The effect of pedometer use on physical activity and body weight in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Yasemin; Aslan, Secil Menekse; Akturk, Zekeriya

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and healthy eating are of the utmost importance in treatment of obesity. However obese generally tend to have a sedentary lifestyle. Walking is a form of physical activity that is both simple and can be performed by everyone, but it requires an objective measurement. Number of steps taken during tracking can be recorded with the pedometer, a device used to measure the level of physical activity. We aimed to investigate whether or not using pedometers as a motivational technique to increase the level of physical activity in obese women has an impact on weight loss. Eighty-four obese women who are similar age referring to Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine Healthy Living Clinic, Turkey were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group were given pedometers, and control group were prescribed similar diet and physical activity with a three-month follow-up plan without pedometers. Mean weight in pedometer group initially was 88.9 ± 8.4 kg, which decreased to 80.2 ± 8.7 kg after the programme. Mean weight in control group was 86.1 ± 9.2 kg at the beginning, and it decreased to 84.7 ± 8.8 kg after three months. It was observed in pedometer group that the mean number of steps 8817 ± 2725 steps/day at the beginning increased to mean 9716 ± 2811 steps/day at the end of the study. Weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and waist circumference measurements decreased more greatly in the pedometer when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Pedometers may be recommended to obese patients to monitor and increase the level of physical activity and to promote weight loss. PMID:25068676

  16. Dietary protein in weight management: a review proposing protein spread and change theories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A large volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for favorable changes to body composition, but not all data are conclusive. The aim of this review is to propose two theories, “protein spread theory” and “protein change theory” in an effort to explain discrepancies in the literature. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see body composition and anthropometric differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see body composition and anthropometric benefits. Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 58.4% g/kg/day between group protein intake spread versus a 38.8% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +28.6% compared to +4.9% when additional protein was no more effective than control. Providing a sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in weight management interventions. A modest increase in dietary protein favorably effects body composition during weight management interventions. PMID:22971730

  17. Are foods with fat-related claims useful for weight management?

    PubMed

    Schermel, Alyssa; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers believe that foods labelled with fat claims (e.g. low fat) are lower in calories than comparable regular foods and are therefore helpful for weight management. However, it is unknown whether such foods are actually lower in calories. Our aims were to determine 1) the relative proportion of foods carrying fat claims among various food categories within the Canadian marketplace; and 2) whether foods with fat claims are actually lower in calories than comparable foods without claims. The Food Label Information Program 2010, a database of Canadian foods developed at the University of Toronto, was used to compare the calorie content of products with and without fat claims within a given food subcategory, as defined by Schedule M of the Food and Drug Regulations. Median differences of 25% or greater were deemed nutritionally significant, as that is the minimum difference required for comparative claims such as "reduced" and "lower" in the Food and Drug Regulations. Fat claims were present on up to 68% of products in a given food subcategory. Products with fat claims were not significantly lower in both fat and calories compared to comparable products without fat claims in more than half of the subcategories (24 out of 40) analyzed. Conversely, in 16 subcategories, foods with fat claims were at least 25% lower in calories; however, for many of these foods, the absolute difference in calories was small, i.e., for 9 of the 16 subcategories, the absolute difference between foods with and without fat claims was <50 calories, even though the relative percent difference was high. This research suggests that foods with fat claims may be misleading consumers and undermining their efforts to manage body weight or prevent obesity. PMID:26362994

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  19. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  1. Binge Drinking in Female College Students: The Association of Physical Activity, Weight Concern, and Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Kristin S.; Patten, Christi A.; Bronars, Carrie; Lane, Kristi; Stevens, Susanna R.; Croghan, Ivana T.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Clark, Matthew M.

    2004-01-01

    As an initial step in building gender-specific binge drinking intervention programs, the authors investigated the relation of potentially modifiable factors (physical activity level, weight concern, and depressive symptoms) to binge drinking while controlling for the effects of previously established correlates of binge drinking (tobacco and…

  2. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  3. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  4. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  5. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  6. Evaluation of in vitro urease and lipoxygenase inhibition activity of weight reducing tablets.

    PubMed

    Jaffary, Syed Rashid Ali; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Shakeel, Sadia; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme inhibition is a significant part of research in pharmaceutical field in view of the fact that these studies have directed to the innovations of drugs having remarkable performance in diverse physiological conditions. The present study was aimed to assess urease and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of weight reducing tablets. For evaluating the urease activity indophenol method was employed using Thiourea as the model urease inhibitor. The lipoxygenase inhibition was evaluated by measuring the hydroperoxides produced in lipoxygenation reaction using a purified lipoxygenase with lionoleic acid as substrate. When formulation of the weight reducing tablets was compared at various concentrations (50, 100 and 500µg/ml). The antiurease activity and lipoxygenase inhibition activity increased in a dose dependent manner. The formulations under test have an excellent antiurease and lipoxygenase inhibition potential and prospective to be used in the cure of a variety of complications associated with the production of urease and lipoxygenase enzymes. PMID:27592490

  7. Dietary Fructose and GLUT5 Transporter Activity Contribute to Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Palavicino-Maggio, Caroline B; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2016-09-01

    Receptors for antipsychotics in the hypothalamus contribute to antipsychotics-induced weight gain; however, many of these receptors are also expressed in the intestine. The role of these intestinally-expressed receptors, and their potential modulation of nutrient absorption, have not been investigated in the context of antipsychotics-induced weight gain. Here we tested the effect of dietary fructose and intestinal fructose uptake on clozapine-induced weight gain in mice. Weight gain was determined in wild type mice and mice lacking the GLUT5 fructose transporter that were "orally-administered" 20mg/kg clozapine for 28 days. To assess the role of dietary fructose, clozapine-treated mice were fed controlled diets with different levels of fructose. Effect of clozapine treatment on intestinal fructose transport activity and expression levels of various receptors that bind clozapine, as well as several genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis were measured using real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. Oral administration of clozapine significantly increased body weight in wild type C57BL/6 mice but not in GLUT5 null mice. The clozapine-induced weight gain was proportional to the percentage of fructose in the diet. Clozapine-treated mice increased intestinal fructose uptake without changing the intestinal expression level of GLUT5. Clozapine-treated mice expressed significantly higher levels of intestinal H1 histamine receptor in the wild type but not GLUT5 null mice. Clozapine also increased the intestinal expression of fructokinase and several genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Our results suggest that increased intestinal absorption and metabolism of fructose contributes to clozapine-induced weight gain. Eliminating dietary fructose might prevent antipsychotics-induced weight gain. PMID:27056716

  8. Short-Term Efficacy and Correlates of Change in Health Weight Management Program for Chinese American Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kwan, Monica

    2016-05-01

    A pretest and posttest study design was used to test a healthy weight management intervention with overweight and/or obese Chinese American children. Children attended 8-weekly small group sessions while parents attended a single 2-hour parent workshop. Children had their weight, height, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, and fast lipids data assessed and completed several questions questionnaires regarding food choices, self-efficacy, and knowledge at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic, acculturation level and family environment. We found significant reduction of body mass index, waist/hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and improvement of child's eating style, physical activity knowledge, self-efficacy, and children's quality of life at 6-month follow-up. In addition, significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease in triglyceride were found at 6-month follow-up. Improvement of nutrition self-efficacy and decreased stimulus environment were associated with decreased body mass index in overweight and obese Chinese American children. PMID:26149851

  9. Analysis of weight distribution strategies in unilateral transtibial amputees during the stand-to-sit activity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vibhor; O'Toole, Christopher; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; Gailey, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of quantifying the stand-to-sit activity (StTS) are resource intensive and have not been applied to unilateral transtibial amputees (TTAs). The purpose of this study is to define five phases of arm-rest assisted and unassisted StTS using simple instrumentation and implement this method for assessing TTA movement patterns. Twelve TTAs and 12 age-matched non-amputees performed StTS with and without arm-rest support. Symmetry of weight distribution between lower limbs was calculated for five StTS phases: Descent Initiation; Descent Deceleration; Seat-Contact; Stabilisation and Sitting. TTAs demonstrated an asymmetrical weight distribution pattern and a tendency to transfer weight to the intact limb during the course of the activity. Non-amputees had relatively higher symmetry and did not exhibit substantial weight shifts during the activity. Symmetry indices were similar for assisted and unassisted sitting in both subject groups. These results highlight a need for therapeutic interventions in TTAs for reducing loading asymmetries and associated co-morbidities. PMID:26043080

  10. Distance learning strategies for weight management utilizing social media: A comparison of phone conference call versus social media platform. Rationale and design for a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Al-Hihi, Eyad M; Lee, Robert; Vansaghi, Lisa; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2016-03-01

    Management of obesity in the context of the primary care physician visit is of limited efficacy in part because of limited ability to engage participants in sustained behavior change between physician visits. Therefore, healthcare systems must find methods to address obesity that reach beyond the walls of clinics and hospitals and address the issues of lifestyle modification in a cost-conscious way. The dramatic increase in technology and online social networks may present healthcare providers with innovative ways to deliver weight management programs that could have an impact on health care at the population level. A randomized study will be conducted on 70 obese adults (BMI 30.0-45.0 kg/m(2)) to determine if weight loss (6 months) is equivalent between weight management interventions utilizing behavioral strategies by either a conference call or social media approach. The primary outcome, body weight, will be assessed at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes including waist circumference, energy and macronutrient intake, and physical activity will be assessed on the same schedule. In addition, a cost analysis and process evaluation will be completed. PMID:26883282

  11. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4–16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  12. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin.

    PubMed

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4-16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  13. The effect of the weight of equipment on muscle activity of the lower extremity in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint. PMID:22973179

  14. The weight management strategies inventory (WMSI). Development of a new measurement instrument, construct validation, and association with dieting success.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-09-01

    In an obesogenic environment, people have to adopt effective weight management strategies to successfully gain or maintain normal body weight. Little is known about the strategies used by the general population in daily life. Due to the lack of a comprehensive measurement instrument to assess conceptually different strategies with various scales, we developed the weight management strategies inventory (WMSI). In study 1, we collected 19 weight management strategies from research on self-regulation of food intake and successful weight loss and maintenance, as well as from expert interviews. We classified them under the five main categories of health self-regulation strategies - goal setting and monitoring, prospection and planning, automating behavior, construal, and inhibition. We formulated 93 items. In study 2, we developed the WMSI in a random sample from the general population (N = 658), using reliability and exploratory factor analysis. This resulted in 19 factors with 63 items, representing the 19 strategies. In study 3, we tested the 19-factor structure in a quota (age, gender) sample from the general population (N = 616), using confirmatory factor analysis. A good model fit (CFI = .918; RMSEA = .043) was revealed. Reliabilities and construct validity were high. Positive correlations of most strategies with dieting success and negative correlations of some strategies with body mass index were found among dieters (N = 292). Study 4 (N = 162) revealed a good test-retest reliability. The WMSI assesses theoretically derived, evidence-based, and conceptually different weight management strategies with different scales that have good psychometric characteristics. The scales can also be used for pre- and post measures in intervention studies. The scales provide insights into the general population's weight management strategies and facilitate tailoring and evaluating health communication. PMID:26048006

  15. Development of and feedback on a fully automated virtual reality system for online training in weight management skills.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Graham; Spitalnick, Josh S; Hadley, Wendy; Bond, Dale S; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology can provide a safe environment for observing, learning, and practicing use of behavioral weight management skills, which could be particularly useful in enhancing minimal contact online weight management programs. The Experience Success (ES) project developed a system for creating and deploying VR scenarios for online weight management skills training. Virtual environments populated with virtual actors allow users to experiment with implementing behavioral skills via a PC-based point and click interface. A culturally sensitive virtual coach guides the experience, including planning for real-world skill use. Thirty-seven overweight/obese women provided feedback on a test scenario focused on social eating situations. They reported that the scenario gave them greater skills, confidence, and commitment for controlling eating in social situations. PMID:25367014

  16. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  17. Parenting practices as mediators of child physical activity and weight status.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Loprinzi, Kristina L; Lee, Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the environmental factors that influence children's physical activity is an important prerequisite before effective physical activity interventions can be developed and implemented. Parenting is one environmental factor that has been empirically shown to positively influence children's physical activity. However, in order to promote physical activity in children, a better understanding of how parents influence children's physical activity behavior is required. Previously, Birch and Davison developed a model depicting parental factors hypothesized to influence child dietary behaviors. We extended this model by identifying parental factors hypothesized to promote physical activity in children. This review focuses on the mediational role that parenting practices and behaviors play in influencing child mediators of physical activity behavior, and, ultimately, weight status. Priorities for future research are discussed. PMID:22797369

  18. Low molecular weight heparin restores antithrombin III activity from hyperglycemia induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Palazzni, E; Quatraro, A; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    Alteration of antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, glycemia level dependent, exists in diabetes mellitus. In this study the ability of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (Fluxum, Alfa-Wassermann S.p.A., Bologna, Italy), as well as unfractioned héparin, to preserve ATIII activity from glucose-induced alterations, both in vitro and in vivo, is reported. The subcutaneous and intravenous LMWH and heparin administration increases basal depressed ATIII activity in diabetic patients. Heparin shows an equivalent effect on both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity of ATIII, while LMWH is more effective in preserving the anti-Xa activity. Similarity, heparin preserves ATIII activity from hyperglycemia-induced alterations, during hyperglycemic clamp, and LMWH infusion is able to preserve a significant amount of anti-Xa activity from glucose-induced alterations. Since diabetic patients show a high incidence of thrombotic accidents, LMWH appears to be a promising innovation for the prevention of diabetic thrombophylia. PMID:2196192

  19. Obesity and weight management in the elderly: a focus on men.

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Wu, F C W; Lean, M E J

    2013-08-01

    The rising rate of overweight/obesity among the ever-growing ageing population is imposing massive and rapidly changing burdens of ill health. The observation that the BMI value associated with the lowest relative mortality is slightly higher in older than in younger adults, mainly through its reduced impact on coronary heart disease, has often been misinterpreted that obesity is not as harmful in the elderly, who suffer a large range of disabling consequences of obesity. All medical consequences of obesity are multi-factorial and most alleviated by modest, achievable weight loss (5-10 kg) with an evidence-based maintenance strategy. But severe obesity, e.g. BMI >40 may demand greater weight loss e.g. >15 kg to reverse type 2 diabetes. Since relatively reduced physical activity and reduced muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity) are common in the elderly, combining exercise and modest calorie restriction optimally reduces fat mass and preserves muscle mass - age presents no obstacle and reducing polypharmacy is a valuable outcome. The currently licensed drug orlistat has no age-related hazards and is effective in a low fat diet, but the risks from bariatric surgery begin to outweigh benefits above age 60. For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue liraglutide appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Obesity and sarcopenia should be prevented from younger age and during life-transitions including retiral to improve future health outcomes and quality of life, with a focus on those in "obese families". PMID:24054928

  20. Parents as Agents of Change (PAC) in pediatric weight management: The protocol for the PAC randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate weight management interventions to address childhood obesity. Recent research suggests that interventions designed for parents exclusively, which have been named parents as agents of change (PAC) approaches, have yielded positive outcomes for managing pediatric obesity. To date, no research has combined a PAC intervention approach with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to examine whether these combined elements enhance intervention effectiveness. This paper describes the protocol our team is using to examine two PAC-based interventions for pediatric weight management. We hypothesize that children with obesity whose parents complete a CBT-based PAC intervention will achieve greater reductions in adiposity and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviours, and psychosocial outcomes than children whose parents complete a psycho-education-based PAC intervention (PEP). Methods/Design This study is a pragmatic, two-armed, parallel, single-blinded, superiority, randomized clinical trial. The primary objective is to examine the differential effects of a CBT-based PAC vs PEP-based PAC intervention on children’s BMI z-score (primary outcome). Secondary objectives are to assess intervention-mediated changes in cardiometabolic, lifestyle, and psychosocial variables in children and parents. Both interventions are similar in frequency of contact, session duration, group facilitation, lifestyle behaviour goals, and educational content. However, the interventions differ insofar as the CBT-based intervention incorporates theory-based concepts to help parents link their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours; these cognitive activities are enabled by group leaders who possess formal training in CBT. Mothers and fathers of children (8–12 years of age; BMI ≥85th percentile) are eligible to participate if they are proficient in English (written and spoken) and agree for at least one parent to attend

  1. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  2. Assessment of Activity of Crohn Disease by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Hua; Sun, Can-Hui; Mao, Ren; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Pui, Margaret H; Chen, Min-Hu; Li, Zi-Ping

    2015-10-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for evaluating inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A total of 47 CD patients underwent MR enterography (MRE) and DWI using 3 b values of 50, 400, and 800 s/mm. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of inflamed and normal bowel wall were calculated. The conventional MRE findings and DWI signal intensities were qualitatively scored from 0 to 3. The correlation between Crohn disease activity index (CDAI) and both ADCs and magnetic resonance imaging scores was analyzed. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CD activity. Of the 47 patients, 25 were active CD (CDAI≥150) and 22 were inactive (CDAI<150). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MRE + DWI scores of active CD were significantly higher than that of inactive CD (both P < 0.001). Apparent diffusion coefficients in inflamed segments of active CD were lower than that of inactive CD (P < 0.001). The DWI scores (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), ADCs (r = -0.71, P < 0.001), MRE scores (r = 0.54, P < 0.001), and MRE + DWI scores (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) were all correlated with CDAI. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristics curves for ADCs, DWI scores, MRE scores, and MRE + DWI scores ranged from 0.83 to 0.98. The threshold ADC value of 1.17 × 10 mm/s allowed differentiation of active from inactive CD with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and ADC correlated with CD activity, and had excellent diagnostic accuracy for differentiating active from inactive CD. PMID:26512584

  3. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of low-molecular-weight propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    PubMed

    Xin, Meng; Ren, Li; Sun, Yang; Li, Hai-hua; Guan, Hua-Shi; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-05-23

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. To extend the applications of PSS, a series of low-molecular-weight PSSs (named FPs) were prepared by oxidative-reductive depolymerization, and the antithrombotic activities were investigated thoroughly in vitro and in vivo. The bioactivity evaluation demonstrated a positive correlation between the molecular weight and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of FPs. FPs could prolong the APTT and clotting time and reduce platelet aggregation significantly. FPs could also effectively inhibit factor IIa in the presence of AT-III and HC-II. FPs decreased the wet weights and lengths of the thrombus and increased occlusion times in vivo. FP-6k, a PSS fragment with a molecular weight of 6 kDa, is an optimal antithrombotic candidate for further study and showed little chance for hemorrhagic action. PMID:26974373

  4. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  5. Differences in home food and activity environments between obese and healthy weight families of preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting Family homes. Participants Thirty-five obese children with at least one obese caregiver were compared to forty-seven healthy weight children with no obese caregivers. Main Outcome Measures Home observation assessments were conducted to evaluate the availability of devices supporting activity behaviors and foods based on availability, accessibility, and readiness to be eaten. Analysis Agreement statistics were conducted to analyze psychometrics and MANOVAs were conducted to assess group differences, significance, P < .05. Results Home observations showed acceptable agreement statistics between independent coders across food and activity items. Families of obese preschoolers were significantly less likely to have fresh vegetables available or accessible in the home, were more likely to have a TV in the obese child’s bedroom and had fewer physical activity devices compared to healthy weight preschoolers. Conclusions and Implications Families of young children live in home environments that were discriminatively characterized based on home observations. Future tool refinement will further clarify the impact of the home environment on early growth. PMID:23380192

  6. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  7. Why don’t families initiate treatment? A qualitative multicentre study investigating parents’ reasons for declining paediatric weight management

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Arnaldo; Holt, Nicholas; Gokiert, Rebecca; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Legault, Laurent; Morrison, Katherine; Sharma, Arya; Ball, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many families referred to specialized health services for managing paediatric obesity do not initiate treatment; however, reasons for noninitiation are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To understand parents’ reasons for declining tertiary-level health services for paediatric weight management. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 18 parents of children (10 to 17 years of age; body mass index ≥85th percentile) who were referred for weight management, but did not initiate treatment at one of three Canadian multidisciplinary weight management clinics. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit parents’ responses about reasons for noninitiation. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were managed using NVivo 9 (QSR International, Australia) and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Most parents (mean age 44.1 years; range 34 to 55 years) were female (n=16 [89%]), obese (n=12 [66%]) and had a university degree (n=13 [71%]). Parents’ reasons for not initiating health services were grouped into five themes: no perceived need for paediatric weight management (eg, perceived children did not have a weight or health problem); no perceived need for further actions (eg, perceived children already had a healthy lifestyle); no intention to initiate recommended care (eg, perceived clinical program was not efficacious); participation barriers (eg, children’s lack of motivation); and situational factors (eg, weather). CONCLUSION: Physicians should not only discuss the need for and value of specialized care for managing paediatric obesity, but also explore parents’ intention to initiate treatment and address reasons for noninitiation that are within their control. PMID:26038633

  8. A Novel Approach to the Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics of Obesity and Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Yael T; Houghton, Christine A

    2016-07-01

    Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, as well as diet and exercise, play an important role in the development and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. If an individual's susceptibility to becoming obese and their responsiveness to weight loss interventions are to be understood, then it needs to be addressed at a molecular and metabolic level, including genetic interaction. This review proposes a three-pillar approach to more fully comprehend the complexity of diet-gene interactions in obesity. Peroxisomal proliferating-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) are explored in detail. Illustrating how an understanding of nutritional biochemistry, nutrigenomics, and nutrigenetics may be the key to understanding differences observed in the obese phenotype that vary both within and across populations. PMID:27215437

  9. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  10. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)...

  11. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  12. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart G—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) Link...

  13. Dieting status and its relationship to weight, dietary intake, and physical activity changes over two years in a working population.

    PubMed

    French, S A; Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L

    1994-03-01

    The present study prospectively examined changes in dietary intake, physical activity and weight associated with self-reported efforts to lose weight in a cohort of 3671 men and women sampled from the general population. Dieting efforts, dietary intake, physical activity and weight were measured at two points in time, 24 months apart. At baseline, current dieters reported consuming fewer dairy products, sweets, meat, soft drinks and fried potatoes (all p's < .0001), and engaging more frequently in high-intensity physical activity (p < .0001) than those not currently dieting. At follow-up, current dieters reported consuming fewer sweets (p < .0001) and fried potatoes (p < .0008), and engaging more frequently in moderate-intensity physical activity (p < .02) than those not currently dieting. Prospectively, those who initiated weight-loss diets showed the largest decrease in consumption of sweets (p < .0001), soft drinks (p < .0001), and fried potatoes (p < .01), and increase in frequency of high-intensity physical activity (p < .0001) and moderate-intensity physical activity (p < .007). Those initiating weight-loss diets were the only group to lose weight (1 lb.). Those dieting at baseline but not at follow-up gained the most weight (4 lbs.). Self-reports of current dieting correspond to reported changes in dietary intake and physical activity, and to measured changes in weight over the same time period. Individuals who report dieting to lose weight have healthier eating and exercise patterns than those who do not report dieting. PMID:16355486

  14. Training Veterans to Provide Peer Support in a Weight-Management Program: MOVE!

    PubMed Central

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Carr, Carol; Orr, Melinda; Kahwati, Leila C.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Kinsinger, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented MOVE!, a weight-management program for veterans designed to address the increasing proportion of overweight and obese veterans. The objective of our study was to determine whether peer support employing motivational interviewing (MI) could positively influence lifestyle changes, thus expanding the reach of the MOVE! program. We describe the initial evaluation of the peer training program. Methods We developed an MI peer counselor training program for volunteer veterans, the “Buddies” program, to provide one-on-one telephone support for veterans enrolled in MOVE!. Buddies were recruited at 5 VHA sites and trained to provide peer support for the 6-month MOVE! intervention. We used a DVD to teach MI skills and followed with 2 to 3 booster sessions. We observed training, conducted pre- and posttraining surveys, and debriefed focus groups to assess training feasibility. Results Fifty-six Buddies were trained. Results indicate positive receipt of the program (89% reported learning about peer counseling and 87% reported learning communication skills). Buddies showed a small improvement in MI self-efficacy on posttraining surveys. We also identified key challenges to learning MI and training implementation. Conclusions MI training is feasible to implement and acceptable to volunteer Buddies. Trainers must assess how effectively volunteers learn MI skills in order to enhance its effective use in health promotion. PMID:24199738

  15. Weight management services for adults--highlighting the role of primary care.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S J; O'Shea, D

    2012-01-01

    Ireland has the fourth highest prevalence of overweight and obese men in the European Union and the seventh highest prevalence among women. This study focuses on 777 referrals on the waiting list for Ireland's only fully funded hospital-based adult weight management service with special emphasis on the role of primary care in the referral process. Since our last review two years ago, we found that patients are now being referred at a younger age (mean 43 years). The mean BMI at referral has increased from 44 to 46. Five hundred and forty eight (70%) referrals were from primary care with males accounting for 163 (30%) of these, despite male obesity being more prevalent. Interestingly, as the distance from Dublin increased, the number of referrals decreased. Overall this is a concerning trend showing the increasing burden of obesity on a younger population and a health system inadequately equipped to deal with the problem. It also highlights the central role of the primary care physician in the timely and appropriate referral to optimise use of our available resources. PMID:23495548

  16. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus®. [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.23–29.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (47–62%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.35–12.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback. PMID:26180301

  17. Effects of feedback on activation of the quadriceps during weight-bearing tasks of the Wii.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Dias, Eric Fernandes; Silveira, Landulfo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the effect of real-time feedback on electrical activation of the quadriceps during 3 weight-bearing tasks of the Wii Fit Plus(®). [Subjects] Thirty male healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles was recorded during virtual lunge, single leg extension, and single leg reach exercises. Each exercise was performed twice in 3 randomized experimental conditions (with visual feedback, with auditory feedback, and with no feedback). The normalized electromyographic data (using maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test. [Results] No significant difference was found in the muscles among the feedback conditions during the 3 exercises. However, the variation in the muscle activity of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis (18.23-29.20% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was higher (47-62%) than that in the rectus femoris (7.35-12.98% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). [Conclusion] Real-time feedback did not alter quadriceps activation during the Wii tasks. Additionally, these games showed electromyographic activation levels similar to those for the same tasks outside the virtual environment. The Wii weight-bearing tasks could therefore constitute a physical activity program but without the additional benefit of feedback. PMID:26180301

  18. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis in obesity management.

