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Sample records for activity wheel running

  1. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  2. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling. PMID:27458354

  3. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  4. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  5. Running wheel activity restores MPTP-induced functional deficits.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Anders; Stigsdotter, Ingels Maria; Hurtig, Anders; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice; Archer, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Wheel-running and treadmill running physical exercise have been shown to alleviate parkinsonism in both laboratory and clinical studies. MPTP was administered to C57/BL6 mice using two different procedures: (a) administration of a double-dose regime (MPTP 2 × 20 or 2 × 40 mg/kg, separated by a 24-h interval), vehicle (saline 5 ml/kg) or saline (vehicle 2 × 5 ml/kg), and (b) administration of a single-dose weekly regime (MPTP 1 × 40 mg/kg) or saline (vehicle 1 × 5 ml/kg) repeated over 4 consecutive weeks. For each procedure, two different physical exercise regimes were followed: (a) after the double-dose MPTP regime, mice were given daily 30-min periods of wheel-running exercise over 5 consecutive days/week or placed in a cage in close proximity to the running wheels for 3 weeks. (b) Mice were either given wheel-running activity on 4 consecutive days (30-min periods) or placed in a cage nearby for 14 weeks. Behavioral testing was as follows: (a) after 3 weeks of exercise/no exercise, mice were tested for spontaneous motor activity (60 min) and subthreshold L-Dopa (5 mg/kg)-induced activity. (b) Spontaneous motor activity was measured on the fifth day during each of the each of the first 5 weeks (Tests 1-5), about 1 h before injections (first 4 weeks), and continued on the 5th days of the 6th to the 14th weeks (Tests 6-14). Subthreshold L-Dopa (5 mg/kg)-induced activity was tested on the 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th and 14th weeks. (b) Mice from the single-dose MPTP weekly regime were killed during the 15th week and striatal regions taken for dopamine analysis, whereas frontal and parietal cortex and hippocampus were taken for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It was shown that in both experiments, i.e., the double-dose regime and single-dose weekly regime of MPTP administration, physical activity attenuated markedly the MPTP-induced akinesia/hypokinesia in both the spontaneous motor activity and restored motor activity completely in subthreshold L

  6. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

  7. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, Julie S; Branecky, Katrina L; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits.

  8. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed.

  9. Running Wheel for Earthworms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, W Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  10. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  11. Comparison of voluntary and foraging running wheel activity on food demand in mice.

    PubMed

    Atalayer, Deniz; Rowland, Neil E

    2011-01-10

    The effects of running wheel activity on food intake and meal patterns were measured under several cost conditions for food in CD1 mice. In a first experiment, voluntary wheel running activity increased daily food intake relative to a sedentary group, and runners consumed bigger but fewer meals. Although they ate more, runners had significantly lower body fat than sedentary mice. In a second experiment, running was used as an approach cost and food access was contingent on running wheel activity. Mice were able to emit more wheel revolution responses compared to a condition in which nose poking was the approach response. In both voluntary and foraging running protocols mice had inelastic demand functions compared to the non-running groups. When running was voluntary (experiment 1), the day-night cycle for activity was more pronounced compared to when running was a foraging or approach activity (experiment 2).

  12. Comparison of voluntary and foraging running wheel activity on food demand in mice.

    PubMed

    Atalayer, Deniz; Rowland, Neil E

    2011-01-10

    The effects of running wheel activity on food intake and meal patterns were measured under several cost conditions for food in CD1 mice. In a first experiment, voluntary wheel running activity increased daily food intake relative to a sedentary group, and runners consumed bigger but fewer meals. Although they ate more, runners had significantly lower body fat than sedentary mice. In a second experiment, running was used as an approach cost and food access was contingent on running wheel activity. Mice were able to emit more wheel revolution responses compared to a condition in which nose poking was the approach response. In both voluntary and foraging running protocols mice had inelastic demand functions compared to the non-running groups. When running was voluntary (experiment 1), the day-night cycle for activity was more pronounced compared to when running was a foraging or approach activity (experiment 2). PMID:20951151

  13. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    PubMed

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running.

  14. Wheel running in the wild.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-01

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  15. CB1 receptor deficiency decreases wheel-running activity: consequences on emotional behaviours and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Koehl, Muriel; Abrous, Djoher N; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Chronic voluntary wheel-running activity has been reported to hypersensitise central CB1 receptors in mice. On the other hand, pharmacological findings suggest that the CB1 receptor could be involved in wheel-running behaviour and in running-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We analysed wheel-running behaviour for 6 weeks and measured its consequences on hippocampal neurogenesis in CB1 knockout (CB1(-/-)) animals, compared to wild-type (CB1(+/+)) littermates. Because wheel running has been shown to affect locomotor reactivity in novel environments, memory for aversive events and depression-like behaviours, we also assessed these behaviours in control and running CB1(+/+) and CB1(-/-) mice. When compared with running CB1(+/+) mice, the distance covered weekly by CB1(-/-) mice was decreased by 30-40%, an observation accounted for by decreased time spent and maximal velocity on the wheels. Analyses of running distances with respect to the light/dark cycle revealed that mutant covered less distance throughout both the inactive and the active phases of that cycle. Locomotion in an activity cage, exploration in an open field, and immobility time in the forced swim test proved insensitive to chronic wheel running in either genotype. Wheel running, per se, did not influence the expression and extinction of cued fear memory but counteracted in a time-dependent manner the deficiency of extinction measured in CB1(-/-) mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis, assessed by doublecortin labelling of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, was lowered by 40% in control CB1(-/-) mice, compared to control CB1(+/+) mice. Although CB1(-/-) mice ran less than their wild-type littermates, the 6-week running protocol increased neurogenesis to similar extents (37-39%) in both genotypes. This study suggests that mouse CB1 receptors control wheel running but not its neurogenic consequences in the hippocampus.

  16. Improved Infrared-Sensing Running Wheel Systems with an Effective Exercise Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat’s real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments. PMID:25875841

  17. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  18. Circadian wheel-running activity during withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; Seggio, Joseph A.; Robinson, Stacy L.; Richard, Gregory R.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is associated with affective-behavioral disturbances in both human alcoholics and in animal models. In general, these phenomena are potentiated by increased alcohol exposure duration and by prior withdrawal episodes. Previous studies have also reported locomotor hypoactivity during ethanol withdrawal in rats and mice, but only in novel test environments, not in the home-cage. In the present study, we examined the effects of withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure on the level and circadian periodicity of wheel-running activity in C57BL/6J mice. CIE treatment resulted in reductions in wheel-running activity relative to plain-air controls that persisted for about one week after withdrawal. Analysis of circadian waveforms indicated that reduced activity occurred throughout the night phase, but that daily activity patterns were otherwise unaltered. CIE failed to alter free-running circadian period or phase in animals maintained under constant darkness. These results show that ethanol withdrawal can result in locomotor hypoactivity even in the habitual, home-cage environment, and suggest that withdrawal-related reductions in wheel-running activity may reflect the specific motivational significance of this behavior. PMID:20682191

  19. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  20. A single administration of methamphetamine to mice early in the light period decreases running wheel activity observed during the dark period.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko

    2012-01-01

    Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decreases, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments. PMID:22079320

  1. A single administration of methamphetamine to mice early in the light period decreases running wheel activity observed during the dark period.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Nobue; Kitanaka, Junichi; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Watabe, Kaname; Kubo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tatsuta, Tomohiro; Morita, Yoshio; Takemura, Motohiko

    2012-01-01

    Repeated intermittent administration of amphetamines acutely increases appetitive and consummatory aspects of motivated behaviors as well as general activity and exploratory behavior, including voluntary running wheel activity. Subsequently, if the drug is withdrawn, the frequency of these behaviors decreases, which is thought to be indicative of dysphoric symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. Such decreases may be observed after chronic treatment or even after single drug administrations. In the present study, the effect of acute methamphetamine (METH) on running wheel activity, horizontal locomotion, appetitive behavior (food access), and consummatory behavior (food and water intake) was investigated in mice. A multi-configuration behavior apparatus designed to monitor the five behaviors was developed, where combined measures were recorded simultaneously. In the first experiment, naïve male ICR mice showed gradually increasing running wheel activity over three consecutive days after exposure to a running wheel, while mice without a running wheel showed gradually decreasing horizontal locomotion, consistent with running wheel activity being a positively motivated form of natural motor activity. In experiment 2, increased horizontal locomotion and food access, and decreased food intake, were observed for the initial 3h after acute METH challenge. Subsequently, during the dark phase period decreased running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion were observed. The reductions in running wheel activity and horizontal locomotion may be indicative of reduced dopaminergic function, although it remains to be seen if these changes may be more pronounced after more prolonged METH treatments.

  2. Molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity on skeletal muscle in late middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Sean M; Russ, David W; Skelding, Mary B; Dugle, Janis E; Edens, Neile K

    2015-01-01

    We examined the molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity in late middle-aged male Sprague Dawley rats (16–17 months). Rats were assigned either continuous voluntary running wheel access for 8 weeks (RW+) or cage-matched without running wheel access (RW−). The 9 RW+ rats averaged 83 m/day (range: 8–163 m), yet exhibited both 84% reduced individual body weight gain (4.3 g vs. 26.3 g, P = 0.02) and 6.5% reduced individual average daily food intake (20.6 g vs. 22.0 g, P = 0.09) over the 8 weeks. Hindlimb muscles were harvested following an overnight fast. Muscle weights and myofiber cross-sectional area showed no difference between groups. Western blots of gastrocnemius muscle lysates with a panel of antibodies suggest that running wheel activity improved oxidative metabolism (53% increase in PGC1α, P = 0.03), increased autophagy (36% increase in LC3B-II/-I ratio, P = 0.03), and modulated growth signaling (26% increase in myostatin, P = 0.04). RW+ muscle also showed 43% increased glycogen phosphorylase expression (P = 0.04) and 45% increased glycogen content (P = 0.04). Metabolomic profiling of plantaris and soleus muscles indicated that even low-volume voluntary running wheel activity is associated with decreases in many long-chain fatty acids (e.g., palmitoleate, myristoleate, and eicosatrienoate) relative to RW− rats. Relative increases in acylcarnitines and acyl glycerophospholipids were also observed in RW+ plantaris. These data establish that even modest amounts of physical activity during late middle-age promote extensive metabolic remodeling of skeletal muscle. PMID:25716928

  3. Molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity on skeletal muscle in late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Russ, David W; Skelding, Mary B; Dugle, Janis E; Edens, Neile K

    2015-02-01

    We examined the molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity in late middle-aged male Sprague Dawley rats (16-17 months). Rats were assigned either continuous voluntary running wheel access for 8 weeks (RW+) or cage-matched without running wheel access (RW-). The 9 RW+ rats averaged 83 m/day (range: 8-163 m), yet exhibited both 84% reduced individual body weight gain (4.3 g vs. 26.3 g, P = 0.02) and 6.5% reduced individual average daily food intake (20.6 g vs. 22.0 g, P = 0.09) over the 8 weeks. Hindlimb muscles were harvested following an overnight fast. Muscle weights and myofiber cross-sectional area showed no difference between groups. Western blots of gastrocnemius muscle lysates with a panel of antibodies suggest that running wheel activity improved oxidative metabolism (53% increase in PGC1α, P = 0.03), increased autophagy (36% increase in LC3B-II/-I ratio, P = 0.03), and modulated growth signaling (26% increase in myostatin, P = 0.04). RW+ muscle also showed 43% increased glycogen phosphorylase expression (P = 0.04) and 45% increased glycogen content (P = 0.04). Metabolomic profiling of plantaris and soleus muscles indicated that even low-volume voluntary running wheel activity is associated with decreases in many long-chain fatty acids (e.g., palmitoleate, myristoleate, and eicosatrienoate) relative to RW- rats. Relative increases in acylcarnitines and acyl glycerophospholipids were also observed in RW+ plantaris. These data establish that even modest amounts of physical activity during late middle-age promote extensive metabolic remodeling of skeletal muscle.

  4. Comparative adaptations in oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers in a low voluntary wheel running rat model performing three levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Hayden W; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Greg; Mobley, C Brooks; Fox, Carlton D; McGinnis, Graham R; Quindry, John C; Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas N

    2015-11-01

    A unique polygenic model of rat physical activity has been recently developed where rats were selected for the trait of low voluntary wheel running. We utilized this model to identify differences in soleus and plantaris muscles of sedentary low voluntary wheel running rats and physically active low voluntary wheel running rats exposed to moderate amounts of treadmill training. Three groups of 28-day-old male Wistar rats were used: (1) rats without a running wheel (SEDENTARY, n = 7), (2) rats housed with a running wheel (WHEEL, n = 7), and (3) rats housed with a running wheel and exercised on the treadmill (5 days/week for 20 min/day at 15.0 m/min) (WHEEL + TREADMILL, n = 7). Animals were euthanized 5 weeks after the start of the experiment and the soleus and plantaris muscles were excised and used for analyses. Increases in skeletal muscle gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 in WHEEL + TREADMILL group were observed. Also, WHEEL + TREADMILL had higher protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 and decreased levels of oxidative damage. Our data demonstrate that the addition of treadmill training induces beneficial muscular adaptations compared to animals with wheel access alone. Furthermore, our data expand our understanding of differential muscular adaptations in response to exercise in mitochondrial, antioxidant, and metabolic markers.

  5. Wheel-running mitigates psychomotor sensitization initiation but not post-sensitization conditioned activity and conditioned place preference induced by cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Geuzaine, Annabelle; Tirelli, Ezio

    2014-04-01

    Previous literature suggests that physical exercise allowed by an unlimited access to a running wheel for several weeks can mitigate chronic neurobehavioral responsiveness to several addictive drugs in rodents. Here, the potential preventive effects of unlimited wheel-running on the initiation of psychomotor sensitization and the acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 10 mg/kg cocaine in C56BL/6J mice were assessed in two independent experiments. To this end, half of the mice were singly housed with a running wheel at 28 days of age for 10 weeks prior to psychopharmacological tests, during which housing conditions did not change, and the other half of mice were housed without running wheel. In Experiment 1, prior to initiating sensitization, psychomotor activity on the two first drug-free once-daily sessions was not affected by wheel-running. This was also found for the acute psychomotor-activating effect of cocaine on the first sensitization session. Psychomotor sensitization readily developed over the 9 following once-daily sessions in mice housed without wheel, whereas it was inhibited in mice housed with a wheel. However, that difference did not transfer to post-sensitization conditioned activity. In contrast with the sensitization results, mice housed with a wheel still expressed a clear-cut CPP which did not extinguish differently from that of the other group, a result in disaccord with previous studies reporting either an attenuating or an increasing effect of wheel-running on cocaine-induced conditioned reward. The available results together indicate that interactions between wheel-running and cocaine effects are far from being satisfactorily characterized.

  6. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Fabisiak, Timothy J; Green-Fulgham, Suzanne M; Anderson, Nathan D; Strand, Keith A; Kwilasz, Andrew J; Galer, Erika L; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is known to exert a systemic anti-inflammatory influence, but whether its effects are sufficient to protect against subsequent neuropathic pain is underinvestigated. We report that 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running terminating before chronic constriction injury (CCI) prevented the full development of allodynia for the ∼3-month duration of the injury. Neuroimmune signaling was assessed at 3 and 14 days after CCI. Prior exercise normalized ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord expression of neuroexcitatory interleukin (IL)-1β production and the attendant glutamate transporter GLT-1 decrease, as well as expression of the disinhibitory P2X4R-BDNF axis. The expression of the macrophage marker Iba1 and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), and a neuronal injury marker (activating transcription factor 3), was attenuated by prior running in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Prior exercise suppressed macrophage infiltration and/or injury site proliferation, given decreased presence of macrophage markers Iba1, iNOS (M1), and Arg-1 (M2; expression was time dependent). Chronic constriction injury-driven increases in serum proinflammatory chemokines were suppressed by prior running, whereas IL-10 was increased. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ex vivo, wherein CCI-induced increases in IL-1β, nitrite, and IL-10 were suppressed by prior exercise. Last, unrestricted voluntary wheel running, beginning either the day of, or 2 weeks after, CCI, progressively reversed neuropathic pain. This study is the first to investigate the behavioral and neuroimmune consequences of regular exercise terminating before nerve injury. This study suggests that chronic pain should be considered a component of "the diseasome of physical inactivity," and that an active lifestyle may prevent neuropathic pain. PMID:27355182

  7. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Grace, Peter M; Fabisiak, Timothy J; Green-Fulgham, Suzanne M; Anderson, Nathan D; Strand, Keith A; Kwilasz, Andrew J; Galer, Erika L; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is known to exert a systemic anti-inflammatory influence, but whether its effects are sufficient to protect against subsequent neuropathic pain is underinvestigated. We report that 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running terminating before chronic constriction injury (CCI) prevented the full development of allodynia for the ∼3-month duration of the injury. Neuroimmune signaling was assessed at 3 and 14 days after CCI. Prior exercise normalized ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord expression of neuroexcitatory interleukin (IL)-1β production and the attendant glutamate transporter GLT-1 decrease, as well as expression of the disinhibitory P2X4R-BDNF axis. The expression of the macrophage marker Iba1 and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1), and a neuronal injury marker (activating transcription factor 3), was attenuated by prior running in the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Prior exercise suppressed macrophage infiltration and/or injury site proliferation, given decreased presence of macrophage markers Iba1, iNOS (M1), and Arg-1 (M2; expression was time dependent). Chronic constriction injury-driven increases in serum proinflammatory chemokines were suppressed by prior running, whereas IL-10 was increased. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also stimulated with lipopolysaccharide ex vivo, wherein CCI-induced increases in IL-1β, nitrite, and IL-10 were suppressed by prior exercise. Last, unrestricted voluntary wheel running, beginning either the day of, or 2 weeks after, CCI, progressively reversed neuropathic pain. This study is the first to investigate the behavioral and neuroimmune consequences of regular exercise terminating before nerve injury. This study suggests that chronic pain should be considered a component of "the diseasome of physical inactivity," and that an active lifestyle may prevent neuropathic pain.

  8. Changes in running-wheel activity, eating and drinking and their day/night distributions throughout the life span of the rat.

    PubMed

    Peng, M T; Jiang, M J; Hsü, H K

    1980-05-01

    Running-wheel activity, eating and drinking of 39 male Long-Evans rats of various ages ranging from four to 33 months old, were recorded twice a day and total activity, and food and water intake per day and percentage nocturnal activity were studied. Running activity and food intake decrease as age advances and water intake first decreases from four months to 17 months of age and later increases proportionally with further increases in age. The percentage of nocturnal activity of the running-wheel decreases from 12 months of age proportionally with an increase of age; food and water intake also have this tendency. However, incidence of disappearance of diurnal difference in running activity, eating and drinking is quite low (7%, 32% and 25% respectively). Seven long-term ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats over 24 months of age show similar results to those with male Long-Evans rats. Reversal of the lighting schedule does not induce a phase shift of running activity, eating and drinking in two among 15 rats over 18 months of age, seven among 21 rats and four among 21 rats, respectively. Other rats over 18 months of age can recover their light/dark rhythm in a period not significantly different from rats below 13 months of age. The neuron number of the suprachiasmatic nucleus does not have significant correlations with percentage nocturnal activity in running activity, eating and drinking.

  9. Assessment of Circadian and Light-Entrainable Parameters in Mice Using Wheel-Running Activity.

    PubMed

    Banks, Gareth T; Nolan, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    In most organisms, physiological variables are regulated by an internal clock. This endogenous circadian (∼24-hr) clock enables organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes and modify behavioral and physiological functions appropriately. Processes regulated by the circadian clock include sleep-wake and locomotor activity, core body temperature, metabolism, water/food intake, and available hormone levels. At the core of the mammalian circadian system are molecular oscillations within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. These oscillations are modifiable by signals from the environment (so called zeitgebers or time-givers) and, once integrated within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, are conveyed to remote neural circuits where output rhythms are regulated. Disrupting any of a number of neural processes can affect how rhythms are generated and relayed to the periphery and disturbances in circadian/entrainment parameters are associated with numerous human conditions. These non-invasive protocols can be used to determine whether circadian/entrainment parameters are affected in mouse mutants or treatment groups. Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 1:369-381 © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26068996

  10. Facilitation and nonfacilitation of active avoidance behavior of rats with septal lesions in the shuttle box and running wheel.

    PubMed

    Blatt, R C

    1976-07-01

    It was hypothesized that facilitation of avoidance performance of rats with septal lesions occurs only in tasks that punish responses having the same topography as the avoidance response, such as intertrial responses, or tasks that have aversive consequences for making the avoidance response, such as a brightly illuminated safe compartment. Twenty-eight male rats were trained in two shuttle box tasks, and 24 were trained in two running-wheel avoidance tasks under conditions of punishment or nonpunishment of intertrial responses. Rats with septal lesions performed better than control rats in both the shuttle box and the wheel tasks when intertrial responses were punished. When intertrial responding was not punished, experimental and control groups did not differ in avoidance performance. Avoidance performance of punished and unpunished rats with septal lesions did not differ from each other or from unpunished control rats in either wheel or shuttle box tasks. These results were discussed in the context of the species-specific defense reaction (SSDR) avoidance theory of Bolles. It was suggested that septal lesions interfere with the suppression of ineffective SSDRs.

  11. 76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel to governor and from water wheel to tachometer (foreground). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  12. Daily exposure to a running wheel entrains circadian rhythms in mice in parallel with development of an increase in spontaneous movement prior to running-wheel access.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-01

    Entrainment of circadian behavior rhythms by daily exposure to a running wheel was examined in mice under constant darkness. Spontaneous movement was individually monitored for more than 6 mo by a thermal sensor. After establishment of steady-state free running, mice were placed in a different cage equipped with a running-wheel for 3 h once per day at 6 AM. The daily exchange was continued for 80 days. The number of wheel revolutions during exposure to the running wheel was also measured simultaneously with spontaneous movement. In 13 out of 17 mice, circadian behavior rhythm was entrained by daily wheel exposure, showing a period indistinguishable from 24 h. The entrainment occurred in parallel with an increase in spontaneous movement immediately prior to the daily wheel exposure. A similar preexposure increase was observed in only one of four nonentrained mice. The preexposure increase appeared in 19.5 days on average after the start of daily wheel exposure and persisted for 36 days on average after the termination of the exposure schedule. The preexposure increase was detected only when daily wheel exposure came into the activity phase of the circadian behavior rhythm, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of wheel revolutions. These findings indicate that a novel oscillation with a circadian period is induced in mice by daily exposure to a running wheel at a fixed time of day and suggest that the oscillation is involved in the nonphotic entrainment of circadian rhythms in spontaneous movement.

  13. Selective pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor attenuates light and 8-OH-DPAT induced phase shifts of mouse circadian wheel running activity.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jonathan; Yun, Sujin; Losee Olson, Susan; Turek, Fred; Bonaventure, Pascal; Dvorak, Curt; Lovenberg, Timothy; Dugovic, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have illustrated a reciprocal relationship between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor may provide a crucial link between the two sides of this equation since the receptor plays a critical role in sleep, depression, and circadian rhythm regulation. To further define the role of the 5-HT7 receptor as a potential pharmacotherapy to correct circadian rhythm disruptions, the current study utilized the selective 5-HT7 antagonist JNJ-18038683 (10 mg/kg) in three different circadian paradigms. While JNJ-18038683 was ineffective at phase shifting the onset of wheel running activity in mice when administered at different circadian time (CT) points across the circadian cycle, pretreatment with JNJ-18038683 blocked non-photic phase advance (CT6) induced by the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3 mg/kg). Since light induced phase shifts in mammals are partially mediated via the modulation of the serotonergic system, we determined if JNJ-18038683 altered phase shifts induced by a light pulse at times known to phase delay (CT15) or advance (CT22) wheel running activity in free running mice. Light exposure resulted in a robust shift in the onset of activity in vehicle treated animals at both times tested. Administration of JNJ-18038683 significantly attenuated the light induced phase delay and completely blocked the phase advance. The current study demonstrates that pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor by JNJ-18038683 blunts both non-photic and photic phase shifts of circadian wheel running activity in mice. These findings highlight the importance of the 5-HT7 receptor in modulating circadian rhythms. Due to the opposite modulating effects of light resetting between diurnal and nocturnal species, pharmacotherapy targeting the 5-HT7 receptor in conjunction with bright light therapy may prove therapeutically beneficial by correcting the desynchronization of internal rhythms observed in depressed individuals.

  14. Running induces nausea in rats: Kaolin intake generated by voluntary and forced wheel running.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted showing rats' pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) due to running in activity wheels. The amount of kaolin consumed was a positive function of the available time of voluntary running (20, 40, or 60 min), although this relationship was blunted by a descending (i.e., 60 → 40 → 20 min) test series of execution (Experiment 1). Pica was also generated by forced running in a motorized wheel for 60 min as a positive function of the speed of wheel rotations at 98, 185, or 365 m/h, independent of the order of execution (Experiment 2). Voluntary running generated more pica than did forced running at 80 m/h, although the distance travelled in the former condition was 27% lesser than that in the latter condition (Experiment 3). Because kaolin intake is regarded as a reliable measure of nausea in rats, these results show that wheel running, either voluntary or forced, induces nausea in rats.

  15. Use of running wheels regulates the effects of the ovaries on circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Elvira, M C; Persaud, R; Coen, C W

    1992-08-01

    Free-running circadian rhythms in core temperature, wheel-running and general locomotor activity were studied in ovariectomized or intact female rats housed with or without access to a running wheel. No differences in the monitored parameters were found between the intact and ovariectomized rats without a wheel. In the presence of a wheel, however, the intact rats differed from those that had been ovariectomized by displaying a shorter circadian period, an increased amplitude of the temperature rhythm, and strikingly higher rates of wheel-running and general locomotor activity. After estradiol treatment, the ovariectomized rats with a wheel developed a small increase in the temperature amplitude, and also in the correlation between wheel-running and general locomotor activity; these changes were not associated with a significant increase in wheel-running or a shortening of the circadian period. We conclude that some of the differences in circadian function between intact and ovariectomized rats are due to the differential use they make of running wheels, when available, and not directly attributable to the absence or presence of gonadal steroids.

  16. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent

    PubMed Central

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.; Buck, C. Loren; Oda, Gisele A.

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel. PMID:26460828

  17. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    PubMed

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S; Buck, C Loren; Oda, Gisele A

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  18. Effect of Light/Dark Cycle on Wheel Running and Responding Reinforced by the Opportunity to Run Depends on Postsession Feeding Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, T. W.; Mondona, A. R.; Conrad, K. M.; Poirier, K. F.; Pickering, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Do rats run and respond at a higher rate to run during the dark phase when they are typically more active? To answer this question, Long Evans rats were exposed to a response-initiated variable interval 30-s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement during light and dark cycles. Wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased modestly during…

  19. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals.

  20. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals. PMID:26631601

  1. Circadian pattern of total and free corticosterone concentrations, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and physical activity in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior.

    PubMed

    Malisch, Jessica L; Breuner, Creagh W; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2008-04-01

    In vertebrates, baseline glucocorticoid concentrations vary predictably on a diel basis, usually peaking shortly before the onset of activity. Presumably, circadian patterns in glucocorticoid secretion have evolved to match predictable rises in energetic need. In mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running, previous studies have reported that baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations at two different times during the photophase are elevated twofold above those of non-selected control lines. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the elevated daytime corticosterone levels could be explained by a shift in the circadian pattern of corticosterone levels. We measured baseline total plasma corticosterone levels, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) capacity, and calculated free corticosterone levels (corticosterone not bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin and potentially biologically active) at six points during the 24-hour cycle in males on a 12:12 photoperiod. We also examined the daily pattern of both wheel-running and home-cage activity. Based on combined analysis of all six points, the circadian pattern of total corticosterone, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and free corticosterone levels did not significantly differ between high-runner and control mice (linetype * time interaction P=0.56, 0.45, and 0.55, respectively); however, all varied with time (all P<0.0001) and mice from the selected lines had significantly elevated total (P=0.0125) and free (P=0.0140) corticosterone, with no difference in CBG binding capacity (P=0.77). All mice were active primarily during the dark phase, and the factorial increase in activity of selected relative to controls lines was 2.33 for total daily wheel revolutions and 2.76 for total daily home-cage activity. The onset of the active period for both measures of locomotor activity coincided with peak total and free corticosterone levels in both selected and control lines. These findings lend support to

  2. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-05-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) μ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain.

  3. Effect of short-term prefeeding and body weight on wheel running and responding reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David; Jensen, K

    2004-07-30

    A biobehavioural analysis of activity anorexia suggests that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by food supply and body weight. In the present experiment, food allocation was varied within subjects by prefeeding food-deprived rats 0, 5, 10 and 15 g of food before sessions of lever pressing for wheel-running reinforcement. The experiment assessed the effects of prefeeding on rates of wheel running, lever pressing, and postreinforcement pausing. Results showed that prefeeding animals 5 g of food had no effect. Prefeeding 10 g of food reduced lever pressing for wheel running and rates of wheel running without a significant change in body weight; the effect was, however, transitory. Prefeeding 15 g of food increased the animals' body weights, resulting in a sustained decrease of wheel running and lever pressing, and an increase in postreinforcement pausing. Overall the results indicate that the motivation for physical activity is regulated by changes in local food supply, but is sustained only when there is a concomitant change in body weight.

  4. A microanalysis of wheel running in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, R; Mills, R

    1988-01-01

    The pattern of ad lib wheel running was studied in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Wheel turns per 20 seconds were recorded for 5 days. Females ran more than males but both ran chiefly at night, with a peak at the beginning and a decline to low levels by daytime. Log-survivor plots showed running occurred in distinct episodes separated by long periods of nonrunning. Both the nightly decrease and the sex difference in running were due to changes in duration of episodes and the running speed. Initiation of running, as reflected in the length of nonrunning periods was similar in both sexes and remained constant over the night. Running was discussed in terms of independent initiation and termination factors and its parallels to eating patterns.

  5. The medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens mediate the motivation for voluntary wheel running in the rat.

    PubMed

    Basso, Julia C; Morrell, Joan I

    2015-08-01

    Voluntary wheel running in rats provides a preclinical model of exercise motivation in humans. We hypothesized that rats run because this activity has positive incentive salience in both the acquisition and habitual stages of wheel running and that gender differences might be present. Additionally, we sought to determine which forebrain regions are essential for the motivational processes underlying wheel running in rats. The motivation for voluntary wheel running in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated during the acquisition (Days 1-7) and habitual phases (after Day 21) of running using conditioned place preference (CPP) and the reinstatement (rebound) response after forced abstinence, respectively. Both genders displayed a strong CPP for the acquisition phase and a strong rebound response to wheel deprivation during the habitual phase, suggesting that both phases of wheel running are rewarding for both sexes. Female rats showed a 1.5 times greater rebound response than males to wheel deprivation in the habitual phase of running, while during the acquisition phase, no gender differences in CPP were found. We transiently inactivated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or the nucleus accumbens (NA), hypothesizing that because these regions are involved in the acquisition and reinstatement of self-administration of both natural and pharmacological stimuli, they might also serve a role in the motivation to wheel run. Inactivation of either structure decreased the rebound response in the habitual phase of running, demonstrating that these structures are involved in the motivation for this behavior.

  6. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration.

    PubMed Central

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D

    2003-01-01

    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers. PMID:12822690

  7. Wheel running decreases palatable diet preference in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Moody, Laura; Liang, Joy; Choi, Pique P; Moran, Timothy H; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2015-10-15

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on not only improving some disease conditions but also by preventing the development of multiple disorders. Experiments in this study examined the effects of wheel running on intakes of chow and palatable diet e.g. high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) diet in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Experiment 1 demonstrated that acute wheel running results in robust HF or HS diet avoidance in male rats. Although female rats with running wheel access initially showed complete avoidance of the two palatable diets, the avoidance of the HS diet was transient. Experiment 2 demonstrated that male rats developed decreased HF diet preferences regardless of the order of diet and wheel running access presentation. Running associated changes in HF diet preference in females, on the other hand, depended on the testing schedule. In female rats, simultaneous presentation of the HF diet and running access resulted in transient complete HF diet avoidance whereas running experience prior to HF diet access did not affect the high preference for the HF diet. Ovariectomy in females resulted in HF diet preference patterns that were similar to those in male rats during simultaneous exposure of HF and wheel running access but similar to intact females when running occurred before HF exposure. Overall, the results demonstrated wheel running associated changes in palatable diet preferences that were in part sex dependent. Furthermore, ovarian hormones play a role in some of the sex differences. These data reveal complexity in the mechanisms underlying exercise associated changes in palatable diet preference.

  8. VOLUNTARY WHEEL RUNNING ENHANCES CONTEXTUAL BUT NOT TRACE FEAR CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Kohman, Rachel A.; Clark, Peter J.; DeYoung, Erin K.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Venghaus, Christine E.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise improves performance on a number of hippocampus involved cognitive tasks including contextual fear conditioning, but whether exercise enhances contextual fear when the retention interval is longer than 1 day is not known. Also unknown is whether exercise improves trace conditioning, a task that requires the hippocampus to bridge the time interval between stimuli. Hence, 4-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were housed with or without running wheels. To assess whether hippocampal neurogenesis was associated with behavioral outcomes, during the initial ten days, mice received Bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. After 30 days, one group of mice was trained in a contextual fear conditioning task. Freezing to context was assessed 1, 7, or 21 days post-training. A separate group was trained on a trace procedure, in which a tone and footshock were separated by a 15, 30, or 45 sec interval. Freezing to the tone was measured 24 hrs later in a novel environment, and freezing to training context was measured 48 hrs later. Running enhanced freezing to context when the retention interval was 1, but not 7 or 21 days. Running had no effect on trace conditioning even though runners displayed enhanced freezing to the training context 48 hrs later. Wheel running increased survival of new neurons in the hippocampus. Collectively, findings indicate that wheel running enhances cognitive performance on some tasks but not others and that enhanced neurogenesis is not always associated with improved performance on hippocampus tasks, one example of which is trace conditioning. PMID:21896289

  9. Relaxin-3 receptor (Rxfp3) gene knockout mice display reduced running wheel activity: implications for role of relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling in sustained arousal.

    PubMed

    Hosken, Ihaia T; Sutton, Steven W; Smith, Craig M; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-02-01

    Anatomical and pharmacological evidence suggests the neuropeptide, relaxin-3, is the preferred endogenous ligand for the relaxin family peptide-3 receptor (RXFP3) and suggests a number of putative stress- and arousal-related roles for RXFP3 signalling. However, in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrates exogenous relaxin-3 can activate other relaxin peptide family receptors, and the role of relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling in specific brain circuits and associated behaviours in mice is not well described. In this study, we characterised the behaviour of cohorts of male and female Rxfp3 gene knockout (KO) mice (C57/B6J(RXFP3TM1/DGen)), relative to wild-type (WT) littermates to determine if this receptor KO strain has a similar phenotype to its ligand KO equivalent. Rxfp3 KO mice displayed similar performance to WT littermates in several acute behavioural paradigms designed to gauge motor coordination (rotarod test), spatial memory (Y-maze), depressive-like behaviour (repeat forced-swim test) and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle). Notably however, male and female Rxfp3 KO mice displayed robust and consistent (dark phase) hypoactivity on voluntary home-cage running wheels (∼20-60% less activity/h), and a small but significant decrease in anxiety-like behavioural traits in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms. Importantly, this phenotype is near identical to that observed in two independent lines of relaxin-3 KO mice, suggesting these phenotypes are due to the elimination of ligand or receptor and RXFP3-linked signalling. Furthermore, this behavioural characterisation of Rxfp3 KO mice identifies them as a useful experimental model for studying RXFP3-linked signalling and assessing the selectivity and/or potential off-target actions of RXFP3 agonists and antagonists, which could lead to an improved understanding of dysfunctional arousal in mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, insomnia and neurodegenerative

  10. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice.