    PubMed

    Villablanca, Pedro A; Alegria, Jorge R; Mookadam, Farouk; Holmes, David R; Wright, R Scott; Levine, James A

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease. The global increase in sedentary lifestyle is an important factor contributing to the rising prevalence of the obesity epidemic. Traditionally, counseling has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise, with disappointing results. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is an important component of daily energy expenditure. It represents the common daily activities, such as fidgeting, walking, and standing. These high-effect NEAT movements could result in up to an extra 2000 kcal of expenditure per day beyond the basal metabolic rate, depending on body weight and level of activity. Implementing NEAT during leisure-time and occupational activities could be essential to maintaining a negative energy balance. NEAT can be applied by being upright, ambulating, and redesigning workplace and leisure-time environments to promote NEAT. The benefits of NEAT include not only the extra calories expended but also the reduced occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. We believe that to overcome the obesity epidemic and its adverse cardiovascular consequences, NEAT should be part of the current medical recommendations. The content of this review is based on a literature search of PubMed and the Google search engine between January 1, 1960, and October 1, 2014, using the search terms physical activity, obesity, energy expenditure, nonexercise activity thermogenesis, and NEAT. PMID:25841254

  19. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Managing Activities and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Managing Activities and Exercise On this Page Avoiding Extremes Developing an Activity ... recent manageable level of activity. Strength and Conditioning Exercises Strength and conditioning exercises are an important component ...

  20. Influence of Sports, Physical Education, and Active Commuting to School on Adolescent Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Michael L.; Longacre, Meghan R.; MacKenzie, Todd; Titus, Linda J.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the associations between weight status and different forms of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted telephone surveys with 1718 New Hampshire and Vermont high school students and their parents as part of a longitudinal study of adolescent health. We surveyed adolescents about their team sports participation, other extracurricular physical activity, active commuting, physical education, recreational activity for fun, screen time, diet quality, and demographics. Overweight/obesity (BMI for age ≥ 85th percentile) and obesity (BMI for age ≥ 95 percentile) were based on self-reported height and weight. RESULTS: Overall, 29.0% (n = 498) of the sample was overweight/obese and 13.0% (n = 223) were obese. After adjustments, sports team participation was inversely related to overweight/obesity (relative risk [RR] = 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 0.87] for >2 sports teams versus 0) and obesity (RR = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.81] for >2 sports teams versus 0). Additionally, active commuting to school was inversely related to obesity (RR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.99] for >3.5 days per week versus 0). Attributable risk estimates suggest obesity prevalence would decrease by 26.1% (95% CI: 9.4%, 42.8%) if all adolescents played on 2 sports teams per year and by 22.1% (95% CI: 0.1%, 43.3%) if all adolescents walked/biked to school at least 4 days per week. CONCLUSIONS: Team sport participation had the strongest and most consistent inverse association with weight status. Active commuting to school may reduce the risk of obesity, but not necessarily overweight, and should be studied further. Obesity prevention programs should consider strategies to increase team sport participation among all students. PMID:22802608

  1. Segmentation of Bone with Region Based Active Contour Model in PD Weighted MR Images of Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sezer, Aysun; Sezer, Hasan Basri; Albayrak, Songul

    2015-01-01

    Proton density (PD) weighted MR images present inhomogeneity problem, low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and cannot define bone borders clearly. Segmentation of PD weighted images is hampered with these properties of PD weighted images which even limit the visual inspection. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of segmentation of humeral head from axial PD MR images with active contour without edge (ACWE) model. We included 219 images from our original data set. We extended the use of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD) in PD MR images by estimation of standard deviation of noise (SDN) from ROI. To overcome the problem of initialization of the initial contour of these region based methods, the location of the initial contour was automatically determined with use of circular Hough transform. For comparison, signed pressure force (SPF), fuzzy C-means, and Gaussian mixture models were applied and segmentation results of all four methods were also compared with the manual segmentation results of an expert. Experimental results on our own database show promising results. This is the first study in the literature to segment normal and pathological humeral heads from PD weighted MR images. PMID:26064185

  2. WANDA B.: Weight and Activity with Blood Pressure Monitoring System for Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Myung-kyung; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Chen, Victor; Hong, Wen-Sao; Macbeth, Jamie; Nahapetian, Ani; Figueras, Florence-Joy; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death in the United States, with around 5 million Americans currently suffering from congestive heart failure. The WANDA B. wireless health technology leverages sensor technology and wireless communication to monitor heart failure patient activity and to provide tailored guidance. Patients who have cardiovascular system disorders can measure their weight, blood pressure, activity levels, and other vital signs in a real-time automated fashion. The system was developed in conjunction with the UCLA Nursing School and the UCLA Wireless Health Institute for use on actual patients. It is currently in use with real patients in a clinical trial. PMID:20083451

  3. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Claims on Consumer Perceptions about Food Products' Healthfulness and Helpfulness for Weight Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Verrill, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate effect of low-carbohydrate claims on consumer perceptions about food products' healthfulness and helpfulness for weight management. Design: Experiment in which participants were randomly assigned 1 of 12 front-of-package claim conditions on bread or a frozen dinner. Seven of the 12 conditions also included Nutrition Facts (NF)…

  4. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  5. Self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity and sedentary behavior to prevent weight regain in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Barbara J.; Gaukstern, Jill E.; Beavers, Kristen M.; Newman, Jill C.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study determined whether adding a self-regulatory intervention (SRI) focused on self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity and sedentary behavior to a standard weight loss intervention improved maintenance of lost weight. Design and Methods Older (65–79 yrs), obese (BMI=30–40 kg/m2) adults (n=48) were randomized to a five-month weight loss intervention involving a hypocaloric diet (DIET) and aerobic exercise (EX) with or without the SRI to promote spontaneous physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior (SRI+DIET+EX compared to DIET+EX). Following the weight loss phase, both groups transitioned to self-selected diet and exercise behavior during a 5-month follow-up. Throughout the 10-months, the SRI+DIET+EX group utilized real-time accelerometer feedback for self-monitoring. Results There was an overall group by time effect of the SRI (P < 0.01); DIET+EX lost less weight and regained more weight than SRI+DIET+EX. The average weight regain during follow-up was 1.3 kg less in the SRI+DIET+EX group. Individuals in this group maintained ~10% lower weight than baseline compared to those in the DIET+EX group whom maintained ~5% lower weight than baseline. Conclusions Addition of a self-regulatory intervention, designed to increase spontaneous physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior, to a standard weight loss intervention enhances successful maintenance of lost weight. PMID:24585701

  6. Is vibration exercise a useful addition to a weight management program?

    PubMed

    Cochrane, D J

    2012-12-01

    Vibration exercise (VbX) has received a lot of attention as an exercise modality, which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate that could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick and convenient, and 10 min of VbX is equivalent to 1 h of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation occurs but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low, where exhaustive VbX reported a metabolic demand of 23 mL/kg/min compared with 44 mL/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies with varying amplitudes and loads have been tested, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings, it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26 Hz for three continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ≈ 10.7 g fat/h. Following a 24-week program of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition, and following 12 months of VbX, the time to reach peak V ˙O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared with VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after 8 months after VbX in comparison with resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency, and/or amplitude, it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programs are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and aerobic conditioning guidelines. PMID:22092513

  7. Managerial activities and skills of nurse managers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Min; Wu, Jen-Her; White, Louis P

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors used the activity competency model (Wu, Chen, and Lin 2004) to investigate the perceived importance of managerial activities and skills required of three levels of nurse managers. They identify the portfolio of the management activities and the needed skills at each management level. The results of this study provide guidelines for management development programs, training, and career planning for nurse managers, and can also serve as guidelines for recruiting and selecting effective nurse managers. PMID:16190515

  8. A Postpartum Community-Based Weight Management Intervention Designed for Low-Income Women: Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Testing.

    PubMed

    Berry, Diane; Verbiest, Sarah; Hall, Emily Gail; Dawson, Ida; Norton, Deborah; Willis, Shaderika; McDonald, Kimberly; Stuebe, Alison

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum weight retention increases a woman's risk of entering subsequent pregnancies overweight or obese, and women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy face higher rates of complications for themselves and their infants. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of an intervention to prevent postpartum weight retention in predominantly low-income African-American women. A randomized control pilot study was conducted to test the effects of the intervention on weight, adiposity, health behaviors, and eating and exercise self-efficacy from baseline (Time 1) to study completion (Time 2). The women in the experimental group had significantly greater decreases in triceps skinfolds (p = 0.01) and subscapular skinfolds (p = 0.04) and had significantly greater nutrition knowledge (p =0.04) than the control group. The results indicate that women randomized to a postpartum weight management program significantly decreased adiposity, increased nutrition knowledge and action, and, in addition, the women found the intervention acceptable. PMID:26371358

  9. Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on eating behaviour and self-perception in young women undergoing weight management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley; Claes, Bri-Ellen; Petocz, Peter; Steinbeck, Katharine; Rooney, Kieron; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-06-01

    The control of eating behaviours such as hunger and disinhibition is problematic for women during weight management. Higher-protein (HP) diets have been shown to promote greater weight reduction than higher-carbohydrate (HC) diets, but their impact on eating behaviours is relatively unexplored. This study compared two iso-energetically restricted (5,600 kJ/day) diets differing in protein (HP: 32%, HC: 20%) and carbohydrate (HP: 41%, HC: 58%) on appetite ratings, restraint, disinhibition, perceived hunger and binge eating in 36 (HP: n = 21, HC: n = 15) young (18-25 years), healthy women with BMI ≥27.5 kg/m(2) who completed a 12-month clinical weight management trial. Dietary compliance and self-worth were also assessed. Results showed that both diets induced improvements in restraint and disinhibition from baseline (p < 0.01), with HP participants losing a non-significantly greater amount of weight than HC participants (HP: 9.6 ± 2.6, HC: 4.1 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.07). Despite reasonable compliance, no significant appetite and eating behaviour differences were observed between the diets. Reduction in disinhibition (regardless of diet) significantly predicted weight loss (β = 0.574, p < 0.001) and self-worth improvement (β = -0.463, p = 0.002), while HP intake predicted greater self-worth change (β = -0.371, p = 0.011). This study demonstrates that young women can improve restraint and disinhibition on a weight management programme, with the reduction in disinhibition shown to be a key predictor of weight loss. HP intake may offer some advantage for increasing self-worth but not eating behaviours. As HP diets are popular, these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample. PMID:24609724

  10. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  11. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. PMID:22709771

  12. When is it ok to tell patients they are overweight? General public's views of the role of doctors in supporting patients' dieting and weight management.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jo; Yelland, Sophie; Mallinson, Alice; Hussain, Zarah; Peters, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to explore the general public's views on the role of health professionals in the management of weight with diet and the implementation of behaviour change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. An inductive grounded theory approach utilised a coding framework; recurring concepts/themes explored in future interviews and thematic saturation achieved. Two themes summarised views on the role of health professionals in supporting dieting and weight management: responsibility to initiate talk and what patients expect. Individuals perceive health professionals as having a role in their weight management. Individuals have disparate views about responsibility for initiation of weight management talk. PMID:25759374

  13. Anterior cingulate activity modulates nonlinear decision weight function of uncertain prospects.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Martin P; Frank, Lawrence R

    2006-04-01

    Prospect theory developed by Kahneman and Tversky has been among the most influential psychological models and explains many nonnormative decision-making phenomena, e.g. why people play the lottery or bet on long-shots. A Certainty Equivalent procedure was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural substrates that are important for nonlinear transformation of probabilities to decision weights. Differential activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during high versus low probability prospects correlated (r = 0.84, P < 0.01) with the degree of the nonlinearity of the transformation of probabilities to decision weights, which indicates that risk-seeking behavior for low probability prospects and risk-averse decision-making for mid to high probability prospects may be due to a lack of controlled processing by the anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:16321546

  14. Anti-heparanase activity of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin produced by physicochemical depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Achour, Oussama; Poupard, Nicolas; Bridiau, Nicolas; Bordenave Juchereau, Stephanie; Sannier, Fredéric; Piot, Jean-Marie; Fruitier Arnaudin, Ingrid; Maugard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-D-glucuronidase that plays an important role in cancer progression, in particular during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Inhibiting this enzyme is considered as one of the most promising approaches in cancer therapy. Heparin is a complex glycoaminoglycan known as a strong inhibitor of heparanase. It is primarily used in clinical practice for its anticoagulant activities, which may not be compatible with its use as anti-angiogenic agent. In this study, we described the production of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins (ULMWH) by a physicochemical method that consists in a hydrogen peroxide-catalyzed radical hydrolysis assisted by ultrasonic waves. We assessed the structural characteristics, anticoagulant and anti-heparanase activities of the obtained heparin derivatives and compared them with three commercial low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH), glycol-split non-anticoagulant heparins and heparins produced by enzymatic methods. ULMWH generated by the physicochemical method were characterized by high anti-heparanase and moderate anticoagulant activities. These heparin derivatives might be potential candidates for cancer therapy when a compromise is needed between anti-heparanase and anticoagulant activities. PMID:26453883

  15. The Influence of U.S. Chain Restaurant Food Consumption and Obesity in China and South Korea: An Ecological Perspective of Food Consumption, Self-Efficacy in Weight Management, Willingness to Communicate About Weight/Diet, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Mazzone, Raphael; Oh, Hyun; Du, Joshua; Smithson, Anne-Bennett; Ryan, Diane; MacNeil, David; Tong, Xing; Stiller, Carol

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the impact of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption in China and South Korea from an ecological perspective. Specifically, it explored the relationships among several environmental and individual variables that have been found to affect obesity/weight management in previous research, including the prevalence/popularity of U.S. chain restaurants in these countries, frequency of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption, self-efficacy in weight management, willingness to communicate about weight/diet, self-perceptions of weight/obesity stigma, body mass index (BMI), and depression. The results indicated that willingness to communicate about weight/diet predicted increased self-efficacy in weight management. Higher BMI scores were found to predict increased weight/obesity stigma, and increased frequency of U.S. restaurant food consumption, weight/obesity stigma, and reduced self-efficacy in weight management were found to predict increased levels of depression. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and directions for future research. PMID:27007254

  16. Changes in physical activity during a weight loss intervention and follow-up: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, N R; Williams, K; Shrestha, R; Ahern, A L; Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H; Jebb, S A; Caterson, I D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Physical activity is an important component in weight loss treatment and weight maintenance. We evaluated the physical activity component of two weight loss programmes, either standard care (SC) as defined by national guidelines, or a commercial programme (CP; Weight Watchers) over the period of weight loss and follow-up. 772 adults (mean body mass index: 31.4 ± 2.6 kg m−2) were recruited by primary care practices in Australia, the United Kingdom, and Germany, and randomly assigned to 12 months SC, or the CP. They were then followed up at 24 months. Change in physical activity levels were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form, and pedometer recordings. Both groups reported increases in physical activity using the IPAQ from baseline to 12 months and 24 months (within groups P < 0.0001) and in pedometer steps from baseline to 12 months only (within groups P < 0.0001). Differences between groups with both methods of assessment were not significant. There was a significant difference in weight loss between the groups at 12 months favouring the CP group; however, this statistical difference was not maintained at 24 months. In conclusion, despite similar increases in reported activity, there were significant differences in weight loss and regain between groups. Therefore, greater weight loss seen with the CP is unlikely to be due to increases in physical activity. Trends in pedometer steps mirrored changes in weight over time more closely than the IPAQ; however, both assessment tools have limitations. Better activity assessment measures are needed to more accurately gauge changes in physical activity during weight loss interventions. PMID:25826767

  17. Study on antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue

    2012-06-01

    The antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica were compared in order to examine the influence of chemical character on their antithrombotic activity and the possible mechanism. Both LMW fucoidan fractions exhibited favorable antithrombotic activity in an Fecl3-induced arterial thrombosis. The antithrombotic activity of LMW fucoidan was related with decrease of TXB2 and whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. LMW fucoidan showed a correlation between anticoagulant, antiaggregant and antithrombotic effects in vivo. For LMW fucoidan, antithrombotic activity required high dose of 5-10 nmol kg-1, concomitantly with increase in anticoagulant activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Administration of LMW fucoidan significantly promoted the 6-keto-PGF1α content and decreased the TXB2 content, indicating its inhibition of tissue factor pathway and regulation of metabolism of arachidonic acid. By comparison, highly sulfated fucoidan LF2 with Mw 3900 seemed to be a more suitable choice for antithrombotic drug for its antithrombotic activity accompanied with specific inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation, low anticoagulant activity and low hemorrhagic risk in vivo.

  18. "Taking Charge of One's Life": A Model for Weight Management Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a serious, prevalent, and refractory disorder that increases with age particularly in women who enroll in formal weight loss treatments. This study examined the processes used by obese postmenopausal women as they participated in a formal weight loss program. Using grounded theory, interviews were conducted with 14 women engaged in a…

  19. 77 FR 31615 - Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Improving Mail Management Policies, Procedures, and Activities AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide... Services Administration (GSA) has issued Federal Management Regulation (FMR) Bulletin G-03 which provides guidance to Executive Branch agencies for improving mail management policies, procedures, and...

  20. Decision Support for Active Water Management (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Salas, F.; Minsker, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Active water management refers to real-time adjustment of water management decisions based on observation and modeling of current water conditions. A case study is presented of a decision-support system for active water management in the San Antonio and Guadalupe basins using web services and cloud computing to create at the University of Texas a repository of observations, forecasts and model simulations from federal, state and regional water agencies and academia. Each day, National Weather Service river flow forecasts at 47 points in the basin are densified to create corresponding flows in 5500 river reaches using the RAPID river flow model operated in "Model as a Service" mode at the University of Illinois. These flows are adjusted by using the "Declarations of Intent" to pump water compiled by the Texas Commission for Environmental Quality which is the WaterMaster for all surface water withdrawals in the basin. The results are viewed through web maps that convey both maps of the spatial pattern of flow at a particular point in time, and charts of time series of flows at particular points in space.

  1. Title IX, girls' sports participation, and adult female physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu

    2010-02-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest. PMID:20130236

  2. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Health Professionals Tools and Resources Promotional Materials Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ... Training For Health Professionals Tools & Resources Promotional ... Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ...

  3. The relationship between adolescents' physical activity, fundamental movement skills and weight status.

    PubMed

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a potential relationship among physical activity (PA), fundamental movement skills and weight status exists amongst early adolescent youth. Participants were a sample of 85 students; 54 boys (mean age = 12.94 ± 0.33 years) and 31 girls (mean age = 12.75 ± 0.43 years). Data gathered during physical education class included PA (accelerometry), fundamental movement skills and anthropometric measurements. Standard multiple regression revealed that PA and total fundamental movement skill proficiency scores explained 16.5% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the prediction of body mass index. Chi-square tests for independence further indicated that compared with overweight or obese adolescents, a significantly higher proportion of adolescents classified as normal weight achieved mastery/near-mastery in fundamental movement skills. Results from the current investigation indicate that weight status is an important correlate of fundamental movement skill proficiency during adolescence. Aligned with most recent research, school- and community-based programmes that include developmentally structured learning experiences delivered by specialists can significantly improve fundamental movement skill proficiency in youth. PMID:26437119

  4. Management of patients with active caries.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports on a mechanism to manage caries as a disease and to medically intervene in the disease process to halt progression. The goal of this paper is to provide this alternative to a surgical-only approach. The management of caries begins with assessing lesion activity and the potential for arrest. This requires a clinical and radiological assessment and evaluation of risk. Hopeless teeth are extracted and large cavities filled to reduce infection. Risk reduction strategies are employed so efforts to arrest lesions can be successful. Teeth with lesions in the enamel or outer third of the dentin should be sealed, not restored, as restorations can weaken teeth and can be traumatic to pulps. PMID:25076627

  5. The determination of molecular weights of biologically active proteins by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Akin, D T; Shapira, R; Kinkade, J M

    1985-02-15

    A novel cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system which is useful for the separation of native forms of proteins consistent with their molecular weights is reported here. Many proteins examined in this system demonstrated the same association patterns which have been shown by other techniques to exist under nondenaturing conditions. In addition, biological activity could be assayed directly in the gel after electrophoresis. Based on the peculiar characteristics of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, a possible explanation which may account for the behavior of proteins in this system is presented. PMID:4003759

  6. Predictors of Postpartum Weight Change Among Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Bercedis L.; Krause, Katrina M.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Methods Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Results Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to −24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Conclusions Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy. PMID:22092110

  7. Time-Based Physical Activity Interventions for Weight Loss: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Rickman, Amy D.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelliann K.; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Neiberg, Rebecca; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether enhancing standard behavior weight loss interventions (SBWP) with additional strategies at the initiation of the intervention (ADOPT) or providing the additional strategies at predetermined times over the intervention period (MAINTAIN) enhances 18 month weight loss. Methods This was a clinical trial with participants (n=195; age= 43.2±8.6 yrs; BMI= 33.0±3.4 kg/m2) randomized to SBWP, ADOPT, or MAINTAIN. All were prescribed an energy restricted diet and physical activity, with group intervention sessions delivered over 18 months. ADOPT received additional phone contact (months 1–3), supervised exercise (months 1–6), and behavior campaigns (months 4–9). MAINTAIN received additional phone contact (months 4–6), supervised exercise (months 7–12), and behavior campaigns (months 13–18). Results There was a significant Group X Time interaction for weight loss (p=0.0032). SBWP lost 9.3±0.9, 7.8±1.1, and 5.9±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. ADOPT lost 8.9±0.9, 7.6±1.2, and 5.8±1.2 kg, and MAINTAIN lost 9.7±0.9, 11.0±1.2, and 9.0±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. The Group X Time interaction for SBWP vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0033) and ADOPT vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0075) was significant. There was a significant Group X Time interaction for change in fitness (p=0.0060). The Group X Time interaction for MAINTAIN vs. ADOPT (p=0.0018) was significant with a trend for MAINTAIN vs. SBWP (p=0.0525). Conclusions MAINTAIN improved 18-month weight loss compared to SBWP and ADOPT, with statistical trends that MAINTAIN resulted in greater improvements in fitness. These results suggest that time-based strategies emphasizing physical activity conferred greater benefits when delivered later and over the full course of intervention. This provides valuable information for the implementation of time-based strategies to improve long-term weight loss and fitness in overweight and obese adults. PMID:25160843

  8. Imaging hypothalamic activity using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the mouse and human brain.

    PubMed

    Lizarbe, Blanca; Benítez, Ania; Sánchez-Montañés, Manuel; Lago-Fernández, Luis F; Garcia-Martin, María L; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic appetite regulation is a vital homeostatic process underlying global energy balance in animals and humans, its disturbances resulting in feeding disorders with high morbidity and mortality. The objective evaluation of appetite remains difficult, very often restricted to indirect measurements of food intake and body weight. We report here, the direct, non-invasive visualization of hypothalamic activation by fasting using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, in the mouse brain as well as in a preliminary study in the human brain. The brain of fed or fasted mice or humans were imaged at 7 or 1.5 Tesla, respectively, by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a complete range of b values (10weighted image data sets were registered and analyzed pixel by pixel using a biexponential model of diffusion, or a model-free Linear Discriminant Analysis approach. Biexponential fittings revealed statistically significant increases in the slow diffusion parameters of the model, consistent with a neurocellular swelling response in the fasted hypothalamus. Increased resolution approaches allowed the detection of increases in the diffusion parameters within the Arcuate Nucleus, Ventromedial Nucleus and Dorsomedial Nucleus. Independently, Linear Discriminant Analysis was able to classify successfully the diffusion data sets from mice and humans between fed and fasted states. Present results are consistent with increased glutamatergic neurotransmission during orexigenic firing, a process resulting in increased ionic accumulation and concomitant osmotic neurocellular swelling. This swelling response is spatially extendable through surrounding astrocytic networks until it becomes MRI detectable. Present findings open new avenues for the direct, non-invasive, evaluation of appetite disorders and other hypothalamic pathologies helping potentially in the development of the corresponding therapies. PMID:23000787

  9. Design for manufacturability production management activity report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Norihiko; Sato, T.; Honma, M.; Yoshioka, N.; Hosono, K.; Onodera, T.; Itoh, H.; Suzuki, H.; Uga, T.; Kadota, K.; Iriki, N.