    PubMed

    Waters, R Parrish; Pringle, R B; Forster, G L; Renner, K J; Malisch, J L; Garland, T; Swallow, J G

    2013-05-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  11. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  12. Developmental effects of wheel running on hippocampal glutamate receptor expression in young and mature adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Somkuwar, Sucharita S.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the behavioral benefits associated with voluntary wheel running in rodents may be due to modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in learning and memory. However, the expression of the n-Methyl-d-Aspartate glutamate receptor subunits (GluNs) in the hippocampus in response to chronic sustained voluntary wheel running has not yet been investigated. Further, the developmental effects during young and mature adulthood on wheel running output and GluN expression in hippocampal subregions has not been determined, and therefore is the main focus of this investigation. Eight-week-old and sixteen-week-old male Wistar rats were housed in home cages with free access to running wheels and running output was monitored for four weeks. Wheel access was terminated and tissue from the dorsal and ventral hippocampi were processed for Western blot analysis of GluN subunit expression. Young adult runners demonstrated an escalation in running output but this behavior was not evident in mature adult runners. In parallel, young adult runners demonstrated a significant increase in total GluN (1 and 2A) subunit expression in the dorsal hippocampus, and an opposing effect in the ventral hippocampus compared to age-matched sedentary controls; these changes in total protein expression were not associated with significant alterations in the phosphorylation of the GluN subunits. In contrast, mature adult runners demonstrated a reduction in total GluN2A expression in the dorsal hippocampus, without producing alterations in the ventral hippocampus compared to age-matched sedentary controls. In conclusion, differential running activity-mediated modulation of GluN subunit expression in the hippocampal subregions was revealed to be associated with developmental effects on running activity, which may contribute to altered hippocampal synaptic activity and behavioral outcomes in young and mature adult subjects. PMID:26220171

  13. Developmental effects of wheel running on hippocampal glutamate receptor expression in young and mature adult rats.

    PubMed

    Staples, M C; Somkuwar, S S; Mandyam, C D

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the behavioral benefits associated with voluntary wheel running in rodents may be due to modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, a brain region implicated in learning and memory. However, the expression of the glutamatergic ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (GluN) in the hippocampus in response to chronic sustained voluntary wheel running has not yet been investigated. Further, the developmental effects during young and mature adulthood on wheel running output and GluN expression in hippocampal subregions has not been determined, and therefore is the main focus of this investigation. Eight-week-old and 16-week-old male Wistar rats were housed in home cages with free access to running wheels and running output was monitored for 4weeks. Wheel access was terminated and tissues from the dorsal and ventral hippocampi were processed for Western blot analysis of GluN subunit expression. Young adult runners demonstrated an escalation in running output but this behavior was not evident in mature adult runners. In parallel, young adult runners demonstrated a significant increase in total GluN (1 and 2A) subunit expression in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), and an opposing effect in the ventral hippocampus (VH) compared to age-matched sedentary controls; these changes in total protein expression were not associated with significant alterations in the phosphorylation of the GluN subunits. In contrast, mature adult runners demonstrated a reduction in total GluN2A expression in the DH, without producing alterations in the VH compared to age-matched sedentary controls. In conclusion, differential running activity-mediated modulation of GluN subunit expression in the hippocampal subregions was revealed to be associated with developmental effects on running activity, which may contribute to altered hippocampal synaptic activity and behavioral outcomes in young and mature adult subjects.

  14. Effects of short- and long-term wheel deprivation on running.

    PubMed

    Mueller, D T; Herman, G; Eikelboom, R

    1999-03-01

    The effects of wheel deprivation on running were explored. Eight male rats, well habituated to wheels, were each deprived of wheels for periods of 0, 1, 3, and 10 h during the night (Experiment 1) and 0, 1, 3, and 10 days (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, as wheel deprivation lengthened, wheel running in the first 24 h of access increased. After 10 days of wheel deprivation subsequent daily running decreased (by 70%), and feeding was suppressed for several days. This temporary decline may be due to detraining and the rats physical inability to run more. Experiment 3 with 12 rats found that the running increase after 3-h wheel deprivation was proportional to the amount of running normally occurring during the deprivation period. Over the short-term, running appears to be regulated like other appetitive behaviors.

  15. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    PubMed

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. PMID:26033473

  16. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    PubMed

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease.

  17. Forward conditioning with wheel running causes place aversion in rats.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2008-09-01

    Backward pairings of a distinctive chamber as a conditioned stimulus and wheel running as an unconditioned stimulus (i.e., running-then-chamber) can produce a conditioned place preference in rats. The present study explored whether a forward conditioning procedure with these stimuli (i.e., chamber-then-running) would yield place preference or aversion. Confinement of a rat in one of two distinctive chambers was followed by a 20- or 60-min running opportunity, but confinement in the other was not. After four repetitions of this treatment (i.e., differential conditioning), a choice preference test was given in which the rat had free access to both chambers. This choice test showed that the rats given 60-min running opportunities spent less time in the running-paired chamber than in the unpaired chamber. Namely, a 60-min running opportunity after confinement in a distinctive chamber caused conditioned aversion to that chamber after four paired trials. This result was discussed with regard to the opponent-process theory of motivation.

  18. Simultaneous introduction of a novel high fat diet and wheel running induces anorexia.

    PubMed

    Scarpace, E T; Matheny, M; Strehler, K Y E; Shapiro, A; Cheng, K Y; Tümer, N; Scarpace, P J

    2012-02-28

    Voluntary wheel running (WR) is a form of physical activity in rodents that influences ingestive behavior. The present report describes an anorexic behavior triggered by the simultaneous introduction of a novel diet and WR. This study examined the sequential, compared with the simultaneous, introduction of a novel high-fat (HF) diet and voluntary WR in rats of three different ages and revealed a surprising finding; the simultaneous introduction of HF food and voluntary WR induced a behavior in which the animals chose not to eat although food was available at all times. This phenomenon was apparently not due to an aversion to the novel HF diet because introduction of the running wheels plus the HF diet, while continuing the availability of the normal chow diet did not prevent the anorexia. Moreover, the anorexia was prevented with prior exposure to the HF diet. In addition, the anorexia was not related to extent of WR but dependent on the act of WR. The introduction a HF diet and locked running wheels did not induce the anorexia. This voluntary anorexia was accompanied by substantial weight loss, and the anorexia was rapidly reversed by removal of the running wheels. Moreover, the HF/WR-induced anorexia is preserved across the age span despite the intrinsic decrease in WR activity and increased consumption of HF food with advancing age. The described phenomenon provides a new model to investigate anorexia behavior in rodents.

  19. Effects of Withdrawal from Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Vapor on the Level and Circadian Periodicity of Running-Wheel Activity in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; McCulley, Walter D.; Seggio, Joseph A.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol withdrawal is associated with behavioral and chronobiological disturbances that may persist during protracted abstinence. We previously reported that C57BL/6J (B6) mice show marked but temporary reductions in running-wheel activity, and normal free-running circadian rhythms, following a 4-day chronic intermittent ethanol vapor (CIE) exposure (16 hours of ethanol vapor exposure alternating with 8 hours of withdrawal). In the present experiments, we extend these observations in two ways: (1) by examining post-CIE locomotor activity in C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice, an inbred strain characterized by high sensitivity to ethanol withdrawal, and (2) by directly comparing the responses of B6 and C3H mice to a longer-duration CIE protocol. Methods In Experiment 1, C3H mice were exposed to the same 4-day CIE protocol used in our previous study with B6 mice (referred to here as the 1-cycle CIE protocol). In Experiment 2, C3H and B6 mice were exposed to three successive 4-day CIE cycles, each separated by 2 days of withdrawal (the 3-cycle CIE protocol). Running-wheel activity was monitored prior to and following CIE, and post-CIE activity was recorded in constant darkness to allow assessment of free-running circadian period and phase. Results C3H mice displayed pronounced reductions in running-wheel activity that persisted for the duration of the recording period (up to 30 days) following both 1-cycle (Experiment 1) and 3-cycle (Experiment 2) CIE protocols. In contrast, B6 mice showed reductions in locomotor activity that persisted for about one week following the 3-cycle CIE protocol, similar to the results of our previous study using a 1-cycle protocol in this strain. Additionally, C3H mice showed significant shortening of free-running period following the 3-cycle, but not the 1-cycle, CIE protocol, while B6 mice showed normal free-running rhythms. Conclusions These results reveal genetic differences in the persistence of ethanol withdrawal-induced hypo

  20. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  1. An Innovative Running Wheel-based Mechanism for Improved Rat Training Performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Yang, Chin-Lung; Chang, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an animal mobility system, equipped with a positioning running wheel (PRW), as a way to quantify the efficacy of an exercise activity for reducing the severity of the effects of the stroke in rats. This system provides more effective animal exercise training than commercially available systems such as treadmills and motorized running wheels (MRWs). In contrast to an MRW that can only achieve speeds below 20 m/min, rats are permitted to run at a stable speed of 30 m/min on a more spacious and high-density rubber running track supported by a 15 cm wide acrylic wheel with a diameter of 55 cm in this work. Using a predefined adaptive acceleration curve, the system not only reduces the operator error but also trains the rats to run persistently until a specified intensity is reached. As a way to evaluate the exercise effectiveness, real-time position of a rat is detected by four pairs of infrared sensors deployed on the running wheel. Once an adaptive acceleration curve is initiated using a microcontroller, the data obtained by the infrared sensors are automatically recorded and analyzed in a computer. For comparison purposes, 3 week training is conducted on rats using a treadmill, an MRW and a PRW. After surgically inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) and an inclined plane test were conducted to assess the neurological damages to the rats. PRW is experimentally validated as the most effective among such animal mobility systems. Furthermore, an exercise effectiveness measure, based on rat position analysis, showed that there is a high negative correlation between the effective exercise and the infarct volume, and can be employed to quantify a rat training in any type of brain damage reduction experiments. PMID:27684092

  2. An Innovative Running Wheel-based Mechanism for Improved Rat Training Performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Yang, Chin-Lung; Chang, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an animal mobility system, equipped with a positioning running wheel (PRW), as a way to quantify the efficacy of an exercise activity for reducing the severity of the effects of the stroke in rats. This system provides more effective animal exercise training than commercially available systems such as treadmills and motorized running wheels (MRWs). In contrast to an MRW that can only achieve speeds below 20 m/min, rats are permitted to run at a stable speed of 30 m/min on a more spacious and high-density rubber running track supported by a 15 cm wide acrylic wheel with a diameter of 55 cm in this work. Using a predefined adaptive acceleration curve, the system not only reduces the operator error but also trains the rats to run persistently until a specified intensity is reached. As a way to evaluate the exercise effectiveness, real-time position of a rat is detected by four pairs of infrared sensors deployed on the running wheel. Once an adaptive acceleration curve is initiated using a microcontroller, the data obtained by the infrared sensors are automatically recorded and analyzed in a computer. For comparison purposes, 3 week training is conducted on rats using a treadmill, an MRW and a PRW. After surgically inducing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) and an inclined plane test were conducted to assess the neurological damages to the rats. PRW is experimentally validated as the most effective among such animal mobility systems. Furthermore, an exercise effectiveness measure, based on rat position analysis, showed that there is a high negative correlation between the effective exercise and the infarct volume, and can be employed to quantify a rat training in any type of brain damage reduction experiments.

  3. A guideline for analyzing circadian wheel-running behavior in rodents under different lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jud, Corinne; Schmutz, Isabelle; Hampp, Gabriele; Oster, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Most behavioral experiments within circadian research are based on the analysis of locomotor activity. This paper introduces scientists to chronobiology by explaining the basic terminology used within the field. Furthermore, it aims to assist in designing, carrying out, and evaluating wheel-running experiments with rodents, particularly mice. Since light is an easily applicable stimulus that provokes strong effects on clock phase, the paper focuses on the application of different lighting conditions. PMID:16136228

  4. Voluntary wheel running mitigates the stress-induced bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lertsinthai, Parinya; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2015-05-01

    In estrogen-deficient rodents with osteopenia, repetitive exposure to mild-to-moderate stress, which mimics the chronic aversive stimuli (CAS) of the modern urban lifestyle in postmenopausal women, has been hypothesized to cause the bone microstructure to further deteriorate. Recently, we have provided evidence in rats that voluntary impact exercise, e.g., wheel running, is as effective as pharmacological treatments for stress-induced anxiety and depression. The present study, therefore, aims to investigate whether a 4-week CAS exposure aggravates trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats, and whether CAS-induced bone loss can be rescued by voluntary wheel running. CAS was found to elevate the serum levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone from the adrenal gland. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed a decrease in bone mineral content (BMC) in the tibiae of CAS-exposed Ovx rats as compared to the CAS-free Ovx rats (control), while having no detectable effect on bone mineral density (BMD). Bone histomorphometric analysis of the proximal tibial metaphysis showed that CAS decreased trabecular bone volume and increased trabecular separation, which were completely restored to the baseline values of Ovx rats by voluntary wheel running. This CAS-induced trabecular bone loss in Ovx rats was probably due to an enhancement of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, as indicated by increases in osteoclast surface and active erosion surface. Moreover, wheel running as well as non-impact exercise (endurance swimming) effectively increased the tibial BMD and BMC of CAS-exposed Ovx rats. It can be concluded that exercise is an effective intervention in mitigating CAS-induced bone loss in estrogen-deficient rats.

  5. Effect of sucrose availability and pre-running on the intrinsic value of wheel running as an operant and a reinforcing consequence.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of motivational manipulations on operant wheel running for sucrose reinforcement and on wheel running as a behavioral consequence for lever pressing, within the same experimental context. Specifically, rats responded on a two-component multiple schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing produced the opportunity to run in a wheel in one component of the schedule (reinforcer component) and wheel running produced the opportunity to consume sucrose solution in the other component (operant component). Motivational manipulations involved removal of sucrose contingent on wheel running and providing 1h of pre-session wheel running. Results showed that, in opposition to a response strengthening view, sucrose did not maintain operant wheel running. The motivational operations of withdrawing sucrose or providing pre-session wheel running, however, resulted in different wheel-running rates in the operant and reinforcer components of the multiple schedule; this rate discrepancy revealed the extrinsic reinforcing effects of sucrose on operant wheel running, but also indicated the intrinsic reinforcement value of wheel running across components. Differences in wheel-running rates between components were discussed in terms of arousal, undermining of intrinsic motivation, and behavioral contrast.

  6. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A; Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained.

  7. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A.; Tam, Shu K. E.; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J.; Bannerman, David M.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained. PMID:25950516

  8. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A; Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained. PMID:25950516

  9. Circadian rhythm disruption by a novel running wheel: roles of exercise and arousal in blockade of the luteinizing hormone surge.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Marilyn J; Franklin, Kathleen M; Peng, Xiaoli; Yun, Christopher; Legan, Sandra J

    2014-05-28

    Exposure of proestrous Syrian hamsters to a new room, cage, and novel running wheel blocks the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge until the next day in ~75% of hamsters [1]. The studies described here tested the hypotheses that 1) exercise and/or 2) orexinergic neurotransmission mediate novel wheel blockade of the LH surge and circadian phase advances. Female hamsters were exposed to a 14L:10D photoperiod and activity rhythms were monitored with infra-red detectors. In Expt. 1, to test the effect of exercise, hamsters received jugular cannulae and on the next day, proestrus (Day 1), shortly before zeitgeber time 5 (ZT 5, 7h before lights-off) the hamsters were transported to the laboratory. After obtaining a blood sample at ZT 5, the hamsters were transferred to a new cage with a novel wheel that was either freely rotating (unlocked), or locked until ZT 9, and exposed to constant darkness (DD). Blood samples were collected hourly for 2days from ZT 5-11 under red light for determination of plasma LH levels by radioimmunoassay. Running rhythms were monitored continuously for the next 10-14days. The locked wheels were as effective as unlocked wheels in blocking LH surges (no Day 1 LH surge in 6/9 versus 8/8 hamsters, P>0.05) and phase advances in the activity rhythms did not differ between the groups (P=0.28), suggesting that intense exercise is not essential for novel wheel blockade and phase advance of the proestrous LH surge. Expt. 2 tested whether orexin neurotransmission is essential for these effects. Hamsters were treated the same as those in Expt. 1 except that they were injected (i.p.) at ZT 4.5 and 5 with either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB334867 (15mg/kg per injection) or vehicle (25% DMSO in 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HCD)). SB-334867 inhibited novel wheel blockade of the LH surge (surges blocked in 2/6 SB334867-injected animals versus 16/18 vehicle-injected animals, P<0.02) and also inhibited wheel running and circadian phase shifts, indicating

  10. The effects of prior weight reduction on the running wheel-induced feeding suppression in rats.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Amanda; Botzang, Laura; Parfeniuk, Graham G; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2009-09-01

    Adult male rats given ad lib access to food and a running wheel show an initial feeding and weight suppression. Over 6-10 days feeding recovers, but body weight remains low. It is not clear which effect is primary, the wheel-induced feeding or weight change. To test this, rats were first restricted to 15g of food a day for 8 or 16 days to reduce their weight relative to control non-restricted rats. They were then returned to ad lib feeding and half the restricted and non-restricted control rats were introduced to the wheel either immediately (Experiment 1) or 4 days later (Experiment 2). Food intake, body weight, and wheel running were monitored throughout the experiments. At the return to ad lib feeding, prior food restriction elevated feeding. Both immediate and delayed wheel access suppressed feeding in both groups of wheel access rats compared to the appropriate control rats. Feeding history did not have a significant effect on wheel running. The wheel-induced reductions in feeding from baseline were similar in the weight reduced and normal weight animals suggesting that prior weight restriction did not prevent the onset of the wheel-induced feeding suppression. It is therefore suggested that the feeding suppression is not driven by a reduced weight set point.

  11. Wheel-running in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: protection or symptom?

    PubMed

    Richter, Helene; Ambrée, Oliver; Lewejohann, Lars; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Paulus, Werner; Palme, Rupert; Touma, Chadi; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger; Sachser, Norbert

    2008-06-26

    Several studies on both humans and animals reveal benefits of physical exercise on brain function and health. A previous study on TgCRND8 mice, a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease, reported beneficial effects of premorbid onset of long-term access to a running wheel on spatial learning and plaque deposition. Our study investigated the effects of access to a running wheel after the onset of Abeta pathology on behavioural, endocrinological, and neuropathological parameters. From day 80 of age, the time when Abeta deposition becomes apparent, TgCRND8 and wildtype mice were kept with or without running wheel. Home cage behaviour was analysed and cognitive abilities regarding object recognition memory and spatial learning in the Barnes maze were assessed. Our results show that, in comparison to Wt mice, Tg mice were characterised by impaired object recognition memory and spatial learning, increased glucocorticoid levels, hyperactivity in the home cage and high levels of stereotypic behaviour. Access to a running wheel had no effects on cognitive or neuropathological parameters, but reduced the amount of stereotypic behaviour in transgenics significantly. Furthermore, wheel-running was inversely correlated with stereotypic behaviour, suggesting that wheel-running may have stereotypic qualities. In addition, wheel-running positively correlated with plaque burden. Thus, in a phase when plaques are already present in the brain, it may be symptomatic of brain pathology, rather than protective. Whether or not access to a running wheel has beneficial effects on Alzheimer-like pathology and symptoms may therefore strongly depend on the exact time when the wheel is provided during development of the disease.

  12. Cessation of daily wheel running differentially alters fat oxidation capacity in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Laye, Matthew J; Rector, R Scott; Borengasser, Sarah J; Naples, Scott P; Uptergrove, Grace M; Ibdah, Jamal A; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with the increased risk of developing chronic metabolic diseases. To understand early alterations caused by physical inactivity, we utilize an animal model in which rats are transitioned from daily voluntary wheel running to a sedentary condition. In the hours and days following this transition, adipose tissue mass rapidly increases, due in part to increased lipogenesis. However, whether a concurrent decrease in fatty acid oxidative capacity (FAO) in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue occurs during this period is unknown. Following 6 wk of access to voluntary running wheels (average distance of approximately 6 km a night), rats were rapidly transitioned to a sedentary state by locking the wheels for 5 h (WL5) or 173 h (WL173). Complete ([(14)C]palmitate oxidation to (14)CO(2)) and incomplete ([(14)C]palmitate oxidation to (14)C-labeled acid soluble metabolites) was determined in isolated mitochondrial and whole homogenate preparations from skeletal muscle and liver and in isolated adipocytes. Strikingly, the elevated complete FAO in the red gastrocnemius at WL5 fell to that of rats that never ran (SED) by WL173. In contrast, hepatic FAO was elevated at WL173 above both WL5 and SED groups, while in isolated adipocytes, FAO remained higher in both running groups (WL5 and WL173) compared with the SED group. The alterations in muscle and liver fat oxidation were associated with changes in carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity and inhibition, but not significant changes in other mitochondrial enzyme activities. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1alpha mRNA levels that were higher in both skeletal muscle and liver at WL5 fell to SED levels at WL173. This study is the first to demonstrate that the transition from high to low daily physical activity causes rapid, tissue-specific changes in FAO.

  13. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  14. Habituation contributes to within-session changes in free wheel running.

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, K; McSweeney, F K

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that habituation contributes to the regulation of wheel running. Rats ran in a wheel for 30-min sessions. Experiment 1 demonstrated spontaneous recovery. Rats ran more and the within-session decreases in running were smaller after 2 days of wheel deprivation than after 1 day. Experiment 2 demonstrated dishabituation. Running rate increased immediately after the termination of a brief extra event (application of the brake or flashing of the houselight). Experiment 3 demonstrated stimulus specificity. Rats completed the second half of the session in either the same wheel as the first half, or a different wheel. Second-half running was faster in the latter case. Within-session patterns of running were well described by equations that describe data from the habituation, motivation, and operant literatures. These results suggest that habituation contributes to the regulation of running. In fact, habituation provides a better explanation for the termination of wheel running than fatigue, the variable to which this termination is usually attributed. Overall, the present findings are consistent with the proposition that habituation and sensitization contribute to the regulation of several forms of motivated behavior. PMID:11768712

  15. Effects of voluntary wheel running on LPS-induced sickness behavior in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Greene, Ryan M; Johnson, Stephanie J; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with LPS causes exaggerated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior in aged mice. Regular moderate intensity exercise has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects that may protect against inappropriate neuroinflammation and sickness in aged mice. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running would attenuate LPS-induced sickness behavior and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in ~22-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Mice were housed with a running wheel (VWR), locked-wheel (Locked), or no wheel (Standard) for 10 weeks, after which they were intraperitoneally injected with LPS across a range of doses (0.02, 0.08, 0.16, 0.33 mg/kg). VWR mice ran on average 3.5 km/day and lost significantly more body weight and body fat, and increased their forced exercise tolerance compared to Locked and Shoebox mice. VWR had no effect on LPS-induced anorexia, adipsia, weight-loss, or reductions in locomotor activity at any LPS dose when compared to Locked and Shoebox groups. LPS induced sickness behavior in a dose-dependent fashion (0.33>0.02 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours post-injection (0.33 mg/kg LPS or Saline) we found a LPS-induced upregulation of whole brain TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-10 mRNA, and increased IL-1β and IL-6 in the spleen and liver; these effects were not attenuated by VWR. We conclude that VWR does not reduce LPS-induced exaggerated or prolonged sickness behavior in aged animals, or 24h post-injection (0.33 mg/kg LPS or Saline) brain and peripheral proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. The necessity of the sickness response is critical for survival and may outweigh the subtle benefits of exercise training in aged animals.

  16. Simple and conditional visual discrimination with wheel running as reinforcement in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, I H

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments explored whether access to wheel running is sufficient as reinforcement to establish and maintain simple and conditional visual discriminations in nondeprived rats. In Experiment 1, 2 rats learned to press a lit key to produce access to running; responding was virtually absent when the key was dark, but latencies to respond were longer than for customary food and water reinforcers. Increases in the intertrial interval did not improve the discrimination performance. In Experiment 2, 3 rats acquired a go-left/go-right discrimination with a trial-initiating response and reached an accuracy that exceeded 80%; when two keys showed a steady light, pressing the left key produced access to running whereas pressing the right key produced access to running when both keys showed blinking light. Latencies to respond to the lights shortened when the trial-initiation response was introduced and became much shorter than in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 1 rat acquired a conditional discrimination task (matching to sample) with steady versus blinking lights at an accuracy exceeding 80%. A trial-initiation response allowed self-paced trials as in Experiment 2. When the rat was exposed to the task for 19 successive 24-hr periods with access to food and water, the discrimination performance settled in a typical circadian pattern and peak accuracy exceeded 90%. When the trial-initiation response was under extinction, without access to running, the circadian activity pattern determined the time of spontaneous recovery. The experiments demonstrate that wheel-running reinforcement can be used to establish and maintain simple and conditional visual discriminations in nondeprived rats. PMID:9841250

  17. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also

  18. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-06-01

    Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition. PMID:20233939

  19. The protective effects of free wheel-running against cocaine psychomotor sensitization persist after exercise cessation in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lespine, L-F; Tirelli, E

    2015-12-01

    Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug responsiveness. Here, we tested whether free wheel-running cessation is followed by (1) an accentuation or (2) an attenuation of cocaine psychomotor sensitization, knowing that no cessation of (continuous) wheel-running is associated with an attenuation of cocaine responsiveness. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 35 days, were housed singly either with (exercising mice) or without (non-exercising mice) a running wheel. At the end of a period of 36 days, half of the exercising mice were deprived of their wheel whereas the other half of exercising mice kept their wheel until the end of experimentation (which lasted 85 days). The non-exercising mice were housed without wheel throughout experimentation. Testing took place 3 days after exercise cessation. After 2 once-daily drug-free test sessions, mice were tested for initiation of psychomotor sensitization over 13 once-daily injections of 8 mg/kg cocaine. Post-sensitization conditioned activation (saline challenge) and long-term expression of sensitization were assessed 2 or 30 days after the last sensitizing injection (same treatments as for initiation of sensitization), respectively. Exercising mice and mice undergoing wheel-running cessation exhibited comparable degrees of attenuation of all cocaine effects in comparison with the continuously non-exercising mice, which showed the greatest effects. Thus, the efficaciousness of wheel-running at attenuating cocaine sensitization not only resisted to exercise cessation but was also unambiguously persistent (an important effect rarely reported in previous literature).

  20. The protective effects of free wheel-running against cocaine psychomotor sensitization persist after exercise cessation in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lespine, L-F; Tirelli, E

    2015-12-01

    Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug responsiveness. Here, we tested whether free wheel-running cessation is followed by (1) an accentuation or (2) an attenuation of cocaine psychomotor sensitization, knowing that no cessation of (continuous) wheel-running is associated with an attenuation of cocaine responsiveness. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 35 days, were housed singly either with (exercising mice) or without (non-exercising mice) a running wheel. At the end of a period of 36 days, half of the exercising mice were deprived of their wheel whereas the other half of exercising mice kept their wheel until the end of experimentation (which lasted 85 days). The non-exercising mice were housed without wheel throughout experimentation. Testing took place 3 days after exercise cessation. After 2 once-daily drug-free test sessions, mice were tested for initiation of psychomotor sensitization over 13 once-daily injections of 8 mg/kg cocaine. Post-sensitization conditioned activation (saline challenge) and long-term expression of sensitization were assessed 2 or 30 days after the last sensitizing injection (same treatments as for initiation of sensitization), respectively. Exercising mice and mice undergoing wheel-running cessation exhibited comparable degrees of attenuation of all cocaine effects in comparison with the continuously non-exercising mice, which showed the greatest effects. Thus, the efficaciousness of wheel-running at attenuating cocaine sensitization not only resisted to exercise cessation but was also unambiguously persistent (an important effect rarely reported in previous literature). PMID:26454024

  1. A Brief Opportunity to Run Does Not Function as a Reinforcer for Mice Selected for High Daily Wheel-Running Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Garland, Theodore, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Mice from replicate lines, selectively bred based on high daily wheel-running rates, run more total revolutions and at higher average speeds than do mice from nonselected control lines. Based on this difference it was assumed that selected mice would find the opportunity to run in a wheel a more efficacious consequence. To assess this assumption…

  2. Hypothalamic Npy mRNA is correlated with increased wheel running and decreased body fat in calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Speichinger, Katherine R; Manier, Jacob B; Younger, Kyle M; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2016-04-01

    The neuro-molecular mechanisms that regulate the relationship between physical activity level, energy homeostasis regulation, and body fat are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mRNAs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) related to energy homeostasis, wheel running distance, and body fat in ad lib (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR) growing rats. We hypothesized that changes in select mRNAs (Pomc, Cart, Agrp, Npy, Lepr, Insr, Mc4r, Ampk, Sirt1, Sirt3) in CR would be associated with decreases in body fat percentage and increased wheel running behavior. Male Wistar rats were given access to voluntary running wheels at 4 weeks of age and randomized into AL (n=8) and CR (70% of AL; n=7) groups at 5 weeks of age until study termination at 12 weeks of age. Body composition, serum leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, and ARC mRNA expression in AL and CR rats were assessed and correlated with week-12 running distance to examine potential relationships that may exist. By 12 weeks of age, wheel running was increased ∼3.3-fold (p=0.03) while body fat percentage was ∼2-fold lower in CR compared to AL (p=0.001). Compared to AL, ARC Npy mRNA expression was ∼2-fold greater in CR (p=0.02), while Lepr, Insr, Ampk, and Sirt1 mRNA were additionally increased in CR (p<0.05). Significant correlations existed between ARC Npy mRNA levels versus week-12 wheel running distance (r=0.81, p=0.03), body fat (r=-0.93, p<0.01), and between body fat and wheel running (r=-0.83, p=0.02) in CR, but not in AL. These results reveal possible mechanisms by which fat-brain crosstalk may influence physical activity during energy deficit. These data suggest that below a 'threshold' fat content, body fat may drive activity levels, potentially through hypothalamic Npy action.

  3. Circadian Periods of Sensitivity for Ramelteon on the onset of Running-wheel Activity and the Peak of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuronal Firing Rhythms in C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rawashdeh, Oliver; Hudson, Randall L.; Stepien, Iwona; Dubocovich, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    Ramelteon, an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist, is used for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia and circadian sleep disorders. Ramelteon phase shifts circadian rhythms in rodents and humans when given at the end of the subjective day; however, its efficacy at other circadian times is not known. Here, the authors determined in C3H/ HeN mice the maximal circadian sensitivity for ramelteon in vivo on the onset of circadian running-wheel activity rhythms, and in vitro on the peak of circadian rhythm of neuronal firing in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) brain slices. The phase response curve (PRC) for ramelteon (90 μg/mouse, subcutaneous [sc]) on circadian wheel-activity rhythms shows maximal sensitivity during the late mid to end of the subjective day, between CT8 and CT12 (phase advance), and late subjective night and early subjective day, between CT20 and CT2 (phase delay), using a 3-day-pulse treatment regimen in C3H/HeN mice. The PRC for ramelteon resembles that for melatonin in C3H/ HeN mice, showing the same magnitude of maximal shifts at CT10 and CT2, except that the range of sensitivity for ramelteon (CT8–CT12) during the subjective day is broader. Furthermore, in SCN brain slices in vitro, ramelteon (10 pM) administered at CT10 phase advances (5.6 ± 0.29 h, n = 3) and at CT2 phase delays (−3.2 ± 0.12 h, n = 6) the peak of circadian rhythm of neuronal firing, with the shifts being significantly larger than those induced by melatonin (10 pM) at the same circadian times (CT10: 2.7 ± 0.15 h, n = 4, p < .05; CT2: −1.13 ± 0.08 h, n = 6, p < .001, respectively). The phase shifts induced by both melatonin and ramelteon in the SCN brain slice at either CT10 or CT2 corresponded with the period of sensitivity observed in vivo. In conclusion, melatonin and ramelteon showed identical periods of circadian sensitivity at CT10 (advance) and CT2 (delay) to shift the onset of circadian activity rhythms in vivo and the peak of SCN neuronal firing rhythms in vitro

  4. Adaptive and nonadaptive responses to voluntary wheel running by mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Landisch, Rachel M; Kosir, Allison M; Nelson, Steven A; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Lowe, Dawn A

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which hindlimb muscles of mdx mice adapt to a voluntary endurance type of exercise. mdx and C57BL mice engaged in 8 weeks of wheel running or maintained normal cage activities. Beneficial adaptations that occurred in mdx mice included changes in muscle mass, fiber size, and fiber types based on myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression. These adaptations occurred without increases in fiber central nuclei and embryonic MHC expression. An undesirable outcome, however, was that muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities did not improve with exercise in mdx mice as they did in C57BL mice. Cellular remodeling of dystrophic muscle following exercise has not been studied adequately. In this study we found that some, but not all, of the expected adaptations occurred in mdx mouse muscle. We must better understand these (non)adaptations in order to inform individuals with DMD about the benefits of exercise.

  5. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice with access to a running wheel.

    PubMed

    Ehringer, Marissa A; Hoft, Nicole R; Zunhammer, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    Studies of the behavioral effects of alcohol in humans and rodent models have implicated a number of neurological pathways and genes. Separate studies have shown that certain regions of the brain are involved in behavioral responses to exercise. The aim of this study was to determine whether mice which normally voluntarily consume high amounts of alcohol (C57BL/6 strain) would exhibit reduced alcohol consumption when given access to a running wheel under two different models of voluntary consumption: unlimited access two-bottle choice and limited access drinking in the dark (DID). Under the two-bottle choice model, the animals voluntarily consumed less alcohol when a wheel was present in their cage. However, sex-specific differences emerged because female mice voluntarily consumed less alcohol when they have the opportunity to exercise on a running wheel, whereas male mice consumed less alcohol even if the running wheel was locked. There were no significant differences observed in alcohol metabolism or food consumption. Under the DID protocol, no differences in alcohol consumption were observed in the presence of a running wheel. These results suggest that exercise may be a useful approach to consider for treatment for some types of chronic human alcohol problem behaviors, but may be less applicable to human binge drinking. PMID:19801274

  6. A Brief Opportunity to Run Does Not Function as a Reinforcer for Mice Selected for High Daily Wheel-running Rates

    PubMed Central

    Belke, Terry W; GarlandJr, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Mice from replicate lines, selectively bred based on high daily wheel-running rates, run more total revolutions and at higher average speeds than do mice from nonselected control lines. Based on this difference it was assumed that selected mice would find the opportunity to run in a wheel a more efficacious consequence. To assess this assumption within an operant paradigm, mice must be trained to make a response to produce the opportunity to run as a consequence. In the present study an autoshaping procedure was used to compare the acquisition of lever pressing reinforced by the opportunity to run for a brief opportunity (i.e., 90 s) between selected and control mice and then, using an operant procedure, the effect of the duration of the opportunity to run on lever pressing was assessed by varying reinforcer duration over values of 90 s, 30 min, and 90 s. The reinforcement schedule was a ratio schedule (FR 1 or VR 3). Results from the autoshaping phase showed that more control mice met a criterion of responses on 50% of trials. During the operant phase, when reinforcer duration was 90 s, almost all control, but few selected mice completed a session of 20 reinforcers; however, when reinforcer duration was increased to 30 min almost all selected and control mice completed a session of 20 reinforcers. Taken together, these results suggest that selective breeding based on wheel-running rates over 24 hr may have altered the motivational system in a way that reduces the reinforcing value of shorter running durations. The implications of this finding for these mice as a model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are discussed. It also is proposed that there may be an inherent trade-off in the motivational system for activities of short versus long duration. PMID:17970415

  7. Mu opioid receptor modulation in the nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred for high running motivation.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2015-10-01

    The exact role of opioid receptor signaling in mediating voluntary wheel running is unclear. To provide additional understanding, female rats selectively bred for motivation of low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviors were used. Aims of this study were 1) to identify intrinsic differences in nucleus accumbens (NAc) mRNA expression of opioid-related transcripts and 2) to determine if nightly wheel running is differently influenced by bilateral NAc injections of either the mu-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyo5-enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.25, 2.5 μg/side), or its antagonist, naltrexone (5, 10, 20 μg/side). In Experiment 1, intrinsic expression of Oprm1 and Pdyn mRNAs were higher in HVR compared to LVR. Thus, the data imply that line differences in opioidergic mRNA in the NAc could partially contribute to differences in wheel running behavior. In Experiment 2, a significant decrease in running distance was present in HVR rats treated with 2.5 μg DAMGO, or with 10 μg and 20 μg naltrexone between hours 0-1 of the dark cycle. Neither DAMGO nor naltrexone had a significant effect on running distance in LVR rats. Taken together, the data suggest that the high nightly voluntary running distance expressed by HVR rats is mediated by increased endogenous mu-opioid receptor signaling in the NAc, that is disturbed by either agonism or antagonism. In summary, our findings on NAc opioidergic mRNA expression and mu-opioid receptor modulations suggest HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, express higher running levels mediated by an increase in motivation driven, in part, by elevated NAc opioidergic signaling.