    2006-05-01

    Design For Manufacturability Production Management (DFM-PM) Subcommittee has been started in succession to Reticle Management Subcommittee (RMS) in Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Committee for Japan (SMTCJ) from 2005. Our activity focuses on the SoC (System On Chip) Business, and it pursues the improvement of communication in manufacturing technique. The first theme of activity is the investigation and examination of the new trends about production (manufacturer) technology and related information, and proposals of business solution. The second theme is the standardization activity about manufacture technology and the cooperation with related semiconductors' organizations. And the third theme is holding workshop and support for promotion and spread of the standardization technology throughout semiconductor companies. We expand a range of scope from design technology to wafer pattern reliability and we will propose the competition domain, the collaboration area and the standardization technology on DFM. Furthermore, we will be able to make up a SoC business model as the 45nm node technology beyond manufacturing platform in cooperating with the design information and the production information by utilizing EDA technology.

  10. A nutrition and physical activity intervention promotes weight loss and enhances diet attitudes in low-income mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kristine C; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Klohe-Lehman, Deborah M; Cai, Guowen; Voruganti, V Saroja; Proffitt, J Michael; Nuss, Henry J; Milani, Tracey J; Bohman, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a nutrition and physical activity program for reducing body weight and improving nutrition attitudes in mothers of young children. A convenience sample of 114 intervention mothers and 33 comparison mothers was recruited from public health clinics and community centers. Eligibility criteria included Hispanic, African American, or white ethnicity; body mass index of at least 25 kg/m(2); low income (< 200% of the federal poverty index); and youngest child aged 1 to 4 years. For intervention participants, height, weight, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, demographics, nutrition attitudes, and dietary intake were measured at weeks 0 and 8; height, weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference were reassessed at 6 months. Overweight mothers in the comparison group provided anthropometric and demographic data at weeks 0 and 8. Changes in anthropometrics, attitudes, and dietary intake were evaluated in intervention mothers. Anthropometric data of intervention vs comparison group mothers were examined. Differences in anthropometrics and attitude scores between weight loss responders (> or = 2.27 kg) and nonresponders (< 2.27 kg) were assessed at week 8. Intervention participants lost weight (x = -2.7 kg; P < .001), whereas comparison mothers gained a slight amount of weight (x = 0.1 kg) by week 8. Weight loss responders had healthier eating attitudes (5.6 vs 5.2; P < .01) and fewer perceived barriers (2.4 vs 2.9; P < .05) than nonresponders postintervention. In conclusion, this dietary and physical activity curriculum is a valuable resource for weight management programs serving low-income women. PMID:19083382

  11. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  12. Hypothesis-driven weight of evidence analysis to determine potential endocrine activity of MTBE.

    PubMed

    de Peyster, Ann; Mihaich, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Endocrine-related endpoints in animals have been reported to respond to high doses of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), however, a systematic and transparent evaluation of endocrine potential has not been published. Resolving whether MTBE exhibits endocrine activity is important given regulatory and public interest in endocrine disrupting substances and their potential for causing adverse effects in humans or wildlife. A weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis was conducted, focusing on hypotheses related to the potential for MTBE to interact with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid pathways, and steroidogenesis. To reach scientifically justified conclusions based on the totality of evidence, this WoE procedure involved a semi-quantitative relevance weighting of each endpoint for each hypothesis and systematic consideration of each endpoint in various study designs. This procedure maximized use of an extensive body of relevant and reliable literature on MTBE with evidence supporting or opposing a given mode of action hypothesis. Evaluating the strength and consistency of observations from many MTBE studies also provided a way to assess whether high doses used in experiments with MTBE confound identification of direct endocrine system responses. Based on results of studies using mammalian and fish models and in vitro screening assays, this WoE assessment reveals that MTBE lacks direct endocrine activity. PMID:24813373

  13. Web-based weight management programs for children and adolescents: a systematic review of randomized controlled trial studies.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young; Hayman, Laura L; Park, Young-Shin; Dusaj, Tresa K; Ayres, Cynthia G

    2009-01-01

    More than 17% of children aged 6 to 19 years living in the United States are classified as overweight. Medical costs related to overweight and obesity were recently estimated to approximate $100 billion annually. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide the scientific evidence regarding Web-based weight management programs for overweight children and adolescents. Results suggest the potential for Web-based behavioral change programs for weight management in overweight children and adolescents. Future research should emphasize rigorous methodological adequacies, develop theory-based standardized frameworks, investigate types of interventions appropriate for boys and girls in this age group, evaluate long-term effect of interventions, and examine cost as well as clinical effectiveness. PMID:19707091

  14. Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

    2010-03-01

    Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 μg mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

  15. [Antibacterial Activity of Alkylated and Acylated Derivatives of Low-Molecular Weight Chitosan].

    PubMed

    Shagdarova, B Ts; Il'ina, A V; Varlamov, V P

    2016-01-01

    A number of alkylated (quaternized) and acylated derivatives of low-molecular weight chitosan were obtained. The structure and composition of the compounds were confirmed by the results of IR and PMR spectroscopy, as well as conductometric titration. The effect of the acyl substituent and the degree of substitution of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) with the propyl fragment appended to amino groups of the C2 atom of polymer chains on antibacterial activity against typical representatives of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) was studied. The highest activity was in the case of N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride with the maximal substitution (98%). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the derivative was 0.48 µg/mL and 3.90 µg/mL for S. epidermis and E. coli, respectively. PMID:27266254

  16. Weight-Loss Induced Changes in Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Subjects before and after Energy Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G.; Soenen, Stijn; Goris, Annelies H. C.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2013-01-01

    Activity energy expenditure (AEE) is the component of daily energy expenditure that is mainly influenced by the amount of physical activity (PA) and by the weight of the body displaced. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of weight loss on PA and AEE. The body weight and PA of 66 overweight and obese subjects were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of 67% energy restriction. PA was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer for movement registration (Tracmor) and quantified in activity counts. Tracmor recordings were also processed using a classification algorithm to recognize 6 common activity types engaged in during the day. A doubly-labeled water validated equation based on Tracmor output was used to estimate AEE. After weight loss, body weight decreased by 13±4%, daily activity counts augmented by 9% (95% CI: +2%, +15%), and this increase was weakly associated with the decrease in body weight (R2 = 7%; P<0.05). After weight loss subjects were significantly (P<0.05) less sedentary (–26 min/d), and increased the time spent walking (+11 min/d) and bicycling (+4 min/d). However, AEE decreased by 0.6±0.4 MJ/d after weight loss. On average, a 2-hour/day reduction of sedentary time by increasing ambulatory and generic activities was required to restore baseline levels of AEE. In conclusion, after weight loss PA increased but the related metabolic demand did not offset the reduction in AEE due to the lower body weight. Promoting physical activity according to the extent of weight loss might increase successfulness of weight maintenance. PMID:23555733

  17. Time, Monetary and Other Costs of Participation in Family-Based Child Weight Management Interventions: Qualitative and Systematic Review Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Lisa; Panca, Monica; Morris, Steve; Curtis-Tyler, Katherine; Lucas, Patricia J.; Roberts, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity have health and economic impacts on individuals and the wider society. Families participating in weight management programmes may foresee or experience monetary and other costs which deter them from signing up to or completing programmes. This is recognised in the health economics literature, though within this sparse body of work, costs to families are often narrowly defined and not fully accounted for. A societal perspective incorporating a broader array of costs may provide a more accurate picture. This paper brings together a review of the health economics literature on the costs to families attending child weight management programmes with qualitative data from families participating in a programme to manage child overweight and obesity. Methods A search identified economic evaluation studies of lifestyle interventions in childhood obesity. The qualitative work drew on interviews with families who attended a weight management intervention in three UK regions. Results We identified four cost-effectiveness analyses that include information on costs to families. These were categorised as direct (e.g. monetary) and indirect (e.g. time) costs. Our analysis of qualitative data demonstrated that, for families who attended the programme, costs were associated both with participation on the scheme and with maintaining a healthy lifestyle afterwards. Respondents reported three kinds of cost: time-related, social/emotional and monetary. Conclusion Societal approaches to measuring cost-effectiveness provide a framework for assessing the monetary and non-monetary costs borne by participants attending treatment programmes. From this perspective, all costs should be considered in any analysis of cost-effectiveness. Our data suggest that family costs are important, and may act as a barrier to the uptake, completion and maintenance of behaviours to reduce child obesity. These findings have implications for the development and

  18. Assessing motivation and readiness to change for weight management and control: an in-depth evaluation of three sets of instruments

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarini, Martina; Borrello, Maria; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    It is highly recommended to promptly assess motivation and readiness to change (RTC) in individuals who wish to achieve significant lifestyle behavior changes in order to improve their health, overall quality of life, and well-being. In particular, motivation should be assessed for those who face the difficult task to maintain weight, which implies a double challenge: weight loss initially and its management subsequently. In fact, weight-control may be as problematic as smoking or drugs-taking cessation, since they all share the commonality of being highly refractory to change. This paper will examine three well-established tools following the Transtheoretical Model, specifically assessing RTC in weight management: the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale, the S-Weight and the P-Weight and the Decisional Balance Inventory. Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be rather homogeneous and similar, the S-Weight and P-Weight are more efficient in assessing RTC in weight management and control. Assessing motivation and RTC may be a crucial step in promptly identifying psychological obstacles or resistance toward weight-management in overweight or obese hospitalized individuals, and it may contribute to provide a more effective weight-control treatment intervention. PMID:26029126

  19. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of chitosan with ultra high molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhui; Wu, Yiguang; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan with different degree of deacetylation (DD) and ultra high molecular weight (MW >10(6)) was prepared from β-chitin by mild deacetylation. The effects of DD of chitosan and pH value of its solution/suspension on its antibacterial activity were investigated. The results showed that the optimal pH value was 6.0 for the highest bactericidal activity. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus of chitosan solution at pH 6.0 enhanced as the DD of chitosan increased. Same as chitosan with low MW, the antibacterial activity of chitosan with high MW in acidic solution was also due to the amino protonation and subsequently cationic formation. Its ultra long molecular chain was propitious to coat and bind the E. coli and S. aureus, and highly enhanced its antibacterial activity. E. coli and S. aureus were at first restrained and then killed by chitosan and the cells were ruptured and decomposed gradually. PMID:27185132

  20. Parental weight perceptions: a cause for concern in the prevention and management of childhood obesity in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Aljunaibi, Abdulla; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1-12; 50% boys) and their parents, but only 1440 (6-19 years) and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children's weight. Parental perception of their children's weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese) was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children's weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children's' weight status; underestimating (27.4%) or overestimating (6.3%). Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5%) and underweight (55.1%) children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child's BMI percentile (CDC) with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209-1.425; p<0.001) per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child's sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children's weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children's BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child's weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages. PMID:23555833

  1. Parental Weight Perceptions: A Cause for Concern in the Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Aljunaibi, Abdulla; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1–12; 50% boys) and their parents, but only 1440 (6–19 years) and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children’s weight. Parental perception of their children’s weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese) was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children’s weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children’s’ weight status; underestimating (27.4%) or overestimating (6.3%). Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5%) and underweight (55.1%) children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child’s BMI percentile (CDC) with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209–1.425; p<0.001) per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child’s sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children’s weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children’s BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child’s weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages. PMID:23555833

  2. Naltrexone HCI/bupropion HCI for chronic weight management in obese adults: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tek, Cenk

    2016-01-01

    Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, and bupropion, a noradrenergic/dopaminergic antidepressant, have many effects on the reward systems of the brain. These medications impact eating behavior, presumably via their impact on food reward. However, only bupropion induces weight loss in obese individuals, while naltrexone does not have any appreciable effect. The combination of 32 mg of naltrexone and 360 mg of bupropion in a sustained-release combination pill form has been recently approved for obesity treatment. Studies have shown that the combination of these two medications is more effective in inducing weight loss, when combined with lifestyle intervention and calorie reduction, than each individual medicine alone. The naltrexone–bupropion combination, when combined with lifestyle intervention and modest calorie reduction, seems to be quite effective for 6-month and 1-year outcomes for clinically significant weight loss (over 5% of total body weight). These medications are not devoid of serious side effects, however, and careful patient selection can reduce dramatic complications and increase positive outcomes. This paper reviews existing weight loss clinical trials with bupropion and the bupropion–naltrexone combination. Additionally, the rationale for the suggested patient selection and clinical strategies for special patient populations are discussed. PMID:27217728

  3. Effect of behavioural techniques and delivery mode on effectiveness of weight management: systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, J; Johns, D J; Jebb, S A; Aveyard, P

    2014-07-01

    A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural weight management programmes and examine how programme characteristics affect mean weight loss. Randomized controlled trials of multicomponent behavioural weight management programmes in overweight and obese adults were included. References were obtained through systematic searches of electronic databases (conducted November 2012), screening reference lists and contacting experts. Two reviewers extracted data and evaluated risk of bias. Thirty-seven studies, representing over 16,000 participants, were included. The pooled mean difference in weight loss at 12 months was -2.8 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.6 to -2.1, P < 0.001). I(2) indicated that 93% of the variability in outcome was due to differences in programme effectiveness. Meta-analysis showed no evidence that supervised physical activity sessions (mean difference 1.1 kg, 95% CI -2.65 to 4.79, P = 0.08), more frequent contact (mean difference -0.3 kg, 95% CI -0.7 to 0.2, P = 0.25) or in-person contact (mean difference 0.0 kg, 95% CI -1.8 to 1.8, P = 0.06) were related to programme effectiveness at 12 months. In meta-regression, calorie counting (-3.3 kg, 95% CI -4.6 to -2.0, P = 0.027), contact with a dietitian (-1.5 kg, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.2, P < 0.001) and use of behaviour change techniques that compare participants' behaviour with others (-1.5 kg, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.1, P = 0.032) were associated with greater weight loss. There was no evidence that other programme characteristics were associated with programme effectiveness. Most but not all behavioural weight management programmes are effective. Programmes that support participants to count calories or include a dietitian may be more effective, but the programme characteristics explaining success are mainly unknown. PMID:24636238

  4. Effect of behavioural techniques and delivery mode on effectiveness of weight management: systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann-Boyce, J; Johns, D J; Jebb, S A; Aveyard, P; Behavioural Weight Management Review Group

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural weight management programmes and examine how programme characteristics affect mean weight loss. Randomized controlled trials of multicomponent behavioural weight management programmes in overweight and obese adults were included. References were obtained through systematic searches of electronic databases (conducted November 2012), screening reference lists and contacting experts. Two reviewers extracted data and evaluated risk of bias. Thirty-seven studies, representing over 16,000 participants, were included. The pooled mean difference in weight loss at 12 months was −2.8 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] −3.6 to −2.1, P < 0.001). I2 indicated that 93% of the variability in outcome was due to differences in programme effectiveness. Meta-analysis showed no evidence that supervised physical activity sessions (mean difference 1.1 kg, 95% CI −2.65 to 4.79, P = 0.08), more frequent contact (mean difference −0.3 kg, 95% CI −0.7 to 0.2, P = 0.25) or in-person contact (mean difference 0.0 kg, 95% CI −1.8 to 1.8, P = 0.06) were related to programme effectiveness at 12 months. In meta-regression, calorie counting (−3.3 kg, 95% CI −4.6 to −2.0, P = 0.027), contact with a dietitian (−1.5 kg, 95% CI −2.9 to −0.2, P < 0.001) and use of behaviour change techniques that compare participants' behaviour with others (−1.5 kg, 95% CI −2.9 to −0.1, P = 0.032) were associated with greater weight loss. There was no evidence that other programme characteristics were associated with programme effectiveness. Most but not all behavioural weight management programmes are effective. Programmes that support participants to count calories or include a dietitian may be more effective, but the programme characteristics explaining success are mainly unknown. PMID:24636238

  5. Cannabis: a self-medication drug for weight management? The never ending story.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Santacroce, Rita; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Vicinanza, Roberto; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2016-02-01

    In a society highly focused on physical appearance, people are increasingly using the so-called performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) or life-style drugs as an easy way to control weight. Preliminary data from online sources (e.g. websites, drug forums, e-newsletters) suggest an increased use of cannabis amongst the general population as a PIED due to its putative weight-loss properties. The use of cannabis and/or cannabis-related products to lose weight may represent a new substance-use trend that should be carefully monitored and adequately investigated, especially in light of the well-known adverse psychiatric and somatic effects of cannabis, its possible interaction with other medications/drugs and the unknown and potentially dangerous composition of synthetic cannabimimetics preparations. PMID:26456495

  6. Causality-weighted active learning for abnormal event identification based on the topic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yawen; Zheng, Shibao; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Chongyang; Su, Hang

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal event identification in crowded scenes is a fundamental task for video surveillance. However, it is still challenging for most current approaches because of the general insufficiency of labeled data for training, particularly for abnormal data. We propose a novel active-supervised joint topic model for learning activity and training sample collection. First, a multi-class topic model is constructed based on the initial training data. Then the remaining unlabeled data stream is surveyed. The system actively decides whether it can label a new sample by itself or if it has to ask a human annotator. After each query, the current model is incrementally updated. To alleviate class imbalance, causality-weighted method is applied to both likelihood and uncertainty sampling for active learning. Furthermore, a combination of a new measure termed query entropy and the overall classification accuracy is used for assessing the model performance. Experimental results on two real-world traffic videos for abnormal event identification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Neighborhood Environment Profiles Related to Physical Activity and Weight Status: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Sallis, James F.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Norman, Gregory J.; Cain, Kelli L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neighborhood built environments (BE) include combinations of co-existing stimuli influencing physical activity (PA). Dealing with numerous environmental variables and complexity presents a significant challenge. The current analysis explored whether a range of reported BE features associated with adults’ physical activity produced distinct multivariate patterns, and tested whether adults’ PA and body mass differed by BE profiles. Methods Participants (20-65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were recruited between 2002-2005 from 32 neighborhoods from Seattle-King County, WA (N= 1,287) and Baltimore, MD - Washington, DC regions (N=912). Independent Latent Profile Analyses were conducted in each region with 11 environmental variables from the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. Validity of the neighborhood profiles was examined by their relationship to PA (accelerometer-derived moderate-to-vigorous minutes/day, self-reported minutes/week of walking for transportation and leisure) and self-reported BMI using ANCOVA models. Results Neighborhood profiles for Seattle and Baltimore regions were visually similar, suggesting generalizability. High-walkable recreationally-dense neighborhoods differed significantly from other neighborhood types by as much as 13 MVPA minutes/day, almost 60 minutes/week of walking for transportation, and 75 minutes/week of leisure-time activity. Neighborhood profiles also differed significantly for BMI. Discussion These findings could help identify optimal patterns of environmental attributes that facilitate physical activity and improve weight status. PMID:21382400

  8. Activation of the Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase in Keratinocytes Exposed to Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cavalheiro, Renan P.; Machado, Daisy; Cruz, Bread L. G.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J.; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria C. C.; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Vasques, Luciana; Nader, Helena B.; Souza, Ana Carolina S.; Justo, Giselle Z.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we provide new contribution to the mechanisms involved in keratinocytes response to hyperosmotic shock showing, for the first time, the participation of Low Molecular Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (LMWPTP) activity in this event. We reported that sorbitol-induced osmotic stress mediates alterations in the phosphorylation of pivotal cytoskeletal proteins, particularly Src and cofilin. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of the phosphorylated form of LMWPTP, which was followed by an augment in its catalytic activity, was observed. Of particular importance, these responses occurred in an intracellular milieu characterized by elevated levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased expression of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Altogether, our results suggest that hyperosmostic stress provides a favorable cellular environment to the activation of LMWPTP, which is associated with increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, high levels of GSH and inhibition of Src kinase. Finally, the real contribution of LMWPTP in the hyperosmotic stress response of keratinocytes was demonstrated through analysis of the effects of ACP1 gene knockdown in stressed and non-stressed cells. LMWPTP knockdown attenuates the effects of sorbitol induced-stress in HaCaT cells, mainly in the status of Src kinase, Rac and STAT5 phosphorylation and activity. These results describe for the first time the participation of LMWPTP in the dynamics of cytoskeleton rearrangement during exposure of human keratinocytes to hyperosmotic shock, which may contribute to cell death. PMID:25781955

  9. Commentary on the shifting processes model: a conceptual model for weight management.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Rodrigues, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Macchi and colleagues propose a theoretical model that merges concepts from the biopsychosocial model and family systems theory to produce a broader framework for understanding weight loss and maintenance (see record 2013-28564-001). The Shifting Processes Model views individual weight loss and maintenance in the context of family dynamics, including family eating and exercise habits, home environment, and family relationships. The authors reason that traditional models put the burden of change on the individual rather than the family system, when the latter is an important context of individual behavior. PMID:24377766

  10. The Role of Macronutrient Content in the Diet for Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A; Siri-Tarino, Patty W

    2016-09-01

    Diets to treat obesity have been in existence since Hippocrates treated obesity some 2500 years ago. There are currently a wide variety of diets and a common misconception that a single magical diet can cure overweight and obesity. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that all diets work when adhered to and that initial weight loss can predict the amount of weight lost and maintained for up to 4 years. Individual preferences are thus key in selecting a diet. There are emerging data pinpointing genetic variability in the metabolic responses to variation in macronutrient intake. PMID:27519132

  11. Individual Differences in Striatum Activity to Food Commercials Predict Weight Gain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealthy weight gain and environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic, we tested the associations between reward region (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) responsivity to food commercials and future change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Design and Methods Adolescents (N = 30) underwent a scan session at baseline while watching a television show edited to include 20 food commercials and 20 non-food commercials. BMI was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Activation in the striatum, but not OFC, in response to food commercials relative to non-food commercials and in response to food commercials relative to the television show was positively associated with change in BMI over 1-year follow-up. Baseline BMI did not moderate these effects. Conclusions The results suggest that there are individual differences in neural susceptibility to food advertising. These findings highlight a potential mechanism for the impact of food marketing on adolescent obesity. PMID:25155745

  12. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. Methods We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. Results The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. Conclusions The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of ‘excessive’ non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI

  13. Experimental active structural acoustic control of simply supported plates using a weighted sum of spatial gradients.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Daniel R; Johnson, William R; Sommerfeldt, Scott D; Blotter, Jonathan D

    2014-11-01

    A limitation currently facing active structural acoustic control (ASAC) researchers is that an ideal minimization quantity for use in the control algorithms has not been developed. A novel parameter termed the "weighted sum of spatial gradients" (WSSG) was recently developed for use in ASAC and shown to effectively attenuate acoustic radiation from a vibrating flat simply supported plate in computer simulations. This paper extends this research from computer simulations and provides experimental test results. The results presented show that WSSG is a viable control quantity and provides better results than the volume velocity approach. The paper also investigates several of the challenges presented by the use of WSSG. These include determining a method to measure WSSG experimentally, an analysis of the influence of noise on WSSG control results and complications presented when degenerate modes exist. Results are shown and discussed for several experimental configurations. PMID:25373961

  14. Does a Healthy Diet Help Weight Management among Overweight and Obese People?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saquib, Nazmus; Rock, Cheryl L.; Natarajan, Loki; Flatt, Shirley W.; Newman, Vicky A.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Pierce, John P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized dietary intervention trial across 4 years examined diet, weight, and obesity incidence (body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 30 kg/m[superscript 2]) differences between study groups. Participants were 1,510 breast cancer survivors with BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m[superscript 2] at entry. Dietary intake was assessed…

  15. Assessing the Stages of Change Among African American Women in a Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Sbrocco, Tracy; Osborn, Robyn; Clark, Robert D.; Hsiao, Chiao-Wen; Carter, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between stage of change (SOC) and behavioral outcomes among African American women entering obesity treatment in two settings. Fifty-five overweight/obese (body mass index = 26.50–48.13), but otherwise healthy African American women, 23 to 56 years old, attended a 13-week weight loss–treatment program that took place at churches (n = 36) or a university (n = 19). Participants were weighed, completed SOC measures, and had a physical fitness test at pre- and posttreatment. Pretreatment measures of SOC placed 47% of the participants as actors, 31% as contemplators, and 22% as maintainers. Of the 45 women who reported posttreatment SOC, 7% regressed, 44% did not change, and 31% progressed in SOC. Pretreatment SOC predicted posttreatment weight loss in the church setting but not in the university setting. At churches, contemplators lost more weight than actors and maintainers. The church may be a more conducive setting for weight change behaviors for African American women who are categorized as contemplators in the SOC model. PMID:24683280

  16. The use of low-calorie sweeteners by children: Implications for weight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in pediatric obesity since the 1970s has been well established in the United States and is becoming a major concern worldwide. As a potential means to help slow the obesity epidemic, low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) have gained attention as dietary tools to assist in adherence to weight loss pl...

  17. Rapid Rather than Gradual Weight Reduction Impairs Hemorheological Parameters of Taekwondo Athletes through Reduction in RBC-NOS Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Woo Hwi; Heine, Oliver; Pauly, Sebastian; Kim, Pilsang; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim; Grau, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rapid weight reduction is part of the pre-competition routine and has been shown to negatively affect psychological and physiological performance of Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. This is caused by a reduction of the body water and an electrolyte imbalance. So far, it is unknown whether weight reduction also affects hemorheological properties and hemorheology-influencing nitric oxide (NO) signaling, important for oxygen supply to the muscles and organs. Methods For this purpose, ten male TKD athletes reduced their body weight by 5% within four days (rapid weight reduction, RWR). After a recovery phase, athletes reduced body weight by 5% within four weeks (gradual weight reduction, GWR). Each intervention was preceded by two baseline measurements and followed by a simulated competition. Basal blood parameters (red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean cellular hemoglobin and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration), RBC-NO synthase activation, RBC nitrite as marker for NO synthesis, RBC deformability and aggregation parameters were determined on a total of eight investigation days. Results Basal blood parameters were not affected by the two interventions. In contrast to GWR, RWR decreased activation of RBC-NO synthase, RBC nitrite, respective NO concentration and RBC deformability. Additionally, RWR increased RBC aggregation and disaggregation threshold. Conclusion The results point out that a rapid weight reduction negatively affects hemorheological parameters and NO signaling in RBC which might limit performance capacity. Thus, GWR should be preferred to achieve the desired weight prior to a competition to avoid these negative effects. PMID:25875585

  18. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapies for Weight Management in Prediabetes and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lau, David C W; Teoh, Hwee

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a serious chronic disease that is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality. It has become the tsunami of noncommunicable diseases, with more than 400 million people worldwide currently living with diabetes. The global diabetes epidemic is driven by rising obesity rates. Excess body fat increases the risk for insulin resistance and prediabetes; obese men and women, respectively, have a 7-fold and 12-fold higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Obesity also predisposes to the development of a myriad of medical complications leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Each increase in body mass index of 5 kg/m(2) or higher is, on average, associated with about a 30% higher overall mortality rate. Modest weight loss through health-behaviour modification can significantly prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people at risk. Each kg of body weight loss is associated with a 16% relative reduction in diabetes risk. Intentional weight loss is also associated with a 15% reduction in all-cause mortality. Unfortunately, health-behaviour modification alone seldom sustains adequate weight loss to achieve the desired health outcomes, especially in people with diabetes who already have greater difficulty losing weight. Pharmacotherapy is a realistic treatment option as an adjunct to diet and exercise. In addition to orlistat, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide has recently been approved in Canada for the treatment of obesity in doses of up to 3.0 mg daily. This review is focused on current and emerging pharmacotherapies for obesity in people with prediabetes or diabetes. PMID:26654857

  19. Does Brief Telephone Support Improve Engagement With a Web-Based Weight Management Intervention? Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Leanne; Lloyd, Scott; Phillips, Dawn; Stuart, Beth; Williams, Sarah; Bradbury, Katherine; Roderick, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Michie, Susan; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent reviews suggest Web-based interventions are promising approaches for weight management but they identify difficulties with suboptimal usage. The literature suggests that offering some degree of human support to website users may boost usage and outcomes. Objective We disseminated the POWeR (“Positive Online Weight Reduction”) Web-based weight management intervention in a community setting. POWeR consisted of weekly online sessions that emphasized self-monitoring, goal-setting, and cognitive/behavioral strategies. Our primary outcome was intervention usage and we investigated whether this was enhanced by the addition of brief telephone coaching. We also explored group differences in short-term self-reported weight loss. Methods Participants were recruited using a range of methods including targeted mailouts, advertisements in the local press, notices on organizational websites, and social media. A total of 786 adults were randomized at an individual level through an online procedure to (1) POWeR only (n=264), (2) POWeR plus coaching (n=247), or (3) a waiting list control group (n=275). Those in the POWeR plus coaching arm were contacted at approximately 7 and 28 days after randomization for short coaching telephone calls aimed at promoting continued usage of the website. Website usage was tracked automatically. Weight was assessed by online self-report. Results Of the 511 participants allocated to the two intervention groups, the median number of POWeR sessions completed was just one (IQR 0-2 for POWeR only, IQR 0-3 for POWeR plus coach). Nonetheless, a substantial minority completed at least the core three sessions of POWeR: 47 participants (17.8%, 47/264) in the POWeR-only arm and 64 participants (25.9%, 64/247) in the POWeR plus coaching arm. Participants in the POWeR plus coaching group persisted with the intervention for longer and were 1.61 times more likely to complete the core three sessions than the POWeR-only group (χ2 1=4.93; OR 1

  20. Soleus Fiber Force and Maximal Shortening Velocity After Non-Weight Bearing with Intermittent Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widrick, Jeffrey J.; Bangart, Jill J.; Karhanek, Miloslav; Fitts, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of intermittent weight bearing (IWB) as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing (NWB)-induced alterations in soleus type 1 fiber force (in mN), tension (P(sub o); force per fiber cross-sectional area in kN/sq m), and maximal unloaded shortening velocity (V(sub o), in fiber lengths/s). Adult rats were assigned to one of the following groups: normal weight bearing (WB), 14 days of hindlimb NWB (NWB group), and 14 days of hindlimb NWB with IWB treatments (IWB group). The IWB treatment consisted of four 10-min periods of standing WB each day. Single, chemically permeabilized soleus fiber segments were mounted between a force transducer and position motor and were studied at maximal Ca(2+) activation, after which type 1 fiber myosin heavy-chain composition was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. NWB resulted in a loss in relative soleus mass (-45%), with type 1 fibers displaying reductions in diameter (-28%) and peak isometric force (-55%) and an increase in V(sub o) (+33%). In addition, NWB induced a 16% reduction in type 1 fiber P., a 41% reduction in type 1 fiber peak elastic modulus [E(sub o), defined as ((delta)force/(delta)length x (fiber length/fiber cross-sectional area] and a significant increase in the P(sub o)/E(sub o) ratio. In contrast to NWB, IWB reduced the loss of relative soleus mass (by 22%) and attenuated alterations in type 1 fiber diameter (by 36%), peak force (by 29%), and V(sub o)(by 48%) but had no significant effect on P(sub o), E(sub o) or P(sub o)/E(sub o). These results indicate that a modest restoration of WB activity during 14 days of NWB is sufficient to attenuate type 1 fiber atrophy and to partially restore type 1 peak isometric force and V(sub o) to WB levels. However, the NWB-induced reductions in P(sub o) and E(sub o) which we hypothesize to be due to a decline in the number and stiffness of cross bridges, respectively, are considerably less responsive to this

  1. Biodegradation of various molecular weights of linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) in activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmann, M.A.; Bookland, E.A.; Keough, T.W.; Larson, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Linear polyethylene glycols (PEG) of various average molecular weights (PEG 1000, PEG 3400, PEG 8000, PEG 20000) were tested in a semi-continuous activated sludge test (SCAS), followed by a CO{sub 2} production test to determine which MWs are inherently biodegradable. Complete biodegradation was confirmed analytically using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). The SCAS test estimates the removal of the test substance during wastewater treatment in activated sludge. SCAS removal, as measured by soluble organic carbon (SOC) was > 90% for the PEG 1000, PEG 3400, and PEG 8000, while PEG 20000 showed a SCAS removal of 28%. These results indicate that SCAS removal was largely due to degradation. The CO{sub 2} production test measures the mineralization of the test substance using activated sludge from the SCAS units as the inoculum. The CO{sub 2} test results show that PEG 1000, PEG 3400, and PEG 8000 are inherently biodegradable, with an average %TC02 > 80% by day 50 and remaining SOC < 10% as measured at day 50. Complete loss of material was confirmed by MALDI TOF MS. The PEG 20000 showed 40% TCO2 by day 50, with 50% SOC remaining. MALDI TOF MS confirmed the presence of parent material. Based on these results, PEGs of MW 8000 and less appear to be biodegradable.

  2. Iterative weighted average diffusion as a novel external force in the active contour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirov, Ilya S.; Nakhmani, Arie

    2016-03-01

    The active contour model has good performance in boundary extraction for medical images; particularly, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) active contour model shows good performance at concavity convergence and insensitivity to initialization, yet it is susceptible to edge leaking, deep and narrow concavities, and has some issues handling noisy images. This paper proposes a novel external force, called Iterative Weighted Average Diffusion (IWAD), which used in tandem with parametric active contours, provides superior performance in images with high values of concavity. The image gradient is first turned into an edge image, smoothed, and modified with enhanced corner detection, then the IWAD algorithm diffuses the force at a given pixel based on its 3x3 pixel neighborhood. A forgetting factor, φ, is employed to ensure that forces being spread away from the boundary of the image will attenuate. The experimental results show better behavior in high curvature regions, faster convergence, and less edge leaking than GVF when both are compared to expert manual segmentation of the images.

  3. A 6-month randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for weight gain management in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have lower longevity than the general population as a consequence of a combination of risk factors connected to the disease, lifestyle and the use of medications, which are related to weight gain. Methods A multicentric, randomized, controlled-trial was conducted to test the efficacy of a 12-week group Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP). The program consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives. Patients were randomized into two groups: standard care (SC) and standard care plus intervention (LWP). Primary outcome was defined as the weight and body mass index (BMI). Results 160 patients participated in the study (81 in the intervention group and 79 in the SC group). On an intent to treat analysis, after three months the patients in the intervention group presented a decrease of 0.48 kg (CI 95% -0.65 to 1.13) while the standard care group showed an increase of 0.48 kg (CI 95% 0.13 to 0.83; p=0.055). At six-month follow-up, there was a significant weight decrease of −1.15 kg, (CI 95% -2.11 to 0.19) in the intervention group compared to a weight increase in the standard care group (+0.5 kg, CI 95% -0.42–1.42, p=0.017). Conclusion In conclusion, this was a multicentric randomized clinical trial with a lifestyle intervention for individuals with schizophrenia, where the intervention group maintained weight and presented a tendency to decrease weight after 6 months. It is reasonable to suppose that lifestyle interventions may be important long-term strategies to avoid the tendency of these individuals to increase weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01368406 PMID:23418863

  4. Weight Control Beliefs, Body Shape Attitudes, and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Scott B.; Rhea, Deborah J.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Judd, Doryce E.; Chambliss, Heather O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about how perceived weight controllability influences important psychological health factors among adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore adolescents' weight controllability beliefs and how those beliefs influence weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Methods: Adolescents (N = 369, mean…

  5. Understanding Usage of a Hybrid Website and Smartphone App for Weight Management: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hargood, Charlie; Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Dennison, Laura; Joseph, Judith; Hughes, Stephanie; Michaelides, Danius T; Johnston, Derek; Johnston, Marie; Michie, Susan; Little, Paul; Smith, Peter WF; Weal, Mark J; Yardley, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Background Advancements in mobile phone technology offer huge potential for enhancing the timely delivery of health behavior change interventions. The development of smartphone-based health interventions (apps) is a rapidly growing field of research, yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of how people experience and use these apps within their day-to-day routines, particularly within the context of a hybrid Web- and app-based intervention. Objective This study used an in-depth mixed-methods design to examine individual variation in (1) impact on self-reported goal engagement (ie, motivation, self-efficacy, awareness, effort, achievement) of access to a weight management app (POWeR Tracker) when provided alongside a Web-based weight management intervention (POWeR) and (2) usage and views of POWeR Tracker. Methods Thirteen adults were provided access to POWeR and were monitored over a 4-week period. Access to POWeR Tracker was provided in 2 alternate weeks (ie, weeks 1 and 3 or weeks 2 and 4). Participants’ goal engagement was measured daily via self-report. Mixed effects models were used to examine change in goal engagement between the weeks when POWeR Tracker was and was not available and whether the extent of change in goal engagement varied between individual participants. Usage of POWeR and POWeR Tracker was automatically recorded for each participant. Telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to further explore participants’ experiences using POWeR and POWeR Tracker. Results Access to POWeR Tracker was associated with a significant increase in participants’ awareness of their eating (β1=0.31, P=.04) and physical activity goals (β1=0.28, P=.03). The level of increase varied between individual participants. Usage data showed that participants used the POWeR website for similar amounts of time during the weeks when POWeR Tracker was (mean 29 minutes, SD 31 minutes) and was not available (mean 27 minutes

  6. Targeting Parents for Childhood Weight Management: Development of a Theory-Driven and User-Centered Healthy Eating App

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sudakshina; Brown, Katherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The proliferation of health promotion apps along with mobile phones' array of features supporting health behavior change offers a new and innovative approach to childhood weight management. However, despite the critical role parents play in children’s weight related behaviors, few industry-led apps aimed at childhood weight management target parents. Furthermore, industry-led apps have been shown to lack a basis in behavior change theory and evidence. Equally important remains the issue of how to maximize users’ engagement with mobile health (mHealth) interventions where there is growing consensus that inputs from the commercial app industry and the target population should be an integral part of the development process. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically design and develop a theory and evidence-driven, user-centered healthy eating app targeting parents for childhood weight management, and clearly document this for the research and app development community. Methods The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) framework, a theoretically-based approach for intervention development, along with a user-centered design (UCD) philosophy and collaboration with the commercial app industry, guided the development process. Current evidence, along with a series of 9 focus groups (total of 46 participants) comprised of family weight management case workers, parents with overweight and healthy weight children aged 5-11 years, and consultation with experts, provided data to inform the app development. Thematic analysis of focus groups helped to extract information related to relevant theoretical, user-centered, and technological components to underpin the design and development of the app. Results Inputs from parents and experts working in the area of childhood weight management helped to identify the main target behavior: to help parents provide appropriate food portion sizes for their children. To achieve this target behavior, the behavioral diagnosis

  7. Low Molecular Weight Antagonists of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1: Therapeutic Potential in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Simone, Tessa M; Higgins, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) is the major physiologic regulator of the plasmin-based pericellular proteolytic cascade, a modulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and a causative factor in cardiovascular disease and restenosis, particularly in the context of increased vessel transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1) levels. PAI-1 limits conversion of plasminogen to plasmin (and, thereby, fibrin degradation) by inhibiting its protease targets urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activators (uPA, tPA). PAI-1 also has signaling functions and binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) to regulate LRP1-dependent cell motility that, in turn, contributes to neointima formation. PAI-1/uPA/uPA receptor/LRPI/integrin complexes are endocytosed with subsequent uPAR/LRP1/integrin redistribution to the leading edge, initiating an "adhesion-detachment-readhesion" cycle to promote cell migration. PAI-1 also interacts with LRP1 in a uPA/uPAR-independent manner triggering Jak/Stat1 pathway activation to stimulate cell motility. PAI-1 itself is a substrate for extracellular proteases and exists in a "cleaved" form which, while unable to interact with uPA and tPA, retains LRP1-binding and migratory activity. These findings suggest that there are multiple mechanisms through which inhibition of PAI-1 may promote cardiovascular health. Several studies have focused on the design, synthesis and preclinical assessment of PAI-1 antagonists including monoclonal antibodies, peptides and low molecular weight (LMW) antagonists. This review discusses the translational impact of LMW PAI-1 antagonists on cardiovascular disease addressing PAI-1-initiated signaling, PAI-1 structure, the design and characteristics of PAI-1-targeting drugs, results of in vitro and in vivo studies, and their clinical implications. PMID:23936868

  8. Weight, dietary behavior, and physical activity in childhood and adolescence: implications for adult cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Pendzich, Margaret K; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2009-01-01

    Lifestyle factors related to energy balance, including weight, dietary behavior and physical activity, are associated with cancer risk. The period of childhood and growth into adolescence and early adulthood may re-present a 'cumulative risk' for later adult-onset cancers. We review a number of epidemiologic studies that have examined associations among childhood and adolescent body size, diet, and physical activity with adult cancer risk. These studies suggest that unhealthy behaviors that develop early in life and persist over time may increase the risk of some cancer types, such as premenopausal breast, ovarian, endometrial, colon and renal cancer, adversely affect cancer-related morbidities, and increase mortality. Continued research is needed to further determine and refine how timing and degree of such exposures in early childhood and adolescence relate to adult cancer risk. Presently, sufficient evidence suggests a continued need for stronger primary prevention in cancer and obesity research via modified lifestyle behaviors earlier in the developmental spectrum, i.e. during childhood and adolescence. PMID:20054223

  9. Diffusion-Weighted MRI Reflects Proliferative Activity in Primary CNS Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jonas; Gawlitza, Matthias; Frydrychowicz, Clara; Müller, Wolf; Preuss, Matthias; Bure, Lionel; Quäschling, Ulf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate if apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values within primary central nervous system lymphoma correlate with cellularity and proliferative activity in corresponding histological samples. Materials and Methods Echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained from 21 patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. Regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps corresponding to the contrast enhancing parts of the tumors. Biopsies from all 21 patients were histologically analyzed. Nuclei count, total nuclei area and average nuclei area were measured. The proliferation index was estimated as Ki-67 positive nuclei divided by total number of nuclei. Correlations of ADC values and histopathologic parameters were determined statistically. Results Ki-67 staining revealed a statistically significant correlation with ADCmin (r = -0.454, p = 0.038), ADCmean (r = -0.546, p = 0.010) and ADCmax (r = -0.515, p = 0.017). Furthermore, ADCmean correlated in a statistically significant manner with total nucleic area (r = -0.500, p = 0.021). Conclusion Low ADCmin, ADCmean and ADCmax values reflect a high proliferative activity of primary cental nervous system lymphoma. Low ADCmean values—in concordance with several previously published studies—indicate an increased cellularity within the tumor. PMID:27571268

  10. Healthy eating and lifestyle in pregnancy (HELP): a protocol for a cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a weight management intervention in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 1 in 5 pregnant women in the United Kingdom are obese. In addition to being associated generally with poor health, obesity is known to be a contributing factor to pregnancy and birth complications and the retention of gestational weight can lead to long term obesity. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised trial to evaluate whether a weight management intervention for obese pregnant women is effective in reducing women’s Body Mass Index at 12 months following birth. Methods/design The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 20 maternity units across England and Wales. The units will be randomised, 10 to the intervention group and 10 to the control group. 570 pregnant women aged 18 years or over, with a Body Mass Index of +/=30 (kg/m2) and between 12 and 20 weeks gestation will be recruited. Women allocated to the control group will receive usual care and two leaflets giving advice on diet and physical activity. In addition to their usual care and the leaflets, women allocated to the intervention group will be offered to attend a weekly 1.5 hour weight management group, which combines expertise from Slimming World with clinical advice and supervision from National Health Service midwives, until 6 weeks postpartum. Participants will be followed up at 36 weeks gestation and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Body Mass Index at 12 months postpartum is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include pregnancy weight gain, quality of life, mental health, waist-hip ratio, child weight centile, admission to neonatal unit, diet, physical activity levels, pregnancy and birth complications, social support, self-regulation and self-efficacy. A cost effectiveness analysis and process evaluation will also be conducted. Discussion This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention developed for obese pregnant women. If successful the intervention will equip women with the

  11. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  12. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  13. Relationship between body satisfaction with self esteemand unhealthy body weight management

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A favorable or unfavorable attitude about self was named self esteem. According to Maslow theory to achieve quality of life and happiness, one must reach the gradual fulfillment of human needs, including a high degree of own self-esteem. Body dissatisfaction is a negative distortion of one's body which is especially mentioned by the women. Many studies have shown links between self esteem, body dissatisfaction, health and behaviors. this study intends to determine relationship between body satisfaction, self esteem and unhealthy weight control behaviors between women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 408 women employees in Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 1390. They were chosen according to the stratified random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were 1) willing to participate in the study and 2) lack of serious physical defect 3) not being in pregnancy or breastfeeding course. Exclusion criteria was filling out questionnaires incompletely. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised of 4 sections as following: demographic (5items), A self-administrative questionnaire for body Satisfaction (7 items), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (10 items) and a standard Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Cranach's alpha was 0.9 or higher for the different sections. Finally, collected data was analyzed with SPSS18 using the independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, Spearman correlation. Results: Frequencies of participants by weight category were 14.1% for obese, 35.3% for overweight, 47.6% for normal weight. The mean body satisfaction score in the studied women was 63.26 ± 16.27 (from 100). Mean score of self esteem was 76.70 ± 10.45. 51.5% of women had medium self esteem, 47.5% had high self esteem. Pearson correlation showed that the variables of body Satisfaction (r = 0.3, P = 0.02), BMI (r = - 0.14, P < 0.003), education level (r = 0

  14. Active Flexion in Weight Bearing Better Correlates with Functional Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty than Passive Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Dong; Jain, Nimash; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Yune

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Correlations between maximum flexion and functional outcomes in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients are reportedly weak. We investigated whether there are differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and other types of maximum flexion and whether the type of maximum flexion correlates with functional outcomes. Materials and Methods A total of 210 patients (359 knees) underwent preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up evaluations (6, 12, and 24 months) for the assessment of clinical outcomes including maximum knee flexion. Maximum flexion was measured under five conditions: passive nonweight bearing, passive weight bearing, active nonweight bearing, and active weight bearing with or without arm support. Data were analyzed for relationships between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing by Pearson correlation analyses, and a variance comparison between measurement techniques via paired t test. Results We observed substantial differences between passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing and the other four maximum flexion types. At all time points, passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing correlated poorly with active maximum flexion in weight bearing with or without arm support. Active maximum flexion in weight bearing better correlated with functional outcomes than the other maximum flexion types. Conclusions Our study suggests active maximum flexion in weight bearing should be reported together with passive maximum flexion in nonweight bearing in research on the knee motion arc after TKA. PMID:27274468