  8. Cardiac function is preserved following 4 weeks of voluntary wheel running in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, James M.; Martens, Christopher R.; Kim, Jahyun; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of 4 wk of voluntary wheel running on cardiac performance in the 5/6 ablation-infarction (AI) rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that voluntary wheel running would be effective in preserving cardiac function in AI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three study groups: 1) sham, sedentary nondiseased control; 2) AI-SED, sedentary AI; and 3) AI-WR, wheel-running AI. Animals were maintained over a total period of 8 wk following AI and sham surgery. The 8-wk period included 4 wk of disease development followed by a 4-wk voluntary wheel-running intervention/sedentary control period. Cardiac performance was assessed using an isolated working heart preparation. Left ventricular (LV) tissue was used for biochemical tissue analysis. In addition, soleus muscle citrate synthase activity was measured. AI-WR rats performed a low volume of exercise, running an average of 13 ± 2 km, which resulted in citrate synthase activity not different from that in sham animals. Isolated AI-SED hearts demonstrated impaired cardiac performance at baseline and in response to preload/afterload manipulations. Conversely, cardiac function was preserved in AI-WR vs. sham hearts. LV nitrite + nitrate and expression of LV nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms 2 and 3 in AI-WR were not different from those of sham rats. In addition, LV H2O2 in AI-WR was similar to that of sham and associated with increased expression of LV superoxide-dismutase-2 and glutathione peroxidase-1/2. The findings of the current study suggest that a low-volume exercise intervention is sufficient to maintain cardiac performance in rats with CKD, potentially through a mechanism related to improved redox homeostasis and increased NO. PMID:25059238

  9. Chronic wheel running affects cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in brain reward areas in rats.

    PubMed

    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Hedges, Valerie L; Carroll, Marilyn E; Meisel, Robert L

    2014-03-15

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that exercise is a highly effective treatment for drug addiction. However, most work has been done in behavioral models, and the effects of exercise on the neurobiological substrates of addiction have not been identified. Specifically, it is unknown whether prior exercise exposure alters neuronal activation of brain reward circuitry in response to drugs of abuse. To investigate this hypothesis, rats were given 21 days of daily access to voluntary wheel running in a locked or unlocked running wheel. Subsequently, they were challenged with a saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) injection and sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The c-Fos transcription factor is a measure of cellular activity and was used to quantify cocaine-induced activation of reward-processing areas of the brain: nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The mean fold change in cocaine-induced c-Fos cell counts relative to saline-induced c-Fos cell counts was significantly higher in exercising compared to control rats in the NAc core, dorsomedial and dorsolateral CPu, the prelimbic area, and the OFC, indicating differential cocaine-specific cellular activation of brain reward circuitry between exercising and control animals. These results suggest neurobiological mechanisms by which voluntary wheel running attenuates cocaine-motivated behaviors and provide support for exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction. PMID:24342748

  10. Chronic wheel running affects cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in brain reward areas in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Hedges, Valerie L.; Carroll, Marilyn E.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggests that exercise is a highly effective treatment for drug addiction. However, most work has been done in behavioral models, and the effects of exercise on the neurobiological substrates of addiction have not been identified. Specifically, it is unknown whether prior exercise exposure alters neuronal activation of brain reward circuitry in response to drugs of abuse. To investigate this hypothesis, rats were given 21 days of daily access to voluntary wheel running in a locked or unlocked running wheel. Subsequently, they were challenged with a saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) injection and sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The c-Fos transcription factor is a measure of cellular activity and was used to quantify cocaine-induced activation of reward-processing areas of the brain: nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The mean fold change in cocaine-induced c-Fos cell counts relative to saline-induced c-Fos cell counts was significantly higher in exercising compared to control rats in the NAc core, dorsomedial and dorsolateral CPu, the prelimbic area, and the OFC, indicating differential cocaine-specific cellular activation of brain reward circuitry between exercising and control animals. These results suggest neurobiological mechanisms by which voluntary wheel running attenuates cocaine-motivated behaviors and provide support for exercise as a novel treatment for drug addiction. PMID:24342748

  11. Wheel running affects seasonal acclimatization of physiological and morphological traits in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scherbarth, Frank; Rozman, Jan; Klingenspor, Martin; Brabant, Georg; Steinlechner, Stephan

    2007-09-01

    Wheel running was previously shown to influence body mass and torpor in short-day-acclimatized Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). To determine whether the exercise-induced effect on body mass depends on the annual phase, hamsters were exposed to the natural change in photoperiod and given access to a running wheel (RW), either before, in the middle of, or at the end of the descending body mass trajectory during seasonal acclimatization. Due to wheel running, the seasonal weight cycle was prevented or aborted by abruptly rising body mass, resulting in a weight appropriate for summer, despite exposure to short days. Torpor was inhibited, and testicular recrudescence was advanced, compared with controls. In contrast, the change into winter fur remained unaltered. Analysis of body composition and plasma leptin revealed a low body fat mass in RW hamsters, not only in winter but also in summer, suggesting a lack of seasonal adiposity. Chronic leptin infusion in winter only decreased body mass in RW individuals, although their relative body fat mass probably was even lower than in sedentary hamsters. A constantly low body fat mass is conceivably reflecting an exercise-dependent change in metabolism, consistent with increased bone mineral content and density in RW hamsters. Additionally, bone area was increased, again supported by elongated vertebral columns. Together, the results show a striking effect of wheel running on body composition and the seasonal pattern of body mass, and they suggest that the photoperiodic regulation of body mass is regulated differently than the reproductive and pelage responses. PMID:17596330

  12. Cessation of voluntary wheel running increases anxiety-like behavior and impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Llorens-Martín, María; Tejeda, Gonzalo Sanchez; Inoue, Koshiro; Yamamura, Yuhei; Soya, Hideaki; Trejo, José Luis; Torres-Alemán, Ignacio

    2013-05-15

    While increasing evidence demonstrates that physical exercise promotes brain health, little is known on how the reduction of physical activity affects brain function. We investigated whether the cessation of wheel running alters anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors and its impact on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were assigned to one of the following groups, and housed until 21 weeks old; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), housed in a running wheel cage; and (3) exercise-no exercise (Ex-noEx), housed in a running wheel cage for 8 weeks and subsequently in a standard cage. Behavioral evaluations suggested that Ex-noEx mice were more anxious compared to noEx control mice, but no differences were found in depression-like behavior. The number of BrdU-labeled surviving cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly higher in Ex but not in Ex-noEx compared with noEx, indicating that the facilitative effects of exercise on cell survival are reversible. Surprisingly, the ratio of differentiation of BrdU-positive cells to doublecortin-positive immature neurons was significantly lower in Ex-noEx compared to the other groups, suggesting that the cessation of wheel running impairs an important component of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. These results indicate that hippocampal adaptation to physical inactivity is not simply a return to the conditions present in sedentary mice. As the impaired neurogenesis is predicted to increase a vulnerability to stress-induced mood disorders, the reduction of physical activity may contribute to a greater risk of these disorders.

  13. Effects of wheel running on photoperiodic responses of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Scherbarth, Frank; Petri, Ines; Steinlechner, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to artificial short days either with access to a running wheel (RW) or without. Within 6 weeks RW hamsters considerably increased their body mass, whereas controls showed the typical body mass reduction. Estimation of paired testis weights indicated a decelerated testis regression in RW hamsters. Subsequent locking of RWs for 9 weeks led to a decline in body mass of RW animals in parallel to controls. Daily torpor was almost completely missing in hamsters with initially unlocked wheels. During the final phase when RWs were again unlocked (3 weeks), body mass of exercising hamsters increased again, while controls reached the nadir in body mass. In comparison to equiponderate long-day (LD) controls the relative liver weight of RW hamsters was significantly increased unlike the relative heart weight. However, the latter tended to be higher than in sedentary LD hamsters. A growth-stimulating effect of wheel running was proven by elongated femora in exercising short-day (SD) hamsters compared to SD controls and suggested by exercise-induced elevation of body mass in a further experiment under continuous LD conditions, indicating a growth-promoting effect of wheel running independent from the photoperiod.

  14. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group.

  15. Running wheel exercise enhances recovery from nigrostriatal dopamine injury without inducing neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, S J; Gross, N B; Fricks, A N; Casiano, B D; Nguyen, T B; Marshall, J F

    2007-02-01

    Forced use of the forelimb contralateral to a unilateral injection of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine can promote recovery of motor function in that limb and can significantly decrease damage to dopamine terminals. The present study was conducted to determine (1) whether a form of voluntary exercise, wheel running, would improve motor performance in rats with such lesions, and (2) whether any beneficial effects of wheel running are attributable to ameliorating the dopaminergic damage. In experiment 1, rats were allowed to run in exercise wheels or kept in home cages for 2 1/2 weeks, then given stereotaxic infusions of 6-hydroxydopamine into the left striatum. The rats were replaced into their original environments (wheels or home cages) for four additional weeks, and asymmetries in forelimb use were quantified at 3, 10, 17, and 24 days postoperatively. After killing, dopaminergic damage was assessed by both quantifying 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125)I]RTI-55) binding to striatal dopamine transporters and counting tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in the substantia nigra. Exercised 6-hydroxydopamine-infused rats showed improved motor outcomes relative to sedentary lesioned controls, effects that were most apparent at postoperative days 17 and 24. Despite this behavioral improvement, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of striatal dopamine transporters and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral cells in exercised and sedentary groups did not differ. Since prior studies suggested that forced limb use improves motor performance by sparing nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine damage, experiment 2 used a combined regimen of forced plus voluntary wheel running. Again, we found that the motor performance of exercised rats improved more rapidly than that of sedentary controls, but that there were no differences between these groups in the damage produced by 6-hydroxydopamine. It appears that voluntary

  16. Injuries among wheeled shoe users: A comparison with other nonmotorized wheeled activities

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Siddharth; Tram, Janna; Hagel, Brent E; Kyle, Tania; Senger, Trudi; Belanger, Francois

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nonmotorized wheeled activities are popular among children. However, these activities can result in significant injury if effective injury prevention measures are not taken. Recently, nonmotorized wheeled shoes have become increasingly popular among children. Preliminary research shows that these activities also result in significant injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the injury profiles of nonmotorized wheeled activities among Canadian children presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: A two-year retrospective study was conducted using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database, specific to the Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta. Data were analyzed using cross tabulations of the type and nature of injury, helmet use, age and sex, with type of nonmotorized wheeled activity. RESULTS: The most common mechanism of injury for a nonmotorized wheeled activity was bicycling (66.9%), while wheeled shoe use produced the fewest injuries (2.7%). The upper extremity was the most frequently injured body region in all groups, comprising more than 75% of the injuries in wheeled shoe users and approximately 50% of the injuries in participants of other nonmotorized wheeled activities. Forearm fractures were the most common type of injury. Wheeled shoe users had the greatest proportion of forearm fractures. Helmet use was most prevalent in bicyclists (84.6%) and least prevalent in wheeled shoe users (4.7%). DISCUSSION: Nonmotorized wheeled activities can result in significant morbidity. Results from the present study suggest that wheeled shoe and push scooter activities can result in upper extremity injuries. Protective equipment, particularly wrist guards and helmets, should be used when participating in these activities. PMID:20885801

  17. Voluntary Wheel Running Does not Affect Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Young Adult and Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Stephen A.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes prolonged depressive-like behavior in aged mice that is dependent on indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activation. Regular moderate intensity exercise training has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects that might reduce depressive-like behavior in aged mice. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running would attenuate LPS-induced depressive-like behavior and brain IDO gene expression in 4-month-old and 22-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Mice were housed with a running wheel (Voluntary Wheel Running, VWR) or no wheel (Standard) for 30 days (young adult mice) or 70 days (aged mice), after which they were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (young adult mice: 0.83 mg/kg; aged mice: 0.33 mg/kg). Young adult VWR mice ran on average 6.9 km/day, while aged VWR mice ran on average 3.4 km/day. Both young adult and aged VWR mice increased their forced exercise tolerance compared to their respective Standard control groups. VWR had no effect on LPS-induced anorexia, weight-loss, increased immobility in the tail suspension test, and decreased sucrose preference in either young adult or aged mice. Four (young adult mice) and twenty-four (aged mice) hours after injection of LPS transcripts for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IDO were upregulated in the whole brain independently of VWR. These results indicate that prolonged physical exercise has no effect on the neuroinflammatory response to LPS and its behavioral consequences. PMID:24281669

  18. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise. PMID:27124542

  19. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  20. Running wheel exercise ameliorates methamphetamine-induced damage to dopamine and serotonin terminals.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Steven J; Galvez, Bryan A; Ball, Alexander J; Marshall, John F

    2012-01-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (mAMPH) to rodents in a single-day "binge" produces long-lasting damage to dopaminergic and serotonergic terminals. Because previous research has demonstrated that physical activity can ameliorate nigrostriatal injury, this study investigated whether voluntary exercise in rats can alter the monoaminergic damage resulting from a neurotoxic mAMPH binge. Adult male rats were allowed constant access to running wheels or kept in nonwheel cages for three weeks, then given a binge dosing regimen of mAMPH or saline. The rats were returned to their original environments for three additional weeks post-mAMPH. [(125) I]RTI-55 binding and autoradiography was used to quantify dopamine transporters (DAT), and radioimmunocytochemistry was used to quantify striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Binge mAMPH treatment significantly reduced striatal DAT and TH in a regionally specific pattern; with greatest effects in ventral caudate-putamen (CP) and relative sparing of the nucleus accumbens septi (NAc). The effects of mAMPH on striatal DAT and TH were ameliorated in the running, compared to the sedentary, animals. Also, mAMPH was found to reduce [(125) I]RTI-55 binding to serotonin transporters (SERT) in frontoparietal cortex, and this too was significantly attenuated by exercise. Additional correlational analyses showed that the post-mAMPH running of individual animals predicted the amelioration of striatal DAT and TH as well as frontoparietal SERT. Overall, voluntary exercise significantly diminished mAMPH-induced forebrain monoaminergic damage. The significant correlations between post-mAMPH exercise and markers of monoaminergic terminal integrity provide novel evidence that voluntary exercise may exert beneficial effects on behavior in recovering mAMPH addicts.

  1. Hypothalamic neuropeptide expression following chronic food restriction in sedentary and wheel-running rats.

    PubMed

    de Rijke, C E; Hillebrand, J J G; Verhagen, L A W; Roeling, T A P; Adan, R A H

    2005-10-01

    When rats are given access to a running-wheel in combination with food restriction, they will become hyperactive and decrease their food intake, a paradoxical phenomenon known as activity-based anorexia (ABA). Little is known about the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance during the development of ABA. Therefore, rats were killed during the development of ABA, before they entered a state of severe starvation. Neuropeptide mRNA expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR on punches of separate hypothalamic nuclei. As is expected in a state of negative energy balance, expression levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were increased 5-fold in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of food-restricted running ABA rats vs 2-fold in sedentary food-restricted controls. The co-regulated expression of AgRP and NPY strongly correlated with relative body weight and white adipose tissue mass. Arcuate expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was reduced 2-fold in the ABA group. In second-order neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) mRNA expression was upregulated 2-fold in food-restricted running rats, but not in food-restricted sedentary controls. Prepro-orexin, CART and corticotropin-releasing hormone expression levels in the LHA and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were unchanged in both food-restricted groups. From this study it was concluded that during the development of ABA, neuropeptides in first-order neurons in the ARC and MCH in the LHA are regulated in an adequate response to negative energy balance, whereas expression levels of the other studied neuropeptides in secondary neurons of the LHA and PVN are unchanged and are probably regulated by factors other than energy status alone.

  2. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jónás, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and “information gathering” in the open-field test, either with increased upright positions or horizontal locomotion toward the middle ring. Furthermore, one of the selection lines had an increased risk-taking behavior relative to the control line in approaching a novel object placed in the center of the open field. However, anxiety behavior was increased in selection lines during the plus-maze test. Maze learning was not statistically different among lines, but routine behavior was increased in both selection lines when the maze exit after 2 days of testing was displaced. Specifically, in the displaced maze, selected mice traveled more frequently to the old, habituated exit, bypassing the new exit attached to their home cage. Although the generality of the results would need to be confirmed in future studies including all eight lines in the selection experiment, the increased routine and exploratory behavior (at least in the lines used in the present study) may be adaptive to sustain high activity levels. PMID:20369280

  3. Effects of energy restriction and wheel running on mammary carcinogenesis and host systemic factors in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; Zacher, Jarrod H; Neil, Elizabeth S; McGinley, John N; Thompson, Henry J

    2012-03-01

    Limiting energy availability via diet or physical activity has health benefits; however, it is not known whether these interventions have similar effects on the development of cancer. Two questions were addressed as follows: (i) Does limiting energy availability by increasing physical activity have the same effect on mammary carcinogenesis as limiting caloric intake? and (ii) Are host systemic factors, implicated as risk biomarkers for breast cancer, similarly affected by these interventions? Female Sprague Dawley rats were injected with 50-mg 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea per kg body weight at 21 days of age and randomized to one of five groups (30 rats per group) as follows: (i) sham running wheel control; (ii) restricted fed to 85% of the sham control; (iii and iv) voluntary running in a motorized activity wheel (37 m/min) to a maximum of 3,500 m/d or 1,750 m/d; and (v) sedentary ad libitum fed control with no access to a running wheel. The three energetics interventions inhibited the carcinogenic response, reducing cancer incidence (P = 0.01), cancer multiplicity (P < 0.001), and cancer burden (P < 0.001) whereas prolonging cancer latency (P = 0.004) although differences among energetics interventions were not significant. Of the plasma biomarkers associated with the development of cancer, the energetics interventions reduced bioavailable insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, interleukin-6, serum amyloid protein, TNF-α, and leptin and increased IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and adiponectin. Plasma-fasting glucose, C-reactive protein, estradiol, and progesterone were unaffected. The plasma biomarkers of greatest value in predicting the carcinogenic response were adiponectin > IGF-1/IGFBP-3 > IGFBP-3 > leptin > IGF-1.

  4. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Alexander J; Aparicio, Mark B; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Yuan, Clara J; Grant, Yanabel; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake.

  5. Forces and mechanical energy fluctuations during diagonal stride roller skiing; running on wheels?

    PubMed

    Kehler, Alyse L; Hajkova, Eliska; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Kram, Rodger

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical energy can be conserved during terrestrial locomotion in two ways: the inverted pendulum mechanism for walking and the spring-mass mechanism for running. Here, we investigated whether diagonal stride cross-country roller skiing (DIA) utilizes similar mechanisms. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that running and DIA would share similar phase relationships and magnitudes of kinetic energy (KE), and gravitational potential energy (GPE) fluctuations, indicating elastic energy storage and return, as if roller skiing is like 'running on wheels'. Experienced skiers (N=9) walked and ran at 1.25 and 3 m s(-1), respectively, and roller skied with DIA at both speeds on a level dual-belt treadmill that recorded perpendicular and parallel forces. We calculated the KE and GPE of the center of mass from the force recordings. As expected, the KE and GPE fluctuated with an out-of-phase pattern during walking and an in-phase pattern during running. Unlike walking, during DIA, the KE and GPE fluctuations were in phase, as they are in running. However, during the glide phase, KE was dissipated as frictional heat and could not be stored elastically in the tendons, as in running. Elastic energy storage and return epitomize running and thus we reject our hypothesis. Diagonal stride cross-country skiing is a biomechanically unique movement that only superficially resembles walking or running.

  6. Techniques for establishing schedules with wheel running as reinforcement in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, I H

    1993-01-01

    In three experiments, access to wheel running was contingent on lever pressing. In each experiment, the duration of access to running was reduced gradually to 4, 5, or 6 s, and the schedule parameters were expanded gradually. The sessions lasted 2 hr. In Experiment 1, a fixed-ratio 20 schedule controlled a typical break-and-run pattern of lever pressing that was maintained throughout the session for 3 rats. In Experiment 2, a fixed-interval schedule of 6 min maintained lever pressing throughout the session for 3 rats, and for 1 rat, the rate of lever pressing was positively accelerated between reinforcements. In Experiment 3, a variable-ratio schedule of 20 or 35 was in effect and maintained lever pressing at a very stable pace throughout the session for 2 of 3 rats; for 1 rat, lever pressing was maintained at an irregular rate. When the session duration was extended to successive 24-hr periods, with food and water accessible in Experiment 3, lever pressing settled into a periodic pattern occurring at a high rate at approximately the same time each day. In each experiment, the rats that developed the highest local rates of running during wheel access also maintained the most stable and highest rates of lever pressing. PMID:8354968

  7. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Darlington, T M; McCarthy, R D; Cox, R J; Miyamoto-Ditmon, J; Gallego, X; Ehringer, M A

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic substitution, where wheel running reduces voluntary ethanol consumption, has been observed in prior studies. Here, we replicate and expand on previous work showing that mice decrease voluntary ethanol consumption and preference when given access to a running wheel. While earlier work has been limited mainly to behavioral studies, here we assess the underlying molecular mechanisms that may account for this interaction. From four groups of female C57BL/6J mice (control, access to two-bottle choice ethanol, access to a running wheel, and access to both two-bottle choice ethanol and a running wheel), mRNA-sequencing of the striatum identified differential gene expression. Many genes in ethanol preference quantitative trait loci were differentially expressed due to running. Furthermore, we conducted Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and identified gene networks corresponding to each effect behavioral group. Candidate genes for mediating the behavioral interaction between ethanol consumption and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5 and Camta2. After observing an overlap of many genes and functional groups previously identified in studies of initial sensitivity to ethanol, we hypothesized that wheel running may induce a change in sensitivity, thereby affecting ethanol consumption. A behavioral study examining Loss of Righting Reflex to ethanol following exercise trended toward supporting this hypothesis. These data provide a rich resource for future studies that may better characterize the observed transcriptional changes in gene networks in response to ethanol consumption and wheel running. PMID:27063791

  8. Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Darlington, T M; McCarthy, R D; Cox, R J; Miyamoto-Ditmon, J; Gallego, X; Ehringer, M A

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic substitution, where wheel running reduces voluntary ethanol consumption, has been observed in prior studies. Here, we replicate and expand on previous work showing that mice decrease voluntary ethanol consumption and preference when given access to a running wheel. While earlier work has been limited mainly to behavioral studies, here we assess the underlying molecular mechanisms that may account for this interaction. From four groups of female C57BL/6J mice (control, access to two-bottle choice ethanol, access to a running wheel, and access to both two-bottle choice ethanol and a running wheel), mRNA-sequencing of the striatum identified differential gene expression. Many genes in ethanol preference quantitative trait loci were differentially expressed due to running. Furthermore, we conducted Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and identified gene networks corresponding to each effect behavioral group. Candidate genes for mediating the behavioral interaction between ethanol consumption and wheel running include multiple potassium channel genes, Oprm1, Prkcg, Stxbp1, Crhr1, Gabra3, Slc6a13, Stx1b, Pomc, Rassf5 and Camta2. After observing an overlap of many genes and functional groups previously identified in studies of initial sensitivity to ethanol, we hypothesized that wheel running may induce a change in sensitivity, thereby affecting ethanol consumption. A behavioral study examining Loss of Righting Reflex to ethanol following exercise trended toward supporting this hypothesis. These data provide a rich resource for future studies that may better characterize the observed transcriptional changes in gene networks in response to ethanol consumption and wheel running.

  9. Wnt protein-mediated satellite cell conversion in adult and aged mice following voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Hidaka, Ryo; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2014-03-14

    Muscle represents an abundant, accessible, and replenishable source of adult stem cells. Skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, called satellite cells, play essential roles in regeneration after muscle injury in adult skeletal muscle. Although the molecular mechanism of muscle regeneration process after an injury has been extensively investigated, the regulation of satellite cells under steady state during the adult stage, including the reaction to exercise stimuli, is relatively unknown. Here, we show that voluntary wheel running exercise, which is a low stress exercise, converts satellite cells to the activated state due to accelerated Wnt signaling. Our analysis showed that up-regulated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling directly modulated chromatin structures of both MyoD and Myf5 genes, resulting in increases in the mRNA expression of Myf5 and MyoD and the number of proliferative Pax7(+)Myf5(+) and Pax7(+) MyoD(+) cells in skeletal muscle. The effect of Wnt signaling on the activation of satellite cells, rather than Wnt-mediated fibrosis, was observed in both adult and aged mice. The association of β-catenin, T-cell factor, and lymphoid enhancer transcription factors of multiple T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor regulatory elements, conserved in mouse, rat, and human species, with the promoters of both the Myf5 and MyoD genes drives the de novo myogenesis in satellite cells even in aged muscle. These results indicate that exercise-stimulated extracellular Wnts play a critical role in the regulation of satellite cells in adult and aged skeletal muscle.

  10. Wheel running exercise attenuates vulnerability to self-administer nicotine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Victoria; Lycas, Matthew D; Lynch, Wendy J; Brunzell, Darlene H

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing or postponing tobacco use initiation could greatly reduce the number of tobacco-related deaths. While evidence suggests that exercise is a promising treatment for tobacco addiction, it is not clear whether exercise could prevent initial vulnerability to tobacco use. Thus, using an animal model, we examined whether exercise attenuates vulnerability to the use and reinforcing effects of nicotine, the primary addictive chemical in tobacco. Methods Initial vulnerability was assessed using an acquisition procedure wherein exercising (unlocked running wheel, n = 10) and sedentary (locked or no wheel, n = 12) male adolescent rats had access to nicotine infusions (0.01-mg/kg) during daily 21.5-hr sessions beginning on postnatal day 30. Exercise/sedentary sessions (2-hr/day) were conducted prior to each of the acquisition sessions. The effects of exercise on nicotine’s reinforcing effects were further assessed in separate groups of exercising (unlocked wheel, n = 7) and sedentary (no wheel, n = 5) rats responding for nicotine under a progressive-ratio schedule with exercise/sedentary sessions (2-hr/day) conducted before the daily progressive-ratio sessions. Results While high rates of acquisition of nicotine self-administration were observed among both groups of sedentary controls, acquisition was robustly attenuated in the exercise group with only 20% of exercising rats meeting the acquisition criterion within the 16-day testing period as compared to 67% of the sedentary controls. Exercise also decreased progressive-ratio responding for nicotine as compared to baseline and to sedentary controls. Conclusions Exercise may effectively prevent the initiation of nicotine use in adolescents by reducing the reinforcing effects of nicotine. PMID:26433561

  11. Corticosterone and dopamine D2/D3 receptors mediate the motivation for voluntary wheel running in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Mohamed Elsaed; Kendall, David A; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-09-15

    Physical exercise can improve cognition but whether this is related to motivation levels is unknown. Voluntary wheel running is a rewarding activity proposed as a model of motivation to exercise. To question the potential effects of exercise motivation on subsequent behaviour, we used a pharmacological approach targeting some reward mechanisms. The stress hormone corticosterone has rewarding effects mediated by activation of low affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GR). To investigate whether corticosterone synthesis motivates exercise via activation of GRs and subsequently, impacts on behaviour, we treated C57BL/6J mice acutely with the inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis metyrapone (35mg/kg) or repeatedly with the GR antagonist mifepristone (30mg/kg) prior to 1-h running wheel sessions. To investigate whether reducing motivation to exercise impacts on behaviour, we antagonised running-induced dopamine D2/D3 receptors activation with sulpiride (25 or 50mg/kg) and assessed locomotor, anxiety-related and memory performance after 20 running sessions over 4 weeks. We found that corticosterone synthesis contributes to running levels, but the maintenance of running behaviour was not mediated by activation of GRs. Intermittent exercise was not associated with changes in behavioural or cognitive performance. The persistent reduction in exercise levels triggered by sulpiride also had limited impact on behavioural performance, although the level of performance for some behaviours was related to the level of exercise. Altogether, these findings indicate that corticosterone and dopamine D2/D3 receptor activation contribute to the motivation for wheel running, but suggest that motivation for exercise is not a sufficient factor to alter behaviour in healthy mice. PMID:27233827

  12. Corticosterone and dopamine D2/D3 receptors mediate the motivation for voluntary wheel running in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Mohamed Elsaed; Kendall, David A; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-09-15

    Physical exercise can improve cognition but whether this is related to motivation levels is unknown. Voluntary wheel running is a rewarding activity proposed as a model of motivation to exercise. To question the potential effects of exercise motivation on subsequent behaviour, we used a pharmacological approach targeting some reward mechanisms. The stress hormone corticosterone has rewarding effects mediated by activation of low affinity glucocorticoid receptors (GR). To investigate whether corticosterone synthesis motivates exercise via activation of GRs and subsequently, impacts on behaviour, we treated C57BL/6J mice acutely with the inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis metyrapone (35mg/kg) or repeatedly with the GR antagonist mifepristone (30mg/kg) prior to 1-h running wheel sessions. To investigate whether reducing motivation to exercise impacts on behaviour, we antagonised running-induced dopamine D2/D3 receptors activation with sulpiride (25 or 50mg/kg) and assessed locomotor, anxiety-related and memory performance after 20 running sessions over 4 weeks. We found that corticosterone synthesis contributes to running levels, but the maintenance of running behaviour was not mediated by activation of GRs. Intermittent exercise was not associated with changes in behavioural or cognitive performance. The persistent reduction in exercise levels triggered by sulpiride also had limited impact on behavioural performance, although the level of performance for some behaviours was related to the level of exercise. Altogether, these findings indicate that corticosterone and dopamine D2/D3 receptor activation contribute to the motivation for wheel running, but suggest that motivation for exercise is not a sufficient factor to alter behaviour in healthy mice.

  13. Disruption of running activity rhythm following restricted feeding in female mice: Preventive effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Kazumi; Araki, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Biological rhythms are critical in the etiology of mood disorders; therefore, effective mood disorder treatments should address rhythm disturbances. Among the variables synchronized with the light-dark cycle, spontaneous activity in rodents is useful for investigating circadian rhythms. However, previous studies have focused only on the increase of wheel-running activity under restricted feeding conditions, while little information is available on circadian rhythm of running activity. In this study, chronometrical analysis was used to assess whether circadian rhythms during wheel-running are altered by restricted feeding and affected by antidepressant drugs. Wheel revolutions were automatically recorded and analyzed using cosinor-rhythmometry in 8-week old ICR albino mice. When feeding was restricted to 1 h per day (21:00-22:00), wheel-running rhythms were reliably disrupted. Female mice exhibited marked alterations in the pattern and extent of wheel-running beginning on day 1. Subchronic treatment with imipramine or paroxetine, as well as tandospirone and (-)-DOI, prevented wheel-running rhythm disruption. Thus, altering the circadian activity rhythms of female mice on a 1-h feeding schedule may be useful for investigating disturbances in biological rhythms.

  14. Voluntary wheel running in mice increases the rate of neurogenesis without affecting anxiety-related behaviour in single tests

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role played by adult neurogenesis in anxiety is not clear. A recent study revealed a surprising positive correlation between increased anxiety and elevated neurogenesis following chronic voluntary wheel running and multiple behavioural testing in mice, suggesting that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in the genesis of anxiety. To exclude the possible confounding effect of multiple testing that may have occurred in the aforementioned study, we assessed (1) the effects of mouse voluntary wheel running (14 vs. 28 days) on anxiety in just one behavioural test; the open field, and (2), using different markers, proliferation, differentiation, survival and maturation of newly born neurons in the dentate gyrus immediately afterwards. Effects of wheel running on anxiety-related behaviour were confirmed in a separate batch of animals tested in another test of anxiety, the light/dark box test. Results Running altered measures of locomotion and exploration, but not anxiety-related behaviour in either test. 14 days running significantly increased proliferation, and differentiation and survival were increased after both running durations. 28 day running mice also exhibited an increased rate of maturation. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the amount of proliferation, but not maturation, and anxiety measures in the open field of the 28 day running mice. Conclusions Overall, this evidence suggests that without repeated testing, newly born mature neurons may not be involved in the genesis of anxiety per se. PMID:22682077

  15. Wheel running can accelerate or delay extinction of conditioned place preference for cocaine in male C57BL/6J mice, depending on timing of wheel access.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, Martina L; Stobaugh, Derrick J; Miller, Daniel S; DeYoung, Erin K; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-10-01

    Aerobic exercise may represent a useful intervention for drug abuse in predisposed individuals. Exercise increases plasticity in the brain that could be used to reverse learned drug associations. Previous studies have reported that exposing mice to a complex environment including running wheels after drug conditioning abolishes conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine, whereas running can enhance CPP when administered before conditioning. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that timing of exercise relative to conditioning has opposing effects on cocaine CPP. Male C57BL/6J mice experienced 30 days of running or sedentary treatments either before or after cocaine conditioning. Control animals always received saline and never cocaine, but otherwise underwent the same conditioning and exercise treatments. Animals were given bromodeoxyuridine injections at the onset of conditioning or exercise, and euthanized at the end of the study to quantify survival of new neurons in the hippocampus as a marker of plasticity. Wheel running accelerated extinction of CPP when running occurred entirely after drug conditioning, whereas running delayed extinction when administered before conditioning. A single conditioning day after running was sufficient to abolish the accelerated extinction observed when all conditioning preceded running. Running approximately doubled adult hippocampal neurogenesis, whereas cocaine had no effect. These results suggest that exercise-induced plasticity can facilitate learning that context is no longer associated with drug. However, if drug exposure occurs after exercise, running-induced plasticity may strengthen drug associations. The results provide insights into the interaction between exercise and drug conditioning that could have implications for drug abuse treatments.