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Weight Management and Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Kass, Andrea E.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Eating disorders and obesity in children and adolescents involve harmful behavior and attitude patterns that infiltrate daily functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is well-suited to treat these conditions, given the emphasis on breaking negative behavior cycles. This article reviews the current empirically-supported treatments and the considerations for youth with weight control issues. New therapeutic modalities (i.e., Enhanced CBT and the socio-ecological model) are discussed. Rationale is provided for extending therapy beyond the individual treatment milieu to include the family, peer network, and community domains to promote behavior change, minimize relapse, and support healthy long-term behavior maintenance. PMID:21440855

  16. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  17. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors’ nutritional intake as well as how survivors’ nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  18. Use of Pediatrician Toolkit to Address Parental Perception of Children’s Weight Status, Nutrition, and Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Benjamin, John T.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Wegner, Steven; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Communication of children’s weight status and targeted counseling by pediatricians may change parental perceptions or child dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Purpose To determine whether accuracy of parental perception of children’s weight status and reports of related behaviors changed following a brief pediatrics resident intervention. Methods Parents (N=115) of children ages 4–12 years enrolled in Medicaid completed baseline questionnaires about prior communication of weight status and/or body mass index (BMI) with providers, perceptions of their children’s weight, and children s dietary and PA behaviors, and children were weighed and measured. Trained residents used a toolkit to communicate weight status to parents (via color-coded BMI charts) and counseled about mutually chosen healthy behaviors. Questionnaires were repeated at one and three months, and measurements were repeated for children with BMI≥85%. Results At baseline, 42% of parents of overweight children believed they were at healthy weight. Most (n=96; 83%) parents completed one-month, and 56% completed three month follow up questionnaires. Improvements in fruit and vegetable consumption, sweet drinks, unhealthy snacks, frequency of restaurant food, lower-fat milk, and screen time, occurred among both overweight and healthy weight children. There were also increases in discussions with providers about weight/BMI and parental accuracy of overweight assessment. Conclusions Parent accuracy of weight status and short term childhood dietary and PA behavior changes improved following resident pediatrician use of a toolkit to support communication of weight status and counseling. Further research needs to determine whether accurate parental perception motivates improved behavior change or healthier BMI trajectories. PMID:20554259

  19. Adenovirus 36 infection: a role in dietary intake and response to inpatient weight management in obese girls.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilová, H; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I; Atkinson, R L; Dušátková, L; Sedláčková, B; Lee, Z P; Kunešová, M; Hill, M; Hainer, V

    2015-12-01

    Human adenovirus 36 (Adv36) increases adiposity and is more prevalent in overweight and obese children. Dietary intake in animal models is comparable regardless of Adv36 status. The effects of Adv36 on obesity treatment outcomes have not been clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate the pre-treatment dietary intake and the response to a 4-week inpatient weight management in 184 obese adolescent girls aged 13.0-17.9 years with respect to the presence of Adv36 antibodies. Evaluation of 3-day dietary records did not show any difference in daily intake of energy and essential nutrients between Adv36 antibody positive and negative girls. After the intervention Adv36 positive girls presented with significantly greater decrease of waist circumference (P=0.020), z-score of waist circumference (P=0.024), waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.007) and weight-to-height ratio (P=0.019) compared with Adv36 negative girls. On the contrary, the sum of four skinfolds decreased significantly more in Adv36 negative than in Adv36 positive individuals (P=0.013). Neither body fat percentage nor metabolic and hormonal parameters showed any significant relevance to Adv36 status in response to weight loss intervention. In conclusion, energy restriction in Adv36 antibody positive girls was associated with greater decrease of abdominal obesity and preservation of subcutaneous fat tissue than in those antibody negative. PMID:26303351

  20. In pursuit of leanness: the management of appearance, affect and masculinities within a men's weight loss forum.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Eleanor; Gough, Brendan

    2013-05-01

    In a somatic society which promotes visible, idealized forms of embodiment, men are increasingly being interpellated as image-conscious body-subjects. Some research suggests that men negotiate appearance issues in complex and varied ways, partly because image concerns are conventionally feminized. However, little research has considered how overweight men construct body projects in the context of weight loss, or how men talk to each other about weight management efforts. Since sources of information and support for overweight men are now provided online, including dedicated weight loss discussion forums, our analysis focuses on one such forum, linked to a popular male-targeted magazine. We conducted a thematic analysis of selected extracts from seven threads on the forum. Our analysis suggests a widespread focus on appearance, as well as the use of emotion categories when describing difficult bodily experiences. Invariably, however, such talk was carefully constructed and constrained by hegemonic masculinities founded on discipline, work-orientation, pragmatism and self-reliance. The findings are discussed in relation to magazine masculinities and aesthetics, as well as literature on male embodiment. PMID:22815334

  1. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions. PMID:24724516

  2. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. PMID:22001843

  3. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  4. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  5. Conceptual basis and clinical rationale for the development of a multidisciplinary weight management center

    PubMed Central

    Artandi, M K

    2012-01-01

    Overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg m−2) or obesity (BMI 30>kg m−2) affects more than two-thirds of Americans. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with multiple coexisting conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea and cancer. Lifestyle modification can induce a modest weight loss, which is associated with the prevention or improvement of many of these comorbidities. A combination of diet, exercise and behavioral therapy is considered the cornerstone of treatment for all overweight and obese individuals. As the etiology and therapy of obesity is complex, what is needed for these patients is a multidisciplinary clinic where specialists from different disciplines share their knowledge and participate in the treatment of the obese patient. PMID:25018870

  6. Altered Insula Activity during Visceral Interoception in Weight-Restored Patients with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kara L; Moseman, Scott E; Avery, Jason A; Bodurka, Jerzy; Zucker, Nancy L; Simmons, W Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a devastating psychiatric illness that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Aberrant visceral interoceptive processing within the insula has been hypothesized to be an important mechanism in AN's pathophysiology due to the theoretical link between interoception and emotional experience. We therefore utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether altered insula functioning underlies visceral interoception in AN. Fifteen females with restricting-type AN and 15 healthy control females underwent fMRI while performing an interoceptive attention task during which they focused on sensations in their heart, stomach, and bladder. Participants also performed an anxious rumination task while in the scanner. AN participants were weight-restored and free of psychotropic medications. Two distinct regions of the insula-anterior insula and dorsal mid-insula-exhibited a significant (p<0.05) interaction between group and interoceptive modality. The post hoc analyses revealed that in the dorsal mid-insula the interaction was driven by group differences during stomach interoception (p=0.002, Bonferroni corrected), whereas in the anterior insula the interaction was driven by group differences during heart interoception (p=0.03, Bonferroni corrected). In addition, individuals with AN displayed increased activation during anxious rumination in the dorsal mid-insula, and activation in this region during stomach interoception was correlated with measures of anxiety and psychopathology. This relationship between altered visceral interoception and clinical symptoms in AN suggests an important mechanism for the disorder. Additional research is needed to examine whether interventions targeting visceral interoception may increase the efficacy of treatments for AN. PMID:26084229

  7. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid limits astrocyte activation and scar formation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Khaing, Zin Z; Milman, Brian D; Vanscoy, Jennifer E; Seidlits, Stephanie K; Grill, Raymond J; Schmidt, Christine E

    2011-08-01

    A major hurdle for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the ability of axons to penetrate and grow through the scar tissue. After SCI, inflammatory cells, astrocytes and meningeal cells all play a role in developing the glial scar. In addition, degradation of native high molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to induce activation and proliferation of astrocytes. However, it is not known if the degradation of native HA actually enhances glial scar formation. We hypothesize that the presence of high MW HA (HA with limited degradation) after SCI will decrease glial scarring. Here, we demonstrate that high MW HA decreases cell proliferation and reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) production in cultured neonatal and adult astrocytes. In addition, stiffness-matched high MW HA hydrogels crosslinked to resist degradation were implanted in a rat model of spinal dorsal hemisection injury. The numbers of immune cells (macrophages and microglia) detected at the lesion site in animals with HA hydrogel implants were significantly reduced at acute time points (one, three and ten days post-injury). Lesioned animals with HA implants also exhibited significantly lower CSPG expression at ten days post-injury. At nine weeks post-injury, animals with HA hydrogel implants exhibited a significantly decreased astrocytic response, but did not have significantly altered CSPG expression. Combined, these data suggest that high MW HA, when stabilized against degradation, mitigates astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The presence of HA implants was also associated with a significant decrease in CSPG deposition at ten days after SCI. Therefore, HA-based hydrogel systems hold great potential for minimizing undesired scarring as part of future repair strategies after SCI. PMID:21753237

  8. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  9. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid limits astrocyte activation and scar formation after spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaing, Zin Z.; Milman, Brian D.; Vanscoy, Jennifer E.; Seidlits, Stephanie K.; Grill, Raymond J.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2011-08-01

    A major hurdle for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the ability of axons to penetrate and grow through the scar tissue. After SCI, inflammatory cells, astrocytes and meningeal cells all play a role in developing the glial scar. In addition, degradation of native high molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to induce activation and proliferation of astrocytes. However, it is not known if the degradation of native HA actually enhances glial scar formation. We hypothesize that the presence of high MW HA (HA with limited degradation) after SCI will decrease glial scarring. Here, we demonstrate that high MW HA decreases cell proliferation and reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) production in cultured neonatal and adult astrocytes. In addition, stiffness-matched high MW HA hydrogels crosslinked to resist degradation were implanted in a rat model of spinal dorsal hemisection injury. The numbers of immune cells (macrophages and microglia) detected at the lesion site in animals with HA hydrogel implants were significantly reduced at acute time points (one, three and ten days post-injury). Lesioned animals with HA implants also exhibited significantly lower CSPG expression at ten days post-injury. At nine weeks post-injury, animals with HA hydrogel implants exhibited a significantly decreased astrocytic response, but did not have significantly altered CSPG expression. Combined, these data suggest that high MW HA, when stabilized against degradation, mitigates astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The presence of HA implants was also associated with a significant decrease in CSPG deposition at ten days after SCI. Therefore, HA-based hydrogel systems hold great potential for minimizing undesired scarring as part of future repair strategies after SCI.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Surgically Induced Weight Loss for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Modeled Lifetime Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Catherine L.; Dixon, John B.; Moodie, Marjory L.; Peeters, Anna; Bulfone, Liliana; Maglianno, Dianna J.; O'Brien, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost-effectiveness of surgically induced weight loss relative to conventional therapy for the management of recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes in class I/II obese patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study builds on a within-trial cost-efficacy analysis. The analysis compares the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) between the two intervention groups. Intervention costs were extrapolated based on observed resource utilization during the trial. The proportion of patients in each intervention group with remission of diabetes at 2 years was the same as that observed in the trial. Health care costs for patients with type 2 diabetes and outcome variables required to derive estimates of QALYs were sourced from published literature. A health care system perspective was adopted. Costs and outcomes were discounted annually at 3%. Costs are presented in 2006 Australian dollars (AUD) (currency exchange: 1 AUD = 0.74 USD). RESULTS The mean number of years in diabetes remission over a lifetime was 11.4 for surgical therapy patients and 2.1 for conventional therapy patients. Over the remainder of their lifetime, surgical and conventional therapy patients lived 15.7 and 14.5 discounted QALYs, respectively. The mean discounted lifetime costs were 98,900 AUD per surgical therapy patient and 101,400 AUD per conventional therapy patient. Relative to conventional therapy, surgically induced weight loss was associated with a mean health care saving of 2,400 AUD and 1.2 additional QALYs per patient. CONCLUSIONS Surgically induced weight loss is a dominant intervention (it both saves health care costs and generates health benefits) for managing recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes in class I/II obese patients in Australia. PMID:19171720

  11. The Role of Distance in Examining the Association Between Active Commuting to School and Students' Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    DeWeese, Robin; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school (ACS) increases students' daily physical activity, but associations between student weight and ACS are inconsistent. Few studies examining ACS and weight account for distance commuted. This study examines the association between students' weight status and ACS, taking into account distance to school. Methods In 2009–10 a random digit-dial household survey conducted in low-income minority cities collected information about ACS for 1 randomly selected school-going student per household. Parents provided measured heights and weights. Distance commuted was obtained using geocoded home and school addresses. Multivariate regression analyses assessed associations of ACS and distance commuted with weight status. Results 36.6% of students were overweight/obese; 47.2% engaged in ACS. Distance walked/biked to school was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99). Without distance commuted in the model, ACS was not associated with students' weight status. Compared with no ACS, ACS greater than a half-mile was associated with 65% lower odds of a student being overweight/obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.78); ACS less than a half-mile was not. Conclusions ACS is significantly inversely associated with overweight/obesity among students who commute beyond a one-half mile threshold. PMID:25473961

  12. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Telemonitoring Weight-Reduction Program “Active Body Control”

    PubMed Central

    Stumm, Gabriele; Blaik, Alexandra; Kropf, Siegfried; Westphal, Sabine; Hantke, Tanja Katrin; Luley, Claus

    2016-01-01

    The Active Body Control (ABC) weight-reduction program is based on telemonitoring of physical activity and nutrition together with telecoaching by weekly counseling letters sent by post or by e-mail. The study presented here reports the results of a 1-year follow-up of 49 patients with the metabolic syndrome who had lost weight with the aid of the ABC program in the preceding year. The weight regain after the second year in patients not receiving any further care (“ABC discontinued” group; n = 24) and the potential benefit of continuing with the ABC program with monthly counseling letters (“ABC continued” group; n = 25) were investigated. The relative weight changes after the first year had been, respectively, −13.4% and −11.4% in the “ABC discontinued” and “ABC continued” groups, and after the second year they decreased by, respectively, 4.4 and 2.8%. However, this difference in weight regains between the two groups was not statistically significant. It is concluded that three-quarters of the weight loss after 1 year is maintained after the second year. The decision whether to continue with the ABC program after 1 year should be made individually. PMID:27088096

  13. Effects of Low Molecular Weight Yeast β-Glucan on Antioxidant and Immunological Activities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Na; Wang, Mi; Zhang, Lifang; Xiao, Sui; Fei, Chengzhong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Keyu; Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Chunmei; Yang, Ruile; Xue, Feiqun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant and immune effects of low molecular yeast β-glucan on mice, three sulfated glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sGSCs) with different molecular weight (MW) and degrees of sulfation (DS) were prepared. The structures of the sGSCs were analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography-gel permeation chromatography (HPLC-GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). sGSC1, sGSC2, and sGSC3 had MW of 12.9, 16.5 and 19.2 kDa, respectively, and DS of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.27, respectively. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunological activities of the sGSCs. In vitro experiment, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities were determined. In vivo experiment, 50 male BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. The sGSC1, sGSC2 and sGSC3 treatment groups received the corresponding sGSCs at 50 mg/kg/day each. The GSC (glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treatment group received 50 mg/kg/day GSC. The normal control group received equal volume of physiological saline solution. All treatments were administered intragastrically for 14 day. Results showed that sGSC1, sGSC2 and sGSC3 can scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. The strength of the radical scavenging effects of the sGSCs was in the order of sGSC1 > sGSC2 > sGSC3. Oral administration of sGSC1 significantly improved serum catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in mice. sGSC1 significantly improved the spleen and thymus indexes and the lymphocyte proliferation, effectively enhanced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, decreased the percentage of CD8+ T cells, and elevated the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. sGSC1 significantly promoted the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ. These results indicate that sGSC1 with low MW and DS has better antioxidant and immunological activities than the other sGSCs, and sGSC1 could be used

  14. Effects of Low Molecular Weight Yeast β-Glucan on Antioxidant and Immunological Activities in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Na; Wang, Mi; Zhang, Lifang; Xiao, Sui; Fei, Chengzhong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Keyu; Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Chunmei; Yang, Ruile; Xue, Feiqun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant and immune effects of low molecular yeast β-glucan on mice, three sulfated glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sGSCs) with different molecular weight (MW) and degrees of sulfation (DS) were prepared. The structures of the sGSCs were analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography-gel permeation chromatography (HPLC-GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). sGSC1, sGSC2, and sGSC3 had MW of 12.9, 16.5 and 19.2 kDa, respectively, and DS of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.27, respectively. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunological activities of the sGSCs. In vitro experiment, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities were determined. In vivo experiment, 50 male BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. The sGSC1, sGSC2 and sGSC3 treatment groups received the corresponding sGSCs at 50 mg/kg/day each. The GSC (glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treatment group received 50 mg/kg/day GSC. The normal control group received equal volume of physiological saline solution. All treatments were administered intragastrically for 14 day. Results showed that sGSC1, sGSC2 and sGSC3 can scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. The strength of the radical scavenging effects of the sGSCs was in the order of sGSC1 > sGSC2 > sGSC3. Oral administration of sGSC1 significantly improved serum catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in mice. sGSC1 significantly improved the spleen and thymus indexes and the lymphocyte proliferation, effectively enhanced the percentage of CD4⁺ T cells, decreased the percentage of CD8⁺ T cells, and elevated the CD4⁺/CD8⁺ ratio. sGSC1 significantly promoted the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ. These results indicate that sGSC1 with low MW and DS has better antioxidant and immunological activities than the other sGSCs, and sGSC1 could

  15. Delivery room management of very low birth weight infants in Germany, Austria and Switzerland - a comparison of protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surveys from the USA, Australia and Spain have shown significant inter-institutional variation in delivery room (DR) management of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI, < 1500 g) at birth, despite regularly updated international guidelines. Objective To investigate protocols for DR management of VLBWI in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and to compare these with the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Methods DR management protocols were surveyed in a prospective, questionnaire-based survey in 2008. Results were compared between countries and between academic and non-academic units. Protocols were compared to the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Results In total, 190/249 units (76%) replied. Protocols for DR management existed in 94% of units. Statistically significant differences between countries were found regarding provision of 24 hr in house neonatal service; presence of a designated resuscitation area; devices for respiratory support; use of pressure-controlled manual ventilation devices; volume control by respirator; and dosage of Surfactant. There were no statistically significant differences regarding application and monitoring of supplementary oxygen, or targeted saturation levels, or for the use of sustained inflations. Comparison of academic and non-academic hospitals showed no significant differences, apart from the targeted saturation levels (SpO2) at 10 min. of life. Comparison with ILCOR guidelines showed good adherence to the 2005 recommendations. Summary Delivery room management in German, Austrian and Swiss neonatal units was commonly based on written protocols. Only minor differences were found regarding the DR setup, devices used and the targeted ranges for SpO2 and FiO2. DR management was in good accordance with 2005 ILCOR guidelines, some units already incorporated evidence beyond the ILCOR statement into their routine practice. PMID:21159574

  16. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  17. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P.; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m2), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  18. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  19. Activated AMPK explains hypolipidemic effects of sulfated low molecular weight guluronate on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Hao, Jie-Jie; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhao, Xia; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Miao-Miao; Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wu, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Pei-Ju; Yu, Guang-Li

    2014-10-01

    Low molecular weight and sulfated low molecular weight guluronate (LMG and SLMG) were prepared and hypolipidemic effects were studied in a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Both compounds decreased total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) and inhibited 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) activity in HepG2 cells. In general, SLMG had greater effects than LMG. Activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and AMPK's downstream targets were evidenced by increased phosphorylation of AMPK, HMGCR, and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), which decreased HMGRC and ACC activity. We further demonstrated that activated AMPK was linked to down-regulated SREBP-1 and up-regulated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). PMID:25089813

  20. A New Activity-Based Financial Cost Management Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingge, Zhang

    The standard activity-based financial cost management model is a new model of financial cost management, which is on the basis of the standard cost system and the activity-based cost and integrates the advantages of the two. It is a new model of financial cost management with more accurate and more adequate cost information by taking the R&D expenses as the accounting starting point and after-sale service expenses as the terminal point and covering the whole producing and operating process and the whole activities chain and value chain aiming at serving the internal management and decision.

  1. Active management of food allergy: an emerging concept.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Stiefel, Gary; Brough, Helen; du Toit, George; Lack, Gideon; Fox, Adam T

    2015-04-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are common and currently there is no cure. Traditionally, management has relied upon patient education, food avoidance and the provision of an emergency medication plan. Despite this, food allergy can significantly impact on quality of life. Therefore, in recent years, evolving research has explored alternative management strategies. A more active approach to management is being adopted, which includes early introduction of potentially allergenic foods, anticipatory testing, active monitoring, desensitisation to food allergens and active risk management. This review will discuss these areas in turn. PMID:25378378

  2. Normal Weight with Central Obesity, Physical Activity, and Functional Decline: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Batsis, John A.; Zbehlik, Alicia J.; Scherer, Emily A.; Barre, Laura K.; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify the risks of the combination of normal body mass index (BMI) and central obesity (normal weight and central obesity (NWCO)) on physical activity and function. DESIGN Longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative Study. SETTING Community based. PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 60 and older at risk of osteoarthritis (N= 2,210; mean age 68, range 67.1–69.0) were grouped according to BMI (normal 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, obese ≥30.0 kg/m2). High waist circumference (WC) was defined as greater than 88 cm for women and greater than 102 cm for men. Subjects were subcategorized according to WC (five categories). Subjects with normal BMI and a large WC were considered to have NWCO (n=280, 12.7%). MEASUREMENTS Six-year changes in the Physical Component Summary of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Survey (PCS), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LL-FDI) were examined. The association between BMI and WC over 6 years was assessed (reference normal BMI, normal WC). Stratified analyses were performed according to age (60–69; ≥70). RESULTS Physical component scores, PASE, and LL-FDI declined with time. Mean PASE scores at 6 years differed between the NWCO group and the group with normal BMI and WC (117.7 vs 141.5), but rate of change from baseline to 6 years was not significantly different (p=.35). In adjusted models, those with NWCO had greater decline in PCS over time, particularly those aged 70 and older than those with normal BMI and WC (time interaction β=–0.37, 95% confidence interval=–0.68 to –0.06). CONCLUSION NWCO in older adults at risk of osteoarthritis may be a risk factor for declining function and physical activity, particularly in those aged 70 and older, suggesting the value of targeting those with NWCO who would otherwise be labeled as low risk. PMID:26173812

  3. Detox diets for toxin elimination and weight management: a critical review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Klein, A V; Kiat, H

    2015-12-01

    Detox diets are popular dieting strategies that claim to facilitate toxin elimination and weight loss, thereby promoting health and well-being. The present review examines whether detox diets are necessary, what they involve, whether they are effective and whether they present any dangers. Although the detox industry is booming, there is very little clinical evidence to support the use of these diets. A handful of clinical studies have shown that commercial detox diets enhance liver detoxification and eliminate persistent organic pollutants from the body, although these studies are hampered by flawed methodologies and small sample sizes. There is preliminary evidence to suggest that certain foods such as coriander, nori and olestra have detoxification properties, although the majority of these studies have been performed in animals. To the best of our knowledge, no randomised controlled trials have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of commercial detox diets in humans. This is an area that deserves attention so that consumers can be informed of the potential benefits and risks of detox programmes. PMID:25522674

  4. Effects of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on locomotor activity, and hippocampal weight, neurons, and nitric oxide synthase activity of the young postnatal guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Gibson, M A; Butters, N S; Reynolds, J N; Brien, J F

    2000-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-catalyzed formation of NO from L-arginine may be involved in ethanol teratogenesis involving the hippocampus. This hypothesis was tested by determining the effects of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on locomotor activity and on hippocampal weight, number of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells, and NOS activity of the postnatal guinea pig. Timed, pregnant guinea pigs received one of the following chronic oral regimens throughout gestation: 4 g ethanol/kg maternal body weight/day, isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding, or water. At postnatal day (PD) 10, spontaneous locomotor activity was measured. At PD 12, histological analysis was performed on the hippocampal formation, in which hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and dentate gyrus granule cells were counted; body, brain, and hippocampal weights were measured; and hippocampal NOS enzymatic activity was determined using a radiometric assay. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure produced hyperactivity, decreased the brain and hippocampal weights with no change in body weight, decreased the number of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells by 25-30%, and had no effect on hippocampal NOS activity compared with the two control groups. These data, together with our previous findings in the fetal guinea pig, demonstrate that chronic prenatal ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal NOS activity in near-term fetal life that temporally precedes the selective loss of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in postnatal life. PMID:10758347

  5. Sagittal plane rotation center of lower lumbar spine during a dynamic weight-lifting activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Wang, Shaobai; Wu, Minfei; Zhong, Weiye; Li, Jing-Sheng; Cha, Thomas; Wood, Kirk; Li, Guoan

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the center of rotation (COR) of the intervertebral segments of the lower lumbar spine (L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments) in sagittal plane during a weight-lifting (3.6 kg in each hand) extension activity performed with the pelvis constrained. Seven healthy subjects were studied using a dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. Using the non-weightbearing, supine position during MRI scan as a reference, the average intervertebral flexion angles of the L4-L5 and L5-S1 were 6.6° and 5.3° at flexion position of the body, respectively, and were -1.8° and -3.5° at extension position of the body, respectively. The CORs of the lower lumbar spine were found segment-dependent and changed with the body postures. The CORs of the L4-L5 segment were at the location about 75% posterior from the anterior edge of the disc at flexion positions of the body, and moved to about 92% of the posterior portion of the disc at extension positions of the body. The CORs of the L5-S1 segment were at 95% posterior portion of the disc at flexion positions of the body, and moved outside of the posterior edge of the disc by about 12% of the disc length at extension positions of the body. These results could help understand the physiological motion characters of the lower lumbar spine. The data could also provide important insights for future improvement of artificial disc designs and surgical implantation of the discs that are aimed to reproduce normal spinal functions. PMID:26805460

  6. Home uterine activity monitoring in the prevention of very low birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Kempe, A; Sachs, B P; Ricciotti, H; Sobol, A M; Wise, P H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite controversy regarding the efficacy of home uterine activity monitoring (HUAM), it is currently licensed for detection of preterm labor in women with previous preterm deliveries. In practice, however, it is being more widely utilized in an effort to prevent preterm delivery. This study seeks to determine which group of mothers delivering very low birth weight (VLBW) infants would have qualified for HUAM given three different sets of criteria and in which women it could have been used to help prolong gestation. METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of mothers of VLBW infants born in five U.S. locations (N = 1440), retrospectively applying three sets of eligibility criteria for HUAM use: (a) the current FDA licensing criterion for use of HUAM, a previous preterm birth; (b) indication for HUAM commonly cited in published reports; (c) a broad set of criteria based on the presence of any reproductive or medical conditions that might predispose to premature delivery. The authors then analyzed the conditions precipitating delivery for each group to determine whether delivery might have been prevented with HUAM and tocolytic therapy. RESULTS: Only 4.4% of the total group of women delivering VLBW infants would have been eligible for HUAM under the FDA criterion and might potentially have benefited from this technology. If extremely broad criteria had been applied to identify those eligible for monitoring, under which almost 80% of all women who delivered VLBW infants would have been monitored, only 20.3% of the total group would have been found eligible and would potentially have benefited. If such broad criteria were applied to all pregnant women, a sizable proportion of pregnancies would be monitored at great expense with small potential clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Because VLBW births are usually precipitated by conditions that are unlikely to benefit from HUAM, this technology will have little impact on reducing VLBW and neonatal

  7. Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Weight Loss and Increase Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferré-Grau, Carme; Montaña-Carreras, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no meta-analysis to date has assessed the efficacy of mobile phone apps to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to compare the efficacy of mobile phone apps compared with other approaches to promote weight loss and increase physical activity. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified by a search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus from their inception through to August 2015. Two members of the study team (EG-F, GF-M) independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. We included all controlled studies that assessed a mobile phone app intervention with weight-related health measures (ie, body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) or physical activity outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across studies using random-effects models. Results We included 12 articles in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, use of a mobile phone app was associated with significant changes in body weight (kg) and body mass index (kg/m2) of -1.04 kg (95% CI -1.75 to -0.34; I2 = 41%) and -0.43 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.74 to -0.13; I2 = 50%), respectively. Moreover, a nonsignificant difference in physical activity was observed between the two groups (standardized mean difference 0.40, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.87; I2 = 93%). These findings were remarkably robust in the sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was shown. Conclusions Evidence from this study shows that mobile phone app-based interventions may be useful tools for weight loss. PMID:26554314

  8. Evaluation of the ability of three physical activity monitors to predict weight change and estimate energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Correa, John B; Apolzan, John W; Shepard, Desti N; Heil, Daniel P; Rood, Jennifer C; Martin, Corby K

    2016-07-01

    Activity monitors such as the Actical accelerometer, the Sensewear armband, and the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) are commonly validated against gold standards (e.g., doubly labeled water, or DLW) to determine whether they accurately measure total daily energy expenditure (TEE) or activity energy expenditure (AEE). However, little research has assessed whether these parameters or others (e.g., posture allocation) predict body weight change over time. The aims of this study were to (i) test whether estimated energy expenditure or posture allocation from the devices was associated with weight change during and following a low-calorie diet (LCD) and (ii) compare free-living TEE and AEE predictions from the devices against DLW before weight change. Eighty-seven participants from 2 clinical trials wore 2 of the 3 devices simultaneously for 1 week of a 2-week DLW period. Participants then completed an 8-week LCD and were weighed at the start and end of the LCD and 6 and 12 months after the LCD. More time spent walking at baseline, measured by the IDEEA, significantly predicted greater weight loss during the 8-week LCD. Measures of posture allocation demonstrated medium effect sizes in their relationships with weight change. Bland-Altman analyses indicated that the Sensewear and the IDEEA accurately estimated TEE, and the IDEEA accurately measured AEE. The results suggest that the ability of energy expenditure and posture allocation to predict weight change is limited, and the accuracy of TEE and AEE measurements varies across activity monitoring devices, with multi-sensor monitors demonstrating stronger validity. PMID:27270210

  9. Bacillus subtilis 168 levansucrase (SacB) activity affects average levan molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Porras-Domínguez, Jaime R; Ávila-Fernández, Ángela; Miranda-Molina, Afonso; Rodríguez-Alegría, María Elena; Munguía, Agustín López

    2015-11-01

    Levan is a fructan polymer that offers a variety of applications in the chemical, health, cosmetic and food industries. Most of the levan applications depend on levan molecular weight, which in turn depends on the source of the synthesizing enzyme and/or on reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate that in the particular case of levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis 168, enzyme concentration is also a factor defining the molecular weight levan distribution. While a bimodal distribution has been reported at the usual enzyme concentrations (1 U/ml equivalent to 0.1 μM levansucrase) we found that a low molecular weight normal distribution is solely obtained al high enzyme concentrations (>5 U/ml equivalent to 0.5 μM levansucrase) while a high normal molecular weight distribution is synthesized at low enzyme doses (0.1 U/ml equivalent to 0.01 μM of levansucrase). PMID:26256357

  10. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  11. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  12. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in self-motivated patients: optimized diet, exercise, and medication for weight loss and cardiometabolic fitness.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem with significant lifetime health care costs. The majority of Americans do not achieve minimal targets for exercise, and individuals with T2DM typically engage in less exercise than the general adult population. However, those patients with T2DM who are sufficiently self-motivated to manage their condition have the potential to reverse diabetes and prevent its complications through behavioral and pharmacologic interventions. Marked improvements are possible through increased awareness and selection of healthy eating options, a willingness to incorporate vigorous exercise into their lifestyle, and the use of newer medications that essentially eliminate the risk of hypoglycemia while facilitating weight loss and the achievement of ideal glucose targets. For self-motivated patients, daily aerobic activity of 45 to 60 minutes per day may be a suitable target. For those who have cardiovascular clearance, high-intensity interval training accomplishes high levels of cardiometabolic fitness with shorter training periods by alternating moderate and intense exertion. Suitable medications that have a low risk of hypoglycemia during exercise include metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors. Specific daily caloric goals and incorporation of a mainly plant-based diet should be considered as a primary target for diabetes management. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals, and mobile applications can be useful tools to support lifestyle changes in patients with T2DM. PMID:25419888

  13. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  14. Geologic datasets for weights of evidence analysis in Northeast Washington: 4. mineral industry activity in Washington, 1985-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boleneus, D.E.; Derkey, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    This report includes a table of 339 sites representing mineral activities for mining and mineral exploration in the State of Washington from 1985 through 1997. The table was primarily compiled from annual reports in Washington Geologic Newsletter and Washington Geology. The information was compiled for use in a weights-of-evidence analysis of mineral resources in northeastern Washington.

  15. Ascent to Altitude as a Weight Loss Method: The Good and Bad of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Biff F.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Given the epidemic of obesity worldwide there is a need for more novel and effective weight loss methods. Altitude is well known to be associated with weight loss and has actually been used as a method of weight reduction in obese subjects. This review demonstrates the critical role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in bringing about the reduction in appetite and increase in energy expenditure characteristic of hypobaric hypoxia Design and methods A MEDLINE search of English language articles through February 2013 identified publications associating altitude or hypobaric hypoxia with key words to include hypoxia inducible factor, weight loss, appetite, basal metabolic rate, leptin, cellular energetics, and obesity. The data from these articles were synthesized to formulate a unique and novel mechanism by which HIF activation leads to alterations in appetite, basal metabolic rate, and reductions in body adiposity. Results A synthesis of previously published literature revealed mechanisms by which altitude induces activation of HIF, thereby suggesting this transcription factor regulates changes in cellular metabolism/energetics, activation of the central nervous system, as well as peripheral pathways leading to reductions in food intake and increases in energy expenditure. Conclusions Here we present a unifying hypothesis suggesting that activation of HIF under conditions of altitude potentially leads to metabolic benefits that are dose dependent, gender and genetic specific, and results in adverse effects if the exposure is extreme. PMID:23625659

  16. Physical Activity of Underweight, Normal Weight and Overweight Polish Adolescents: The Role of Classmate and Teacher Support in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantanista, Adam; Osinski, Wieslaw; Bronikowski, Michal; Tomczak, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships of classmate and teacher support during physical education (PE) lessons on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of 14-16 year-old students whom were underweight, normal weight and overweight. The cross-sectional sample for the study concerned data from 1702 girls and 1547 boys, recruited…

  17. A Second Chance: Meanings of Body Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity to Women Who Have Experienced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Mary; Warren, Barbour S.; Devine, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the meanings of diet, physical activity, and body weight in the context of women's cancer experiences. Design: Grounded theory using 15 qualitative interviews and 3 focus groups. Setting: Grassroots community cancer organizations in the northeastern United States. Participants: Thirty-six white women cancer survivors; 86%…

  18. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…

  19. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  20. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  1. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  2. Active Commuting to School, Weight Status, and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Rural Areas: The Cuenca Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Zornoza, Myriam; Sánchez-López, Mairena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Chillón, Palma; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine (a) whether distance from home to school is a determinant of active commuting to school (ACS), (b) the relationship between distance from home to heavily used facilities (school, green spaces, and sports facilities) and the weight status and cardiometabolic risk categories, and (c) whether ACS has a…

  3. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  4. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. BAP guidelines on the management of weight gain, metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular risk associated with psychosis and antipsychotic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen J; Reynolds, Gavin P; Barnes, Tre; England, E; Haddad, P M; Heald, A; Holt, Rig; Lingford-Hughes, A; Osborn, D; McGowan, O; Patel, M X; Paton, C; Reid, P; Shiers, D; Smith, J

    2016-08-01

    Excess deaths from cardiovascular disease are a major contributor to the significant reduction in life expectancy experienced by people with schizophrenia. Important risk factors in this are smoking, alcohol misuse, excessive weight gain and diabetes. Weight gain also reinforces service users' negative views of themselves and is a factor in poor adherence with treatment. Monitoring of relevant physical health risk factors is frequently inadequate, as is provision of interventions to modify these. These guidelines review issues surrounding monitoring of physical health risk factors and make recommendations about an appropriate approach. Overweight and obesity, partly driven by antipsychotic drug treatment, are important factors contributing to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in people with schizophrenia. There have been clinical trials of many interventions for people experiencing weight gain when taking antipsychotic medications but there is a lack of clear consensus regarding which may be appropriate in usual clinical practice. These guidelines review these trials and make recommendations regarding appropriate interventions. Interventions for smoking and alcohol misuse are reviewed, but more briefly as these are similar to those recommended for the general population. The management of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance ('pre-diabetes'), diabetes and other cardiovascular risks, such as dyslipidaemia, are also reviewed with respect to other currently available guidelines.These guidelines were compiled following a consensus meeting of experts involved in various aspects of these problems. They reviewed key areas of evidence and their clinical implications. Wider issues relating to primary care/secondary care interfaces are discussed but cannot be resolved within guidelines such as these. PMID:27147592

  6. The Impact of a Behavioral Weight Management Program on Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Janicke, David M.; Sallinen, Bethany J.

    2010-01-01

    that behavioral interventions lead to an increase in unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviors. Future research should examine the impact of incorporating eating disorder prevention in pediatric weight management programs. PMID:21034878

  7. Physical Activity Volumes during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies Assessing the Association with Infant's Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Michèle; Lavoie-Guénette, Joëlle; Tremblay, Angelo; Marc, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the association between different maternal physical activity exposures during pregnancy and infant's birth weight, body composition, and risk of inadequate weight. Methods Two reviewers (M.B. and J.L.G.) identified observational studies reporting total or leisure time activity during pregnancy and birth weight outcomes. Pooled analyses were performed to summarize the risk associated with high or moderate volumes of physical activity on birth weight. Results A total of 54 studies among 4,080 reported the association between physical activity and birth weight (37 studies) or risks of small or large birth weight. The association between physical activity and birth weight was evaluated by physical activity levels (low, moderate, or high). Despite heterogeneity, pooled results (23 studies) suggested that moderate levels of activity are associated with an increased birth weight (mean difference: 61.5 g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6, 106.5, 15 studies), while high levels were associated with lower birth weight (mean difference: −69.9 g, 95% CI: −114.8, −25.0, 15 studies). Data were insufficient to provide robust estimates for other outcomes. Conclusions The results of observational studies suggest an inverted u-shaped association between physical activity and birth weight, despite methodological variability. These results could help refining physical activity guidelines for pregnancy and provide guidance for future research. PMID:27127718

  8. Changes in Eating, Physical Activity, and Related Behaviors in a Primary-Care-Based Weight Loss Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Volger, Sheri; Wadden, Thomas A.; Sarwer, David B.; Moore, Reneé H.; Chittams, Jesse; Diewald, Lisa; Panigrahi, Eva; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Schmitz, Kathryn; Vetter, Marion L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in eating behaviors and physical activity, as well as predictors of weight loss success, in obese adults who participated in a 2-year behavioral weight loss intervention conducted in a primary care setting. Design A longitudinal, randomized-controlled, multi-site trial. Subjects 390 obese (body mass index, 30 to 50 kg/m2) adults, ≥21 yr, in the Philadelphia region. Methods Participants were assigned to one of three interventions 1) Usual Care [Quarterly primary care provider (PCP) visits that included education on diet and exercise]; 2) Brief Lifestyle Counseling [quarterly PCP visits plus monthly Lifestyle Counseling (LC) sessions about behavioral weight control]; or 3) Enhanced Brief LC (the previous intervention with a choice of meal replacements or weight loss medication). Results At month 24, participants in both Brief LC and Enhanced Brief LC reported significantly greater improvements in mean (±SE) dietary restraint than those in Usual Care (4.4±0.5, 4.8±0.5, and 2.8±0.5, respectively; both ps≤0.016). The percentage of calories from fat, along with fruit and vegetable consumption, did not differ significantly among the three groups. The Brief LC and Enhanced Brief LC groups both reported significantly greater energy expenditure (kcal/week) at month 24 than Usual Care (+593.4±175.9, +415.4±179.6, and −70.4±185.5, respectively; both ps≤0.037). The strongest predictor of weight loss at month 6 (partial R2=33.4%, p<0.0001) and at month 24 (partial R2=19.3%, p<0.001) was food records completed during the first 6 months. Participants who achieved a 5% weight loss at month 6 had 4.7 times greater odds of maintaining a 5% weight loss at month 24. Conclusions A behavioral weight loss intervention delivered in a primary care setting can result in significant weight loss, with corresponding improvements in eating restraint and energy expenditure. Moreover, completion of food records, along with weight loss at month 6, is a

  9. [Quality management in weight restitution in Anorexia nervosa--pathophysiology, evidence-based practice and prevention of the refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mayr, Michael; Imgart, Hartmut; Skala, Katrin; Karwautz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During refeeding syndrome-a well-known and dreaded complication of weight-restauration in anorexia nervosa-a shift of electrolytes and fluid can occur in malnourished patients and might therefore lead to-potentially fatal-cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological symptoms. Causes of this are metabolic and hormonal changes during re-establishment of a carbohydrate-rich diet. This syndrome is most commonly associated with hypophosphatemia, which can however be accompanied by other chemical laboratory abnormalities. Standardized guidelines for the prevention and management of the refeeding syndrome have not yet been established. In case and cohort studies different low- and high-calorie diet protocols led to comparable results with similar complication rates. A focus should be placed on prevention of serious complications by careful monitoring. The pathophysiology, the main constituents in the development of the refeeding syndrome, recommendations for risk assessment and treatment, and current evidence are discussed. PMID:26596577

  10. The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Activity plus Diet Interventions on Body Weight in Overweight or Obese Women who are Pregnant or in Postpartum: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) and PA plus diet interventions in managing weight among overweight or obese (OW/OB) pregnant or postpartum women. Methods Four databases were searched for randomized controlled studies published between January 2000 and December 2011 that reported weight change outcomes of PA interventions in OW/OB pregnant or postpartum women. PA alone as well as PA plus diet interventions were included. Results Of 681 abstracts identified, 11 were included (7 trials with pregnant women and 4 trials with postpartum women). Overall, we found that PA interventions were effective for OW/OB pregnant as well as postpartum women. On average, pregnant women in the intervention groups gained 0.91 kg less (95% CI: −1.76, −0.06) compared to those in the usual care groups. Postpartum women in the intervention groups significantly lost more body weight (−1.22 kg; 95% CI: −1.89, −0.56) than those in the control groups. In the subgroup analyses by PA intervention types, supervised PA plus diet interventions were the most effective. Conclusions PA plus diet interventions may require more than advice; supervised PA programs or personalized prescription/goals are needed to prevent excessive weight gain for OW/OB pregnant women and excessive weight retention for OW/OB postpartum women. PMID:23480971

  11. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the

  12. International Project Management Committee: Overview and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the purpose and composition of the International Project Management Committee (IMPC). The IMPC was established by members of 15 space agencies, companies and professional organizations. The goal of the committee is to establish a means to share experiences and best practices with space project/program management practitioners at the global level. The space agencies that are involved are: AEB, DLR, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, KARI, and NASA. The industrial and professional organizational members are Comau, COSPAR, PMI, and Thales Alenia Space.

  13. Positive correlation between the body weight of anestrous goats and their response to the male effect with sexually active bucks.

    PubMed

    Véliz, Francisco G; Poindron, Pascal; Malpaux, Benoît; Delgadillo, J Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the results of two years of response to the male effect in seasonally anestrous goats to investigate whether the activation of female reproductive activity by the male effect is related to the body weight of the females. Seventy-nine adult female Mexican mixed breed goats were used. The anestrous females were exposed during 15 days to sexually active males, and were classified into three categories according to their mean body weight +/-SD (42 +/- 9 kg) (Light: < or = 33 kg, n = 19; Medium: 34-50 kg, n = 46; Heavy: > or = 51 kg, n = 14). More than 98% of the goats from the Medium and Heavy groups showed at least one estrus behavior within the first 15 days following the introduction of the bucks, versus only 63% of the females from the Light group (P < 0.01). The interval between the introduction of the males and the onset of estrus behavior was longer in the females of the Light and Medium groups (4.2 +/- 0.8 and 3.3 +/- 0.3 days) than in the females of the Heavy group (2.0 +/- 0.2 days; P < 0.03). Also, body weight was negatively correlated with latency to first estrus (Spearman r = -0.57; P < 0.001). These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the ability of anestrous goats to respond to the male effect is positively influenced by their body weight. PMID:17169312

  14. Description of data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the major responsibilities of the JPL Computing and Information Services Office is to develop and maintain a JPL plan for providing computing services to the JPL management and administrative community that will lead to improved productivity. The CISO plan to accomplish this objective has been titled 'Management and Administrative Support Systems' (MASS). The MASS plan is based on the continued use of JPL's IBM 3032 Computer system for administrative computing and for the MASS functions. The current candidate administrative Data Base Management Systems required to support the MASS include ADABASE, Cullinane IDMS and TOTAL. Previous uses of administrative Data Base Systems have been applied to specific local functions rather than in a centralized manner with elements common to the many user groups. Limited capacity data base systems have been installed in microprocessor based office automation systems in a few Project and Management Offices using Ashton-Tate dBASE II. These experiences plus some other localized in house DBMS uses have provided an excellent background for developing user and system requirements for a single DBMS to support the MASS program.

  15. KBP-088, a novel DACRA with prolonged receptor activation, is superior to davalintide in terms of efficacy on body weight.