  16. Life-Long Wheel Running Attenuates Age-Related Fiber Loss in the Plantaris Muscle of Mice: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Suwa, M; Ishioka, T; Kato, J; Komaita, J; Imoto, T; Kida, A; Yokochi, T

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether long-term wheel running would attenuate age-related loss of muscle fiber. Male ICR mice were divided into young (Y, n=12, aged 3 months), old-sedentary (OS, n=5, aged 24 months), and old-exercise (OE, n=6, aged 24 months) groups. The OE group started spontaneous wheel running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Soleus and plantaris muscles were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde buffer. The fixed muscle was digested in a 50% NaOH solution to isolate single fiber and then fiber number was quantified. The masses of the soleus and plantaris muscles were significantly lower at 24 months than at 3 months of age, and this age-related difference was attenuated by wheel running (P<0.05). Soleus muscle fiber number did not differ among the groups. In the plantaris muscle, the fiber number in the OS group (1 288±92 fibers) was significantly lower than in the Y group (1 874±93 fibers), and this decrease was attenuated in the OE group (1 591±80 fibers) (P<0.05). These results suggest that age-related fiber loss occurs only in the fast-twitch fiber-rich muscle of mice, and that life-long wheel running exercise can prevent this fiber loss.

  17. Exclusive Preference Develops Less Readily on Concurrent Ratio Schedules with Wheel-Running than with Sucrose Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested that allocation of responses on concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement was less sensitive to schedule differences than typically observed with more conventional reinforcers. To assess this possibility, 16 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent FR FR schedules of reinforcement and the schedule…

  18. Interrelationship of CB1R and OBR pathways in regulation of metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to food restriction and voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Vine, Donna F; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Pierce, W David; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-07-15

    We hypothesized the cannabinoid-1 receptor and leptin receptor (ObR) operate synergistically to modulate metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses of animals exposed to a survival challenge (food restriction and wheel running). Obese-prone (OP) JCR:LA-cp rats, lacking functional ObR, and lean-prone (LP) JCR:LA-cp rats (intact ObR) were assigned to OP-C and LP-C (control) or CBR1-antagonized (SR141716, 10 mg/kg body wt in food) OP-A and LP-A groups. After 32 days, all rats were exposed to 1.5-h daily meals without the drug and 22.5-h voluntary wheel running, a survival challenge that normally culminates in activity-based anorexia (ABA). Rats were removed from the ABA protocol when body weight reached 75% of entry weight (starvation criterion) or after 14 days (survival criterion). LP-A rats starved faster (6.44 ± 0.24 days) than LP-C animals (8.00 ± 0.29 days); all OP rats survived the ABA challenge. LP-A rats lost weight faster than animals in all other groups (P < 0.001). Consistent with the starvation results, LP-A rats increased the rate of wheel running more rapidly than LP-C rats (P = 0.001), with no difference in hypothalamic and primary neural reward serotonin levels. In contrast, OP-A rats showed suppression of wheel running compared with the OP-C group (days 6-14 of ABA challenge, P < 0.001) and decreased hypothalamic and neural reward serotonin levels (P < 0.01). Thus there is an interrelationship between cannabinoid-1 receptor and ObR pathways in regulation of energy balance and physical activity. Effective clinical measures to prevent and treat a variety of disorders will require understanding of the mechanisms underlying these effects.

  19. Spontaneous Wheel Running Exercise Induces Brain Recovery via Neurotrophin-3 Expression Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun Mo; Lee, Sun Min; Kim, Min Hee

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) after applying spontaneous wheel running exercises (SWR) after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; 20 rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact for TBI, and then, animals were randomly collected from the SWR group and subjected to wheel running exercise for 3 weeks. Ten rats were not subjected to any injury or running exercise to compare with the effect of TBI and SWR. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, skilled ladder rung walking test, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining analysis for the evaluation of NT-3 expression were used to assess brain damage and recovery. [Results] The TBI-induced decrease in NT-3 expression was recovered by wheel running exercise. Moreover, decreased ischemic volume and progressive neurobehavioral outcome were observed in the SWR group. [Conclusion] Spontaneous running exercise promotes brain recovery and motor function through an increase in expression of NT-3. PMID:24259924

  20. Effect of sucrose availability on wheel-running as an operant and as a reinforcing consequence on a multiple schedule: Additive effects of extrinsic and automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2015-07-01

    As a follow up to Belke and Pierce's (2014) study, we assessed the effects of repeated presentation and removal of sucrose solution on the behavior of rats responding on a two-component multiple schedule. Rats completed 15 wheel turns (FR 15) for either 15% or 0% sucrose solution in the manipulated component and lever pressed 10 times on average (VR 10) for an opportunity to complete 15 wheel turns (FR 15) in the other component. In contrast to our earlier study, the components advanced based on time (every 8min) rather than completed responses. Results showed that in the manipulated component wheel-running rates were higher and the latency to initiate running longer when sucrose was present (15%) compared to absent (0% or water); the number of obtained outcomes (sucrose/water), however, did not differ with the presentation and withdrawal of sucrose. For the wheel-running as reinforcement component, rates of wheel turns, overall lever-pressing rates, and obtained wheel-running reinforcements were higher, and postreinforcement pauses shorter, when sucrose was present (15%) than absent (0%) in manipulated component. Overall, our findings suggest that wheel-running rate regardless of its function (operant or reinforcement) is maintained by automatically generated consequences (automatic reinforcement) and is increased as an operant by adding experimentally arranged sucrose reinforcement (extrinsic reinforcement). This additive effect on operant wheel-running generalizes through induction or arousal to the wheel-running as reinforcement component, increasing the rate of responding for opportunities to run and the rate of wheel-running per opportunity.

  1. Effects of running wheel training on adult obese rats programmed by maternal prolactin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boaventura, G; Casimiro-Lopes, G; Pazos-Moura, C C; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

    2013-10-01

    The inhibition of maternal prolactin production in late lactation leads to metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring. Physical training is a therapeutic strategy that could prevent or reverse this condition. We evaluated the effects of a short-duration low-intensity running wheel training program on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in rats. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (Bro, 1 mg twice a day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation, and the training of offspring began at 35 days of age. Offspring were divided into sedentary and trained controls (C-Sed and C-Ex) and sedentary and trained Bro-treated rats (Bro-Sed and Bro-Ex). Chronic exercise delayed the onset of weight gain in Bro-Ex offspring, and the food intake did not change during the experimental period. At 180 days, visceral fat mass was higher (+46%) in the Bro-Sed offspring than in C-Sed and Bro-Ex rats. As expected, running capacity was higher in trained animals. Most parameters observed in the Bro-Sed offspring were consistent with hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome and were reversed in the Bro-Ex group. Chronic exercise did not influence the muscle glycogen in the C-Ex group; however, liver glycogen was higher (+30%) in C-Ex group and was unchanged in both Bro offspring groups. Bro-Ex animals had higher plasma lactate dehydrogenase levels, indicating skeletal muscle damage and intolerance of the training program. Low-intensity chronic training is able to normalize many clinical aspects in Bro animals; however, these animals might have had a lower threshold for exercise adaptation than the control rats. PMID:23863192

  2. Altered fibre types in gastrocnemius muscle of high wheel-running selected mice with mini-muscle phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Joanisse, Denis R; Mokas, Sophie; Bilodeau, Geneviève M; Garland, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    Selective breeding of mice for high voluntary wheel running has favoured characteristics that facilitate sustained, aerobically supported activity, including a "mini-muscle" phenotype with markedly reduced hind limb muscle mass, increased mass-specific activities of oxidative enzymes, decreased % myosin heavy chain IIb, and, in the medial gastrocnemius, reduced twitch speed, reduced mass-specific isotonic power, and increased fatigue resistance. To evaluate whether selection has altered fibre type expression in mice with either "mini" or normal muscle phenotypes, we examined fibre types of red and white gastrocnemius. In both the medial and lateral gastrocnemius, the mini-phenotype increased activities of oxidative enzymes and decreased activities of glycolytic enzymes. In red muscle samples, the mini-phenotype markedly changed fibre types, with the % type I and type IIA fibres and the surface area of type IIA fibres increasing; in addition, mice from selected lines in general had an increased % type IIA fibres and larger type I fibres as compared with mice from control lines. White muscle samples from mini-mice showed dramatic structural alterations, with an atypical distribution of extremely small, unidentifiable fibres surrounded by larger, more oxidative fibres than normally present in white muscle. The increased proportion of oxidative fibres and these atypical small fibres together may explain the reduced mass and increased mitochondrial enzyme activities in mini-muscles. These and previous results demonstrate that extension of selective breeding beyond the time when the response of the selected trait (i.e. distance run) has levelled off can still modify the mechanistic underpinnings of this behaviour. PMID:18226573

  3. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS-21680, blocks excessive rearing, acquisition of wheel running, and increases nucleus accumbens CREB phosphorylation in chronically food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Cabeza de Vaca, Soledad; Kannan, Pavitra; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Nancy; Sun, Yanjie; Carr, Kenneth D

    2007-04-20

    Adenosine A(2A) receptors are preferentially expressed in rat striatum, where they are concentrated in dendritic spines of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons and exist in a heteromeric complex with D(2) dopamine (DA) receptors. Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate an antagonistic relationship between A(2A) and D(2) receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated that food-restricted (FR) rats display behavioral and striatal cellular hypersensitivity to D(1) and D(2) DA receptor stimulation. These alterations may underlie adaptive, as well as maladaptive, behaviors characteristic of the FR rat. The present study examined whether FR rats are hypersensitive to the A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS-21680. In Experiment 1, spontaneous horizontal motor activity did not differ between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats, while vertical activity was greater in the former. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CGS-21680 (0.25 and 1.0 nmol) decreased both types of motor activity in FR rats, and returned vertical activity levels to those observed in AL rats. In Experiment 2, FR rats given access to a running wheel for a brief period outside of the home cage rapidly acquired wheel running while AL rats did not. Pretreatment with CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) blocked the acquisition of wheel running. When administered to FR subjects that had previously acquired wheel running, CGS-21680 suppressed the behavior. In Experiment 3, CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) activated both ERK 1/2 and CREB in caudate-putamen with no difference between feeding groups. However, in nucleus accumbens (NAc), CGS-21680 failed to activate ERK 1/2 and selectively activated CREB in FR rats. These results indicate that FR subjects are hypersensitive to several effects of an adenosine A(2A) agonist, and suggest the involvement of an upregulated A(2A) receptor-linked signaling pathway in NAc. Medications targeting the A(2A) receptor may have utility in the treatment of maladaptive behaviors associated with FR

  4. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  5. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (P<0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner, with no dose by linetype interaction. Wheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally.

  6. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (P<0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner, with no dose by linetype interaction. Wheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally. PMID:27106566

  7. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: The importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies

    PubMed Central

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research. PMID:24055600

  8. Reduced wheel running and blunted effects of voluntary exercise in LPA1-null mice: the importance of assessing the amount of running in transgenic mice studies.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J

    2013-11-01

    This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-like behavior in both genotypes but increased exploration only in the normal mice. While running affected all neurogenesis-related measures in normal mice (especially in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus), only a moderate increase in cell survival was found in the mutants. Importantly, the LPA1-nulls showed notably reduced running. Analysis suggested that defective running in the LPA1-null mice could contribute to explain the scarce benefit of the voluntary exercise treatment. On the other hand, a literature review revealed that voluntary exercise is frequently used to modulate behavior and the hippocampus in transgenic mice, but half of the studies did not assess the quantity of running, overlooking any potential running impairments. This study adds evidence to the relevance of the quantity of exercise performed, emphasizing the importance of its assessment in transgenic mice research.

  9. Effect of intraperitoneal radiotelemetry instrumentation on voluntary wheel running and surgical recovery in mice.

    PubMed

    Helwig, Bryan G; Ward, Jermaine A; Blaha, Michael D; Leon, Lisa R

    2012-01-01

    Radiotelemetry transmitters support tracking of physiologic variables in conscious animals, but the size of the transmitter may alter animal health and behavior. We hypothesized that the size of the device adversely affects body weight, food intake, water intake, circadian core temperature, activity, voluntary running patterns, and the health of internal organs and that these negative effects can be minimized with smaller transmitter devices. Male C57BL/6J mice (weight, 20 to 24 g) were implanted with small (1.1 g, 0.52 mL) or large (3.5 g, 1.75 mL) radiotransmitters. Recovery of presurgical body weight, food intake, and water intake occurred within 3 d in mice implanted with small transmitter and 9 d in those with large transmitters. Mice with small transmitters displayed robust circadian core body temperature and activity patterns within 1 d after surgery, whereas activity was depressed in mice with large transmitters throughout experimentation. The most robust effects of the large transmitter included significantly reduced voluntary running, which never recovered to baseline, and inflammation of the diaphragm, large intestine, and duodenum. These results demonstrate that the large transmitter delayed surgical recovery, disrupted normal growth, reduced voluntary running, and induced inflammatory reactions of the internal organs of mice. The choice of radiotelemetry transmitter can significantly affect the health and wellbeing of experimental mice as well as data quality, such that the smallest transmitter device available and appropriate to the situation should be chosen for experimentation. PMID:23312089

  10. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J W; Harmsen, Martin C; Garland, Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We investigated whether adult S mice without wheels remain DIO-resistant when exposed - via the mother - to the HE diet during their perinatal stage (from 2 weeks prior to conception until weaning on post-natal day 21). While S1 and S2 females subjected to HE diet either perinatally or from weaning onwards (post-weaning) resisted increased adiposity at adulthood (as opposed to CON females), they lost this resistance when challenged with HE diet during these periods combined over one single cycle of breeding. When allowed one-week access to wheels (at week 6-8 and at 10 months), however, tendency for increased wheel-running behavior of S mice was unaltered. Thus, the trait for increased wheel-running behavior remained intact following combined perinatal and post-weaning HE exposure, but apparently this did not block HE-induced weight gain. At weaning, perinatal HE diet increased adiposity in all lines, but this was only associated with hyperleptinemia in S lines irrespective of gender. Because leptin has multiple developmental effects at adolescence, we argue that a trait for increased physical activity may advance maturation in times of plenty. This would be adaptive in nature where episodes of increased nutrient availability should be exploited maximally. Associated disturbances in glucose homeostasis and related co-morbidities at adulthood are probably pleiotropic side effects.

  11. Diet-induced obesity resistance of adult female mice selectively bred for increased wheel-running behavior is reversed by single perinatal exposure to a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Stefano; Meyer, Neele; Przybyt, Ewa; Scheurink, Anton J W; Harmsen, Martin C; Garland, Theodore; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Female mice from independently bred lines previously selected over 50 generations for increased voluntary wheel-running behavior (S1, S2) resist high energy (HE) diet-induced obesity (DIO) at adulthood, even without actual access to running wheels, as opposed to randomly bred controls (CON). We investigated whether adult S mice without wheels remain DIO-resistant when exposed - via the mother - to the HE diet during their perinatal stage (from 2 weeks prior to conception until weaning on post-natal day 21). While S1 and S2 females subjected to HE diet either perinatally or from weaning onwards (post-weaning) resisted increased adiposity at adulthood (as opposed to CON females), they lost this resistance when challenged with HE diet during these periods combined over one single cycle of breeding. When allowed one-week access to wheels (at week 6-8 and at 10 months), however, tendency for increased wheel-running behavior of S mice was unaltered. Thus, the trait for increased wheel-running behavior remained intact following combined perinatal and post-weaning HE exposure, but apparently this did not block HE-induced weight gain. At weaning, perinatal HE diet increased adiposity in all lines, but this was only associated with hyperleptinemia in S lines irrespective of gender. Because leptin has multiple developmental effects at adolescence, we argue that a trait for increased physical activity may advance maturation in times of plenty. This would be adaptive in nature where episodes of increased nutrient availability should be exploited maximally. Associated disturbances in glucose homeostasis and related co-morbidities at adulthood are probably pleiotropic side effects. PMID:26850290

  12. Activity-wheel stress and serotonergic hypersensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mayeda, A R; Simon, J R; Hingtgen, J N; Hofstetter, J R; Aprison, M H

    1989-06-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to activity wheel stress: unlimited access to an activity wheel for up to twelve days and food for 30 to 60 min each day. Each treated rat was paired with a control, the latter being housed in home cages and given sufficient food to maintain a weight similar to the stressed partner. All rats were previously trained on a variable interval schedule for milk reinforcement. When the activity of the stressed rat increased rapidly then decreased suddenly, the pair was decapitated for biochemical analysis. Levels of the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, decreased by 50%, and the Bmax for ketanserin binding increased by 19% in frontal cortical homogenates from the stressed rats when compared to controls. These data support the concept that stress increases the sensitivity of central serotonin receptors. PMID:2479035

  13. [Voluntary wheel running enhances cell proliferation and expression levels of BDNF, IGF1 and WNT4 in dentate gyrus of adult mice].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-Ling; Ma, Li; Ma, Lan; Tao, Ye-Zheng

    2014-10-25

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays important roles in learning, memory and mood regulation. External factors, such as physical exercise, have been found to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Voluntary running enhances cell proliferation in subgranular zone (SGZ) and increases the number of new born neurons in rodents, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we used BrdU assay to identify proliferating cells in 2-month-old C57BL/6 mice after 15 days of voluntary wheel running test. mRNA and protein levels for several neural factors in dentate gyrus, Ammon's horn, and cortex were also analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot assay after 15 days of voluntary wheel running. Our data show that voluntary wheel running for 15 days elevated the number of proliferation cells in dentate gyrus and significantly up-regulated the mRNA levels of Bdnf, Igf1 and Wnt4. The protein levels of BDNF and IGF1 in dentate gyrus were also increased after voluntary wheel running. These results indicate that the increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis caused by voluntary wheel running for 15 days might be through up-regulating BDNF, IGF1 and WNT4 in dentate gyrus.

  14. Immune response to a Trichinella spiralis infection in house mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Schutz, Heidi; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Downs, Cynthia J; Platzer, Edward G; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-11-15

    Four lines of mice bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) have high baseline circulating corticosterone levels and increased daily energy expenditure as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. High corticosterone may suppress immune function and competing energy demands may limit ability to mount an immune response. We hypothesized that HR mice have a reduced immune response and therefore a decreased ability to fight an infection by Trichinella spiralis, an ecologically relevant nematode common in mammals. Infections have an acute, intestinal phase while the nematode is migrating, reproducing and traveling throughout the bloodstream, followed by a chronic phase with larvae encysted in muscles. Adult males (generation 55 of the selection experiment) were sham-infected or infected by oral gavage with ~300 J1 T. spiralis larvae. During the chronic phase of infection, mice were given wheel access for 6 days, followed by 2 days of maximum aerobic performance trials. Two weeks post-infection, infected HR had significantly lower circulating immunoglobulin E levels compared with infected C mice. However, we found no statistical difference between infected HR and C mice in numbers of encysted larvae within the diaphragm. As expected, both voluntary running and maximum aerobic performance were significantly higher in HR mice and lower in infected mice, with no line type-by-infection interactions. Results complement those of previous studies suggesting decreased locomotor abilities during the chronic phase of T. spiralis infection. However, despite reduced antibody production, breeding for high voluntary wheel exercise does not appear to have a substantial negative impact on general humoral function.

  15. DNA microarray‐based analysis of voluntary resistance wheel running reveals novel transcriptome leading robust hippocampal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Chul; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Inoue, Koshiro; Chang, Hyukki; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In two separate experiments, voluntary resistance wheel running with 30% of body weight (RWR), rather than wheel running (WR), led to greater enhancements, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions, in conjunction with hippocampal brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling (Lee et al., J Appl Physiol, 2012; Neurosci Lett., 2013). Here we aimed to unravel novel molecular factors and gain insight into underlying molecular mechanisms for RWR‐enhanced hippocampal functions; a high‐throughput whole‐genome DNA microarray approach was applied to rats performing voluntary running for 4 weeks. RWR rats showed a significant decrease in average running distances although average work levels increased immensely, by about 11‐fold compared to WR, resulting in muscular adaptation for the fast‐twitch plantaris muscle. Global transcriptome profiling analysis identified 128 (sedentary × WR) and 169 (sedentary × RWR) up‐regulated (>1.5‐fold change), and 97 (sedentary × WR) and 468 (sedentary × RWR) down‐regulated (<0.75‐fold change) genes. Functional categorization using both pathway‐ or specific‐disease‐state‐focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed expression pattern changes in the major categories of disease and disorders, molecular functions, and physiological system development and function. Genes specifically regulated with RWR include the newly identified factors of NFATc1, AVPR1A, and FGFR4, as well as previously known factors, BDNF and CREB mRNA. Interestingly, RWR down‐regulated multiple inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, IL2RA, and TNF) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL2, and CCR4) with the SYCP3, PRL genes, which are potentially involved in regulating hippocampal neuroplastic changes. These results provide understanding of the voluntary‐RWR‐related hippocampal transcriptome, which will open a window to the underlying mechanisms of the positive effects of exercise

  16. Evidence that the circadian system mediates photoperiodic nonresponsiveness in Siberian hamsters: the effect of running wheel access on photoperiodic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Freeman, D A; Goldman, B D

    1997-04-01

    Juvenile male Siberian hamsters from a line of hamsters selected for nonresponsiveness to short photoperiod (PNRj) and animals from the general colony (UNS) were separated at weaning into two groups. Group 1 males were moved into short days (10 h light:14 h dark [10L:14D]) with free access to running wheels (RW). Group 2 animals were the male siblings of Group 1 hamsters; they were moved at the same time into the same room, but were housed in cages without access to RW. Group 2 hamsters only had access to RW for the final week of short-day exposure (Week 8). Animals were blood sampled at the time of sacrifice for analysis of serum prolactin (PRL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. At sacrifice, paired testis weights were obtained and pelage color was scored. Animals from the UNS line showed the expected declines in testis weight, body weight, and serum concentrations of both PRL and FSH, regardless of the presence or absence of RW. These animals also exhibited a high proportion of individuals molting to winter-type pelage. By contrast, a marked difference was noted between siblings from the PNRj line depending on whether RW access was provided at the time of weaning. Animals with access to RW exhibited identical responses to those of the UNS responder animals, whereas PNRj animals without access to RW showed no adjustments to short days (i.e., testis regression, pelage molt, expansion of alpha). In a second experiment, PNRj and UNS males were placed in constant darkness (DD), with or without RW access. The results of this experiment indicated that PNRj animals respond to DD regardless of the presence or absence of RW. In DD, PNRj hamsters also exhibited significantly longer free-running period lengths (taus) than did UNS hamsters; all the PNRj hamsters had taus > 24 h, whereas none of the UNS hamsters had a tau > 24 h. These results indicate that PNRj hamsters retain the proper neural pathways for responding to short day lengths and establish a

  17. Methods to Record Circadian Rhythm Wheel Running Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siepka, Sandra M.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic approaches (phenotype to gene) are powerful methods to identify mouse circadian clock components. The success of these approaches, however, is highly dependent on the quality of the phenotype— specifically, the ability to measure circadian rhythms in individual mice. This article outlines the factors necessary to measure mouse circadian rhythms, including choice of mouse strain, facilities and equipment design and construction, experimental design, high-throughput methods, and finally methods for data analysis. PMID:15817291

  18. Portrait of an Aging Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This plot maps the increasing amounts of energy needed to spin Spirit's right front wheel drive, which has been showing signs of age. The wheel has now traveled six times farther than its design life. Since Spirit's 126th day on Mars, this wheel has required additional electric current to run at normal speeds, as indicated with blue diamonds on this graph. Efforts to improve the situation by redistributing the lubricant in the wheel with heat and rest were only mildly successful (pink squares). To cope with the condition, rover planners have come up with a creative solution: they will drive the rover backwards using five of six wheels. The sixth wheel will be activated only when the terrain demands it.

  19. High-fat diet offsets the long-lasting effects of running-wheel access on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng

    2011-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that running-wheel access normalizes the food intake and body weight of Otsuka Long-Evens Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Following 6 wk of running-wheel access beginning at 8 wk of age, the body weight of OLETF rats remains reduced, demonstrating a lasting effect on their phenotype. In contrast, access to a high-fat diet exacerbates the hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. To determine whether diet modulates the long-term effects of exercise, we examined the effects of high-fat diet on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats that had prior access to running wheels for 4 wk. We found that 4 wk of running exercise significantly decreased food intake and body weight of OLETF rats. Consistent with prior results, 4 wk of exercise also produced long-lasting effects on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats fed a regular chow. When running wheels were relocked, OLETF rats stabilized at lower levels of body weight than sedentary OLETF rats. However, access to a high-fat diet offset these effects. When OLETF rats were switched to a high-fat diet following wheel relocking, they significantly increased food intake and body weight, so that they reached levels similar to those of sedentary OLETF rats fed a high-fat diet. Gene expression determination of hypothalamic neuropeptides revealed changes that appeared to be appropriate responses to the effects of diet and running exercise. Together, these results demonstrate that high-fat diet modulates the long-lasting effects of exercise on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

  20. A five-wheel wheelchair with an active-caster drive system.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Yu; Tanaka, Aki; Wada, Masayoshi

    2013-06-01

    A novel wheelchair system with an active-caster drive mechanism is presented in this paper. A manual (hand propelled) wheelchair with an external single-wheel drive system forms a five-wheel configuration. The active-caster mechanism is applied to a drive system to motorize a manual wheelchair. Two electric motors which drive a wheel axis and a steering axis of a drive wheel independently are equipped on the active-caster. A coordinated control of the two motors enables the velocity vector on the steering shaft to direct in an arbitrary direction with an arbitrary magnitude. The generated velocity vector allows a wheelchair to go straight and/or rotate completely in a same way as a standard electric wheelchair. Namely 2DOF of the wheelchair can be controlled independently by a single drive wheel without any constraint, such as the orientation of the drive wheel which is well known as a non-holonomic constraint. In addition to the 2DOF mobility, the proposed system enables wheelchair users to change drive modes, a rear drive and a front drive. The drive wheel on the back side of the wheelchair is vertically actuated by a linear motor to change the height of the drive wheel that can vary load distribution and the number of wheels contacting to the ground. The five-wheel-contact makes the wheelchair to move as the normal mode in which the center of rotation is located at the midpoint of the main wheels. Depressing the drive wheel results in lost contacts of the main wheels from the ground in which the center of rotation is jumped at the midpoint of the front wheels, namely it performs as a front drive wheelchair. In this paper, kinematic models of the wheelchair and that with an active-caster drive system are analyzed and a control method by using a 2DOF joystick is derived. Based on the kinematic model, a prototype mechanism of the active-caster is designed and mounted on a manual wheelchair to realize the five-wheel wheelchair. In the experiments, the independent 2

  1. A five-wheel wheelchair with an active-caster drive system.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Yu; Tanaka, Aki; Wada, Masayoshi

    2013-06-01

    A novel wheelchair system with an active-caster drive mechanism is presented in this paper. A manual (hand propelled) wheelchair with an external single-wheel drive system forms a five-wheel configuration. The active-caster mechanism is applied to a drive system to motorize a manual wheelchair. Two electric motors which drive a wheel axis and a steering axis of a drive wheel independently are equipped on the active-caster. A coordinated control of the two motors enables the velocity vector on the steering shaft to direct in an arbitrary direction with an arbitrary magnitude. The generated velocity vector allows a wheelchair to go straight and/or rotate completely in a same way as a standard electric wheelchair. Namely 2DOF of the wheelchair can be controlled independently by a single drive wheel without any constraint, such as the orientation of the drive wheel which is well known as a non-holonomic constraint. In addition to the 2DOF mobility, the proposed system enables wheelchair users to change drive modes, a rear drive and a front drive. The drive wheel on the back side of the wheelchair is vertically actuated by a linear motor to change the height of the drive wheel that can vary load distribution and the number of wheels contacting to the ground. The five-wheel-contact makes the wheelchair to move as the normal mode in which the center of rotation is located at the midpoint of the main wheels. Depressing the drive wheel results in lost contacts of the main wheels from the ground in which the center of rotation is jumped at the midpoint of the front wheels, namely it performs as a front drive wheelchair. In this paper, kinematic models of the wheelchair and that with an active-caster drive system are analyzed and a control method by using a 2DOF joystick is derived. Based on the kinematic model, a prototype mechanism of the active-caster is designed and mounted on a manual wheelchair to realize the five-wheel wheelchair. In the experiments, the independent 2

  2. Running increases neurogenesis without retinoic acid receptor activation in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Elin; Perlmann, Thomas; Olson, Lars; Brené, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Both vitamin A deficiency and high doses of retinoids can result in learning and memory impairments, depression as well as decreases in cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell survival. Physical activity enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and can also exert an antidepressant effect. Here we elucidate a putative link between running, retinoid signaling, and neurogenesis in hippocampus. Adult transgenic reporter mice designed to detect ligand-activated retinoic acid receptors (RAR) or retinoid X receptors (RXR) were used to localize the distribution of activated RAR or RXR at the single-cell level in the brain. Two months of voluntary wheel-running induced an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis as indicated by an almost two-fold increase in doublecortin-immunoreactive cells. Running activity was correlated with neurogenesis. Under basal conditions a distinct pattern of RAR-activated cells was detected in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), thalamus, and cerebral cortex layers 3-4 and to a lesser extent in hippocampal pyramidal cell layers CA1-CA3. Running did not change the number of RAR-activated cells in the DG. There was no correlation between running and RAR activation or between RAR activation and neurogenesis in the DG of hippocampus. Only a few scattered activated retinoid X receptors were found in the DG under basal conditions and after wheel-running, but RXR was detected in other areas such as in the hilus region of hippocampus and in layer VI of cortex cerebri. RAR agonists affect mood in humans and reduce neurogenesis, learning and memory in animal models. In our study, long-term running increased neurogenesis but did not alter RAR ligand activation in the DG in individually housed mice. Thus, our data suggest that the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and other plasticity changes in the hippocampal formation are mediated by mechanisms that do not involve retinoid receptor activation.

  3. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  4. Mouse genetic differences in voluntary wheel running, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and learning on the multi-strain-adapted plus water maze.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Jennifer R; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-03-01

    Moderate levels of aerobic exercise broadly enhance cognition throughout the lifespan. One hypothesized contributing mechanism is increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Recently, we measured the effects of voluntary wheel running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in 12 different mouse strains, and found increased neurogenesis in all strains, ranging from 2- to 5-fold depending on the strain. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which increased neurogenesis from wheel running is associated with enhanced performance on the water maze for 5 of the 12 strains, chosen based on their levels of neurogenesis observed in the previous study (C57BL/6 J, 129S1/SvImJ, B6129SF1/J, DBA/2 J, and B6D2F1/J). Mice were housed with or without a running wheels for 30 days then tested for learning and memory on the plus water maze, adapted for multiple strains, and rotarod test of motor performance. The first 10 days, animals were injected with BrdU to label dividing cells. After behavioral testing animals were euthanized to measure adult hippocampal neurogenesis using standard methods. Levels of neurogenesis depended on strain but all mice had a similar increase in neurogenesis in response to exercise. All mice acquired the water maze but performance depended on strain. Exercise improved water maze performance in all strains to a similar degree. Rotarod performance depended on strain. Exercise improved rotarod performance only in DBA/2 J and B6D2F1/J mice. Taken together, results demonstrate that despite different levels of neurogenesis, memory performance and motor coordination in these mouse strains, all strains have the capacity to increase neurogenesis and improve learning on the water maze through voluntary wheel running.

  5. Mouse genetic differences in voluntary wheel running, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and learning on the multi-strain-adapted plus water maze

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Jennifer; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Moderate levels of aerobic exercise broadly enhance cognition throughout the lifespan. One hypothesized contributing mechanism is increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Recently, we measured the effects of voluntary wheel running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in 12 different mouse strains, and found increased neurogenesis in all strains, ranging from 2 to 5 fold depending on the strain. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which increased neurogenesis from wheel running is associated with enhanced performance on the water maze for 5 of the 12 strains, chosen based on their levels of neurogenesis observed in the previous study (C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, B6129SF1/J, DBA/2J, and B6D2F1/J). Mice were housed with or without a running wheels for 30 days then tested for learning and memory on the plus water maze, adapted for multiple strains, and rotarod test of motor performance. The first 10 days, animals were injected with BrdU to label dividing cells. After behavioral testing animals were euthanized to measure adult hippocampal neurogenesis using standard methods. Levels of neurogenesis depended on strain but all mice had a similar increase in neurogenesis in response to exercise. All mice acquired the water maze but performance depended on strain. Exercise improved water maze performance in all strains to a similar degree. Rotarod performance depended on strain. Exercise improved rotarod performance only in DBA/2J and B6D2F1/J mice. Taken together, results demonstrate that despite different levels of neurogenesis, memory performance and motor coordination in these mouse strains, all strains have the capacity to increase neurogenesis and improve learning on the water maze through voluntary wheel running. PMID:25435316

  6. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianglong; Ottenheimer, David; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs. D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running) conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from NAc D1 neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs. non-running). The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control. PMID:27147989

  7. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xianglong; Ottenheimer, David; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs. D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running) conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from NAc D1 neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs. non-running). The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control. PMID:27147989

  8. Environmental enrichment and working memory tasks decrease hippocampal cell proliferation after wheel running--A role for the prefrontal cortex in hippocampal plasticity?

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T U

    2015-10-22

    Despite an increasing amount of evidence about the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis on the local level, less attention has been paid to its systemic embedding in wider brain circuits. The aim of the present study was to obtain evidence for a potential role of the prefrontal cortex in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We hypothesised that activation of the prefrontal cortex by environmental enrichment or a working-memory task would decrease previously enhanced cell proliferation rates. Wheel running was applied as a common stimulator of cell proliferation in CD1 mice reared under deprivation of natural environmental stimulation. Next, the animals were assigned to four groups for different treatments in the following three days: housing under continued deprivation, environmental enrichment, a spatial-delayed alternation task in an automated T-maze that activates the prefrontal cortex by working-memory requirements or a control task in the automated T-maze differing only in the single parameter working-memory-associated delay. Both the environmental enrichment and spatial-delayed alternation tasks decreased cell proliferation rates in the dentate gyrus compared to deprived housing and the control task in the T-maze. As the control animals underwent the same procedures and stressors and differed only in the single parameter working-memory-associated delay, the working-memory requirement seems to be the crucial factor for decreasing cell proliferation rates. Taken together, these results suggest that the prefrontal cortex may play a role in the regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation.

  9. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C.C.; Chang, M.W.; Chang, C.P.; Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L.; Lin, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use. PMID:25140816

  10. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Chang, M W; Chang, C P; Chan, S C; Chang, W Y; Yang, C L; Lin, M T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  11. Inertia Wheel on Low-Noise Active Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabelli, S.; Genta, G.; Silvagni, M.; Tonoli, A.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are particularly suited for space applications for a number of reasons: - they are ideally suited for vacuum applications; - the lack of lubrication and wear enhances the reliability and guaranties a long maintenance-free operation - the low drag torque decreases power consumption and reduces the torque exerted on the stator of the machine. - the possibility of insulating actively the spacecraft from the excitation due to unbalance of the rotating system In the case of reaction wheels, a well designed magnetic suspension allows high speed operation with a very low power consumption and vibration level. Conversely, microgravity (and possibly vacuum) operation is an advantage for magnetic bearings. The absence of static forces allows to operate with low current levels, thus reducing electrical noise and allowing to reach even lower vibration levels than in Earth applications of magnetic bearings. Active magnetic bearings (AMB) allow to adapt the working characteristics of the system to the operating needs: it is possible to use the actuators to lock the system during launch (absence of grabbers) and to stiffen the suspension when the spacecraft is accelerated (impulsive phases), while working in conditions optimised for microgravity when this is needed. Magnetic suspension systems designed for microgravity environment cannot be correctly tested on the ground. Testing in ground conditions results in the need of grossly overdesigning the levitation device; furthermore, in some cases ground testing is completely impossible, if not by introducing devices which compensate for the Earth gravitational field. If the compensation for the gravitational force is supplied by the same actuators used for microgravity operation, the actuators and the power amplifiers must be overdesigned and in some cases the suspension can be altogether impossible. They work in conditions which are much different from nominal ones and, above all, it is impossible to reach the

  12. Environmental enrichment and working memory tasks decrease hippocampal cell proliferation after wheel running--A role for the prefrontal cortex in hippocampal plasticity?

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T U

    2015-10-22

    Despite an increasing amount of evidence about the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis on the local level, less attention has been paid to its systemic embedding in wider brain circuits. The aim of the present study was to obtain evidence for a potential role of the prefrontal cortex in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We hypothesised that activation of the prefrontal cortex by environmental enrichment or a working-memory task would decrease previously enhanced cell proliferation rates. Wheel running was applied as a common stimulator of cell proliferation in CD1 mice reared under deprivation of natural environmental stimulation. Next, the animals were assigned to four groups for different treatments in the following three days: housing under continued deprivation, environmental enrichment, a spatial-delayed alternation task in an automated T-maze that activates the prefrontal cortex by working-memory requirements or a control task in the automated T-maze differing only in the single parameter working-memory-associated delay. Both the environmental enrichment and spatial-delayed alternation tasks decreased cell proliferation rates in the dentate gyrus compared to deprived housing and the control task in the T-maze. As the control animals underwent the same procedures and stressors and differed only in the single parameter working-memory-associated delay, the working-memory requirement seems to be the crucial factor for decreasing cell proliferation rates. Taken together, these results suggest that the prefrontal cortex may play a role in the regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation. PMID:26206298

  13. Early motor deficits in mouse disease models are reliably uncovered using an automated home-cage wheel-running system: a cross-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, Silvia; Heise, Ines; Garbugino, Luciana; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P; Giuliani, Alessandro; Wells, Sara; Nolan, Patrick M

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in motor function are debilitating features in disorders affecting neurological, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. Although these disorders can vary greatly with respect to age of onset, symptomatic presentation, rate of progression and severity, the study of these disease models in mice is confined to the use of a small number of tests, most commonly the rotarod test. To expand the repertoire of meaningful motor function tests in mice, we tested, optimised and validated an automated home-cage-based running-wheel system, incorporating a conventional wheel with evenly spaced rungs and a complex wheel with particular rungs absent. The system enables automated assessment of motor function without handler interference, which is desirable in longitudinal studies involving continuous monitoring of motor performance. In baseline studies at two test centres, consistently significant differences in performance on both wheels were detectable among four commonly used inbred strains. As further validation, we studied performance in mutant models of progressive neurodegenerative diseases--Huntington's disease [TgN(HD82Gln)81Dbo; referred to as HD mice] and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Tg(SOD1G93A)(dl)1/GurJ; referred to as SOD1 mice]--and in a mutant strain with subtle gait abnormalities, C-Snap25(Bdr)/H (Blind-drunk, Bdr). In both models of progressive disease, as with the third mutant, we could reliably and consistently detect specific motor function deficits at ages far earlier than any previously recorded symptoms in vivo: 7-8 weeks for the HD mice and 12 weeks for the SOD1 mice. We also conducted longitudinal analysis of rotarod and grip strength performance, for which deficits were still not detectable at 12 weeks and 23 weeks, respectively. Several new parameters of motor behaviour were uncovered using principal component analysis, indicating that the wheel-running assay could record features of motor function that are independent of rotarod

  14. Early detection of motor dysfunction in the SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) using home cage running wheels.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ellen J; Mead, Richard J; Azzouz, Mimoun; Shaw, Pamela J; Grierson, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The SOD1G93A mouse has been used since 1994 for preclinical testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite recent genetic advances in our understanding of ALS, transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1 remain the best available, and most widely used, vertebrate model of the disease. We previously described an optimised and rapid approach for preclinical studies in the SOD1G93A mouse. Here we describe improvements to this approach using home cage running wheels to obtain daily measurements of motor function, with minimal intervention. We show that home cage running wheels detect reductions in motor function at a similar time to the rotarod test, and that the data obtained are less variable allowing the use of smaller groups of animals to obtain satisfactory results. This approach refines use of the SOD1G93A model, and reduces the number of animals undergoing procedures of substantial severity, two central principles of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in research). The small group sizes and rapid timescales enable affordable large-scale therapeutic pre-screening in the SOD1G93A mouse, as well as rapid validation of published positive effects in a second laboratory, one of the major stumbling blocks in ALS preclinical therapy development.

  15. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  16. Voluntary and involuntary running in the rat show different patterns of theta rhythm, physical activity, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yi; Kuo, Terry B J; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2014-05-01

    Involuntarily exercising rats undergo more physical and mental stress than voluntarily exercising rats; however, these findings still lack electrophysiological evidence. Many studies have reported that theta rhythm appears when there is mental stress and that it is affected by emotional status. Thus we hypothesized that the differences between voluntary and involuntary movement should also exist in the hippocampal theta rhythm. Using the wheel and treadmill exercise models as voluntary and involuntary exercise models, respectively, this study wirelessly recorded the hippocampal electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and three-dimensional accelerations of young male rats. Treadmill and wheel exercise produced different theta patterns in the rats before and during running. Even though the waking baselines for the two exercise types were recorded in different environments, there did not exist any significant difference after distinguishing the rats' sleep/wake status. When the same movement-related parameters are considered, the treadmill running group showed more changes in their theta frequency (4-12 Hz), in their theta power between 9.5-12 Hz, and in their heart rate than the wheel running group. A positive correlation between the changes in high-frequency (9.5-12 Hz) theta power and heart rate was identified. Our results reveal various voluntary and involuntary changes in hippocampal theta rhythm as well as divergences in heart rate and high-frequency theta activity that may represent the effects of an additional emotional state or the sensory interaction during involuntary running by rats. PMID:24623507

  17. Voluntary wheel-running attenuates insulin and weight gain and affects anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL6/J mice exposed to a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Jasmin A; Hatzidis, Aikaterini; Arruda, Nicole L; Gelineau, Rachel R; De Pina, Isabella Monteiro; Adams, Kenneth W; Seggio, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    It is widely accepted that lifestyle plays a crucial role on the quality of life in individuals, particularly in western societies where poor diet is correlated to alterations in behavior and the increased possibility of developing type-2 diabetes. While exercising is known to produce improvements to overall health, there is conflicting evidence on how much of an effect exercise has staving off the development of type-2 diabetes or counteracting the effects of diet on anxiety. Thus, this study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel-running access on the progression of diabetes-like symptoms and open field and light-dark box behaviors in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. C57BL/6J mice were placed into either running-wheel cages or cages without a running-wheel, given either regular chow or a high-fat diet, and their body mass, food consumption, glucose tolerance, insulin and c-peptide levels were measured. Mice were also exposed to the open field and light-dark box tests for anxiety-like behaviors. Access to a running-wheel partially attenuated the obesity and hyperinsulinemia associated with high-fat diet consumption in these mice, but did not affect glucose tolerance or c-peptide levels. Wheel-running strongly increased anxiety-like and decreased explorative-like behaviors in the open field and light-dark box, while high-fat diet consumption produced smaller increases in anxiety. These results suggest that voluntary wheel-running can assuage some, but not all, of the physiological problems associated with high-fat diet consumption, and can modify anxiety-like behaviors regardless of diet consumed.

  18. Voluntary wheel-running attenuates insulin and weight gain and affects anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL6/J mice exposed to a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Jasmin A; Hatzidis, Aikaterini; Arruda, Nicole L; Gelineau, Rachel R; De Pina, Isabella Monteiro; Adams, Kenneth W; Seggio, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    It is widely accepted that lifestyle plays a crucial role on the quality of life in individuals, particularly in western societies where poor diet is correlated to alterations in behavior and the increased possibility of developing type-2 diabetes. While exercising is known to produce improvements to overall health, there is conflicting evidence on how much of an effect exercise has staving off the development of type-2 diabetes or counteracting the effects of diet on anxiety. Thus, this study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel-running access on the progression of diabetes-like symptoms and open field and light-dark box behaviors in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. C57BL/6J mice were placed into either running-wheel cages or cages without a running-wheel, given either regular chow or a high-fat diet, and their body mass, food consumption, glucose tolerance, insulin and c-peptide levels were measured. Mice were also exposed to the open field and light-dark box tests for anxiety-like behaviors. Access to a running-wheel partially attenuated the obesity and hyperinsulinemia associated with high-fat diet consumption in these mice, but did not affect glucose tolerance or c-peptide levels. Wheel-running strongly increased anxiety-like and decreased explorative-like behaviors in the open field and light-dark box, while high-fat diet consumption produced smaller increases in anxiety. These results suggest that voluntary wheel-running can assuage some, but not all, of the physiological problems associated with high-fat diet consumption, and can modify anxiety-like behaviors regardless of diet consumed. PMID:27154535

  19. Skin blister formation together with patterned intradermal hematoma: a special type of tire mark injury in victims run over by a wheel.

    PubMed

    Pircher, R; Epting, T; Schmidt, U; Geisenberger, D; Pollak, S; Kramer, L

    2015-04-01

    A traffic accident victim run over by a vehicle may show a patterned skin hematoma reflecting the grooves of the tire's profile. Apart from this well-known type of imprint mark, the affected skin can also be blistered provided that the wheel exerts high pressure on the body for a prolonged period of time. The macro- and micromorphological findings as well as the protein composition of the blister fluid were investigated on the basis of a relevant autopsy case. Analogous to blisters associated with hanging marks, the transudation of serous fluid with consecutive detachment of the epidermis is interpreted as a pressure-related effect which cannot be regarded as a sign of vitality.

  20. Effects of the combination of wheel running and atomoxetine on cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement in rats selected for high or low impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Aerobic exercise and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication, atomoxetine (ATO), are two monotherapies that have been shown to suppress reinstatement of cocaine seeking in an animal model of relapse. The present study investigated the effects of combining wheel running and ATO vs. each treatment alone on cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine and cocaine-paired cues in rats with differing susceptibility to drug abuse (i.e., high vs. low impulsive). METHODS Rats were screened for high (HiI) or low impulsivity (LoI) based on their performance on a delay-discounting task and then trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/inf) for 10 days. Following 14 days of extinction, both groups were tested for reinstatement of cocaine seeking precipitated by cocaine or cocaine-paired cues in the presence of concurrent running wheel access (W), pretreatment with ATO, or both (W+ATO). RESULTS HiI rats acquired cocaine self-administration more quickly than LoI rats. While both individual treatments and W+ATO significantly attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking in HiI and LoI rats, only W+ATO was effective in reducing cocaine-induced reinstatement compared to vehicle treatment. There were dose-dependent and phenotype-specific effects of ATO with HiI rats responsive to the low but not high ATO dose. Floor effects of ATO and W on cue-induced reinstatement prevented the assessment of combined treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrated greater attenuation of cue- vs. cocaine-induced reinstatement by ATO and W alone and recapitulate impulsivity phenotype differences in both acquisition of cocaine self-administration and receptivity to treatment. PMID:25258161

  1. Acute effects of wheel running on adult hippocampal precursor cells in mice are not caused by changes in cell cycle length or S phase length

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Tim J.; Walker, Tara L.; Overall, Rupert W.; Brandt, Moritz D.; Kempermann, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Exercise stimulates cellular brain plasticity by extending the pool of proliferating neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus. This effect has been investigated extensively, but the most immediate cellular effect induced by exercise that results in this acute increase in the number of cycling cells remained unclear. In the developing brain as well as adult pathological models, cell cycle alterations have a major influence on the balance between proliferative and neurogenic divisions. In this study we investigated whether this might also apply to the acute physiological pro-neurogenic stimulus of physical exercise in adulthood. Do changes in cell cycle precede the measurable increase in proliferation? After 5 days of voluntary wheel running, however, we measured only a very small, statistically not significant acceleration in cell cycle, which could not quantitatively explain the observed increase in proliferating cells after exercise. Thus, at this acute stage, changes at the level of cell cycle control is not the primary causal mechanism for the expansion of the precursor cell population, although with time after the stimulus changes in cell cycle of the entire population of labeled cells might be the result of the expanded pool of cells that have progressed to the advanced neurogenic stages with shorter cell cycle length. PMID:25339861

  2. Trunk muscle activation during moderate- and high-intensity running.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Cappa, Dario; Power, Geoffrey A

    2009-12-01

    Time constraints are cited as a barrier to regular exercise. If particular exercises can achieve multiple training functions, the number of exercises and the time needed to achieve a training goal may be decreased. It was the objective of this study to compare the extent of trunk muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during running and callisthenic activities. EMG activity of the external obliques, lower abdominals (LA), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) was monitored while triathletes and active nonrunners ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 60% and 80% of their maximum heart rate (HR) reserve, as well as during 30 repetitions of a partial curl-up and 3 min of a modified Biering-Sørensen back extension exercise. The mean root mean square (RMS) amplitude of the EMG signal was monitored over 10-s periods with measures normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction rotating curl-up (external obliques), hollowing exercise (LA), or back extension (ULES and LSES). A main effect for group was that triathletes had greater overall activation of the external obliques (p < 0.05), LA (p = 0.01), and LSES (p < 0.05) than did nonrunners. Main effects for exercise type showed that the external obliques had less EMG activity during 60% and 80% runs, respectively, than with the curl-ups (p = 0.001). The back extension exercise provided less ULES (p = 0.009) and LSES (p = 0.0001) EMG activity than the 60% and 80% runs, respectively. In conclusion, triathletes had greater trunk activation than nonrunners did while running, which could have contributed to their better performance. Back-stabilizing muscles can be activated more effectively with running than with a prolonged back extension activity. Running can be considered as an efficient, multifunctional exercise combining cardiovascular and trunk endurance benefits.

  3. Phase shifts to refeeding in the Syrian hamster mediated by running activity.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, R E; Sinclair, S V; Marchant, E G; Neil, L

    1997-02-01

    Circadian rhythms in hamsters can be entrained by restricted daily feeding schedules. Phase control may be exerted by feeding per se, or by wheel running in anticipation of food access. Phase modulation by feeding was examined here by depriving hamsters of food for 9-24 h and refeeding at 1 of 7 different zeitgeber times on the first day of constant dim light. Significant group mean phase-advance shifts were observed only following 24 h and 17 h deprivations ending in the mid-subjective day, 7 h before the usual time of lights off (mean shifts 28 min and 66 min, respectively). The largest phase shifts were associated with wheel running during the first 6 h of refeeding. When running wheels were locked during this time in an additional group, no phase shifts were observed. A trend for small phase delays was evident for 14 h deprivations ending at the beginning of the subjective night, but no significant group mean or individual shifts were observed at other refeeding times. Refeeding after food deprivation, thus, appears to have minimal effects on circadian phase in hamsters; wheel running associated with refeeding may account for occasional shifts observed.

  4. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Lowery, Ryan P; Shake, Joshua J; Patel, Romil K; Healy, James C; McCullough, Danielle J; Kluess, Heidi A; Huggins, Kevin W; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss. PMID:27357802

  5. Anxiety is correlated with running in adolescent female mice undergoing activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Wable, Gauri S.; Min, Jung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used animal model for identifying the biological basis of excessive exercise and starvation, two hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anxiety is correlated with exercise in AN. Yet the anxiety level of animals in ABA has not been reported. We asked: Does food restriction as part of ABA induction change the anxiety level of animals? If so, is the degree of anxiety correlated with degree of hyperactivity? We used the open field test before food restriction and the elevated plus maze test (EPM) during food restriction to quantify anxiety among singly housed adolescent female mice and determined whether food restriction alone or combined with exercise (i.e., ABA induction) abates or increases anxiety. We show that food restriction, with or without exercise, reduced anxiety significantly, as measured by the proportion of entries into the open arms of EPM (35.73 %, p= .04). Moreover, ABA-induced individuals varied in their open arm time measure of anxiety and this value was highly and negatively correlated to the individual’s food restriction-evoked wheel activity during the 24 hours following the anxiety test (R = − .75, p= .004, N = 12). This correlation was absent among the exercise-only controls. Additionally, mice with higher increase in anxiety ran more following food restriction. Our data suggest that food restriction-evoked wheel running hyperactivity can be used as a reliable and continuous measure of anxiety in ABA. The parallel relationship between anxiety level and activity in AN and ABA-induced female mice strengthens the animal model. PMID:25730124

  6. Voluntary wheel running, but not a diet containing (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and β-alanine, improves learning, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Trisha E; Pence, Brandt D; Petr, Geraldine; Ossyra, Jessica M; Mach, Houston C; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Perez, Samuel; Martin, Stephen A; McCusker, Robert H; Kelley, Keith W; Rhodes, Justin S; Johnson, Rodney W; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with impaired learning and memory accompanied by reductions in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and brain expression of neurotrophic factors among other processes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a green tea catechin), β-alanine (β-ala, the precursor of carnosine), and exercise have independently been shown to be neuroprotective and to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that EGCG, β-ala supplementation or exercise alone would improve learning and memory and increase neurogenesis in aged mice, and the combined intervention would be better than either treatment alone. Male Balb/cByJ mice (19 months) were given AIN-93M diet with or without EGCG (182mg/kg/d) and β-ala (417mg/kg/d). Half of the mice were given access to a running wheel (VWR). The first 10 days, animals received 50mg/kg bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) daily. After 28 days, learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Brains were collected for immunohistochemical detection of BrdU and quantitative mRNA expression in the hippocampus. VWR increased the number of BrdU cells in the dentate gyrus, increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, decreased expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, and improved performance in the MWM and CFC tests. The dietary intervention reduced brain oxidative stress as measured by 4-hydroxynonenal in the cerebellum, but had no effect on BrdU labeling or behavioral performance. These results suggest that exercise, but not a diet containing EGCG and β-ala, exhibit pro-cognitive effects in aged mice when given at these doses in this relatively short time frame.

  7. Aircraft wheel life assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Kirkner, D. J.; Schudt, E. E.; Kandarpa, S.

    1993-07-01

    The important part of wheel life assessment problems is the accurate determination of the tire/wheel interface pressure distribution under various loading conditions. A combined analytical/experimental methodology for obtaining this pressure distribution was developed. The principal analytical tool in this methodology is the finite element program ANTWILL (Analysis of Tire Wheel Interface Loads) which recovers the pressure distribution given a number of experimental strain measurements on the wheel. The major activity consisted of a study of the F-16 Block 30 and the Block 40 main landing gear wheels to determine the optimal number and location of the strain gages for subsequent experiments. Experiments to be conducted will record strains at the specified locations and this data will be used to determine tire/wheel interface pressures.

  8. Muscle activation of drivers with hemiplegia caused by stroke while driving using a steering wheel or knob.

    PubMed

    Jung, Nam-Hae; Kim, Hwanhee; Chang, Moonyoung

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate three muscle activities of drivers with post-stoke hemiplegia while they were driving using a steering wheel or a spinner knob, and to compare them with those of non-disabled drivers. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were four non-disabled drivers and five drivers with left hemiplegia. The subjects drove forward in a straight line for 5 m and then turned right or left using the steering wheel or spinner knob with only their right hand. EMG electrodes were placed over the anterior deltoid, biceps and triceps brachii on the right-side. [Results] While differences in muscle activation between the spinner knob and the steering wheel in the control group were not significant, those of the experimental group were significant. Activation of the biceps brachii while the control group turned the vehicle to the right using the spinner knob was significantly lower than when using the steering wheel. Activation of the biceps brachii while the experimental group turned the vehicle to the right using the spinner knob was significantly lower than that of the control group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that a spinner knob requires less activation of the main muscle than a steering wheel, especially in drivers who have had a stroke. The results could be used as basic data when driver rehabilitation specialists prescribe the spinner knob for patients.

  9. Pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Toshio; Takagi, Atsushi

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the construction of a pneumatic active suspension system for a one-wheel car model using fuzzy reasoning and a disturbance observer. The one-wheel car model can be approximately described as a nonlinear two degrees of freedom system subject to excitation from a road profile. The active control is composed of fuzzy and disturbance controls, and functions by actuating a pneumatic actuator. A phase lead-lag compensator is inserted to counter the performance degradation due to the delay of the pneumatic actuator. The experimental result indicates that the proposed active suspension improves much the vibration suppression of the car model.

  10. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  11. Contrasting effects of d-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, and 4-methylmethcathinone on wheel activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pai-Kai; Aarde, Shawn M.; Angrish, Deepshikha; Houseknecht, Karen L.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reports from US, UK and European drug policy entities, and ongoing media accounts, show increasing recreational use of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Severe sympathomimetic symptoms, hallucinations, psychoses, and even deaths have been reported, yet little scientific information is available on the effects of these compounds in laboratory models. Available studies on the neurochemistry of these drugs show that 4-MMC and MDPV enhance DA neurotransmission, while 4-MMC additionally enhances 5-HT neurotransmission- a pattern much like that reported for methamphetamine vs. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As is the case for designer amphetamines, these neurochemical distinctions may predict differential potential for repetitive versus episodic abuse and distinct lasting toxicities. METHODS This study determined relative locomotor stimulant effects of 4-MMC (1–10 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDPV (0.5–5.6 mg/kg, s.c.), in comparison with d-methamphetamine (MA; 0.5–5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDMA (1–7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on a measure of locomotor activity – voluntary wheel running – in male Wistar rats (N=8). RESULTS Compared to counts of wheel rotations after saline, a biphasic change in the pattern of counts was observed after injections of MA and MDPV, with relatively higher counts following lower doses and lower counts following the highest dose. However, monophasic, dose-dependent reductions in counts were observed in response to injections of MDMA and 4-MMC. CONCLUSION Thus, voluntary wheel running yielded the same categorical distinctions for these drugs as did prior experiments testing the effects of these drugs on monoaminergic neurotransmission. These data indicate that MDPV produces prototypical locomotor stimulant effects whereas 4-MMC is more similar to the entactogen MDMA. PMID:22664136

  12. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic bearings used for the suspension of momentum wheels provide conclusive advantages: the low friction torques and the absence of abrasion allow the realization of lightweight high speed wheels with high angular momentum and energy storage capacity and virtually unlimited lifetime. The use of actively controlled bearings provides a magnetic gimballing capability by applying the external signals to the two servo loops controlling the rotational degrees of freedom. Thus, an attitude control system can be realized by using only one rotating mass for 3-axis active satellite stabilization.

  13. A Circular Motion Activity with Hot Wheels® Rev-Ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Glenn

    2009-02-01

    Hot Wheels® Rev-Ups provide a pedagogically engaging and inexpensive culminating activity for the application of circular motion with constant speed in introductory mechanics. The introductory Rev-Up, shown in Fig. 1, consists of a very durable car with two strong magnets built into the front and back of the car. The track is a piece of flexible plastic with a built-in metallic strip through its center that can then be formed into a circle. Pushing the car forward several times on a flat surface allows the car to move in a vertical circle when placed inside the track. What makes this toy attractive is that the gearing system allows the car to move at a relatively constant speed for about three to five seconds before slowing down appreciably.

  14. Adaptive back-stepping tracking control for rotor shaft tilting of active magnetically suspended momentum wheel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuan-jin; Fang, Jian-cheng; Xiang, Biao; Wang, Chun-e

    2014-11-01

    Two-dimensional gyroscopic torque can be produced by tilting the rotor shaft of the active magnetically suspended momentum wheel. The nonlinear magnetic torque is analyzed and then an adaptive back-stepping tracking method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity and uncertainty. The nonlinearity of magnetic torque is represented as bounded unknown uncertainty stiffness, and an adaptive law is proposed to estimate the stiffness. Combined with back-stepping method, the proposed method can deal with the uncertainty. This method is designed by Lyapunov stability theory to ensure the stability, and its effectiveness is validated by simulations and experiments. These results indicate that this method can realize higher tracking precision and faster tracking velocity than the conventional cross feedback method to provide high precision and wide bandwidth outputting torque. PMID:25104645

  15. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exercise is considered as one of the most effective means of countering symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MS) such as obesity and hyperglycemia. Rodent models of forced or voluntary exercise are often used to study the mechanisms of MS and type 2 diabetes. However, there is little known on the impact of genetic strain on the metabolic response to exercise. We studied the effects of housing rats with running wheels (RW) for 65 days compared to sedentary (SED) housing in five female rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE), Wistar (WIS), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). Key parameters measured were total distance run, body composition, food consumption, motor activity, ventilatory responses by plethysmography, and resting metabolic rate (MR). WKY and SHR ran significantly more than the WIS, LE, and SD strains. Running-induced reduction in body fat was affected by strain but not by distance run. LE's lost 6% fat after 21 d of running whereas WKY's lost 2% fat but ran 40% more than LE's. LE and WIS lost body weight while the SHR and WKY strains gained weight during running. Food intake with RW was markedly increased in SHR, WIS, and WKY while LE and SD showed modest increases. Exploratory motor activity was reduced sharply by RW in all but the SD strain. Ventilatory parameters were primarily altered by RW in the SHR, WKY, and WIS strains. MR was unaffected by RW. In an overall ranking of physiological and behavioral responses to RW, the SD strain was considered the least responsive whereas the WIS was scored as most responsive. In terms of RW-induced fat loss, the LE strain appears to be the most ideal. These results should be useful in the future selection of rat models to study benefits of volitional exercise.

  16. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  17. A Bout of Voluntary Running Enhances Context Conditioned Fear, Its Extinction, and Its Reconsolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siette, Joyce; Reichelt, Amy C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments used rats to examine the effect of a single bout of voluntary activity (wheel running) on the acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of context conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, rats provided with access to a wheel for 3 h immediately before or after a shocked exposure to a context froze more when tested in that context…

  18. When Running Is the Basic Form of Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudriavtsev, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses running as a universal means of physical training and of developing speed and especially endurance with sections on types of running, time and place for running, methods of exercise, and regulating size of stress load. (Author/JH)

  19. Determination of muscle activity during running at reduced body weight.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Jaco; Scharf, Jennifer; Forrest, Dana; Dufek, Janet S; Masumoto, K; Mercer, J A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how lower extremity muscles are influenced by body weight support during running at different speeds. Nine participants (age 24 ± 2 years, height 1.75 ± 0.12 m, mass 73.5 ± 15.7 kg) ran at 100%, 115%, and 125% of preferred speed at 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, and 60% of body weight on a treadmill that provided body weight support. Preferred speed was self-selected by each participant and represented a speed that he or she could sustain if going for a 30 min run. Electromyography (EMG) data were recorded (1000 Hz, 1 min) from the bicep femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius for each condition together with knee angle (electrogoniometer). Average and root mean square EMG were calculated across 30 s. Muscle patterns were determined by smoothing (low-pass filter, 4 Hz) and extracting patterns for 49 cycles defined by consecutive maximum knee flexion angles. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare average and root mean square across body weight and speeds. Correlations were computed between the 100% speed/100% body weight condition and all other conditions per muscle. There was no interaction between body weight and speed (P > 0.05). Average and root mean square decreased as body weight decreased for all muscles (P < 0.05) and increased across speeds for all muscles (P < 0.05). Correlations for all muscles between conditions were high (range: 0.921-0.999). Although a percent reduction in body weight did not lead to the same reduction in muscle activity, it was clear that reducing body weight leads to a reduction in muscle activity with no changes in muscle activity patterns. PMID:21170806

  20. Bicycle Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic bicycle wheel developed by two DuPont engineers and a California company incorporates research into NASA airfoils. Computer modeling was accomplished with MSC/NASTRAN. Each of the three spokes in the wheel is, in effect, an airfoil, maximizing aerodynamic efficiency for racing.

  1. Chlorpromazine specifically prevents the wheel-induced feeding suppression in rats.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kerry L; Parfeniuk, Graham G; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2009-10-01

    In rats, limited daytime wheel access suppresses feeding over the subsequent night [Lattanzio SB, Eikelboom R. Wheel access duration in rats: I. effects on feeding and running. Behav Neurosci 2003; 117:496-504.]. This phenomenon is known as the wheel-induced feeding suppression (WIFS). The classic antipsychotic, chlorpromazine, can minimize the severity of the related activity anorexia procedure, but is thought to act through a suppression of running [Routtenberg A. "Self-starvation" of rats living in activity wheels: adaptation effects. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1968; 66:234-8.]. We tested the effects of chlorpromazine (2mg/kg IP) on the acute WIFS in 40 adult male rats by administering the drug before or after 3h of daytime wheel access and measuring food consumption over the subsequent 24h. Control groups received saline injections or were exposed to locked wheels. While chlorpromazine did not attenuate feeding or change wheel running alone, it blocked their interaction, the acute WIFS. This procedure might be useful in screening drugs for anorexia nervosa where exercise is often elevated and feeding is suppressed.

  2. EMG activity during positive-pressure treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Iain; Seeley, Matthew Kirk; Hopkins, Jon Ty; Carr, Cameron; Franson, Jared Judd

    2014-06-01

    Success has been demonstrated in rehabilitation from certain injuries while using positive-pressure treadmills. However, certain injuries progress even with the lighter vertical loads. Our purpose was to investigate changes in muscle activation for various lower limb muscles while running on a positive-pressure treadmill at different amounts of body weight support. We hypothesized that some muscles would show decreases in activation with greater body weight support while others would not. Eleven collegiate distance runners were recruited. EMG amplitude was measured over 12 lower limb muscles. After a short warm-up, subjects ran at 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% of their body weight for two minutes each. EMG amplitudes were recorded during the final 30s of each stage. Most muscles demonstrated lower amplitudes as body weight was supported. For the hip adductors during the swing phase and the hamstrings during stance, no significant trend appeared. Positive-pressure treadmills may be useful interventions for certain injuries. However, some injuries, such as hip adductor and hamstring tendonitis or strains may require alternative cross-training to relieve stress on those areas. Runners should be careful in determining how much body weight should be supported for various injuries to return to normal activity in the shortest possible time. PMID:24613660

  3. EMG activity during positive-pressure treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Iain; Seeley, Matthew Kirk; Hopkins, Jon Ty; Carr, Cameron; Franson, Jared Judd

    2014-06-01

    Success has been demonstrated in rehabilitation from certain injuries while using positive-pressure treadmills. However, certain injuries progress even with the lighter vertical loads. Our purpose was to investigate changes in muscle activation for various lower limb muscles while running on a positive-pressure treadmill at different amounts of body weight support. We hypothesized that some muscles would show decreases in activation with greater body weight support while others would not. Eleven collegiate distance runners were recruited. EMG amplitude was measured over 12 lower limb muscles. After a short warm-up, subjects ran at 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% of their body weight for two minutes each. EMG amplitudes were recorded during the final 30s of each stage. Most muscles demonstrated lower amplitudes as body weight was supported. For the hip adductors during the swing phase and the hamstrings during stance, no significant trend appeared. Positive-pressure treadmills may be useful interventions for certain injuries. However, some injuries, such as hip adductor and hamstring tendonitis or strains may require alternative cross-training to relieve stress on those areas. Runners should be careful in determining how much body weight should be supported for various injuries to return to normal activity in the shortest possible time.

  4. Activity Sculptures: Exploring the Impact of Physical Visualizations on Running Activity.

    PubMed

    Stusak, Simon; Tabard, Aurélien; Sauka, Franziska; Khot, Rohit Ashok; Butz, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Data sculptures are a promising type of visualizations in which data is given a physical form. In the past, they have mostly been used for artistic, communicative or educational purposes, and designers of data sculptures argue that in such situations, physical visualizations can be more enriching than pixel-based visualizations. We present the design of Activity Sculptures: data sculptures of running activity. In a three-week field study we investigated the impact of the sculptures on 14 participants' running activity, the personal and social behaviors generated by the sculptures, as well as participants' experiences when receiving these individual physical tokens generated from the specific data of their runs. The physical rewards generated curiosity and personal experimentation but also social dynamics such as discussion on runs or envy/competition. We argue that such passive (or calm) visualizations can complement nudging and other mechanisms of persuasion with a more playful and reflective look at ones' activity. PMID:26356934

  5. Magnetic bearing momentum wheels with magnetic gimballing capability for 3-axis active attitude control and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindlinger, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    A 3-axis active attitude control system with only one rotating part was developed using a momentum wheel with magnetic gimballing capability as a torque actuator for all three body axes. A brief description of magnetic bearing technology is given. It is concluded that based on this technology an integrated energy storage/attitude control system with one air of counterrotating rings could reduce the complexity and weight of conventional systems.

  6. NICMOS Filter Wheel Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    This is an engineering test {described in SMOV4 Activity Description NICMOS-04} to verify the aliveness, functionality, operability, and electro-mechanical calibration of the NICMOS filter wheel motors and assembly after NCS restart in SMOV4. This test has been designed to obviate concerns over possible deformation or breakage of the fitter wheel "soda-straw" shafts due to excess rotational drag torque and/or bending moments which may be imparted due to changes in the dewar metrology from warm-up/cool-down. This test should be executed after the NCS {and filter wheel housing} has reached and approximately equilibrated to its nominal operating temperature.Addition of visits G0 - G9 {9/9/09}: Ten visits copied from proposal 11868 {visits 20, 30, ..., 90, A0, B0}. Each visit moves two filter positions, takes lamp ON/OFF exposures and then moves back to the blank position. Visits G0, G1 and G2 will leave the filter wheels disabled. The remaining visits will leave the filter wheels enabled. There are sufficient in between times to allow for data download and analysis. In the case of problem is encountered, the filter wheels will be disabled through a real time command. The in between times are all set to 22-50 hours. It is preferable to have as short as possible in between time.

  7. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running

    PubMed Central

    Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Roberts, Christian K.; Roberts, Michael D.; Booth, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex ‘omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10–11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life. PMID:26678390

  8. Rapid Alterations in Perirenal Adipose Tissue Transcriptomic Networks with Cessation of Voluntary Running.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Company, Joseph M; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Roberts, Christian K; Roberts, Michael D; Booth, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    In maturing rats, the growth of abdominal fat is attenuated by voluntary wheel running. After the cessation of running by wheel locking, a rapid increase in adipose tissue growth to a size that is similar to rats that have never run (i.e. catch-up growth) has been previously reported by our lab. In contrast, diet-induced increases in adiposity have a slower onset with relatively delayed transcriptomic responses. The purpose of the present study was to identify molecular pathways associated with the rapid increase in adipose tissue after ending 6 wks of voluntary running at the time of puberty. Age-matched, male Wistar rats were given access to running wheels from 4 to 10 weeks of age. From the 10th to 11th week of age, one group of rats had continued wheel access, while the other group had one week of wheel locking. Perirenal adipose tissue was extracted, RNA sequencing was performed, and bioinformatics analyses were executed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). IPA was chosen to assist in the understanding of complex 'omics data by integrating data into networks and pathways. Wheel locked rats gained significantly more fat mass and significantly increased body fat percentage between weeks 10-11 despite having decreased food intake, as compared to rats with continued wheel access. IPA identified 646 known transcripts differentially expressed (p < 0.05) between continued wheel access and wheel locking. In wheel locked rats, IPA revealed enrichment of transcripts for the following functions: extracellular matrix, macrophage infiltration, immunity, and pro-inflammatory. These findings suggest that increases in visceral adipose tissue that accompanies the cessation of pubertal physical activity are associated with the alteration of multiple pathways, some of which may potentiate the development of pubertal obesity and obesity-associated systemic low-grade inflammation that occurs later in life.