    PubMed

    Gydesen, Sofie; Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Christensen, Jane Marie; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim

    2016-05-15

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism behind the potent weight loss induced by dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonists (DACRA) through comparison of the novel DACRA KBP-088 with the amylinomimetic davalintide with regard to in vitro receptor pharmacology and in vivo efficacy on food intake and body weight. KBP-088 and davalintide were tested for their ability to activate the amylin and calcitonin receptors as function of dose and time. Two doses of KBP-088 (1.67 and 5.0 μg/kg) were compared with similar davalintide doses in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats receiving subcutaneous dosing once daily for 62 days. Glucose tolerance was assessed after 3 and 7 wk of treatment. KBP-088 demonstrated activation of amylin and calcitonin receptors and prolonged receptor activation compared with davalintide as well as a potent reduction of acute food intake. KBP-088 transiently reduced food intake and induced and notably sustained a significant ∼16% vehicle-corrected weight loss without significant weight loss in the calorie-restricted control groups. Additionally, KBP-088 reduced white adipose tissues and adipocyte hypertrophy. Finally, KBP-088 alleviated hyperinsulinemia and improved oral glucose tolerance even with significantly lower insulin levels after 3 and 7 wk of treatment. KBP-088 is a potent amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist with prolonged receptor activation compared with davalintide. Moreover, KBP-088 induced and sustained significant weight loss and reduced overall adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy in HFD rats. Finally, KBP-088 improved oral glucose tolerance and alleviated hyperinsulinemia, underscoring the potential of KBP-088 as an antiobesity agent with benefits on glucose control. PMID:26908506

  16. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  17. Subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics in poultry feeds and their effects on weight gain, feed efficiency, and bacterial cholyltaurine hydrolase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Feighner, S D; Dashkevicz, M P

    1987-01-01

    A radiochemical method was developed to estimate cholyltaurine hydrolase potentials and rates of cholyltaurine hydrolysis in chicken intestinal homogenates. This method was used to monitor the effects of antibiotic feed additives on cholyltaurine hydrolase activity. Avoparcin, bacitracin methylenedisalisylic acid, efrotomycin, lincomycin, penicillin G procaine, and virginiamycin improved rate of weight gain and feed conversion of chicks and decreased cholyltaurine hydrolase activity in ileal homogenates relative to those of nonmedicated control birds. The results provided the first evidence that feeding selected antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels can affect bile acid-transforming enzymes in small-intestinal homogenates. The inverse relationship between growth performance and cholyltaurine hydrolase activity raises the possibility that specific inhibitors of this enzyme may promote weight gain and feed conversion in livestock and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for antibiotic feed additives. PMID:3566269

  18. Social Cognitive Changes Following Weight Loss and Physical Activity Interventions in Obese, Older Adults in Poor Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, Lawrence; Gaukstern, Jill E.; Ambrosius, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The study objectives were to determine (a) the effects of group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions on change in performance self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and with appearance among older, overweight/obese adults in poor cardiovascular health and (b) whether self-efficacy mediated change in 400-m walk time. Methods This translational, randomized controlled trial of physical activity and weight loss was conducted within community Cooperative Extension Centers. Participants were randomized to three intervention arms: Physical Activity, Weight Loss+ Physical Activity, or a Successful Aging education control. Results Across 18 months, the Weight Loss+Physical Activity intervention demonstrated greater improvements in self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and appearance versus other trial arms. Physical Activity intervention participants also experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy and satisfaction with function versus those in Successful Aging. Self-efficacy mediated 400-m walk time at 18 months. Conclusions Both group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions yielded desirable improvements in social cognitions and preserved mobility improvements post-intervention. PMID:22773225

  19. Associations between prenatal physical activity, birth weight, and DNA methylation at genomically imprinted domains in a multiethnic newborn cohort.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Lauren E; Mendez, Michelle A; Miller, Erline E; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Birth weight is a commonly used indicator of the fetal environment and a predictor of future health outcomes. While the etiology of birth weight extremes is likely multifactorial, epidemiologic data suggest that prenatal physical activity (PA) may play an important role. The mechanisms underlying this association remain unresolved, although epigenetics has been proposed. This study aimed to estimate associations between prenatal PA, birth weight, and newborn DNA methylation levels at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating 4 imprinted genes known to be important in fetal development. Study participants (N = 1281) were enrolled as part of the Newborn Epigenetics Study. Prenatal PA was ascertained using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, and birth weight data obtained from hospital records. Among 484 term mother-infant pairs, imprinted gene methylation levels were measured at DMRs using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations. After adjusting for preterm birth and race/ethnicity, we found that infants born to mothers in the highest quartile of total non-sedentary time had lower birth weight compared to infants of mothers in the lowest quartile (β = -81.16, SE = 42.02, P = 0.05). These associations appeared strongest among male infants (β = -125.40, SE = 58.10, P = 0.03). Methylation at the PLAGL1 DMR was related to total non-sedentary time (P < 0.05). Our findings confirm that prenatal PA is associated with reduced birth weight, and is the first study to support a role for imprinted gene plasticity in these associations. Larger studies are required. PMID:25928716

  20. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity. PMID:25782398

  1. [Controlled weight bearing after osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Perren, T; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    Patient compliance with postoperative partial weight bearing can be a difficult management problem. The problem may be intentional or unintentional. There is no objective way to assess the amount of weight placed on the lower extremity by the patient. It is our clinical suspicion that patients place more weight than is desirable on the effected limb. There are few reports in the literature on this topic. One study has confirmed our suspicion of poor patient compliance with postoperative weight bearing. Our goal is to develop a system to accurately assess weight bearing and to improve this aspect of postoperative fracture care. Through an active feedback device we hope to improve patient education and understanding. We plan to study the clinical applications of using a pressure sensitive shoe insert device. Our ultimate goal is to improve upon the present device and to study the clinical application of there use. PMID:8123330

  2. Pregnant women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of women’s perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23–39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women’s weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  3. Weight Status and Differences in Mobility Performance, Pain Symptoms, and Physical Activity in Older, Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Matthew J.; Focht, Brian C.; Dials, Justin; Lucas, Alexander R.; Devor, Steven T.; Emery, Charles F.; Hackshaw, Kevin V.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of functional disability among American adults. Obesity is a strong independent risk factor for OA. While research emphasizes the role of obesity in the OA-physical function relationship, the extent to which weight status impacts salient physical, health, and pain measures in older, knee OA patients is not well delineated. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in mobility performance (stair climb and 400-meter walk), mobility-related self-efficacy, pain symptoms (WOMAC), and measures of accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA) as a function of weight status. Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences on the dependent variables. Obese class III patients were outperformed by their counterparts on nearly every measure of mobility, mobility-related self-efficacy, and the assessment of pain symptoms. These outcomes did not differ among other weight comparisons. Normal weight subjects outperformed classes I, II, and III counterparts on most measures of PA (engagement in moderate or greater PA and total weekly steps). Additionally, overweight participants outperformed obese class II participants and obese class I participants outperformed obese classes II and III participants on total weekly steps. Collectively, these findings underscore the meaningful differences observed in relevant OA outcomes as a function of increasing levels of body weight. PMID:24963401

  4. Multiple objective optimization for active sensor management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Scott F.; Dolia, Alexander N.; Harris, Chris J.; White, Neil M.

    2005-03-01

    The performance of a multi-sensor data fusion system is inherently constrained by the configuration of the given sensor suite. Intelligent or adaptive control of sensor resources has been shown to offer improved fusion performance in many applications. Common approaches to sensor management select sensor observation tasks that are optimal in terms of a measure of information. However, optimising for information alone is inherently sub-optimal as it does not take account of any other system requirements such as stealth or sensor power conservation. We discuss the issues relating to developing a suite of performance metrics for optimising multi-sensor systems and propose some candidate metrics. In addition it may not always be necessary to maximize information gain, in some cases small increases in information gain may take place at the cost of large sensor resource requirements. Additionally, the problems of sensor tasking and placement are usually treated separately, leading to a lack of coherency between sensor management frameworks. We propose a novel approach based on a high level decentralized information-theoretic sensor management architecture that unifies the processes of sensor tasking and sensor placement into a single framework. Sensors are controlled using a minimax multiple objective optimisation approach in order to address probability of target detection, sensor power consumption, and sensor survivability whilst maintaining a target estimation covariance threshold. We demonstrate the potential of the approach through simulation of a multi-sensor, target tracking scenario and compare the results with a single objective information based approach.

  5. US EPA’s Watershed Management Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is responsible for developing and demonstrating methods to manage the risk to public health, property and the environment from wet-weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. The activities are prim...

  6. Two-chain high molecular weight kininogen induces endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis: partial activity within domain 5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J C; Claffey, K; Sakthivel, R; Darzynkiewicz, Z; Shaw, D E; Leal, J; Wang, Y C; Lu, F M; McCrae, K R

    2000-12-01

    We previously reported that the binding of two-chain high molecular weight kininogen (HKa) to endothelial cells may occur through interactions with endothelial urokinase receptors. Since the binding of urokinase to urokinase receptors activates signaling responses and may stimulate mitogenesis, we assessed the effect of HKa binding on endothelial cell proliferation. Unexpectedly, HKa inhibited proliferation in response to several growth factors, with 50% inhibition caused by approximately 10 nM HKa. This activity was Zn(2+) dependent and not shared by either single-chain high molecular weight kininogen (HK) or low molecular weight kininogen. HKa selectively inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein and dermal microvascular endothelial cells, but did not affect that of umbilical vein or human aortic smooth muscle cells, trophoblasts, fibroblasts, or carcinoma cells. Inhibition of endothelial proliferation by HKa was associated with endothelial cell apoptosis and unaffected by antibodies that block the binding of HK or HKa to any of their known endothelial receptors. Recombinant HK domain 5 displayed activity similar to that of HKa. In vivo, HKa inhibited neovascularization of subcutaneously implanted Matrigel plugs, as well as rat corneal angiogenesis. These results demonstrate that HKa is a novel inhibitor of angiogenesis, whose activity is dependent on the unique conformation of the two-chain molecule. PMID:11099478

  7. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26852013

  8. Guide to good practices for line and training manager activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide direction for line and training managers in carrying out their responsibilities for training and qualifying personnel and to verify that existing training activities are effective.

  9. Survey of Applications of Active Control Technology for Gust Alleviation and New Challenges for Lighter-weight Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Christopher D.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a historical survey and assessment of the state of the art in the modeling and application of active control to aircraft encountering atmospheric disturbances in flight. Particular emphasis is placed on applications of active control technologies that enable weight reduction in aircraft by mitigating the effects of atmospheric disturbances. Based on what has been learned to date, recommendations are made for addressing gust alleviation on as the trend for more structurally efficient aircraft yields both lighter and more flexible aircraft. These lighter more flexible aircraft face two significant challenges reduced separation between rigid body and flexible modes, and increased sensitivity to gust encounters due to increased wing loading and improved lift to drag ratios. The primary audience of this paper is engineering professionals new to the area of gust load alleviation and interested in tackling the multifaceted challenges that lie ahead for lighter-weight aircraft.

  10. Engagement with eHealth Self-Monitoring in a Primary Care-Based Weight Management Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Lane, Ilana B.; Askew, Sandy; Greaney, Mary L.; Colditz, Graham A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Background While eHealth approaches hold promise for improving the reach and cost-effectiveness of behavior change interventions, they have been challenged by declining participant engagement over time, particularly for self-monitoring behaviors. These are significant concerns in the context of chronic disease prevention and management where durable effects are important for driving meaningful changes. Purpose “Be Fit, Be Well” was an eHealth weight loss intervention that allowed participants to self-select a self-monitoring modality (web or interactive voice response (IVR)). Participants could change their modality. As such, this study provides a unique opportunity to examine the effects of intervention modality choice and changing modalities on intervention engagement and outcomes. Methods Intervention participants, who were recruited from community health centers, (n = 180) were expected to self-monitor health behaviors weekly over the course of the 24-month intervention. We examined trends in intervention engagement by modality (web, IVR, or changed modality) among participants in the intervention arm. Results The majority (61%) of participants chose IVR self-monitoring, while 39% chose web. 56% of those who selected web monitoring changed to IVR during the study versus no change in those who initially selected IVR. Self-monitoring declined in both modalities, but completion rates were higher in those who selected IVR. There were no associations between self-monitoring modality and weight or blood pressure outcomes. Conclusions This is the first study to compare web and IVR self-monitoring in an eHealth intervention where participants could select and change their self-monitoring modality. IVR shows promise for achieving consistent engagement. PMID:26469065

  11. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  12. Description of data base management activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ARC's current and future data processing needs have been identified and defined. Requirements for improved data processing capabilities are listed: (1) Centralized control of system data files. Establish a DBA/data base administrator position with responsibility for management of the Centers numerous data bases; (2) Programmer tools to improve efficiency of performance; (3) Direct and timely access to information. Presently, the user submits query requests to the data processing department where they are prioritized with other queries and then batch processed using a report generator; (4) On line data entry. With the merger of the Dryden facility with ARC on line data entry, edit and updates have become mandatory for timely operation and reporting. A DBMS software package was purchased to meet the above requirements.

  13. Relationship of molecular weight to antiviral and antitumor activities and toxic effects of maleic anhydride-divinyl ether (MVE) polyanions.

    PubMed

    Morahan, P S; Barnes, D W; Munson, A E

    1978-11-01

    The molecular weight (MW) and dose dependency of several of the toxic effects and antitumor and antiviral activities of a new series of five maleic anhydride-divinyl ether copolymers (MVE) were established. Each polyanion preparation was relatively homogeneous and exhibited a narrow MW range, from 12,500 (MVE-1) to greater than 52,000 (MVE-5). All of the polyanions were effective as adjuvants to surgery against the metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma, and also exhibited marked antitumor activity against the P815 mastocytoma. MVE-1 retained antitumor activity while losing considerable antiviral activity. This polyanion also exhibited the least toxicity with regard to criteria such as sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin, inhibition of reticuloendothelial function, and depression of the microsomal mixed functional oxidase system. The MVE-4 (MW, 32,000) and MVE-5 (MW, 52,600) polyanions exhibited potent antitumor and antiviral activity, but also demonstrated dose-dependent toxic effects. PMID:103618

  14. Therapy and Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... or hearing the word "pizza" probably gets you thinking about that food! You can see how easy it is to give in. We've all been there. But after you've had the pizza, the guilt and regret set in. You might feel mad at yourself or self-critical. You may think, "Oh, I should have had ...

  15. 5As Team obesity intervention in primary care: development and evaluation of shared decision‐making weight management tools

    PubMed Central

    Asselin, J.; Anderson, R.; Ogunleye, A. A.; Cave, A.; Sharma, A. M.; Campbell‐Scherer, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite several clinical practice guidelines, there remains a considerable gap in prevention and management of obesity in primary care. To address the need for changing provider behaviour, a randomized controlled trial with convergent mixed method evaluation, the 5As Team (5AsT) study, was conducted. As part of the 5AsT intervention, the 5AsT tool kit was developed. This paper describes the development process and evaluation of these tools. Tools were co‐developed by the multidisciplinary research team and the 5AsT, which included registered nurses/nurse practitioners (n = 15), mental health workers (n = 7) and registered dieticians (n = 7), who were previously randomized to the 5AsT intervention group at a primary care network in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The 5AsT tool development occurred through a practice/implementation‐oriented, need‐based, iterative process during learning collaborative sessions of the 5AsT intervention. Feedback during tool development was received through field notes and final provider evaluation was carried out through anonymous questionnaires. Twelve tools were co‐developed with 5AsT. All tools were evaluated as either ‘most useful’ or ‘moderately useful’ in primary care practice by the 5AsT. Four key findings during 5AsT tool development were the need for: tools that were adaptive, tools to facilitate interdisciplinary practice, tools to help patients understand realistic expectations for weight loss and shared decision‐making tools for goal setting and relapse prevention. The 5AsT tools are primary care tools which extend the utility of the 5As of obesity management framework in clinical practice. PMID:26129630

  16. MedlinePlus: Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy and Weight Management (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths (National ...

  17. Active listening: The key of successful communication in hospital managers

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Vahid Kohpeima; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili; Rajabi, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the important causes of medical errors and unintentional harm to patients is ineffective communication. The important part of this skill, in case it has been forgotten, is listening. The objective of this study was to determine whether managers in hospitals listen actively. Methods This study was conducted between May and June 2014 among three levels of managers at teaching hospitals in Kerman, Iran. Active Listening skill among hospital managers was measured by self-made Active Listening Skill Scale (ALSS), which consists of the key elements of active listening and has five subscales, i.e., Avoiding Interruption, Maintaining Interest, Postponing Evaluation, Organizing Information, and Showing Interest. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS software, version 20, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, the chi-squared test, and multiple linear regressions. Results The mean score of active listening in hospital managers was 2.32 out of 3.The highest score (2.27) was obtained by the first-level managers, and the top managers got the lowest score (2.16). Hospital mangers were best in showing interest and worst in avoiding interruptions. The area of employment was a significant predictor of avoiding interruption and the managers’ gender was a strong predictor of skill in maintaining interest (p < 0.05). The type of management and education can predict postponing evaluation, and the length of employment can predict showing interest (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is a necessity for the development of strategies to create more awareness among the hospital managers concerning their active listening skills. PMID:27123221

  18. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  19. Effect of weighted vest suit worn during daily activities on running speed, jumping power, and agility in young men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Timo; Ruotsalainen, Ilona; Virmavirta, Mikko

    2012-11-01

    Previous weighted vest interventions using exercise in addition to hypergravity have been successful in improving postural balance and power production capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate if hypergravity alone in daily activities excluding sporting activities is effective in improving neuromuscular performance in young adults. Eight male subjects (age = 32 [SD: 6] years, height = 178 [5] cm, and body mass = 81 [8] kg) wore weighted vests 3 d·wk for 3 weeks during waking hours, excluding sporting activities. Control group comprised 9 male subjects (age = 32 [6] years, height = 179 [5] cm, and body mass = 83 [9] kg). Performance was assessed with countermovement jump (body mass normalized peak power), figure-of-8 running test (running time), and running velocity test at baseline and at the end of the intervention. At baseline, the groups did not differ from each other (multivariate analysis of variance [MANOVA] p = 0.828). A significant group × time interaction (MANOVA F = 5.1, p = 0.015) was observed for performance variables. Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention improved the figure-of-8 running time (p = 0.016) (-2.2 vs. 0.5%), whereas normalized peak power (0.0 vs. 1.6%) and running velocity (1.3 vs. 0.1%) were unaffected (p ≥ 0.095). Wearing weighted vests was effective in slightly improving agility-related performance in young men. Because the effect was small, applying hypergravity only during exercise probably suffices. It appears that a proper volume and intensity of hypergravity could be in the order of 5-10% body weight vest worn during up to 50% of the training sessions for a period of 3-4 weeks. PMID:22266642

  20. Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Management Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    In college and university administration, overhead costs are often charged to programs indiscriminately, whereas the support activities that underlie those costs remain unanalyzed. It is time for institutions to decrease ineffective use of resources. Activity-based management attributes costs more accurately and can improve efficiency. (MSE)

  1. Intrauterine resuscitation: active management of fetal distress.

    PubMed

    Thurlow, J A; Kinsella, S M

    2002-04-01

    Acute fetal distress in labour is a condition of progressive fetal asphyxia with hypoxia and acidosis. It is usually diagnosed by finding characteristic features in the fetal heart rate pattern, wherever possible supported by fetal scalp pH measurement. Intrauterine resuscitation consists of applying specific measures with the aim of increasing oxygen delivery to the placenta and umbilical blood flow, in order to reverse hypoxia and acidosis. These measures include initial left lateral recumbent positioning followed by right lateral or knee-elbow if necessary, rapid intravenous infusion of a litre of non-glucose crystalloid, maternal oxygen administration at the highest practical inspired percentage, inhibition of uterine contractions usually with subcutaneous or intravenous terbutaline 250 microg, and intra-amniotic infusion of warmed crystalloid solution. Specific manoeuvres for umbilical cord prolapse are also described. Intrauterine resuscitation may be used as part of the obstetric management of labour, while preparing for caesarean delivery for fetal distress, or at the time of establishment of regional analgesia during labour in the compromised fetus. The principles may also be applied during inter-hospital transfers of sick or labouring parturients. PMID:15321562

  2. Effects of therapeutic climbing activities wearing a weighted vest on a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sun; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of therapeutic climbing activities on the brain waves and attention of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Subject and Methods] The subject of this case study was a 7 year 6-month old child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study was based on evidence gathered at 3 distinct stages: a pre-intervention period, 10 intervention periods (2 weeks), and one post-intervention period. The intervention involved therapeutic climbing activities wearing a weighted vest over the course of 4 weeks. The clinical outcome measures were electroencephalography and the Star Cancellation Test. [Results] The mean activation of alpha waves was improved by the therapeutic intervention. During the intervention, the mean activation of alpha waves was the highest at the F3 cortical locus and the lowest at the T4 cortical locus. The average Star Cancellation Test scores were 43 at pre-intervention, 50 during the therapeutic intervention, and 52 at post-intervention. The performance time of the Star Cancellation Test was 240.1 seconds at pre-intervention, 90.2 seconds during the therapeutic intervention, and 60.0 seconds at post-intervention. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that therapeutic climbing activities performed wearing a weighted vest had positive effects on the brain waves and the attention span of a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26644705

  3. Isolation and characterization of cotiaractivase, a novel low molecular weight prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara.

    PubMed

    Senis, Yotis A; Kim, Paul Y; Fuller, Gemma L J; García, Angel; Prabhakar, Sripadi; Wilkinson, Mark C; Brittan, Helen; Zitzmann, Nicole; Wait, Robin; Warrell, David A; Watson, Steve P; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, R David G; Nesheim, Michael E; Laing, Gavin D

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we isolated a novel prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara, a Brazilian lance-headed pit viper (Cotiara, Jararaca preta, Biocotiara), which we have designated "cotiaractivase" (prefix: cotiar- from B. cotiara; suffix: -activase, from prothrombin activating activity). Cotiaractivase was purified using a phenyl-Superose hydrophobic interaction column followed by a Mono-Q anion exchange column. It is a single-chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 22,931 Da as measured by mass spectroscopy. Cotiaractivase generated active alpha-thrombin from purified human prothrombin in a Ca2+-dependent manner as assessed by S2238 chromogenic substrate assay and SDS-PAGE. Cotiaractivase cleaved prothrombin at positions Arg271-Thr272 and Arg320-Ile321, which are also cleaved by factor Xa. However, the rate of thrombin generation by cotiaractivase was approximately 60-fold less than factor Xa alone and 17 x 10(6)-fold less than the prothrombinase complex. The enzymatic activity of cotiaractivase was inhibited by the chelating agent EDTA, whereas the serine protease inhibitor PMSF had no effect on its activity, suggesting that it is a metalloproteinase. Interestingly, S2238 inhibited cotiaractivase activity non-competitively, suggesting that this toxin contains an exosite that allows it to bind prothrombin independently of its active site. Tandem mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing of purified cotiaractivase identified peptides that were identical to regions of the cysteine-rich and disintegrin-like domains of known snake venom metalloproteinases. Cotiaractivase is a unique low molecular weight snake venom prothrombin activator that likely belongs to the metalloproteinase family of proteins. PMID:16647309

  4. Using Sales Management Students to Manage Professional Selling Students in an Innovative Active Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…

  5. Short and long-term lifestyle coaching approaches used to address diverse participant barriers to weight loss and physical activity adherence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual barriers to weight loss and physical activity goals in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized trial with 3.2 years average treatment duration, have not been previously reported. Evaluating barriers and the lifestyle coaching approaches used to improve adherence in a large, diverse participant cohort can inform dissemination efforts. Methods Lifestyle coaches documented barriers and approaches after each session (mean session attendance = 50.3 ± 21.8). Subjects were 1076 intensive lifestyle participants (mean age = 50.6 years; mean BMI = 33.9 kg/m2; 68% female, 48% non-Caucasian). Barriers and approaches used to improve adherence were ranked by the percentage of the cohort for whom they applied. Barrier groupings were also analyzed in relation to baseline demographic characteristics. Results Top weight loss barriers reported were problems with self-monitoring (58%); social cues (58%); holidays (54%); low activity (48%); and internal cues (thought/mood) (44%). Top activity barriers were holidays (51%); time management (50%); internal cues (30%); illness (29%), and motivation (26%). The percentage of the cohort having any type of barrier increased over the long-term intervention period. A majority of the weight loss barriers were significantly associated with younger age, greater obesity, and non-Caucasian race/ethnicity (p-values vary). Physical activity barriers, particularly thought and mood cues, social cues and time management, physical injury or illness and access/weather, were most significantly associated with being female and obese (p < 0.001 for all). Lifestyle coaches used problem-solving with most participants (≥75% short-term; > 90% long term) and regularly reviewed self-monitoring skills. More costly approaches were used infrequently during the first 16 sessions (≤10%) but increased over 3.2 years. Conclusion Behavioral problem solving approaches have short and long term dissemination potential

  6. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  7. [Gene delivery system based on low molecular weight polyethylenimine and its transfection activity in the skin tissue].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong Jun; Li, Ya Ping; Li, Jun; Jia, Jing Fen; Liu, Lei

    2004-04-01

    Low molecular weight polyethylenimine (LMW-PEI) was linked to an expressing plasmid contains a green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene and effective gene transfer was observed in CM7221 cell line tested. We examined the relationship among the molecular weight, structure of PEI and their transfection activity and cytotoxicity on CM7221 cell line. We also examined the position and continuance time of the GFP reporter gene expressed in the skin tissue of mouse. Results showed that LMW-PEI/DNA complexes led to high levels of expression in the CM7221 cell line (about 55%). However, with the increasing of PEI molecular weight, the transfection activity of PEI was decreasing. There was an increasing cytotoxicity with the larger PEI molecules. Further research showed that LMW-PEI induced a significant and long-lasting (7 days) expression of the GFP reporter gene in the hair vesicle, sweat, gland, sebaceous gland in the mouse skin tissues. The LMW-PEI described here is a new, highly efficient and non-cytotoxic vector. It would be a useful non-viral vector for gene delivery technology, particular useful as simple skin-specific vehicles of therapeutic genes. PMID:15259980

  8. Relationship between Sociodemographics, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity with Gestational Weight Gain among Pregnant Women in Rafsanjan City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Mun, Chan Yoke; Nazari, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.0001) with GWG. All pregnant women should be counselled on achieving the reccomended GWG to prevent adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes. Pre-pregnancy and gestational nutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care. PMID:25995733

  9. Combining Environmental and Individual Weight Management Interventions in a Work Setting Results From the Dow Chemical Study

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Parker, Kristin M.; Padilla, Heather M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Roemer, Enid C.; Goetzel, Ron Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of environmental weight loss interventions alone versus in combination with an individual intervention. Methods A quasiexperimental design compared with outcomes for two levels of environmental interventions and for participants who did or did not simultaneously self-select into an individually focused weight loss intervention (YW8). ANCOVA and logistic regression techniques were used to examine risk outcomes. Results Employees who participated in YW8 were no more successful at losing weight than those exposed to only the environmental interventions. Approximately, 13.5% of each group lost at least 5% of their body weight; overall changes in mean body weight and body mass index were negligible in both groups. Conclusions Simple worksite environmental modifications may help with weight maintenance, but are not likely to result in substantial weight reductions even when combined with low-intensity individual interventions. PMID:21346636

  10. Confirmation in Couples' Communication about Weight Management: An Analysis of How Both Partners Contribute to Individuals' Health Behaviors and Conversational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Rene M.; Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Thompson, Charee Mooney

    2011-01-01

    Using confirmation theory, this study investigated how romantic couples' (N = 100) accepting and challenging communication was associated with several weight management (WM) outcomes (i.e., partners' general effectiveness in motivating each other to enact healthy behaviors, productivity of WM conversations, and diet and exercise behaviors).…

  11. Kamp K’aana, a 2-week residential weight management summer camp, shows long-term improvement in body mass index z scores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n=38) or extracted from medical record (n=33). Compared with basel...