  9. A bout of voluntary running enhances context conditioned fear, its extinction, and its reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Siette, Joyce; Reichelt, Amy C; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2014-02-01

    Three experiments used rats to examine the effect of a single bout of voluntary activity (wheel running) on the acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of context conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, rats provided with access to a wheel for 3 h immediately before or after a shocked exposure to a context froze more when tested in that context than rats provided with access to the wheels 6 h after the shocked exposure or rats not provided with access to the wheels. In Experiment 2, rats provided with access to the wheels immediately before or after a nonshocked exposure to the conditioned context froze less when tested in that context than rats provided with access to the wheels 6 h after the nonshocked exposure or rats not provided with access to the wheels. In Experiment 3, rats provided with access to wheels immediately after an extended nonshocked exposure to the conditioned context again froze less, whereas rats provided with access to the wheels after a brief nonshocked exposure froze more on the subsequent test than sedentary controls. These results show that a single bout of running can enhance acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of context conditioned fear.

  10. Pulse width modulated push-pull driven parallel resonant converter with active free-wheel

    DOEpatents

    Reass, William A.; Schrank, Louis

    2004-06-22

    An apparatus and method for high frequency alternating power generation to control kilowatts of supplied power in microseconds. The present invention includes a means for energy storage, push-pull switching means, control electronics, transformer means, resonant circuitry and means for excess energy recovery, all in electrical communication. A push-pull circuit works synchronously with a force commutated free-wheel transistor to provide current pulses to a transformer. A change in the conduction angle of the push-pull circuit changes the amount of energy coupled into the transformer's secondary oscillating circuit, thereby altering the induced secondary resonating voltage. At the end of each pulse, the force commutated free-wheel transistor causes residual excess energy in the primary circuit to be transmitted back to the storage capacitor for later use.

  11. Acute changes in kinematic and muscle activity patterns in habitually shod rearfoot strikers while running barefoot.

    PubMed

    Strauts, Janina; Vanicek, Natalie; Halaki, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe changes in the kinematics and muscle activities when barefoot running was initially adopted by six habitually shod, recreational rearfoot striking runners. Participants ran on a treadmill shod for 5 min, completed 3 × 10-min intervals of barefoot running and then completed a final minute of shod running at a self-selected pace. Dependent variables (speed, joint angles at foot-contact, joint range of motion (ROM), mean and peak electromyography (EMG) activity) were compared across conditions using repeated measures ANOVAs. Anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion significantly decreased during barefoot conditions at foot contact. The ROM for the trunk, pelvis, knee and ankle angles decreased during the barefoot conditions. Mean EMG activity was reduced for biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior during barefoot running. The peak activity across the running cycle decreased in biceps femoris, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior during barefoot running. During barefoot running, tibialis anterior activity significantly decreased during the pre-activation and initial contact phases; gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis activity significantly decreased during the push-off phase. Barefoot running caused immediate biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations at the hip and pelvis, which persisted when the runners donned their shoes, indicating that some learning had occurred during an initial short bout of barefoot running.

  12. Vehicle front wheel assist drive overspeed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Riehl, D.C.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a front wheel drive speed control system for a vehicle having a rear wheel drive and an assisting front wheel drive, comprising: (a) a hydraulic pump means operably connected by a hydraulic circuit to a hydraulic motor at each driven front wheel to cause rotation of that wheel; (b) an overrunning clutch assembly interposed between the motor and each associated wheel, engageable to facilitate rotation of the driven front wheel in both forward and reverse directions; (c) a speed sensing means has main rear wheel drive sensor mounted with a vehicle transmission output to the driven rear wheels thereof operable to provide pulse signals indicative of the speed of rotation of the driven rear wheels; (d) a driven front wheel sensor mounted with the vehicle and operable to provide pulse signals indicative of the speed of rotation of the driven front wheel; (e) a comparator means operable to compare the rate of rear wheel pulse signals with a first predetermined rate to produce a front wheel enabling signal when the rear wheel pulse signals are below the first predetermined rate; and (f) a front wheel drive operating circuit means connected to the comparator means to receive the front wheel enabling signal and operable to activate the hydraulic pump means to cause rotation of the front wheel.

  13. Activation Pattern of Lower Leg Muscles in Running on Asphalt, Gravel and Grass.

    PubMed

    Dolenec, Aleš; Štirn, Igor; Strojnik, Vojko

    2015-07-01

    Running is performed on different natural surfaces (outdoor) and artificial surfaces (indoor). Different surface characteristics cause modification of the lower leg muscle activation pattern to adopt ankle stiffness to these characteristics. So the purpose of our investigation was to study changes of lower leg muscles activation pattern in running on different natural running surfaces. Six male and two female runners participated. The participants ran at a freely chosen velocity in trials on asphalt while in trials on gravel, and grass surfaces they were attempting to reach similar velocities as in the trials on asphalt. Muscle activation of the peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius medialis of the right leg was recorded. Running on asphalt increased average EMG amplitude of the m. tibialis anterior in the pre-activation phase and the m. gastrocnemius medialis in the entire contact phase compared to running on grass from 0.222 ± 0.113 V to 0.276 ± 0.136 V and from 0.214 ± 0.084 V to 0.238 ± 0.088 V, respectively. The average EMG of m. peroneus brevis in pre-activation phase increased from 0.156 ± 0.026 V to 0.184 ± 0.455 V in running on grass in comparison to running on gravel. Running on different surfaces is connected with different activation patterns of lower leg muscles. Running on asphalt requires stiff ankle joints, running on gravel requires greater stability in ankle joints, while running on grass is the least demanding on lower leg muscles. PMID:26434026

  14. Activation Pattern of Lower Leg Muscles in Running on Asphalt, Gravel and Grass.

    PubMed

    Dolenec, Aleš; Štirn, Igor; Strojnik, Vojko

    2015-07-01

    Running is performed on different natural surfaces (outdoor) and artificial surfaces (indoor). Different surface characteristics cause modification of the lower leg muscle activation pattern to adopt ankle stiffness to these characteristics. So the purpose of our investigation was to study changes of lower leg muscles activation pattern in running on different natural running surfaces. Six male and two female runners participated. The participants ran at a freely chosen velocity in trials on asphalt while in trials on gravel, and grass surfaces they were attempting to reach similar velocities as in the trials on asphalt. Muscle activation of the peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius medialis of the right leg was recorded. Running on asphalt increased average EMG amplitude of the m. tibialis anterior in the pre-activation phase and the m. gastrocnemius medialis in the entire contact phase compared to running on grass from 0.222 ± 0.113 V to 0.276 ± 0.136 V and from 0.214 ± 0.084 V to 0.238 ± 0.088 V, respectively. The average EMG of m. peroneus brevis in pre-activation phase increased from 0.156 ± 0.026 V to 0.184 ± 0.455 V in running on grass in comparison to running on gravel. Running on different surfaces is connected with different activation patterns of lower leg muscles. Running on asphalt requires stiff ankle joints, running on gravel requires greater stability in ankle joints, while running on grass is the least demanding on lower leg muscles.

  15. Art on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of wheels in children's art. Focuses on collecting wheels, ideas for decorating different artworks with wheels, and objects that can move on wheels. Sees wheels as an inspiration for children's art, reflecting on the use of this object in the art classroom. (CMK)

  16. The effect of breast support on upper body muscle activity during 5 km treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Breast support has previously been shown to influence surface EMG of the pectoralis major during running. Reductions in muscle activity have previously been associated with a reduction in energy cost, which may be advantageous for female runners. Ten female participants performed two self-paced (average pace 9 km h(-1)) 5 km treadmill runs under two breast support conditions (low and high); an additional bare-breasted 2 min run was also conducted. Surface EMG electrodes were positioned on the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and upper trapezius, with data collected during the first 2 min of running and each kilometer interval thereafter. Reductions in peak EMG of the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid were reported when participants ran in the high breast support during the initial intervals of the run (up to the second kilometer). The increased activation in the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid in the low breast support may be due to increased tension within these muscles, induced by the greater breast pain experienced in the low breast support. This may be a strategy to reduce the independent breast movement causing the pain through increased muscular activation. This study further promotes the use of a high breast support during running with potential benefits for treadmill running associated with reductions in muscular demand during a 5 km run.

  17. Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5-km run performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Arngrïmsson, Sigurbjörn A; Petitt, Darby S; Stueck, Matthew G; Jorgensen, Dennis K; Cureton, Kirk J

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether a cooling vest worn during an active warm-up enhances 5-km run time in the heat. Seventeen competitive runners (9 men, maximal oxygen uptake = 66.7 +/- 5.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); 8 women, maximal oxygen uptake = 58.0 +/- 3.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed two simulated 5-km runs on a treadmill after a 38-min active warm-up during which they wore either a T-shirt (C) or a vest filled with ice (V) in a hot, humid environment (32 degrees C, 50% relative humidity). Wearing the cooling vest during warm-up significantly (P < 0.05) blunted increases in body temperature, heart rate (HR), and perception of thermal discomfort during warm-up compared with control. At the start of the 5-km run, esophageal, rectal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures averaged 0.3, 0.2, 1.8, and 0.4 degrees C lower; HR averaged 11 beats/min lower; and perception of thermal discomfort (5-point scale) averaged 0.6 point lower in V than C. Most of these differences were eliminated during the first 3.2 km of the run, and these variables were not different at the end. The 5-km run time was significantly lower (P < 0.05) by 13 s in V than C, with a faster pace most evident during the last two-thirds of the run. We conclude that a cooling vest worn during active warm-up by track athletes enhances 5-km run performance in the heat. Reduced thermal and cardiovascular strain and perception of thermal discomfort in the early portion of the run appear to permit a faster pace later in the run.

  18. Effect of active vs. passive recovery on repeat suicide run time.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Douglas Boatwright, J; Hunskor, Martha J; Howell, Dan C

    2003-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the difference between active and passive recovery methods during successive suicide runs by Division I women's collegiate basketball athletes (n = 14). Testing consisted of sprinting suicides on the basketball court using both traditional (short) and reverse-sequence (long) protocols. Two 90-second recovery methods were used, passive (standing still) and active (slow self-paced jogging). Although successive run time was reduced by a mean of 0.55 seconds after passive recovery relative to active, it did not reach significance (p = 0.09). Likewise, the difference between long and short line versions was nonsignificant (p = 0.41). Therefore, neither line sequence nor 90-second recovery technique appears to influence subsequent run time when performing 2 maximal-effort suicides. PMID:12741874

  19. Effect of active vs. passive recovery on repeat suicide run time.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Douglas Boatwright, J; Hunskor, Martha J; Howell, Dan C

    2003-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the difference between active and passive recovery methods during successive suicide runs by Division I women's collegiate basketball athletes (n = 14). Testing consisted of sprinting suicides on the basketball court using both traditional (short) and reverse-sequence (long) protocols. Two 90-second recovery methods were used, passive (standing still) and active (slow self-paced jogging). Although successive run time was reduced by a mean of 0.55 seconds after passive recovery relative to active, it did not reach significance (p = 0.09). Likewise, the difference between long and short line versions was nonsignificant (p = 0.41). Therefore, neither line sequence nor 90-second recovery technique appears to influence subsequent run time when performing 2 maximal-effort suicides.

  20. Piezoelectric Wheel System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Puu-An

    2007-10-01

    A piezoelectric wheel system is proposed for used as a microstepping displacement device including a carrier and two displacement members, which are separately pivoted on the carrier. Each displacement member includes two wheels, and which can not rotate. In addition, each wheel includes a wheel sheet and a piezoelectric element embedded on its surface. When the piezoelectricity element generates and transmits power to the wheel sheet, the wheel induces vibration and deformation. Therefore, owing to the wheel sheets and the touched ground involving their relative motion, the displacement device can be moved or can be oriented its motion direction. The wheel system involves direct movement, and has no rotor requirement. In this research, a three-dimensional (3D) mechanical element with an extra electrical degree of freedom is employed to simulate the dynamic vibration modes of the linear piezoelectric, mechanical, and piezoelectric-mechanical behaviours of the piezoelectric wheel.

  1. Changes in muscle activation patterns when running step rate is increased.

    PubMed

    Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Wille, Christa M; Michalski, Max P; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2012-06-01

    Running with a step rate 5-10% greater than one's preferred can substantially reduce lower extremity joint moments and powers, and has been suggested as a possible strategy to aid in running injury management. The purpose of this study was to examine how neuromuscular activity changes with an increase in step rate during running. Forty-five injury-free, recreational runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyography (EMG) of 8 muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, medial and lateral hamstrings, and gluteus medius and maximus) were recorded as each subject ran at their preferred speed for three different step rate conditions: preferred, +5% and +10% of preferred. Outcome measures included mean normalized EMG activity for each muscle at specific periods during the gait cycle. Muscle activities were found to predominantly increase during late swing, with no significant change in activities during the loading response. This increased muscle activity in anticipation of foot-ground contact likely alters the landing posture of the limb and the subsequent negative work performed by the joints during stance phase. Further, the increased activity observed in the gluteus maximus and medius suggests running with a greater step rate may have therapeutic benefits to those with anterior knee pain.

  2. Activity of lower limb muscles during treadmill running at different velocities

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Keiichi; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Oba, Kaori; Ueki, Tsutomu; Fujihashi, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine changes in muscle activity while moving on a treadmill at various speeds. [Subjects] The activities of the left vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, hip adductors, lateral head of gastrocnemius, medial head gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior of 10 healthy male university students were analyzed. [Methods] University students walked, jogged, and ran for 10 minutes each in random order, and then myogenic potentials were measured 10 minutes later for 30 seconds. The flexion angle of the lower limb upon initial contact, mid stance, and toe off were measured. [Results] The average walking, jogging, and running speeds were 3.6 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 10.4 ± 1.3 km/h, respectively. The average electromyographic activities of the vastus medial, tibialis anterior, medial head of gastrocnemius, and lateral head of gastrocnemius significantly differed. All muscles were more active during jogging and running than walking. Only the soleus was more active during running than walking, and the activities of the hip adductors and vastus lateralis did not significantly differ. [Conclusion] Velocity is faster and the angles of the lower limbs and ground reaction force (GRF) are larger during running than walking. The vastus medialis and soleus worked more easily according to the angle of the knee joint, whereas the tibialis anterior worked more easily at faster velocities and the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius worked more easily with an increased GRF. PMID:25729166

  3. Characterising the interaction of individual-wheel drives with traction by linear parameter-varying model: a method for analysing the role of traction in torsional vibrations in wheel drives and active damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhun Yeap, Khang; Müller, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    A model-based approach for characterising the interaction of individual-wheel drives with traction is contributed in this article. The primary aim is to investigate the influence of traction on torsional vibration behaviour in the drive train. The essence of this approach lies in reformulating the nonlinear traction behaviour into its differential form, which enables an analytical description of this interaction in its linear parameter-varying model equivalence. Analytical statements on the vibration behaviour for different driving scenarios are inferred from this model and validated with measurement samples from a high-performance electric road vehicle. Subsequent influences of traction on the performance of active damping of torsional vibrations are derived from this model.

  4. Probing the Run-On Oligomer of Activated SgrAI Bound to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Santosh; Sanchez, Jonathan; Stewart, Andrew; Piperakis, Michael M.; Cosstick, Richard; Nichols, Claire; Park, Chad K.; Ma, Xin; Wysocki, Vicki; Bitinaite, Jurate; Horton, Nancy C.

    2015-01-01

    SgrAI is a type II restriction endonuclease with an unusual mechanism of activation involving run-on oligomerization. The run-on oligomer is formed from complexes of SgrAI bound to DNA containing its 8 bp primary recognition sequence (uncleaved or cleaved), and also binds (and thereby activates for DNA cleavage) complexes of SgrAI bound to secondary site DNA sequences which contain a single base substitution in either the 1st/8th or the 2nd/7th position of the primary recognition sequence. This modulation of enzyme activity via run-on oligomerization is a newly appreciated phenomenon that has been shown for a small but increasing number of enzymes. One outstanding question regarding the mechanistic model for SgrAI is whether or not the activating primary site DNA must be cleaved by SgrAI prior to inducing activation. Herein we show that an uncleavable primary site DNA containing a 3’-S-phosphorothiolate is in fact able to induce activation. In addition, we now show that cleavage of secondary site DNA can be activated to nearly the same degree as primary, provided a sufficient number of flanking base pairs are present. We also show differences in activation and cleavage of the two types of secondary site, and that effects of selected single site substitutions in SgrAI, as well as measured collisional cross-sections from previous work, are consistent with the cryo-electron microscopy model for the run-on activated oligomer of SgrAI bound to DNA. PMID:25880668

  5. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  6. Reduced biceps femoris myoelectrical activity influences eccentric knee flexor weakness after repeat sprint running.

    PubMed

    Timmins, R G; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Schache, A G; Dear, N M; Shield, A J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether declines in knee flexor strength following overground repeat sprints were related to changes in hamstrings myoelectrical activity. Seventeen recreationally active men completed maximal isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexor strength assessments at 180°/s before and after repeat sprint running. Myoelectrical activity of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MHs) was measured during all isokinetic contractions. Repeated measures mixed model [fixed factors = time (pre- and post-repeat sprint) and leg (dominant and nondominant), random factor = participants] design was fitted with the restricted maximal likelihood method. Repeat sprint running resulted in significant declines in eccentric, and concentric, knee flexor strength (eccentric = 26 ± 4 Nm, 15% P < 0.001; concentric 11 ± 2 Nm, 10% P < 0.001). Eccentric BF myoelectrical activity was significantly reduced (10%; P = 0.035). Concentric BF and all MH myoelectrical activity were not altered. The declines in maximal eccentric torque were associated with the change in eccentric BF myoelectrical activity (P = 0.013). Following repeat sprint running, there were preferential declines in the myoelectrical activity of the BF, which explained declines in eccentric knee flexor strength.

  7. Three-Wheel Brush-Wheel Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duckworth, Geoffrey A.; Liu, Jun; Brown, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    A new sampler is similar to a common snow blower, but is robust and effective in sample collection. The brush wheels are arranged in a triangle shape, each driven by a brushless DC motor and planetary gearhead embedded in the wheel shaft. Its speed can be varied from 800 - 2,000 rpm, depending on the surface regolith resistance. The sample-collecting flow path, and internal features, are designed based on flow dynamics, and the sample-collecting rates have consistently exceeded the requirement under various conditions that span the range of expected surface properties. The brush-wheel sampler (BWS) is designed so that the flow channel is the main body of the apparatus, and links the brush-wheel assembly to the sample canister. The combination of the three brush wheels, the sample flow path, and the canister location make sample collection, storage, and transfer an easier task.

  8. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and catecholamine levels when swimming and running.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Defer, G; Cazorla, G; Sabathier, C; Lhoste, F

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the response of plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and catecholamines to two graded exercises differing by posture. Seven male subjects (19-25 years) performed successively a running rest on a treadmill and a swimming test in a 50-m swimming pool. Each exercise was increased in severity in 5-min steps with intervals of 1 min. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate, measured every 5 min, showed a similar progression in energy expenditure until exhaustion, but there was a shorter time to exhaustion in the last step of the running test. PRA, PAC and catecholamines were increased after both types of exercise. The PRA increase was higher after the running test (20.9 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1) than after swimming (8.66 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1). The PAC increase was slightly greater after running (123 pg X ml-1) than swimming (102 pg X ml-1), buth the difference was not significant. Plasma catecholamine was higher after the swimming test. These results suggest that the volume shift induced by the supine position and water pressure during swimming decreased the PRA response. The association after swimming compared to running of a decreased PRA and an enhanced catecholamine response rule out a strict dependence of renin release under the effect of plasma catecholamines and is evidence of the major role of neural pathways for renin secretion during physical exercise. PMID:3512264

  9. Classification of muscle activity based on effort level during constant pace running.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Lisa M; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Kugler, Patrick F; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-08-01

    During running, psychologic and physiologic changes are manifested in the perception of effort, muscle properties and movement strategies. The latter two aspects are expressed as changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity. This paper tests the hypothesis that the EMG signals change in a systematic way during a run and that these changes are related to the effort level of the runner. Fifteen female recreational runners performed 1-h treadmill runs at a constant speed (95% of speed at ventilatory threshold). EMG signals were recorded from four muscles (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus). The wavelet transformed EMG data were used to discriminate between different effort phases of running using a support vector machine (SVM) approach. The effect of the penalty parameter, C, and cross validation folds, n, used were evaluated and found to have little influence on the outcome. Recognition rates of >80% were achieved for all C and n values across all muscles. Average recognition rates were: TA - 89.2, GM - 88.3%, VL - 84.6% and ST - 94.0%. These results suggest that selected lower extremity EMG signals using wavelet-based methods contained highly systematic differences that could be used by the SVM to discriminate between the low- and high-effort stages of prolonged running.

  10. Classification of muscle activity based on effort level during constant pace running.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Lisa M; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Kugler, Patrick F; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-08-01

    During running, psychologic and physiologic changes are manifested in the perception of effort, muscle properties and movement strategies. The latter two aspects are expressed as changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity. This paper tests the hypothesis that the EMG signals change in a systematic way during a run and that these changes are related to the effort level of the runner. Fifteen female recreational runners performed 1-h treadmill runs at a constant speed (95% of speed at ventilatory threshold). EMG signals were recorded from four muscles (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus). The wavelet transformed EMG data were used to discriminate between different effort phases of running using a support vector machine (SVM) approach. The effect of the penalty parameter, C, and cross validation folds, n, used were evaluated and found to have little influence on the outcome. Recognition rates of >80% were achieved for all C and n values across all muscles. Average recognition rates were: TA - 89.2, GM - 88.3%, VL - 84.6% and ST - 94.0%. These results suggest that selected lower extremity EMG signals using wavelet-based methods contained highly systematic differences that could be used by the SVM to discriminate between the low- and high-effort stages of prolonged running. PMID:21459608

  11. Splice Site Strength-Dependent Activity and Genetic Buffering by Poly-G Runs

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinshu; Wang, Zefeng; Jang, Minyoung; Nutiu, Razvan; Wang, Eric T.; Burge, Christopher B.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is regulated through combinatorial activity of RNA motifs including splice sites and splicing regulatory elements (SREs). Here, we show that the activity of the G-run class of SREs is ∼4-fold higher when adjacent to intermediate strength 5'ss relative to weak 5'ss, and ∼1.3-fold higher relative to strong 5'ss. This dependence on 5'ss strength was observed in splicing reporters and in global microarray and mRNA-Seq analyses of splicing changes following RNAi against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) H, which crosslinked to G-runs adjacent to many regulated exons. An exon’s responsiveness to changes in hnRNP H levels therefore depends in a complex way on G-run abundance and 5'ss strength, and other splicing factors may function similarly. This pattern of activity enables G-runs and hnRNP H to buffer the effects of 5'ss mutations, augmenting the frequency of 5'ss polymorphism and the evolution of new splicing patterns. PMID:19749754

  12. Nerve growth factor-like activity detected in equine peripheral blood after running exercise.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Koyama, H; Oikawa, M; Yoshihara, T; Kaneko, M

    1991-08-01

    Addition of sera, collected from Thoroughbred horses after sprint exercise, induced significant neurite outgrowth from chick embryo dorsal root ganglia after a 24-hour culture. The nerve growth factor (NGF)-like activity was detected in sera collected immediately, or 1 hour or more, after the exercise. These findings suggest a possible role of serum NGF-like activity under stress conditions (running exercise) of horses.

  13. The EMG activity and mechanics of the running jump as a function of takeoff angle.

    PubMed

    Kakihana, W; Suzuki, S

    2001-10-01

    To characterize the electromyographic (EMG) activity, ground reaction forces, and kinematics were used in the running jump with different takeoff angles. Two male long jumpers volunteered to perform running jumps at different approach speeds by varying the number of steps (from 3 to 9) in the run-up. Subject TM achieved a greater vertical velocity of the center of gravity (CG) at takeoff for all approach distances. This jumping strategy was associated with greater backward trunk lean at touchdown and takeoff, a lesser range of motion for the thigh during the support phase, more extended knee and ankle angles at touchdown, and a more flexed knee angle at takeoff. Accompanying these differences in kinematics, TM experienced greater braking impulses and lesser propulsion impulses for the forward-backward component of the ground reaction force. Furthermore, TM activated mainly the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior, while if rarely activated the biceps femoris from just before contact to roughly the first two-thirds of the support phase. These results indicate that TM used a greater takeoff angle in the running jump because he enabled and sustained a greater blocking effect via the coordination patterns of the muscles relative to the hip, knee, and ankle joints. These findings also suggest that the muscle activities recorded in the present experiment are reflected in kinematics and kinetics. Further, the possible influence of these muscle activities on joint movements in the takeoff leg, and their effect on the vertical and/or horizontal velocity of the jump are discussed.

  14. Differential changes in vascular mRNA levels between rat iliac and renal arteries produced by cessation of voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Roberts, Michael D; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Martin, Jeffrey S; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    Early vascular changes at the molecular level caused by adoption of a sedentary lifestyle are incompletely characterized. Herein, we employed the rodent wheel-lock model to identify mRNAs in the arterial wall that are responsive to the acute transition from higher to lower levels of daily physical activity. Specifically, we evaluated whether short-term cessation of voluntary wheel running alters vascular mRNA levels in rat conduit arteries previously reported to have marked increases (i.e. iliac artery) versus marked decreases (i.e. renal artery) in blood flow during running. We used young female Wistar rats with free access to voluntary running wheels. Following 23 days of voluntary running (average distance of ∼15 km per night; ∼4.4 h per night), rats in one group were rapidly transitioned to a sedentary state by locking the wheels for 7 days (n = 9; wheel-lock 7 day rats) or remained active in a second group for an additional 7 days (n = 9; wheel-lock 0 day rats). Real-time PCR was conducted on total RNA isolated from iliac and renal arteries to evaluate expression of 25 pro-atherogenic and anti-atherogenic genes. Compared with the iliac arteries of wheel-lock 0 day rats, iliac arteries of wheel-lock 7 day rats exhibited increased expression of TNFR1 (+19%), ET1 (+59%) and LOX-1 (+31%; all P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with renal arteries of wheel-lock 0 day rats, renal arteries of wheel-lock 7 day rats exhibited decreased expression of ETb (-23%), p47phox (-32%) and p67phox (-19%; all P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that cessation of voluntary wheel running for 7 days produces modest, but differential changes in mRNA levels between the iliac and renal arteries of healthy rats. This heterogeneous influence of short-term physical inactivity could be attributed to the distinct alteration in haemodynamic forces between arteries.

  15. Robust H∞ control of active vehicle suspension under non-stationary running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    Due to complexity of the controlled objects, the selection of control strategies and algorithms in vehicle control system designs is an important task. Moreover, the control problem of automobile active suspensions has been become one of the important relevant investigations due to the constrained peculiarity and parameter uncertainty of mathematical models. In this study, after establishing the non-stationary road surface excitation model, a study on the active suspension control for non-stationary running condition was conducted using robust H∞ control and linear matrix inequality optimization. The dynamic equation of a two-degree-of-freedom quarter car model with parameter uncertainty was derived. The H∞ state feedback control strategy with time-domain hard constraints was proposed, and then was used to design the active suspension control system of the quarter car model. Time-domain analysis and parameter robustness analysis were carried out to evaluate the proposed controller stability. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy has high systemic stability on the condition of non-stationary running and parameter uncertainty (including suspension mass, suspension stiffness and tire stiffness). The proposed control strategy can achieve a promising improvement on ride comfort and satisfy the requirements of dynamic suspension deflection, dynamic tire loads and required control forces within given constraints, as well as non-stationary running condition.

  16. Effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jian; Wang, Ruiqian; Wang, Di; Guan, Qinghua; Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Jin, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The current researches of wheel vibration and sound radiation mainly focus on the low noise damped wheel. Compared with the traditional research, the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact is difficulty and worth studying. However, there are few studies on the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation. In this paper, laboratory test carried out in a semi-anechoic room investigates the effect of wheel load on wheel natural frequencies, damping ratios, wheel vibration and its sound radiation. The laboratory test results show that the vibration of the wheel and total sound radiation decrease significantly with the increase of the wheel load from 0 t to 1 t. The sound energy level of the wheel decreases by 3.7 dB. When the wheel load exceeds 1 t, the attenuation trend of the vibration and sound radiation of the wheel becomes slow. And the increase of the wheel load causes the growth of the wheel natural frequencies and the mode damping ratios. Based on the finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM), a rolling noise prediction model is developed to calculate the influence of wheel load on the wheel vibration and sound radiation. In the calculation, the used wheel/rail excitation is the measured wheel/rail roughness. The calculated results show that the sound power level of the wheel decreases by about 0.4 dB when the wheel load increases by 0.5 t. The sound radiation of the wheel decreases slowly with wheel load increase, and this conclusion is verified by the field test. This research systematically studies the effect of wheel load on wheel vibration and sound radiation, gives the relationship between the sound and wheel/rail contact and analyzes the reasons, therefore, it provides a reference for further research.

  17. Control Electronics For Reaction Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Bidirectional operation achieved with single-polarity main power supply. Control circuitry generates pulse-width-modulated 800-Hz waveforms to drive two-phase ac motor and reaction wheel. Operates partly in response to digital magnitude-and-direction torque command generated by external control subsystem and partly in response to tachometric feedback in form of two once-per-revolution sinusoids with amplitudes proportional to speed. Operation in either of two modes called "normal" and "safehold." In normal mode, drive pulses timed so that, on average over one or few cycles, motor applies commanded torque. In safehold mode, pulses timed to keep motor running at set speed in one direction.

  18. Piper rhythm in the activation of the gastrocnemius medialis during running.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Lisa M; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Kugler, Patrick; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-02-01

    The presence of temporal rhythmicity in electromyographic (EMG) signals at frequencies of 35-60 Hz was initially noted by Piper (1907). This modulation and synchronization of motor unit activity is generally accepted to represent a centrally generated coding of motor commands. The purpose of this study was to resolve and quantify the Piper rhythm in the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during running. EMG was recorded from the GM of 14 female runners during 1-h treadmill runs. The average wavelet transform was computed for EMG from series of steps taken at 2 min intervals throughout the run. The total intensity across three wavelets (center frequencies: 170, 218 and 271 Hz) was computed and a histogram indicating the incidence peaks in this signal was generated for each subject. In order to rule out effects of the analysis process, the process was repeated using simulated EMG data. Autocorrelations of the histograms were used to extract the frequency of the peaks resulting in rhythmicity at 25-55 Hz. The ability to measure superimposed rhythmicity in EMG signals during dynamic tasks allows investigation of the role of aspects of central drive during movement. In particular, the changes in central control during dynamic activities can be examined with this approach.

  19. A behavioral analysis of the impact of voluntary physical activity on hippocampus-dependent contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Benjamin N; Strong, Paul V; Foley, Teresa E; Fleshner, Monika

    2009-10-01

    Voluntary physical activity induces molecular changes in the hippocampus consistent with improved hippocampal function, but few studies have explored the effects of wheel running on specific hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. The current studies investigated the impact of voluntary wheel running on learning and memory for context and extinction using contextual fear conditioning which is known to be dependent on the hippocampus. When conditioning occurred prior to the start of 6 weeks of wheel running, wheel running had no effect on memory for context or extinction (assessed with freezing). In contrast, when wheel running occurred for 6 weeks prior to conditioning, physical activity improved contextual memory during a retention test 24 h later, but did not affect extinction learning or memory. Wheel running had no effect on freezing immediately after foot shock presentation during conditioning, suggesting that physical activity does not affect the acquisition of the context-shock association or alter the expression of freezing, per se. Instead, it is argued that physical activity improves the consolidation of contextual memories in the hippocampus. Consistent with improved hippocampus-dependent context learning and memory, 6 weeks of wheel running also improved context discrimination and reduced the context pre-exposure time required to form a strong contextual memory. The effect of wheel running on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in hippocampal and amygdala subregions was also investigated. Wheel running increased BDNF mRNA in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and the basolateral amygdala. Results are consistent with improved hippocampal function following physical activity.

  20. Warning system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Causes of locomotive relaxation are discussed. Alarm system against locomotive driving wheel flaccidity is designed by means of techniques of infrared temperature measurement and Hall sensor measurement. The design scheme of the system, the principle of detecting locomotive driving wheel flaccidity with temperature and Hall sensor is introduced, threshold temperature of infrared alarm is determined. The circuit system is designed by microcontroller technology and the software is designed with the assembly language. The experiment of measuring the flaccid displacement with Hall sensor measurement is simulated. The results show that the system runs well with high reliability and low cost, which has a wide prospect of application and popularization.

  1. Running to Achieve: Engaging Students in Literacy and Physical Activity through an After-School Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanzandt, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this participant-observation study is to describe rural, southern, 3rd-5th grade children's engagement in running and writing in an after-school learning community called "Running to Achieve." This study provides insights into links between physical activity and writing by using one to engage students in the other. Three…

  2. Study on the removal of pesticide in agricultural run off by granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Jusoh, Ahmad; Hartini, W J H; Ali, Nora'aini; Endut, A

    2011-05-01

    In this batch study, the adsorption of malathion by using granular activated carbon with different parameters due to the particle size, dosage of carbons, as well as the initial concentration of malathion was investigated. Batch tests were carried out to determine the potential and the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC) in removal of pesticide in agricultural run off. The granular activated carbon; coconut shell and palm shells were used and analyzed as the adsorbent material. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models were applied to describe the characteristics of adsorption behavior. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model and Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacity of 909.1mg/g. The results indicate that the GAC could be used to effectively adsorb pesticide (malathion) from agricultural runoff. PMID:21232934

  3. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  4. Grinding Wheel System

    DOEpatents

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2003-08-05

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  5. Grinding Wheel System

    DOEpatents

    Malkin, Stephen; Gao, Robert; Guo, Changsheng; Varghese, Biju; Pathare, Sumukh

    2006-01-10

    A grinding wheel system includes a grinding wheel with at least one embedded sensor. The system also includes an adapter disk containing electronics that process signals produced by each embedded sensor and that transmits sensor information to a data processing platform for further processing of the transmitted information.

  6. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  7. Reinventing the Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon; Bland, Lori C.; Chandler, Kimberley

    2009-01-01

    "The Wheel of Scientific Investigation and Reasoning" (Kramer 1987; Paul and Binker 1992) is a graphic representation of the scientific investigative process. The scientific process is depicted in a wheel rather than in a list because "the process of scientific inquiry can begin from any stage, and that stage may be revisited as often as the…

  8. Tire/wheel concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, P. M., Sr. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tire and wheel assembly is disclosed in which a low profile pneumatic tire (having sidewalls which deflect inwardly under load) and a wheel (having a rim featuring a narrow central channel and extended rim flanges) form the combination. The extended rim flanges support the tire sidewalls under static and dynamic loading conditions to produce a combination particularly suited to aircraft applications.

  9. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  10. Muscle activity while running at 20%-50% of normal body weight.

    PubMed

    Mercer, John A; Applequist, Bryon C; Masumoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on how body weight (BW) support influences running biomechanics. The study aim was to determine how reducing BW by 50%-80% influences muscle activity while running at different speeds. Subjects (n = 7) ran at 100%, 115%, 125% of preferred speed at 100%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20% of BW per speed. Average (AVG) electromyography of the rectified signal was compared (within subject design; 3-speeds × 5-BW, repeated measures ANOVAs; biceps femoris [BF], rectus femoris [RF], tibialis anterior [TA], gastrocnemius [GA]). RF, BF, and GA AVG were not influenced by BW-speed interaction (p > .05) and increased across speeds (p < .05). RF and GA AVG signal was reduced as BW was reduced (p < .05), but BF only tended to be different (p = .08). TA was influenced by BW-speed interaction (p < .05) with EMG decreasing across BW (p < .05) while increasing across speeds except at 100% BW. Overall, muscle activity increased with speed and decreased by BW reductions.

  11. Differential regulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation by opioid receptor antagonists in running and non-running spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anders I; Naylor, Andrew S; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Nyberg, Fred; Eriksson, Peter S; Thorlin, Thorleif

    2004-04-01

    Voluntary running in mice and forced treadmill running in rats have been shown to increase the amount of proliferating cells in the hippocampus. Little is known as yet about the mechanisms involved in these processes. It is well known that the endogenous opioid system is affected during running and other forms of physical exercise. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of the endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running and voluntary running rats. Nine days of wheel running was compared with non-running in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a rat strain known to run voluntarily. On the last 2 days of the experimental period all rats received two daily injections of the opioid receptor antagonists naltrexone or naltrindole together with injections of bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells. Brain sections from the running rats showed approximately a five-fold increase in newly generated cells in the hippocampus, and this increase was partly reduced by naltrexone but not by naltrindole. By contrast, both naltrexone and naltrindole increased hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats. In non-running rats the administration of naltrexone decreased corticosterone levels and adrenal gland weights, whereas no significant effects on these parameters could be detected for naltrindole. However, adrenal gland weights were increased in naltrexone- but not in naltrindole-administered running rats. In addition, in voluntary running rats there was a three-fold increase in the hippocampal levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe compared with non-runners, indicating an increase in opioid activity in the hippocampus during running. These data suggest an involvement of endogenous opioids in the regulation of hippocampal proliferation in non-running rats, probably through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation. During voluntary running in SHR naltrexone altered hippocampal proliferation via as yet unknown mechanisms. PMID:15078558

  12. Cytokine response to acute running in recreationally-active and endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan P R; Sale, Craig; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Dutton, John; Fraser, William D

    2013-07-01

    To compare the cytokine response to exhaustive running in recreationally-active (RA) and endurance-trained (ET) men. Eleven RA men (VO2max 55 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) and 10 ET men (VO₂max 68 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) followed a controlled diet and refrained from volitional exercise for 8 days. On the fourth day, participants completed 60 min of treadmill running (65 % VO₂max), followed by intermittent running to exhaustion (70 % VO₂max). Fasting blood was obtained at baseline, after 20, 40 and 60 min of exercise, at the end of intermittent exercise, during 2 h of recovery and on four follow-up days (FU1-FU4). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured. Exercise increased the concentrations of all cytokines and CK, but there were no significant differences between groups. IL-1β increased (2.2-2.5-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise, while TNF-α was increased (1.6-2.0-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise and for 2 h post-exercise. IL-6 (71-84-fold, P < 0.001) and IL-1ra (52-64-fold, P < 0.001) were increased throughout exercise and up to FU1, peaking immediately after exercise and at 1.5-2 h post-exercise, respectively. CK concentrations were increased (P < 0.001) throughout exercise and up to FU4, peaking at FU1, but were not associated with changes in any cytokines. Exhaustive running resulted in modest and transient increases in TNF-α and IL-1β, and more marked and prolonged increases in IL-6 and IL-1ra, but improved training status did not affect this response. Increased CK might indicate either exercise-induced muscle cell disruption or increased cell permeability, although neither appears to have contributed to the increased cytokine concentrations. PMID:23463480

  13. Larval ethanol exposure alters adult circadian free-running locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Seggio, Joseph A; Possidente, Bernard; Ahmad, S Tariq

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption causes disruptions in a variety of daily rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle. Few studies have explored the effect of alcohol exposure only during developmental stages preceding maturation of the adult circadian clock, and none have examined the effects of alcohol on clock function in Drosophila. This study investigates developmental and behavioral correlates between larval ethanol exposure and the adult circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster, a well-established model for studying circadian rhythms and effects of ethanol exposure. We reared Drosophila larvae on 0%, 10%, or 20% ethanol-supplemented food and assessed effects upon eclosion and the free-running period of the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity. We observed a dose-dependent effect of ethanol on period, with higher doses resulting in shorter periods. We also identified the third larval instar stage as a critical time for the developmental effects of 10% ethanol on circadian period. These results demonstrate that developmental ethanol exposure causes sustainable shortening of the adult free-running period in Drosophila melanogaster, even after adult exposure to ethanol is terminated, and suggests that the third instar is a sensitive time for this effect. PMID:22217104

  14. Science Can Be Wheel Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how teachers can use wheels of tricycles, bicycles, and trains to stimulate children with mathematics, relative position, and engineering concepts. Techniques are offered for measuring circumference of a bicycle wheel, gear ratios, and pedal wheel circumferences. Comparative data are given for various sized wheels. (Author/SA)

  15. Running Away

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  16. Sublingual Nucleotides Prolong Run Time to Exhaustion in Young Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko D.

    2013-01-01

    Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day) administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC) number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0) and post-intervention (day 14). Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05) in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males. PMID:24284618

  17. Wheeled hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  18. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  19. Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, Henriette; Christie, Brian R.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Gage, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    Running increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a brain structure that is important for memory function. Consequently, spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) were tested in groups of mice housed either with a running wheel (runners) or under standard conditions (controls). Mice were injected with bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells and trained in the Morris water maze. LTP was studied in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 in hippocampal slices from these mice. Running improved water maze performance, increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cell numbers, and selectively enhanced dentate gyrus LTP. Our results indicate that physical activity can regulate hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning. PMID:10557337

  20. Lower extremity muscle activity during deep-water running on self-determined pace.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Koichi; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Sato, Daisuke; Uekusa, Tamotsu; Nomura, Takeo

    2008-12-01

    Although deep-water running (DWR) is often used to obtain the benefits of aerobic fitness and to reduce vertical component stress, its attendant muscle stress remains unclear. The present study investigated lower extremity muscle activity and during DWR compared to that during land walking (LW) and water walking (WW). Surface electromyography was used to evaluate muscle activity in nine healthy adults during each exercise at self-determined slow, moderate, and fast paces. The duration of swing phase, ankle, knee and hip joint angle, and each joint range of motion (ROM) also investigated. Results show that the percentages of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) of the soleus and medial gastrocnemius were lower during DWR than during LW or WW in the backward swing phase. The %MVC of the rectus femoris was higher during WW and DWR than during LW; that of the vastus lateralis was lower during WW and DWR than during LW in the forward swing phase. In the biceps femoris, the %MVC was higher during DWR than during LW or WW in the forward and backward swing phase. Every pace showed a similar trend. These results suggest that DWR can stimulate the hip joint flexor or extensor muscles.

  1. Running into Trouble: Constructions of Danger and Risk in Girls' Access to Outdoor Space and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers girls' participation in running and other outdoor physical activities in their local areas in London, UK. The paper is concerned with the operation of risk discourses in and around this participation and looks at the way that such discourses impacted on girls' opportunities to take part in physical activities that required…

  2. Wheel Electrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Buehler, Martin G.; Mantovani, James G.; Buhler, Charles; Nomicki, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Two documents describe a prototype system of electrometers for measuring electrostatic fields and electrostatic responses of soils on Mars and the Moon. The electrodes of this electrometer are embedded in a wheel of an exploratory robotic vehicle, utilizing the wheel motion to bring the electrodes into proximity or contact with the soil. Each electrode resides in one of two types of sensor modules: electric-field (ELF) or triboelectric (TRIBO). In either type, what is measured is simply the electric charge induced on the electrode by exposure to the external distribution of electrostatic charge. In an ELF module, the electrode is bare and recessed radially from the wheel surface. The ELF sensor provides a measure of the charge on a small patch of undisturbed soil as the wheel rolls forward. In a TRIBO module, the electrode is only slightly recessed and covered with a polymeric insulator flush with the wheel surface. Through contact electrification, the insulator exchanges charge with the soil. There are five TRIBO sensors, each containing an insulator made of a different polymer. The charge data gathered by the five TRIBO sensors can be used to determine how the soil fits into a triboelectric series.

  3. 129. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, REBUILT WHEELS 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. SECTION OF BREAST WHEEL AND FOREBAY, REBUILT WHEELS 1, 2, 3, 1843 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MACHINERY DETAILS: CENTER WHEEL FRAME AND AXEL, JACK WHEEL FRAME, JACK NUT HOUSING, JACK NUT, ETC. - Niantic River Swing Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  5. Active brownian particles and run-and-tumble particles: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, A. P.; Cates, M. E.; Tailleur, J.

    2015-07-01

    Active Brownian particles (ABPs) and Run-and-Tumble particles (RTPs) both self-propel at fixed speed v along a body-axis u that reorients either through slow angular diffusion (ABPs) or sudden complete randomisation (RTPs). We compare the physics of these two model systems both at microscopic and macroscopic scales. Using exact results for their steady-state distribution in the presence of external potentials, we show that they both admit the same effective equilibrium regime perturbatively that breaks down for stronger external potentials, in a model-dependent way. In the presence of collisional repulsions such particles slow down at high density: their propulsive effort is unchanged, but their average speed along u becomes v(ρ) < v. A fruitful avenue is then to construct a mean-field description in which particles are ghost-like and have no collisions, but swim at a variable speed v that is an explicit function or functional of the density ρ. We give numerical evidence that the recently shown equivalence of the fluctuating hydrodynamics of ABPs and RTPs in this case, which we detail here, extends to microscopic models of ABPs and RTPs interacting with repulsive forces.

  6. Acute changes in muscle activation and leg extension performance after different running exercises in elite long distance runners.

    PubMed

    Vuorimaa, Timo; Virlander, Rami; Kurkilahti, Pasi; Vasankari, Tommi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated acute changes in muscle activation and muscular power performance after three different running exercises in elite long-distance runners. Twenty-two nationally and internationally ranked long-distance runners performed first an incremental treadmill running test until exhaustion (MR) and then 40 min continuous (TR) and intermittent (2 min run/2 min rest) (IR) running exercises at an intensity of 80 and 100% of the velocity associated with VO(2max), respectively. Muscle activation and muscular power performance tests (counter-movement jumps, CMJ, and a set of ten maximal half squats from the static starting position with an extra load of 35% of the subjects, one repetition maximum) were performed before and immediately after the runs. The average mechanical power (P) of the half squats was calculated and the root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) from the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was recorded simultaneously during the half squat performances. The results showed an acute exercise-induced increase in P (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000) together with a reduction in EMGrms of the knee extensor muscles (ANOVA time effect, P = 0.000). However, mechanical P expressed as a relative change within the set decreased after MR. In TR the improvement in P correlated positively with the maximal running performance of the runners (P < 0.05), while in IR it correlated negatively (P < 0.05). Jumping performance was significantly enhanced after each run (P < 0.001, for all) and the improvement correlated negatively with the maximal sprinting speed and maximal jumping height of the runners (P < 0.01, for all). It is concluded that in elite long distance runners an intensive prolonged running exercise reduces the surface EMG of the knee extensor muscles, and may lead to a different coordination strategy in leg extension exercises performed into the vertical direction. After continuous type of running the power

  7. Divergent physical activity and novel alternative responses to high fat feeding in polygenic fat and lean mice.

    PubMed

    Simoncic, Matjaz; Horvat, Simon; Stevenson, Paula L; Bünger, Lutz; Holmes, Megan C; Kenyon, Christopher J; Speakman, John R; Morton, Nicholas M

    2008-05-01

    We determined whether altered physical activity levels might underlie the contrasting adiposity of a divergently selected polygenic murine model of metabolic syndrome (Fat; F) and leanness (Lean; L) mice. We measured physical activity with a long term running wheel experiment and performed an additional high fat diet intervention. Further, we measured posture allocation by visual monitoring within the home cage as a non-exercise correlate of 'normal' physical activity. Whilst initially similar, running wheel activity of the F line declined with age, while the activity of the L line increased. Food intake was higher in the L line and increased with wheel exposure. Vertical rearing measured by video quantification in the home cage, without the stimulus of a running wheel was also significantly higher in the L line. The two lines developed novel alternate strategies to defend their body weight when exposed to high fat diets with a running wheel. F mice increased their running wheel activity, and despite unaltered food intake, still gained weight. L mice reduced their food intake and maintained activity levels without a significant change in body weight. Phenotypic selection for divergence in body fat content has co-segregated with a genetic predisposition for divergent physical activity levels and different strategies for coping with exposure to high fat diets that will facilitate the discovery of the genes underlying these important obesity related traits.

  8. Portable, wheeled cooler apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, A.E.; Miller, J.L.

    1988-02-16

    A portable, wheeled cooler apparatus adapted to be supported on and easily moved along a support surface is described comprising; (a) a cooler chest assembly including a support container member having an enclosure lid member connected thereto to hold ice and/or other contents therein for insulating purposes; (b) a support wheel assembly connected to the cooler chest assembly operable for supporting on the support surface; and (c) a combination handle and lock assembly connected to an upright wall of the support container member of the cooler chest assembly and operable (1) in one position extended over the enclosure lid member and against another upright wall of the support container member to hold the cooler chest assembly in an enclosed, locked condition; and (2) in a second extended rigid condition to provide a handle assembly for ease of inclining and moving the cooler chest assembly by pulling or pushing on the support wheel assembly.

  9. Rover wheel & tracks - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view from the Sojourner rover's rear color camera shows wheel tracks in the orange-red martian soil. One of the rover's cleated wheels is visible at left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Wheeling Your Way Through the Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, John H.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Plant Wheel" by the University of California Botanical Garden as a means of providing elementary school children with a structured activity as they explore the Garden at their own pace. This activity accommodates the children's curiosity, energy, and attention span. (JR)

  11. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  12. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  13. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  14. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  15. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall...

  16. The Wheels of Stress Go 'Round and 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    "The Wheels of Stress Go Round and Round" teaching idea uses three activity wheels to reinforce stress-related content and concepts. After presenting a definition of stress, the instructor assists students in identifying stressors, and aids in formulating a list of negative, reactive behaviors and a list of positive coping mechanisms. Using…

  17. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlich, D.

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  18. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  19. Accumulated oxygen deficit and shuttle run performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, R; Nevill, M E; Nevill, A M; Hazeldine, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the validity of using shuttle run performance over 20 m to predict accumulated oxygen deficit. A new high-intensity shuttle run test (HIST) was devised, during which subjects ran to exhaustion at a speed equivalent to 120% of their performance attained during a progressive shuttle run test. The reliability of the new test was examined and found to be acceptable for 18 subjects who performed the test twice on separate days (r = 0.84, P < 0.01, study I). The discriminating ability of the new test was examined by comparing the distance covered by eight sprint- and eight endurance-trained athletes at 120% of their respective progressive shuttle run performances (615 +/- 111 vs 273 +/- 84 m, P < 0.01, study II). The strongest predictor of accumulated oxygen deficit for 27 subjects was found to be the geometric mean of the performances on the new test and on the progressive shuttle run test (r = 0.74, study III). The regression equation for this relationship was then used to estimate the accumulated oxygen deficit for a second group of 16 subjects (study IV). The correlation between the estimated and measured accumulated oxygen deficits was significant (r = 0.79, P < 0.01). The results from studies III and IV were therefore combined with the data from six new subjects to give a regression equation for predictive purposes based on 49 subjects.

  20. Long-term voluntary running improves diet-induced adiposity in young adult mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of long-term voluntary running on diet-induced adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Four-week old mice (n = 15 per group) were fed the AIN93G diet or a 45% high-fat diet (% kcal.) with or without access to in-cage activity wheels for 14 weeks. The high-fat die...

  1. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFelice, Audrey

    2012-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 19 Program 12771.

  2. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 18 Program 12410.

  3. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFelice, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 20 Program 13140.

  4. Slit Wheel Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Test the repeatibility of the slit wheel by taking a sequence of comparison lamp spectra with grating G230MB {2697} and the three smallest long slits {52X0.2, 52X0.1, and 52X0.05}. This is a clone of Cycle 17 Program 11851.

  5. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  6. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  7. Testing Spirit on Five Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture shows a model of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit being tested for performance on five wheels at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Spirit's right front wheel, now operating at six times its design life, has been showing signs of age, so rover planners devised a creative approach to keep the rover moving. They will drive Spirit backwards on five wheels, engaging the sixth wheel only sparingly to ensure its availability for tougher terrain. Tests performed at JPL allowed the rover planners to come up with this roundabout solution, and to develop commands that will help the five-wheeled rover steer.

  8. Stormwater run-off and pollutant transport related to the activities carried out in a modern waste management park.

    PubMed

    Marques, M; Hogland, W

    2001-02-01

    Stormwater run-off from twelve different areas and roads has been characterized in a modern waste disposal site, where several waste management activities are carried out. Using nonparametric statistics, medians and confidence intervals of the medians, 22 stormwater quality parameters were calculated. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, as well as run-off from several areas, showed measured values above standard limits for discharge into recipient waters--even higher than those of leachate from covered landfill cells. Of the heavy metals analyzed, copper, zinc and nickel were the most prevalent, being detected in every sample. Higher concentrations of metals such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron and cadmium were found in run-off from composting areas, compared to areas containing stored and exposed scrap metal. This suggests that factors other than the total amount of exposed material affect the concentration of metals in run-off, such as binding to organic compounds and hydrological transport efficiency. The pollutants transported by stormwater represent a significant environmental threat, comparable to leachate. Careful design, monitoring and maintenance of stormwater run-off drainage systems and infiltration elements are needed if infiltration is to be used as an on-site treatment strategy.

  9. Using the Activity-based Anorexia Rodent Model to Study the Neurobiological Basis of Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by excessively restricted caloric intake and abnormally high levels of physical activity. A challenging illness to treat, due to the lack of understanding of the underlying neurobiology, AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. To address this need, neuroscientists are using an animal model to study how neural circuits may contribute toward vulnerability to AN and may be affected by AN. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a bio-behavioral phenomenon described in rodents that models the key symptoms of anorexia nervosa. When rodents with free access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel experience food restriction, they become hyperactive – running more than animals with free access to food. Here, we describe the procedures by which ABA is induced in adolescent female C57BL/6 mice. On postnatal day 36 (P36), the animal is housed with access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel. After 4 days of acclimation to the running wheel, on P40, all food is removed from the cage. For the next 3 days, food is returned to the cage (allowing animals free food access) for 2 hr daily. After the fourth day of food restriction, free access to food is returned and the running wheel is removed from the cage to allow the animals to recover. Continuous multi-day analysis of running wheel activity shows that mice become hyperactive within 24 hr following the onset of food restriction. The mice run even during the limited time during which they have access to food. Additionally, the circadian pattern of wheel running becomes disrupted by the experience of food restriction. We have been able to correlate neurobiological changes with various aspects of the animals’ wheel running behavior to implicate particular brain regions and neurochemical changes with resilience and vulnerability to food-restriction induced hyperactivity. PMID:26555618

  10. Using the Activity-based Anorexia Rodent Model to Study the Neurobiological Basis of Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-10-22

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by excessively restricted caloric intake and abnormally high levels of physical activity. A challenging illness to treat, due to the lack of understanding of the underlying neurobiology, AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. To address this need, neuroscientists are using an animal model to study how neural circuits may contribute toward vulnerability to AN and may be affected by AN. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a bio-behavioral phenomenon described in rodents that models the key symptoms of anorexia nervosa. When rodents with free access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel experience food restriction, they become hyperactive - running more than animals with free access to food. Here, we describe the procedures by which ABA is induced in adolescent female C57BL/6 mice. On postnatal day 36 (P36), the animal is housed with access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel. After 4 days of acclimation to the running wheel, on P40, all food is removed from the cage. For the next 3 days, food is returned to the cage (allowing animals free food access) for 2 hr daily. After the fourth day of food restriction, free access to food is returned and the running wheel is removed from the cage to allow the animals to recover. Continuous multi-day analysis of running wheel activity shows that mice become hyperactive within 24 hr following the onset of food restriction. The mice run even during the limited time during which they have access to food. Additionally, the circadian pattern of wheel running becomes disrupted by the experience of food restriction. We have been able to correlate neurobiological changes with various aspects of the animals' wheel running behavior to implicate particular brain regions and neurochemical changes with resilience and vulnerability to food-restriction induced hyperactivity.

  11. Development of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering model of a magnetically suspended momentum wheel was designed, fabricated, and tested under laboratory conditions. The basic unit consisted of two magnet bearings, a sculptured aluminum rotor, brushless dc spin motor, and electronics. The magnet bearings, utilizing rare-earth cobltrat-samarium magnets were active radially and passive axially. The results of the program showed that momentum wheels with magnetic bearings are feasible and operable, and that magnetic bearings of this type are capable of being used for applications where high capacity, high stiffness, and low power consumption are required. The tests performed developed criteria for improved performance for future designs.

  12. Hydrodynamic analysis of the wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehr, Young-Zehr

    The flow distribution in a propeller and the effect of the wheel on the propeller were investigated. The quasistationary flow distribution was determined on the basis of the lifting-line theory with lifting-surface correction. The unsteady static pressure and the resulting cavitation number at the propeller part of the wheel were determined. The geometry of the free vortex surfaces was approximated using experimental data and an iteration process. The calculated effect of the wheel on the propeller with respect to induced speeds shows good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that the calculated thrust gain by the wheel is hardly influenced by the distance propeller-wheel, in agreement with measured data. Application of the proposed discretization method to propeller-wheel systems gives satisfactory results, and shows that cavitation danger at the propeller part of the wheel in free-floating conditions is not to be expected, while the usual wake concentration certainly leads to cavitation danger.

  13. The influence of the run intensity on bioelectrical activity of selected human leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Mastalerz, Andrzej; Gwarek, Lucyna; Sadowski, Jerzy; Szczepański, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the electromyographic (EMG) fatigue representations in muscles of male runners during run at different level of intensity. In this study, the EMG signals for the rectus femoris and biceps femoris (long head) were collected by bipolar electrodes from the left and right lower extremities. EMG measurements were recorded during the run on tartan athletic track. Four professional athletes had to run a 400 m distance with a different intensity. The first distance of 400 m took 90 s; the second, 70 s; the third, 60 s; and the last one was covered with a maximal velocity until exhaustion. Power spectral analysis of EMG signals was carried out to calculate MPF. The results of our study revealed the efforts of different intensity for each muscle individually. The effect of fatigue was observed only in the case of running with the highest velocity. The biggest changes in MPF were observed for BF (23.6%) and RF (19.5%) muscles of the left leg and then for BF (17.5%) and RF (12.5%) ones of the right leg. We supposed that those differences between the right and left legs were mainly due to the curve of the track where those muscles are differently loaded.

  14. 78 FR 15403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Company-Run...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ...). \\5\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 61238, October 9, 2012. The OCC intends to use the data... institutions with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more.\\7\\ \\7\\ See 77 FR 49485 for the Paperwork...; Comment Request; Company-Run Annual Stress Test Reporting Template and Documentation for...

  15. Effect of marathon run and air travel on pre- and post-run soluble d-dimer, microparticle procoagulant activity, and p-selectin levels.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Augeri, Amanda L; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Ballard, Kevin D; Kupchak, Brian R; Volek, Jeffrey S; Troyanos, Christopher; Kriz, Peter; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Thompson, Paul D

    2012-05-15

    D-dimer, microparticles, and p-selectin are venous thrombotic risk markers. Elevated p-selectin is associated with increased cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of exercise and air travel on the markers of vascular risk in marathon runners. Forty-one persons participating in the 114th Boston Marathon (April 19, 2010) were divided into travel (n = 23) and nontravel "control" (n = 18) groups according to whether they lived more than a 4-hour plane flight or less than a 2-hour car trip from Boston. The subjects provided venous blood samples the day before, immediately after, and after returning home the day after the marathon. The blood was analyzed for soluble d-dimer, microparticle procoagulant activity, and p-selectin. D-dimer levels increased more before to immediately after (142 ± 83 to 387 ± 196 ng/mL) in the travel group than in the controls (85 ± 26 to 233 ± 95 ng/mL; p = 0.02). Moreover, 6 travel subjects versus 0 controls had d-dimer values >500 ng/mL after returning home the day after the marathon, the clinical threshold for excluding venous thrombosis (p = 0.03). P-selectin increased with exercise (p <0.01) regardless of travel (p = 0.09) but age was related to p-selectin (p = 0.01) such that older subjects exhibited greater p-selectin values before (r(2) = 0.14; p = 0.02) and after returning home the day after the marathon (r(2) = 0.16, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and travel increases venous and arterial thrombotic risk. Moreover, the p-selectin levels at rest and after exercise were greater with age. These results might explain the reports of venous thrombosis with air travel after athletic events and the reports of cardiac events in older participants running marathons.

  16. Physical Activity and Food Consumption in High- and Low-Active Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Alan P.; Curtis, Tamera S.; Turner, Michael J.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of innate activity level and running wheel access on food consumption in high-active (SWR/J) low-active (DBA/2J) mice. Methods Two strains of inbred mice were used in this study due to their high activity level (SWR/J) and low activity level (DBA/2J). The mice were housed in individual cages, and half of the mice in each strain had free access to running wheels in their cages, while the other mice received no running wheel. All mice consumed standard chow and water ad libitum for 13 weeks during the study period. Running-wheel activity (daily), food consumption (bi-weekly), and body mass (weekly) were recorded. Results SWR/J runners consumed more food (6.0±0.4g/day) than SWR/J non-runners (4.7±0.2g/day; p=0.03), DBA/2J runners (4.6±0.2g/day; p=0.02), and DBA/2J non-runners (4.2±0.2g/day; p=0.006). SWR/J non-runners consumed more food than DBA/2J non-runners (p=0.03). Average daily distance and duration were significantly greater for the SWR/J runners (6.4±0.7km/day and 333.6±40.5min/day, respectively) compared to the DBA/2J runners (1.6±0.4km/day and 91.3±23.0min/day, respectively). There was a significant correlation between food consumption and distance (r=0.74, p<0.001), duration (r=0.68, p<0.001), and speed (r=0.58, p<0.001), respectively, in all mice. However, when considering the individuals strains, the relationship between running-wheel activity and food consumption was only statistically significant for the SWR/J mice. Conclusion Higher running-wheel activity in mice was associated with increased food consumption in the SWR/J mice but not the DBA/2J mice. In DBA/2J mice the addition of a running wheel did not result in increased food consumption, suggesting energy expenditure of non-wheel cage activity in the control DBA/2J mice was similar to the energy expenditure of the wheel activity since body mass was similar between the two groups. PMID:20216465

  17. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Type 27A cutting-off wheels. (g) Certain internal wheels. (h) Type 4 tapered wheels. (i) Diamond wheels, except certain vitrified diamond wheels. (j) Modified Types 6 and 11 wheel (terrazzo)—blotters... internal wheels. (viii) Type 4 tapered wheels. (ix) Diamond wheels, except certain vitrified diamond...

  18. Wheel loader round up

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-02-15

    Operator comfort and serviceability remain important features of front-end loaders or wheel loaders. The article reports on features of the latest large loaders from three companies: Caterpillar (the 992G and 994F), Komatsu (the WA800-3, WA900-3 and WA1200-3), and Le Tourneau (the L-950, L-1350, L-1850 and L-2350). 1 tab., 4 photos.

  19. Exogenous progesterone exacerbates running response of adolescent female mice to repeated food restriction stress by changing α4-GABAA receptor activity of hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Wable, G S; Chen, Y-W; Rashid, S; Aoki, C

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent females are particularly vulnerable to mental illnesses with co-morbidity of anxiety, such as anorexia nervosa (AN). We used an animal model of AN, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), to investigate the neurobiological basis of vulnerability to repeated, food restriction (FR) stress-evoked anxiety. Twenty-one of 23 adolescent female mice responded to the 1st FR with increased wheel-running activity (WRA), even during the limited period of food access, thereby capturing AN's symptoms of voluntary FR and over-exercise. Baseline WRA was an excellent predictor of FR-elicited WRA (severity of ABA, SOA), with high baseline runners responding to FR with minimal SOA (i.e., negative correlation). Nine gained resistance to ABA following the 1st FR. Even though allopregnanolone (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one, THP), the metabolite of progesterone (P4), is a well-recognized anxiolytic agent, subcutaneous P4 to these ABA-resistant animals during the 2nd FR was exacerbative, evoking greater WRA than the counterpart resistant group that received oil vehicle, only. Moreover, P4 had no WRA-reducing effect on animals that remained ABA-vulnerable. To explain the sensitizing effect of P4 upon the resistant mice, we examined the relationship between P4 treatment and levels of the α4 subunit of GABAARs at spines of pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1, a parameter previously shown to correlate with resistance to ABA. α4 levels at spine membrane correlated strongly and negatively with SOA during the 1st ABA (prior to P4 injection), confirming previous findings. α4 levels were greater among P4-treated animals that had gained resistance than of vehicle-treated resistant animals or of the vulnerable animals with or without P4. We propose that α4-GABAARs play a protective role by counterbalancing the ABA-induced increase in excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and although exogenous P4's metabolite, THP, enhances α4 expression, especially among those that can gain resistance

  20. Experiments with Electrodynamic Wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Nathan; Corey, Daniel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian

    2015-04-01

    Our experiments were involving inductive magnetic levitation. A Halbach array is a system in which a series of magnets is arranged in a manner such that the magnetic field is cancelled on one side of the array while strengthening the field on the other. We constructed two circular Halbach wheels, making the strong magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such system is usually dubbed as an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We demonstrated that these interactions produce both drag and lift forces on the EDW which can theoretically be used for lift and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is determining how to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio by the proper choice of the induction element. We will also describe our experiments with a rotating circular Halbach array having the strong magnetic field of about 1 T on the flat side of the ring, and acting as a hovercraft.

  1. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  2. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  3. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  4. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  5. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  6. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  7. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  8. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  9. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  10. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  11. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  12. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must...

  13. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  14. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  15. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c)...

  16. 49 CFR 393.205 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels. 393.205 Section 393.205 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.205 Wheels. (a) Wheels and rims shall not be cracked or broken. (b) Stud or bolt holes on the wheels...

  17. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  18. Control of Single Wheel Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yangsheng; Ou, Yongsheng

    This monograph presents a novel concept of a mobile robot, which is a single-wheel, gyroscopically stabilized robot. The robot is balanced by a spinning wheel attached through a two-link manipulator at the wheel bearing, and actuated by a drive motor. This configuration conveys significant advantages including insensitivity to attitude disturbances, high maneuverability, low rolling resistance, ability to recover from falls, and amphibious capability for potential applications on both land and water.

  19. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  20. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  1. Square Wheels and Other Easy-To-Build Hands-On Science Activities. An Exploratorium Science Snackbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathjen, Don; Doherty, Paul

    This book, part of The Exploratorium science "snackbook" series, explains science with a hands-on approach. Activities include: (1) "3-D Shadow"; (2) "Bits and Bytes"; (3) "Circuit Workbench"; (4) "Diamagnetic Repulsion"; (5) "Film Can Racer"; (6) "Fractal Patterns"; (7) "Hoop Nightmares"; (8) "Hydraulic Arm"; (9) "Hyperbolic Slot"; (10) "Light…

  2. Opportunity Rolls Free Again (Four Wheels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This animated piece illustrates the recent escape of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from dangerous, loose material on the vast plains leading to the rover's next long-term target, 'Victoria Crater.'

    A series of images from the front and rear hazard-avoidance cameras make up this brief movie chronicling the challenge Opportunity faced to free itself from the ripple dubbed 'Jammerbugt.' Each quadrant shows one of the rover's four corner wheels: left front wheel in upper left, right front wheel in upper right, rear wheels in the lower quadrants. The wheels became partially embedded in the ripple at the end of a drive on Opportunity's 833rd Martian day, or sol (May 28, 2006). The images in this clip were taken on sols 836 through 841 (May 31 through June 5, 2006).

    Scientists and engineers who had been elated at the meters of progress the rover had been making in earlier drives were happy for even centimeters of advance per sol as they maneuvered their explorer through the slippery material of Jammerbugt. The wheels reached solid footing on a rock outcrop on the final sol of this sequence.

    The science and engineering teams appropriately chose the ripple's informal from name the name of a bay on the north coast of Denmark. Jammerbugt, or Jammerbugten, loosely translated, means Bay of Lamentation or Bay of Wailing. The shipping route from the North Sea to the Baltic passes Jammerbugt on its way around the northern tip of Jutland. This has always been an important trade route and many ships still pass by the bay. The prevailing wind directions are typically northwest to southwest with the strongest winds and storms tending to blow from the northwest. A northwesterly wind will blow straight into the Jammerbugt, towards shore. Therefore, in the age of sail, many ships sank there during storms. The shore is sandy, but can have strong waves, so running aground was very dangerous even though there are no rocks.

    Fortunately, Opportunity

  3. Sleep and activity rhythms in mice: a description of circadian patterns and unexpected disruptions in sleep.

    PubMed

    Mitler, M M; Lund, R; Sokolove, P G; Pittendrigh, C S; Dement, W C

    1977-08-01

    Studies on daily and circadian rhythms in wheel running and electrographically defined wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep in M. musculus were done to gather data on the temporal distribution of activity and sleep. Generally, peaks in NREM and sleep tended to coincide and to alternate with the coincident peaks of wakefulness and wheel running. However, during the active phase of the circadian wheel running cycle some NREM and REM sleep did occur; conversely, during its rest phase, wakefulness was often present. The most striking finding was that in mice with clearly entrained or free-running activity onsets, the circadian peak-through patterns in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep were not always distinct--they could be damped and/or polyphasic. Several explanations of these phenomena are considered. PMID:195675

  4. Periodic roads and quantized wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple approach to determine all possible wheels that can roll smoothly without slipping on a periodic roadbed, while maintaining the center of mass at a fixed height. We also address the inverse problem that of obtaining the roadbed profile compatible with a specific wheel and all other related "quantized wheels." The role of symmetry is highlighted, which might preclude the center of mass from remaining at a fixed height. A straightforward consequence of such geometric quantization is that the gravitational potential energy and the moment of inertia are discrete, suggesting a parallelism between macroscopic wheels and nano-systems, such as carbon nanotubes.

  5. Magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocking, G.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly (MSRWA) is the product of a development effort funded by the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) at Wright Patterson AFB. The specific objective of the project was to establish the manufacturing processes for samarium cobalt magnets and demonstrate their use in a space application. The development was successful on both counts. The application portion of the program, which involves the magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly, is emphasized. The requirements for the reaction wheel were based on the bias wheel requirements of the DSP satellite. The tasks included the design, fabrication, and test of the unit to the DSP program qualification requirements.

  6. Self-Damping Sprung Wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Self-damping sprung wheel provides shock-absorbing suspension for wheelchair, reducing user's discomfort when traversing rough terrain or obstacles. Pair of self-damping sprung wheels installed in place of conventional large rear wheels of standard wheelchair, which user operates in conventional manner. Rim deflects in vicinity of contact with ground or floor. Includes inner and outer hoops bending when obstacle encountered. Shear deformation of elastomeric hoop between them absorbs energy. Thus, three hoops act together as damping spring. Alternative version of wheel designed for bicycle.

  7. A Wheeled Mobile Device for Deployment of Surface and Subsurface Instruments and for Subsurface Sampling on Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Bernasconi, M.; Haapanala, S.; Steiner, R.; Coste, P.