  12. [Active career management needed for female doctors].

    PubMed

    Maas, Angela H E M; ter Braak, Edith W M T; Verbon, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    For more than 15 years two-thirds of medical students have been women. Despite this, they represent a minority (16-25 %) of professors in academic medicine. There is still a major gender gap to the disadvantage of women in leading positions in academia, with women earning only 80% of the salary of their male counterparts and fewer opportunities for scientific grants. Recent studies have shown that career ambition among men and women in medicine is comparable. However, successful women more often doubt their own achievements than men do. This is known as the 'imposter phenomenon' and acts as a barrier to career progression. Female leadership should be more actively promoted and encouraged to establish the diversity and creativity that we need in our current healthcare system. PMID:26959735

  13. Evidence for the presence of a low molecular-weight activator of suppressor monocytes (LASM) in dialysates of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nekam, K; Strelkauskas, A J; Fudenberg, H H; Donnan, G G; Goust, J M

    1981-05-01

    Lysates of peripheral blood T lymphocytes from healthy individuals were found to contain a low molecular-weight peptide that inhibited phytohaemagglutinin-induced DNA synthesis in vitro by autologous or allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The peptide was dialysable, partially heat stable, resistant to trypsin, RNase, and DNase but not to pronase, and was not part of the membrane receptor involved in rosette formation by T lymphocytes with sheep erythrocytes. It was found to act through monocytes, inducing the synthesis of second mediator responsible for the inhibition of lymphocyte DNA synthesis. This inducer of inhibition, designated as "low molecular-weight activator of suppressor monocytes' (LASM), may have a role in the depression of cellular immune response seen in various pathological conditions involving the destruction of T lymphocytes. PMID:6972906

  14. Evidence for the presence of a low molecular-weight activator of suppressor monocytes (LASM) in dialysates of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nekam, K; Strelkauskas, A J; Fudenberg, H H; Donnan, G G; Goust, J M

    1981-01-01

    Lysates of peripheral blood T lymphocytes from healthy individuals were found to contain a low molecular-weight peptide that inhibited phytohaemagglutinin-induced DNA synthesis in vitro by autologous or allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The peptide was dialysable, partially heat stable, resistant to trypsin, RNase, and DNase but not to pronase, and was not part of the membrane receptor involved in rosette formation by T lymphocytes with sheep erythrocytes. It was found to act through monocytes, inducing the synthesis of second mediator responsible for the inhibition of lymphocyte DNA synthesis. This inducer of inhibition, designated as "low molecular-weight activator of suppressor monocytes' (LASM), may have a role in the depression of cellular immune response seen in various pathological conditions involving the destruction of T lymphocytes. PMID:6972906

  15. Communication: Smoothing out excited-state dynamics: Analytical gradients for dynamically weighted complete active space self-consistent field

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, W. J.

    2014-11-07

    State averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) is a workhorse for determining the excited-state electronic structure of molecules, particularly for states with multireference character; however, the method suffers from known issues that have prevented its wider adoption. One issue is the presence of discontinuities in potential energy surfaces when a state that is not included in the state averaging crosses with one that is. In this communication I introduce a new dynamical weight with spline (DWS) scheme that mimics SA-CASSCF while removing energy discontinuities due to unweighted state crossings. In addition, analytical gradients for DWS-CASSCF (and other dynamically weighted schemes) are derived for the first time, enabling energy-conserving excited-state ab initio molecular dynamics in instances where SA-CASSCF fails.

  16. Three-dimensional neuronal brain activity estimation using shrinking smooth weighted-minimum-norm focal underdetermined-system solver methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouch, Wassim; Slima, Mohamed Ben; Feki, Imed; Derambure, Philippe; Taleb-Ahmed, Abdelmalik; Hamida, Ahmed Ben

    2010-12-01

    A new nonparametric method, based on the smooth weighted-minimum-norm (WMN) focal underdetermined-system solver (FOCUSS), for electrical cerebral activity localization using electroencephalography measurements is proposed. This method iteratively adjusts the spatial sources by reducing the size of the lead-field and the weighting matrix. Thus, an enhancement of source localization is obtained, as well as a reduction of the computational complexity. The performance of the proposed method, in terms of localization errors, robustness, and computation time, is compared with the WMN-FOCUSS and nonshrinking smooth WMN-FOCUSS methods as well as with standard generalized inverse methods (unweighted minimum norm, WMN, and FOCUSS). Simulation results for single-source localization confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method with respect to the reconstruction accuracy of a simulated single dipole.

  17. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  18. [Effect of anticancer agents on rat prostate. Evaluation of organ weight, histological finding and 5 alpha-reductase activities].

    PubMed

    Takeda, M; Hosaka, M; Kitajima, N; Noguchi, K; Fujii, H; Oshima, H; Harada, M

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of anticancer chemotherapeutic antigens on rat prostate, ten kinds of anticancer agents corresponding to the dose generally used for humans were intraperitoneally injected to 63-day-old Wistar rats. The anticancer agents were administered as follows: Cyclophosphamide (CPM) was used at the dose of 8 mg/kg for 7 days. Methotrexate (MTX), actinomycin-D (ACD) and cis-platinum (CDDP), 163 micrograms/kg, 8 micrograms/kg and 833 micrograms/kg for 5 days, respectively. Nitrogen mustard (NM), bleomycin (BLM), peplomycin (PLM), adriamycin (ADM), vincristine (VCR), and vinblastine (VBL), 500 micrograms/kg, 250 micrograms/kg, 170 micrograms/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, 33 micrograms/kg and 83 micrograms/kg, twice in a week, respectively. The rats were killed on the fifth day after completion of the schedule. Then, the weight of the body, the prostate, the epididymis and the adrenal gland were measured. In addition, 5 alpha-reductase activities and histological findings in the prostate were examined. For determination of 5 alpha-reductase activities, cell-free homogenate obtained from the rat ventral prostate was incubated with C14-testosterone at 37 degrees C for 30 minutes in an atmosphere of 95% of O2 and 5% of CO2. Subsequently, the metabolites from testosterone were separated and purified with thin layer chromatography using the solvent system with benzene acetone, 4:1 (v/v). 5 alpha-Reductase activity was determined with the sum of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androstanediol converted from testosterone and indicated as pmol product/mg protein. The 5 alpha-reductase activity was employed as a biological marker for the degree of androgenic dependency in the prostate. The results were summarized as follows. CDDP significantly reduced the weight of the body (p less than 0.001, n = 7), but not the activity of 5 alpha-reductase. NM and VBL had a specific action to reduce the weight of the prostate (p less than 0.01, n = 8) without causing loss of body weight. NM and

  19. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Weight Status in US Youth: The Role of Activity, Diet, and Sedentary Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peart, Tasha; Velasco Mondragon, H. Eduardo; Rohm-Young, Deborah; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess associations of physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviors with overweight and obesity. Methods: Analyses of the NHANES 2003-06 were conducted among 2368 US adolescents, ages 12-19. Self-reported diet and sedentary behavior measures were used; physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Results:…

  1. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  2. A Qualitative Investigation of the Relationship between Consumption, Physical Activity, Eating Disorders, and Weight Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Barry, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and disordered eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity, and physical activity and disordered eating. However, there is a paucity of published research examining the interrelatedness of all 3 behaviors together. Purpose: This study examines…

  3. A 32,000-molecular weight protein from bovine placenta with placental lactogen-like activity in radioreceptor assays

    SciTech Connect

    Eakle, K.A.; Arima, Y.; Swanson, P.; Grimek, H.; Bremel, R.D.

    1982-05-01

    Considerable discrepancies exist in the literature concerning the size and activity of bovine placental lactogen. Our bovine placental lactogen purification preparations were 20% as active as bovine PRL (bPRL) on a per weight basis when compared to bPRL in a lactogenic radioreceptor assay. To identify the active component in these preparations, the proteins were radioiodinated and bound to membrane receptors in the presence and absence of competing hormones, bPRL, and bovine GH (bGH). After centrifugation, membrane pellets were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the gels were autoradiographed. Only one radioiodinated protein band was present. This protein was displaced in the presence of competing hormone and comigrated with a major component of the purification preparations. In radioreceptor assays the active component was as active as bPRL and bGH. From the migration of protein standards included with the radioiodinated purification preparations in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we estimate that the protein is 32,000 mol wt--about 10,000 mol wt larger than placental lactogens isolated in other species. The possibility that the active molecule was a precursor protein was investigated by examining proteins secreted by bovine placenta tissue cultures. The binding activity in these secretions, as well as in the purification preparations, eluted between ovalbumin (43,000 mol wt) and bPRL (22,000 mol wt) under nondenaturing conditions using high performance gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of this secreted protein, also by binding to membrane receptors, showed that the protein had the same molecular weight as that isolated from the purification preparations and was specifically displaced by the same hormones.

  4. A 32,000-molecular weight protein from bovine placenta with placental lactogen-like activity in radioreceptor assays.

    PubMed

    Eakle, K A; Arima, Y; Swanson, P; Grimek, H; Bremel, R D

    1982-05-01

    Considerable discrepancies exist in the literature concerning the size and activity of bovine placental lactogen. Our bovine placental lactogen purification preparations were 20% as active as bovine PRL (bPRL) on a per weight basis when compared to bPRL in a lactogenic radioreceptor assay. To identify the active component in these preparations, the proteins were radioiodinated and bound to membrane receptors in the presence and absence of competing hormones, bPRL, and bovine GH (bGH). After centrifugation, membrane pellets were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the gels were autoradiographed. Only one radioiodinated protein band was present. This protein was displaced in the presence of competing hormone and comigrated which a major component of the purification preparations. In radioreceptor assays the active component was as active as bPRL and bGH. From the migration of protein standards included with the radioiodinated purification preparations in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we estimate that the protein is 32,000 mol wt--about 10,000 mol wt larger than placental lactogens isolated in other species. The possibility that the active molecule was a precursor protein was investigated by examining proteins secreted by bovine placenta tissue cultures. The binding activity in these secretions, as well as in the purification preparations, eluted between ovalbumin (43,000 mol wt) and bPRL (22,000 mol wt) under nondenaturing conditions using high performance gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of this secreted protein, also by binding to membrane receptors, showed that the protein had the same molecular weight as that isolated from the purification preparations and was specifically displaced by the same hormones. PMID:7075536

  5. Impact of redox-active polymer molecular weight on the electrochemical properties and transport across porous separators in nonaqueous solvents.

    PubMed

    Nagarjuna, Gavvalapalli; Hui, Jingshu; Cheng, Kevin J; Lichtenstein, Timothy; Shen, Mei; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín

    2014-11-19

    Enhancing the ionic conductivity across the electrolyte separator in nonaqueous redox flow batteries (NRFBs) is essential for improving their performance and enabling their widespread utilization. Separating redox-active species by size exclusion without greatly impeding the transport of supporting electrolyte is a potentially powerful alternative to the use of poorly performing ion-exchange membranes. However, this strategy has not been explored possibly due to the lack of suitable redox-active species that are easily varied in size, remain highly soluble, and exhibit good electrochemical properties. Here we report the synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and transport properties of redox-active poly(vinylbenzyl ethylviologen) (RAPs) with molecular weights between 21 and 318 kDa. The RAPs reported here show very good solubility (up to at least 2.0 M) in acetonitrile and propylene carbonate. Ultramicroelectrode voltammetry reveals facile electron transfer with E1/2 ∼ -0.7 V vs Ag/Ag(+)(0.1 M) for the viologen 2+/+ reduction at concentrations as high as 1.0 M in acetonitrile. Controlled potential bulk electrolysis indicates that 94-99% of the nominal charge on different RAPs is accessible and that the electrolysis products are stable upon cycling. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on molecular weight suggests the adequacy of the Stokes-Einstein formalism to describe RAPs. The size-selective transport properties of LiBF4 and RAPs across commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) separators such as Celgard 2400 and Celgard 2325 were tested. COTS porous separators show ca. 70 times higher selectivity for charge balancing ions (Li(+)BF4(-)) compared to high molecular weight RAPs. RAPs rejection across these separators showed a strong dependence on polymer molecular weight as well as the pore size; the rejection increased with both increasing polymer molecular weight and reduction in pore size. Significant rejection was observed even for rpoly/rpore (polymer

  6. Effects of Two Different Weight Training Programs on Swimming Performance and Muscle Enzyme Activities and Fiber Type.

    PubMed

    Belfry, Glen R; Noble, Earl G; Taylor, Albert W

    2016-02-01

    The effects of 2 different weight training programs incorporating bench press (BP) and pullover (PO) exercises on swimming performance, power, enzyme activity, and fiber type distribution were studied on 16 men (age = 23 ± 4 years). A 30-second group (n = 6) performed up to 20 repetitions of BP and PO in 30 seconds. The 2-minute group (n = 6) performed a maximum of 80 repetitions of BP and PO in 2 minutes. As participants reached the prescribed 20 or 80 repetitions, the weight was increased 4.5 kg. A third group (n = 4) served as nontraining controls. Exercise groups trained 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Maximal effort swims of 50 and 200 yd were performed before and after training. Training resulted in increases in work on both exercises in both groups pre- to post-training (BP 30 seconds, 722 ± 236-895 ± 250 kg; PO 30 seconds, 586 ± 252-1,090 ± 677 kg; and BP 2 minutes, 1,530 ± 414-1,940 ± 296; PO 2 minutes, 1,212 ± 406-2,348 ± 194, p ≤ 0.05). Swim performances of the 30-second group improved for both the 50-yd (32.0 ± 6.9 seconds, 30.0 ± 5.9 seconds, p ≤ 0.05) and 200-yd swims 200.0 ± 54 seconds, 182 ± 45.1 seconds (p ≤ 0.05), whereas 2-minute training improved only the 200-yd swim (198.3 ± 32.3 seconds, 186.2 ± 32.2 seconds). No changes in swim performance were observed for the control group. Triceps muscle succinate dehydrogenase activities increased (pre 3.48 ± 1.1 μmol · g(-1) wet weight per minute, post 6.25 ± 1.5 μmoles · g(-1) wet weight per minute, p ≤ 0.05) in only the 30-second training group, whereas phosphofructokinase activities and fiber type distribution did not change in either training group. This study has demonstrated that a 30-second 20-repetition weight training program, specific to the swimming musculature without concurrent swim training, improves swimming performances at both 50- and 200-yd distances. PMID:26815172

  7. Physical Activity Pattern and Personal-Social Factors of Mothers During Pregnancy And Infant Birth Weight Based On MET Scale: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Karimlou, Masoud; Sajjadi, Homeira; Dejman, Masoumeh; Vameghi, Meroe; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Baradarn Eftekhari, Monir

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is one of the most important public health issues in developing and developed countries and identifying its etiology is important for prevention. Objectives Considering the unknown impact of physical activity on low birth weight, this research was conducted to investigate the relationship between physical activity and low birth weight. Patients and Methods This research was conducted using a case-control design. The control group was made of 500 women with normal birth weight infants and the case group included 250 women with low birth weight infants from the selected hospitals in city of Tehran. The information was gathered using a researcher-made questionnaire which was prepared for determining the relationship between mothers’ lifestyle during pregnancy and infants' low birth weight using social determinants of health approach. In this questionnaire, scope of physical activity was investigated in three groups of athletic activities, activities at home and leisure activities. Activity intensity was determined using MET scale and the data were analyzed in SPSS software using independent t-test, Chi-square and logistic regression. Results In the present research, based on the results of multiple logistic regression test, an increase in the time spent on sport activities (OR = 2.20) and home activities (OR =1.44) (P = 0.003) was accompanied by increased chance of giving birth to low birth weight infants; in contrast, one hour increase of leisure activities decreased the probability of low birth weight infants by 0.32 (P = 0.008). Conclusions An increase in the time spent on sport and home activities, even after considering other influential factors, was related to low birth weight. PMID:24396576

  8. Mechanisms and Management of Stress Fractures in Physically Active Persons

    PubMed Central

    Romani, William A.; Gieck, Joe H.; Perrin, David H.; Saliba, Ethan N.; Kahler, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the anatomy of bone and the physiology of bone remodeling as a basis for the proper management of stress fractures in physically active people. Data Sources: We searched PubMed for the years 1965 through 2000 using the key words stress fracture, bone remodeling, epidemiology, and rehabilitation. Data Synthesis: Bone undergoes a normal remodeling process in physically active persons. Increased stress leads to an acceleration of this remodeling process, a subsequent weakening of bone, and a higher susceptibility to stress fracture. When a stress fracture is suspected, appropriate management of the injury should begin immediately. Effective management includes a cyclic process of activity and rest that is based on the remodeling process of bone. Conclusions/Recommendations: Bone continuously remodels itself to withstand the stresses involved with physical activity. Stress fractures occur as the result of increased remodeling and a subsequent weakening of the outer surface ofthe bone. Once a stress fracture is suspected, a cyclic management program that incorporates the physiology of bone remodeling should be initiated. The cyclic program should allow the physically active person to remove the source of the stress to the bone, maintain fitness, promote a safe return to activity, and permit the bone to heal properly. PMID:16558676

  9. Group vs. single mindfulness meditation: exploring avoidance, impulsivity, and weight management in two separate mindfulness meditation settings.

    PubMed

    Mantzios, Michail; Giannou, Kyriaki

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has identified that mindfulness meditation in group settings supports people who are trying to lose weight. The present research investigated mindfulness meditation in group and individual settings, and explored the potential impact on weight loss and other factors (i.e. mindfulness, impulsivity, and avoidance) that may assist or hinder weight loss. Specifically, the hypotheses tested were that the group setting assisted dieters more than the individual setting by reducing weight, cognitive-behavioral avoidance, and impulsivity and by increasing mindfulness. Participants (n = 170) who were trying to lose weight were randomly assigned to practice meditation for 6 weeks within a group or independently. Measurements in mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral avoidance, impulsivity, and weight occurred twice (pre- and post-intervention). Results indicated that participants in the group setting lost weight and lowered their levels of cognitive-behavioral avoidance, while impulsivity and mindfulness remained stable. On the other hand, participants in the individual condition lost less weight, while there was an increase in cognitive-behavioral avoidance and mindfulness scores, but a decrease in impulsivity. Seeing that benefits and limitations observed in group settings are not replicated when people meditate alone, this study concluded that mindfulness meditation in individual settings needs to be used with caution, although there are some potential benefits that could aid future weight loss research. PMID:24585500

  10. Relationship between low-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, caspase-3 activity, and oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, B; Alberio, R; Fouladi-Nashta, A A; Webb, R

    2005-04-01

    Bovine follicular atresia is associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells and the subsequent loss of oocyte competence through the reduction of cellular contact (e.g., gap junctions). Several components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system are thought to affect follicular atresia. Whereas the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are present in varying quantities throughout follicular development, IGFBP-5 appears to be present only during atresia, in parallel with its regulation in other tissue remodeling systems. However, to our knowledge, no connection has yet been made between atresia, low-molecular-weight IGFBP content, and oocyte quality in the bovine ovary. Caspases are actively involved in ovarian follicular atresia, and apoptosis in antral follicles is caspase-3-dependent. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of these factors in the assessment of oocyte quality and developmental potential. Oocytes were aspirated, morphologically classified, and individually matured in vitro. The follicular fluid and granulosa cells of these follicles were analyzed for IGFBP profile and caspase-3 activity, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the presence of low-molecular-weight IGFBPs in bovine follicular fluid and caspase-3 activity of granulosa cells isolated from individual follicles. The highest percentage of development to the blastocyst stage was observed in oocytes from slightly atretic follicles. This group of oocytes contained an equal proportion of oocytes at grades 1-3. These data demonstrate that low-molecular-weight IGFBP profile is a more reliable method than the traditional morphological assessment of oocytes and can be used as an effective marker of developmentally competent oocytes. Importantly, these results have implications for the use of noninvasive follicular fluid markers in the selection of competent oocytes to improve outcomes of in vitro fertilization. PMID:15564596

  11. Greater Corticolimbic Activation to High-Calorie Food Cues after Eating in Obese vs. Normal-Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Tkach, Jean; Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to eating and after consumption of a typical lunch. Twenty-two overweight/obese (11 male) and 16 normal-weight (6 male) individuals participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task examining neural response to visual cues of high- and low-calorie foods before and after eating. The OB group demonstrated increased neural response to high- and low-calorie foods after eating in comparison to the NW participants in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions. In addition, greater activation in corticolimbic regions (lateral OFC, caudate, anterior cingulate) to high-calorie food cues was evident in OB vs. NW participants after eating. These findings suggest that for OB individuals, high-calorie food cues show sustained response in brain regions implicated in reward and addiction even after eating. Moreover, food cues did not elicit similar brain response after eating in the NW group suggesting that neural activity in response to food cues diminishes with reduced hunger for these individuals. PMID:22063094

  12. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    PubMed

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes. PMID:10662094

  13. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  14. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI. PMID:26596899

  15. Perceived and Police Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444

  16. Measuring Anti–Factor Xa Activity to Monitor Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin in Obesity: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Gregory; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-01-01

    Background: The choice of whether to monitor anti–factor Xa (anti-Xa) activity in patients who are obese and who are receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy is controversial. To the authors’ knowledge, no systematic review of monitoring of anti-Xa activity in such patients has been published to date. Objective: To systematically ascertain the utility of monitoring anti-Xa concentrations for LMWH therapy in obese patients. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1946 to September 2014), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (1974 to September 2014), PubMed (1947 to September 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to September 2014), and Scopus were searched using the terms obesity, morbid obesity, thrombosis, venous thrombosis, embolism, venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, low-molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin, anti-factor Xa, anti-factor Xa monitoring, anti-factor Xa activity, and anti-factor Xa assay. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Study Selection and Data Extraction: English-language studies describing obese patients treated with LMWH or reporting anti-Xa activity were reviewed using a 9-step decision-making algorithm to determine whether monitoring of LMWH therapy by means of anti-Xa activity in obesity is warranted. Studies published in abstract form were excluded. Data Synthesis: The analysis showed that anti-Xa concentrations are not strongly associated with thrombosis or hemorrhage. In clinical studies of LMWH for thromboprophylaxis in bariatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, general surgery, and medical patients, and for treatment of venous thrombo embolism and acute coronary syndrome, anti-Xa activity can be predicted from dose of LMWH and total body weight; no difference in clinical outcome was found between obese and non-obese participants. Conclusions: Routinely determining anti-Xa concentrations in obese patients to monitor the clinical effectiveness of LMWH is

  17. Intervention Use and Action Planning in a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Weight Management Program for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Oenema, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many online interventions aiming for health behavior change but it is unclear how such interventions and specific planning tools are being used. Objective The aim of this study is to identify which user characteristics were associated with use of an online, computer-tailored self-regulation intervention aimed at prevention of weight gain; and to examine the quality of the goals and action plans that were generated using the online planning tools. Methods Data were obtained with a randomized controlled effect evaluation trial in which the online computer-tailored intervention was compared to a website containing generic information about prevention of weight gain. The tailored intervention included self-regulation techniques such as personalized feedback, goal sett