    2003-04-01

    shifting the center-of-mass, should the vehicle fall on its side. All wheels and the two folding levers are individually driven by brushless DC motors located inside a thermal enclosure in the vehicle cab. Except for the actuators and drive mechanisms, the enclosure houses a central electronics unit which also provides pre-processing of payload data. For the power supply and communications, a tether link to the lander is used, allowing a maximum range of some 20 m. As to the tether type, a flexible printed circuit was chosen which allows efficient packaging of the tether on board the vehicle. The wheel design was based on theoretical and experimental studies on tractive performance of small wheels on planetary soils being one of the subjects of the MIDD activity, involving a dedicated soil channel at DLR. As a result, the vehicle wheels were chosen to be rigid while featuring a wire mesh running surface and chevron-shaped grousers. Mass of a flight unit is projected to be around 2.9 kg, excluding the vehicle payload. The principal design philosophy for MIDD has been: conservative design with sufficient margins (i.e., provision of thermal enclosure for instruments); early component development and realistic environmental testing (mechanism functional testing in Thermal Vacuum; dust sealing test with mechanisms operating in simulated airborne dust environment of Mars).

  8. Four-wheel dual braking for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    Each master cylinder applies braking power to all four wheels unlike conventional systems where cylinder operates only two wheels. If one master system fails because of fluid loss, other stops car by braking all four wheels although at half force.

  9. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  10. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  11. Constructing a Celestial Calendar Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousineau, Sarah M.

    1999-01-01

    Explains how to create a paper replica of the Bighorn Medicine Wheel, an ancient timepiece thought to have been constructed by the Lakota Indians around 1700 A.D. The Bighorn Wheel uses four key seasonal stars as well as the solstice sunrise and sunset to mark the passage of time through the summer. (WRM)

  12. Color Wheels Can Be Creative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating color wheels is an appropriate assignment in the art classroom for students of all ages, including high school students, because it still offers older students a challenge. Discusses how students can create color wheels and lists the materials that are needed. (CMK)

  13. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  14. Commercial runs show TiO/sub 2/ Claus catalyst retains activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nougayrede, J.; Philippe, A.; Quesmerel, E.; Vermeersch, R.

    1987-08-10

    Commercial data are given for the CRS 31 Claus catalyst, jointly developed by Rhone Poulenc and Societe Nationale Elf Aquitane (Production) (SNEA). The data confirm laboratory results that show the catalyst's ability to deliver more complete hydrolysis in the first reactor of Claus sulfur recovery plants, and its ability to maintain activity in the second and third reactors. The most important losses in sulfur yields in Claus plants generally come from COS and CS/sub 2/ formed in the thermal steps of the process in the first reactor, and from the low Claus activity of alumina-based catalysts in the second and third reactors. In the first reactor, loaded with alumina-based catalyst, hydrolysis is only partial. Low Claus activity in second and third reactors is caused by the inevitable sulfation of the alumina. Catalytic-activity decrease of aluminas is caused particularly by the presence of oxygen, even in trace amounts, in the Claus gases. Therefore, in the first reactor, the CS/sub 2/ hydrolysis rate is lowered in the subsequent reactors, the H/sub 2/ + SO/sub 2/ conversion significantly drops. The chemical composition of CRS 31, TiO/sub 2/ only, in the same operating conditions, causes a significant improvement in activity because of its increased resistance to sulfation. The economics of the process are given.

  15. Rover Wheel Sizes (Isometric)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars rovers keep getting bigger. This photo provides a comparison of the wheel sizes for three generations of them. The first rover on Mars was Sojourner, on the Mars Pathfinder mission launched in 1996. It was small and didn't go far. The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, launched in 2003, are bigger and have driven many times farther than expected. The Mars Science Laboratory, in development for a 200 launch, represents another leap in capability. It will carry its onboard chemistry laboratory long distances.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built Sojourner, Spirit and Opportunity, and is building the Mars Science Laboratory. It has managed these missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  16. Three-wheeled motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Irimajiri, S.; Komuro, K.; Aikawa, K.

    1986-03-04

    A three-wheeled motor vehicle is described consisting of: (a) a vehicle body; (b) two front wheels rotatably mounted on the vehicle body; (c) a single rear wheel rotatably mounted on the vehicle body; (d) an engine disposed on the vehicle body between the front wheels; (e) a driver's compartment defined in the vehicle body; (f) the vehicle body including a front portion covering the engine and the front wheels and a rear portion disposed behind the front portion and covering the compartment and the rear wheel, the front portion having a relatively wide and flat shape and the rear portion being narrower than the front portion and progressively higher in a rearward direction for a substantial proportion of the rear portion; and (g) the vehicle body also including lateral wing portions on each side extending longitudinally rearwardly from behind the front wheels and tapering into the rear portion for causing the vehicle body to have a substantially constant cross-sectional area throughout a substantial proportion of both the front and rear portions and the transition between the front and rear portions for producing an aerodynamically improved vehicle body shape.

  17. Running Simulations without Ruining Your Life: Simple Ways to Incorporate Active Learning into Your Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazier, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing availability and popularity of simulations and other active teaching techniques, many instructors may be deterred from using simulations because of the potentially high costs involved. Instructors could spend a preponderance of their time and resources developing and executing simulations, but such an approach is not necessary.…

  18. Study on the Factors Which Cause the Wheel Skidding of JR Ltd. Express EMUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Naoki; Hirota, Yukihiko; Omichi, Tamaki; Hirama, Jyunji; Nagase, Kazuhiko

    Authors made an experimental event recorder, which can record not only the behavior of a train, but also accurately identify the site of the track where wheel slip and spin occur. The recorder was installed on a JR Ltd Express electric motive unite operated on conventional lines. They analyzed the date piled up in the recorder, and found several wayside factors which cause the wheel skiddings. The wheel skid occurrence rate par a 1000km train running distance was discussed under various weather conditions. Moreover, the results of the investigation were also discussed on the wheel skid occurrence rate in a snow bound area and the relationship between a snow weather condition and wheel skid occurrence rate.

  19. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  20. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  1. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  2. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  3. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  4. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  5. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  6. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  7. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  8. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  9. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  10. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  11. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  12. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  13. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  14. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  15. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  16. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  17. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics... § 23.731 Wheels. (a) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...) The maximum limit load rating of each wheel must equal or exceed the maximum radial limit...

  18. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main and nose wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  19. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  20. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 29.731 Section 29.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less...

  1. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheels. 27.731 Section 27.731 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  2. Active regulation of longitudinal arch compression and recoil during walking and running.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Luke A; Lichtwark, Glen; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal arch (LA) of the human foot compresses and recoils in response to being cyclically loaded. This has typically been considered a passive process, however, it has recently been shown that the plantar intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to actively assist in controlling LA motion. Here we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic foot muscles, abductor hallucis (AH), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and quadratus plantae (QP), actively lengthen and shorten during the stance phase of gait in response to loading of the foot. Nine participants walked at 1.25 m s⁻¹ and ran at 2.78 and 3.89 m s⁻¹ on a force-instrumented treadmill while foot and ankle kinematics were recorded according to a multisegment foot model. Muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths, determined from the foot kinematics, and intramuscular electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from AH, FDB and QP. Peak EMG amplitude was determined during the stance phase for each participant at each gait velocity. All muscles underwent a process of slow active lengthening during LA compression, followed by a rapid shortening as the arch recoiled during the propulsive phase. Changes in MTU length and peak EMG increased significantly with increasing gait velocity for all muscles. This is the first in vivo evidence that the plantar intrinsic foot muscles function in parallel to the plantar aponeurosis, actively regulating the stiffness of the foot in response to the magnitude of forces encountered during locomotion. These muscles may therefore contribute to power absorption and generation at the foot, limit strain on the plantar aponeurosis and facilitate efficient foot ground force transmission.

  3. Active regulation of longitudinal arch compression and recoil during walking and running

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Luke A.; Lichtwark, Glen; Cresswell, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal arch (LA) of the human foot compresses and recoils in response to being cyclically loaded. This has typically been considered a passive process, however, it has recently been shown that the plantar intrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to actively assist in controlling LA motion. Here we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic foot muscles, abductor hallucis (AH), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and quadratus plantae (QP), actively lengthen and shorten during the stance phase of gait in response to loading of the foot. Nine participants walked at 1.25 m s−1 and ran at 2.78 and 3.89 m s−1 on a force-instrumented treadmill while foot and ankle kinematics were recorded according to a multisegment foot model. Muscle–tendon unit (MTU) lengths, determined from the foot kinematics, and intramuscular electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from AH, FDB and QP. Peak EMG amplitude was determined during the stance phase for each participant at each gait velocity. All muscles underwent a process of slow active lengthening during LA compression, followed by a rapid shortening as the arch recoiled during the propulsive phase. Changes in MTU length and peak EMG increased significantly with increasing gait velocity for all muscles. This is the first in vivo evidence that the plantar intrinsic foot muscles function in parallel to the plantar aponeurosis, actively regulating the stiffness of the foot in response to the magnitude of forces encountered during locomotion. These muscles may therefore contribute to power absorption and generation at the foot, limit strain on the plantar aponeurosis and facilitate efficient foot ground force transmission. PMID:25551151

  4. Physical activity and body composition outcomes of the GreatFun2Run intervention at 20 month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. GreatFun2Run was a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention that showed positive changes in physical activity levels and body composition immediately post-intervention. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether these changes in physical activity and body composition were maintained 18-20 months after the intervention ended. Method Participants (n = 589, aged 7-11 yrs) from 4 intervention and 4 control schools took part in the 10-month intervention, of which 421 (71%) were present for follow-up. The intervention comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks); a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Randomisation was not possible because of local media content. Outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers) and body composition variables (body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, and sum of skinfolds). Teacher interviews and participant focus groups were conducted. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Both control and intervention participants had increased their physical activity at follow-up but there was no group by time interaction (control: 2726 steps per day increase; intervention 3404 steps per day increase, p > .05). There were significant increases in estimated percent body fat, sum of skinfolds, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) with increasing age. In the control group, there was evidence for a plateauing in the rate of change in all body composition variables with increasing age, except BMI. In contrast, significant interaction terms suggest that the rate of change in waist circumference, BMI and BMISDS continued to

  5. Effects of a 12-week intervention period with football and running for habitually active men with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, C; Sennhauser, C; Toigo, M; Boutellier, U; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of football (F, n=15) training on the health profile of habitually active 25-45-year-old men with mild hypertension and compared it with running (R, n=15) training and no additional activity (controls, C, n=17). The participants in F and R completed a 1-h training session 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in all groups but the decrease in diastolic blood pressure in F (-9 +/- 5 (+/- SD) mmHg) was higher than that in C (-4 +/- 6 mmHg). F was as effective as R in decreasing body mass (-1.6 +/- 1.8 vs-1.5 +/- 2.1 kg) and total fat mass (-2.0 +/- 1.5 vs -1.6 +/- 1.5 kg) and in increasing supine heart rate variability, whereas no changes were detected for C. Maximal stroke volume improved in F (+13.1%) as well as in R (+10.1%) compared with C (-4.9%). Total cholesterol decreased in F (5.8 +/- 1.2 to 5.5 +/- 0.9 mmol/L) but was not altered in R and C. We conclude that football training, consisting of high-intensity intermittent exercise, results in positive effects on blood pressure, body composition, stroke volume and supine heart rate variability, and elicits at least the same cardiovascular health benefits as continuous running exercise in habitually active men with mild hypertension.

  6. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  7. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  8. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  9. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the...

  10. Opportunity Rolls Free Again (Left Front Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This animated piece illustrates the recent escape of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from dangerous, loose material on the vast plains leading to the rover's next long-term target, 'Victoria Crater.'

    A series of images of the rover's left front wheel, taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera, make up this brief movie. It chronicles the challenge Opportunity faced to free itself from a ripple dubbed 'Jammerbugt.' The rover's wheels became partially embedded in the ripple at the end of a drive on Opportunity's 833rd Martian day, or sol (May 28, 2006). The images in this clip were taken on sols 836 through 841 (May 31 through June 5, 2006).

    Scientists and engineers who had been elated at the meters of progress the rover had been making in earlier drives were happy for even centimeters of advance per sol as they maneuvered their explorer through the slippery material of Jammerbugt. The wheels reached solid footing on a rock outcrop on the final sol of this sequence.

    The science and engineering teams appropriately chose the ripple's informal from name the name of a bay on the north coast of Denmark. Jammerbugt, or Jammerbugten, loosely translated, means Bay of Lamentation or Bay of Wailing. The shipping route from the North Sea to the Baltic passes Jammerbugt on its way around the northern tip of Jutland. This has always been an important trade route and many ships still pass by the bay. The prevailing wind directions are typically northwest to southwest with the strongest winds and storms tending to blow from the northwest. A northwesterly wind will blow straight into the Jammerbugt, towards shore. Therefore, in the age of sail, many ships sank there during storms. The shore is sandy, but can have strong waves, so running aground was very dangerous even though there are no rocks.

    Fortunately, Opportunity weathered its 'Jammerbugt' and is again on its way toward Victoria Crater.

  11. Opportunity Rolls Free Again (Right Front Wheel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This animated piece illustrates the recent escape of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from dangerous, loose material on the vast plains leading to the rover's next long-term target, 'Victoria Crater.'

    A series of images of the rover's right front wheel, taken by the front hazard-avoidance camera, make up this brief movie. It chronicles the challenge Opportunity faced to free itself from a ripple dubbed 'Jammerbugt.' The rover's wheels became partially embedded in the ripple at the end of a drive on Opportunity's 833rd Martian day, or sol (May 28, 2006). The images in this clip were taken on sols 836 through 841 (May 31 through June 5, 2006).

    Scientists and engineers who had been elated at the meters of progress the rover had been making in earlier drives were happy for even centimeters of advance per sol as they maneuvered their explorer through the slippery material of Jammerbugt. The wheels reached solid footing on a rock outcrop on the final sol of this sequence.

    The science and engineering teams appropriately chose the ripple's informal from name the name of a bay on the north coast of Denmark. Jammerbugt, or Jammerbugten, loosely translated, means Bay of Lamentation or Bay of Wailing. The shipping route from the North Sea to the Baltic passes Jammerbugt on its way around the northern tip of Jutland. This has always been an important trade route and many ships still pass by the bay. The prevailing wind directions are typically northwest to southwest with the strongest winds and storms tending to blow from the northwest. A northwesterly wind will blow straight into the Jammerbugt, towards shore. Therefore, in the age of sail, many ships sank there during storms. The shore is sandy, but can have strong waves, so running aground was very dangerous even though there are no rocks.

    Fortunately, Opportunity weathered its 'Jammerbugt' and is again on its way toward Victoria Crater.

  12. Wind wheel electric power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.W.

    1980-03-04

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus is disclosed as including a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertically disposed support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixedly mounted upon the housing for capturing wind currents and for conducting the same to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel, all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature , together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  13. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  14. Grinding Wheel Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graphic dubbed by engineers as the 'Grinding Wheel Profile' is the detective's tool used by the Opportunity team to help them understand one of the processes that formed the interior of a rock called 'McKittrick.' Scientists are looking for clues as to how layers, grains and minerals helped create this rock, and the engineers who built the rock abrasion tool (RAT) wanted to ensure that their instrument's handiwork did not get confused with natural processes.

    In the original microscopic image underlaying the graphics, engineers and scientists noticed 'layers' or 'scratches' on the spherical object nicknamed 'blueberry' in the lower right part of the image. The designers of the rock abrasion tool noticed that the arc length and width of the scratches were similar to the shape and size of the rock abrasion tool's grinding wheel, which is made out of a pad of diamond teeth.

    The scrapes on the bottom right blueberry appear to be caused by the fact that the berry got dislodged slightly and its surface was scraped with the grinding pad. In this image, the largest yellow circle is the overall diameter of the hole ground by the rock abrasion tool and the largest yellow rectangular shape is the area of the grinding wheel bit. The smaller yellow semi-circle is the path that the center of the grinding tool follows. The orange arrow arcing around the solid yellow circle (center of grinding tool) indicates the direction that the grinding tool spins around its own center at 3,000 revolutions per minute. The tool simultaneously spins in an orbit around the center of the hole, indicated by the larger orange arrow to the left.

    The grinding tool is 22 millimeters (0.9 inches) in length and the actual grinding surface, which consists of the diamond pad, is 1.5 millimeters (0.06 inches) in length, indicated by the two smaller rectangles. You can see that the smaller bottom rectangle fits exactly the width of the scrape marks.

    The grooves on the blueberry are also the

  15. Chopping-Wheel Optical Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1988-01-01

    Star-shaped rotating chopping wheel provides adjustable time-averaged attenuation of narrow beam of light without changing length of optical path or spectral distribution of light. Duty cycle or attenuation factor of chopped beam controlled by adjusting radius at which beam intersects wheel. Attenuation factor independent of wavelength. Useful in systems in which chopping frequency above frequency-response limits of photodetectors receiving chopped light. Used in systems using synchronous detection with lock-in amplifiers.

  16. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    DOEpatents

    Glezer, Boris; Boyd, Gary L.; Norton, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  17. Barefoot Running

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Scott; Cotton, Jon; Bechtold, Megan; Toby, E. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that running barefoot can lead to improved strength and proprioception. However, the duration that a runner must train barefoot to observe these changes is unknown. Hypothesis: Runners participating in a barefoot running program will have improved proprioception, increased lower extremity strength, and an increase in the volume or size of the intrinsic musculature of the feet. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In this 8-week study, 29 runners with a mean age of 36.34 years were randomized into either a control group (n = 10) who completed training in their regular running shoes or to an experimental barefoot group (n = 14). Pretraining tests consisted of a volumetric measurement of the foot followed by a strength and dynamic balance assessment. Five subjects completed the pretests but did not complete the study for reasons not related to study outcomes. Participants then completed 8 weeks of training runs. They repeated the strength and dynamic balance assessment after 8 weeks. Results: Significant changes from baseline to 8 weeks were observed within the barefoot group for single-leg hop (right, P = .0121; left, P = .0430) and reach and balance (right, P = .0029) and within the control group for single–left leg hop (P = .0286) and reach and balance (right, P = .0096; left, P = .0014). However, when comparing the differences in changes from baseline to 8 weeks between the barefoot and control groups, the improvements were not significant at the .05 level for all measures. Conclusion: Although statistically significant changes were not observed between the pre- and posttest evaluations in strength and proprioception with the 8-week low-intensity barefoot running regimen, this does not necessarily mean that these changes do not occur. It is possible that it may take months or years to observe these changes, and a short course such as this trial is insufficient. PMID:26535308

  18. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  19. The effects on noise of changes in wheel/rail system parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, P. J.; Stahr, J. D.

    1983-03-01

    An analytical model has been developed that simulates the generation and propagation of wheel/rail noise. In the model, wheel/rail vibrations are induced by running surface roughness. The vibration responses are determined from considering contact stiffness effects and wheel/rail impedance interactions. Near field sound power levels are then calculated by combining the responses with radiation efficiencies, space-averaging the velocity squared on the wheel, and accounting for the decay of vibration along the rail. Finally, the noise levels predicted for the wayside are obtained from an analysis of the propagation that includes the effect of finite ground impedance. Good agreement exists between the analytical model and a series of validation measurements taken at DOT's Transportation Test Center in Pueblo, Colorado. A sensitivity analysis conducted for the parameters of a typical baseline system achieved significant changes in rolling noise only for reductions in wheel/rail contact stiffness, increases in wheel/rail contact area, and decreases in wheel/rail roughness through wheel truing and rail grinding.

  20. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut maneuvers in compression shorts: Implications for return to sport after groin injury

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHARI, AJIT M. W.; JAMISON, STEVEN T.; MCNALLY, MICHAEL P.; PAN, XUELIANG; SCHMITT, LAURA C.

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut maneuvers in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all p<0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  1. Hip adductor activations during run-to-cut manoeuvres in compression shorts: implications for return to sport after groin injury.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Jamison, Steven T; McNally, Michael P; Pan, Xueliang; Schmitt, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Athletes at high risk of groin strains in sports such as hockey and soccer often choose to wear shorts with directional compression to aid in prevention of or recovery from hip adductor strains. Large, eccentric contractions are known to result in or exacerbate strain injuries, but it is unknown if these shorts have a beneficial effect on hip adductor muscle activity. In this study, surface electromyography (EMG) of the adductor longus and ground reaction force (GRF) data were obtained simultaneously on 29 healthy individuals without previous history of serious injury while performing unanticipated 45° run-to-cut manoeuvres in a laboratory setting wearing shorts with non-directional compression (control, HeatGear, Under Armour, USA) or shorts with directional compression (directional, CoreShort PRO, Under Armour, USA), in random order. Average adductor activity in the stance leg was significantly lower in the directional condition than in the control condition during all parts of stance phase (all P < 0.042). From this preliminary analysis, wearing directional compression shorts appears to be associated with reduced stance limb hip adductor activity. Athletes seeking to reduce demand on the hip adductors as they approach full return to activities may benefit from the use of directional compression shorts. PMID:24669858

  2. Relationship of fatigued run and rapid stop to ground reaction forces, lower extremity kinematics, and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Nyland, J A; Shapiro, R; Stine, R L; Horn, T S; Ireland, M L

    1994-09-01

    Fatigue may be related to lower extremity injury. The effect of lower extremity fatigue on ground reaction force production, lower extremity kinematics, and muscle activation during the landing phase of a run and rapid stop was investigated. Subjects were 19 female, Division 1 collegiate basketball and volleyball players (mean age = 20.8 +/- 1.8 years, mean weight = 71.7 +/- 6.9 kg, mean height = 174 +/- 5 cm). Dominant leg ground reaction and muscle activation data were sampled at 2,000 Hz. Lower extremity kinematic data were sampled at 200 Hz, and three-dimensional analysis was performed. Knee extensor/flexor muscle activation tended to be delayed during fatigue (p < or = .08). Maximum knee flexion tended to occur earlier during fatigue (p < or = .09). Step-wise multiple regression suggested that the knee may be the primary site of force attenuation following fatigue. During fatigue, biodynamical compensations in the mechanical properties of the knee extensor musculature, as evidenced by differences in knee kinematics and muscle activation times, may occur to enhance knee stability.

  3. The ubiquitous photonic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Andrea; Banzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A circularly polarized electromagnetic plane wave carries an electric field that rotates clockwise or counterclockwise around the propagation direction of the wave. According to the handedness of this rotation, its longitudinal spin angular momentum (AM) density is either parallel or antiparallel to the propagation of light. However, there are also light waves that are not simply plane and carry an electric field that rotates around an axis perpendicular to the propagation direction, thus yielding transverse spin AM density. Electric field configurations of this kind have been suggestively dubbed ‘photonic wheels’. It has been recently shown that photonic wheels are commonplace in optics as they occur in electromagnetic fields confined by waveguides, in strongly focused beams, in plasmonic and evanescent waves. In this work we establish a general theory of electromagnetic waves propagating along a well defined direction, and carrying transverse spin AM density. We show that depending on the shape of these waves, the spin density may be either perpendicular to the mean linear momentum (globally transverse spin) or to the linear momentum density (locally transverse spin). We find that the latter case generically occurs only for non-diffracting beams, such as the Bessel beams. Moreover, we introduce the concept of meridional Stokes parameters to operationally quantify the transverse spin density. To illustrate our theory, we apply it to the exemplary cases of Bessel beams and evanescent waves. These results open a new and accessible route to the understanding, generation and manipulation of optical beams with transverse spin AM density.

  4. Analysis of limit forces on the vehicle wheels using an algorithm of Dynamic Square Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukalski, M.

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a method named as Dynamic Square Method (DSM) used for dynamic analysis of a vehicle equipped with a four wheel drive system. This method allows determination of maximum (limit) forces acting on the wheels. Here, the maximum longitudinal forces acting on the wheels are assumed and then used to predict whether they can be achieved by a specific dynamic motion or whether the actual friction forces under a given wheel is large enough to transfer lateral forces. For the analysis of DSM a four wheel vehicle model is used. On the basis of this characteristic it is possible to determine the maximum longitudinal force acting on the wheels of the given axle depending on the lateral acceleration of the vehicle. The results of this analysis may be useful in the development of a control algorithm used for example in active differentials.

  5. Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement “easily accessible” sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. Methods Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group

  6. Rock Outcrop Under Spirit's Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After months of traveling across a cratered plain, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image of a large, continuous rock outcrop at the base of the 'Columbia Hills.' The image was taken on sol 189 (July 15, 2004) with the rover's rear hazard-avoidance camera. Spirit's left rear wheel is visible in the image, along with rocks that have a somewhat layered appearnce.

    The rover drove over this area backward on five wheels -- a new strategy that will conserve the rover's sixth, aging wheel for those times when it is needed most. Spirit is on its way to the north-facing slope of the hills, where it can look at rock outcrop in more detail, using more solar power.

  7. Muscle Activation and Estimated Relative Joint Force During Running with Weight Support on a Lower-Body Positive-Pressure Treadmill.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente R; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Cappelen, Katrine L

    2016-08-01

    Running on a lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill allows effects of weight support on leg muscle activation to be assessed systematically, and has the potential to facilitate rehabilitation and prevent overloading. The aim was to study the effect of running with weight support on leg muscle activation and to estimate relative knee and ankle joint forces. Runners performed 6-min running sessions at 2.22 m/s and 3.33 m/s, at 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% body weight (BW). Surface electromyography, ground reaction force, and running characteristics were measured. Relative knee and ankle joint forces were estimated. Leg muscles responded differently to unweighting during running, reflecting different relative contribution to propulsion and antigravity forces. At 20% BW, knee extensor EMGpeak decreased to 22% at 2.22 m/s and 28% at 3.33 m/s of 100% BW values. Plantar flexors decreased to 52% and 58% at 20% BW, while activity of biceps femoris muscle remained unchanged. Unweighting with LBPP reduced estimated joint force significantly although less than proportional to the degree of weight support (ankle). It was concluded that leg muscle activation adapted to the new biomechanical environment, and the effect of unweighting on estimated knee force was more pronounced than on ankle force.

  8. Running out of time: the decline of channel activity and nucleotide activation in adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K-channels

    PubMed Central

    Proks, Peter; Puljung, Michael C.; Vedovato, Natascia; Sachse, Gregor; Mulvaney, Rachel; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels act as key regulators of electrical excitability by coupling metabolic cues—mainly intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations—to cellular potassium ion efflux. However, their study has been hindered by their rapid loss of activity in excised membrane patches (rundown), and by a second phenomenon, the decline of activation by Mg-nucleotides (DAMN). Degradation of PI(4,5)P2 and other phosphoinositides is the strongest candidate for the molecular cause of rundown. Broad evidence indicates that most other determinants of rundown (e.g. phosphorylation, intracellular calcium, channel mutations that affect rundown) also act by influencing KATP channel regulation by phosphoinositides. Unfortunately, experimental conditions that reproducibly prevent rundown have remained elusive, necessitating post hoc data compensation. Rundown is clearly distinct from DAMN. While the former is associated with pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits, DAMN is generally a slower process involving the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. We speculate that it arises when SUR subunits enter non-physiological conformational states associated with the loss of SUR nucleotide-binding domain dimerization following prolonged exposure to nucleotide-free conditions. This review presents new information on both rundown and DAMN, summarizes our current understanding of these processes and considers their physiological roles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377720

  9. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Weber, Steven J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Rogers, James Jonathan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  10. Optical wheel-rotation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick A.; Forman, Peter; Deeter, Merritt N.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor being developed for anti-lock braking systems. The basis of the sensor is the magneto-optic detection of the magnetic fields generated by a wheel of alternating magnetized magnets fixed to a wheel of the automobile. Highly sensitive iron garnet crystals serve as the magneto-optic sensing elements. For films with perpendicularly- magnetized domains, the domain structure produces diffraction which is magnetic-field dependent. Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of magneto-optic magnetic field sensors requiring no polarization elements or lenses.

  11. 75 FR 56469 - Safety Zone; Ohio River, Wheeling, WV, Wheeling Heritage Port Sternwheel Foundation Fireworks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ohio River, Wheeling, WV, Wheeling Heritage... marine traffic during the Wheeling Heritage Port Sternwheel Foundation fireworks display. Entry into the... traffic during the Wheeling Heritage Port Sternwheel Foundation fireworks display that will occur in...

  12. Experimental heat and mass transfer of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie; Satake, Akira; Yoshie, Ryuichiro; Mitamura, Tiruaki; Baba, Seizo

    2010-07-15

    The experimental evaluation of the separated and coupled rotating desiccant wheel and heat wheel is reported. The study aims to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel and of the heat wheel both when operated separately and jointly. The performance evaluation of the desiccant wheel is based on its moisture removal capacity (MRC), moisture removal regeneration (MRR), and moisture mass balance (MMB). In addition, the study used the total energy balance (TEB), sensible coefficient of performance (COP{sub Sensible}), latent coefficient of performance (COP{sub Latent}) and, total coefficient of performance (COP{sub Total}). The performance of the heat wheel is based on its effectiveness. The COP{sub Sensible}, COP{sub Latent} and, COP{sub Total} are used in the performance evaluation of the coupled desiccant wheel and heat wheel. The general results of the study show that the MRC, MRR and MMB coupled with the TEB, COP{sub Latent}, COP{sub Sensible} and COP{sub Total} predict adequately the performance of the desiccant wheel. In addition, the coupled operation of the desiccant wheel and heat wheel, contributed to the reduction of the external thermal energy requirement for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel. This study can be applied in other researches seeking evaluation of the desiccant wheel, heat wheel, and their combined operation. Moreover, the data presented here are significant for the desiccant wheel benchmarking and for evaluation of the desiccant wheel models. (author)

  13. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  14. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  15. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  16. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  17. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  18. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  19. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  20. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on...

  1. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  2. Inertia-Wheel Vibration-Damping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Joseph V.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electromechanical system would damp vibrations in large, flexible structure. In active vibration-damping system motors and reaction wheels at tips of appendages apply reaction torques in response to signals from accelerometers. Velocity signal for vibrations about one axis processes into control signal to oppose each of n vibrational modes. Various modes suppressed one at a time. Intended primarily for use in spacecraft that has large, flexible solar panels and science-instrument truss assembly, embodies principle of control interesting in its own right and adaptable to terrestrial structures, vehicles, and instrument platforms.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  4. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  5. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  7. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  8. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  9. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a) The variation in the circumference of wheels on the same axle may not exceed 1/4 inch (two tape...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.134 - Abrasive wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abrasive wheels. 1915.134 Section 1915.134 Labor... § 1915.134 Abrasive wheels. This section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels used for external grinding shall be provided with...

  12. Effects of acute treadmill running at different intensities on activities of serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor neurons, and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomomi; Nishii, Ayu; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kubota, Natsuko; Nishijima, Takeshi; Kita, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise can reduce and prevent the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Activation of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is implicated in antidepressant/anxiolytic properties. In addition, the incidence and symptoms of these disorders may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is initiated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Thus, it is possible that physical exercise produces its antidepressant/anxiolytic effects by affecting these neuronal activities. However, the effects of acute physical exercise at different intensities on these neuronal activation and behavioral changes are still unclear. Here, we examined the activities of 5-HT neurons in the DRN and CRF neurons in the PVN during 30 min of treadmill running at different speeds (high speed, 25 m/min; low speed, 15m/min; control, only sitting on the treadmill) in male Wistar rats, using c-Fos/5-HT or CRF immunohistochemistry. We also performed the elevated plus maze test and the forced swim test to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. Acute treadmill running at low speed, but not high speed, significantly increased c-Fos expression in 5-HT neurons in the DRN compared to the control, whereas high-speed running significantly enhanced c-Fos expression in CRF neurons in the PVN compared with the control and low-speed running. Furthermore, low-speed running resulted in decreased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors compared with high-speed running. These results suggest that acute physical exercise with mild and low stress can efficiently induce optimal neuronal activation that is involved in the antidepressant/anxiolytic effects.

  13. Locomotive wheel 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Luo, Zhisheng; Gao, Xiaorong; Wu, Jianle

    2010-08-01

    In the article, a system, which is used to reconstruct locomotive wheels, is described, helping workers detect the condition of a wheel through a direct view. The system consists of a line laser, a 2D camera, and a computer. We use 2D camera to capture the line-laser light reflected by the object, a wheel, and then compute the final coordinates of the structured light. Finally, using Matlab programming language, we transform the coordinate of points to a smooth surface and illustrate the 3D view of the wheel. The article also proposes the system structure, processing steps and methods, and sets up an experimental platform to verify the design proposal. We verify the feasibility of the whole process, and analyze the results comparing to standard date. The test results show that this system can work well, and has a high accuracy on the reconstruction. And because there is still no such application working in railway industries, so that it has practical value in railway inspection system.

  14. Getting Off the Hamster Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammon, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Even with all the external elements of school reform in place, educators can end up spinning their wheels. To make progress, schools must identify the nonnegotiable key elements of their reform plans and use the habits of highly effective schools to turn them into school practice. These habits are: (1) demonstrate high expectations and a vision…

  15. Potter's Wheel I: Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinaccio, Louis

    A course in forming medium size pottery on the potter's wheel and developing skill to reproduce matching forms is presented. Abilities which will be expected of the student at the end of the course include: (1) defining important terms relating to pottery, (2) identifying and differentiating between certain aspects of ceramic art, and (3)…

  16. Desiccant Dehumidification Wheel Test Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

    2001-01-25

    NREL's Desiccant Dehumidification Wheel Test Guide intends to facilitate execution of the new standards by certification labs and manufacturers. The Test Guide is a product of more than 20 years of experience gained at NREL's desiccant research facilities. It details practical experimental experience with rotary mass exchangers in relation to the standards and aims to develop testing expertise in industry quickly and cost effectively.

  17. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  18. Identifying Factors Associated With Dropout During Prerandomization Run-in Period From an mHealth Physical Activity Education Study: The mPED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Caryl; Haskell, William; Arai, Shoshana; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background The mobile phone-based physical activity education (mPED) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a mobile phone-delivered physical activity intervention for women. The study includes a run-in period to maximize the internal validity of the intervention trial, but little is known about factors related to successful run-in completion, and thus about potential threats to external validity. Objective Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the timing of dropout during the run-in period, reasons for dropout, optimum run-in duration, and relevant run-in components, and (2) to identify predictors of failure to complete the run-in period. Methods A total of 318 physically inactive women met preliminary eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study between May 2011 and April 2014. A 3-week run-in period was required prior to randomization and included using a mobile phone app and wearing a pedometer. Cross-sectional analysis identified predictors of dropout. Results Out of 318 participants, 108 (34.0%) dropped out prior to randomization, with poor adherence using the study equipment being the most common reason. Median failure time was 17 days into the run-in period. In univariate analyses, nonrandomized participants were younger, had lower income, were less likely to drive regularly, were less likely to have used a pedometer prior to the study, were generally less healthy, had less self-efficacy for physical activity, and reported more depressive symptoms than randomized participants. In multivariate competing risks models, not driving regularly in the past month and not having used a pedometer prior to the study were significantly associated with failure to be randomized (P=.04 and .006, respectively), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, shift work, and use of a study-provided mobile phone. Conclusions Regular driving and past pedometer use were associated with reduced dropout during the prerandomization run-in period

  19. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  20. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adult (4 months) and aged (22 months) male and female BALB/c mice were housed with or without running wheels for 10 weeks. Microglia were isolated from the hippocampus or remaining brain. Flow cytometry was used to determine microglia (CD11b+ and CD45low) that co-labeled with CD86, CD206, and MHC II. Results Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86+ and MHC II+ microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86+ microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II+ microglia in hippocampus and brain. Conclusion Overall, these data indicate that running-wheel access modulates microglia activation, but these effects vary by age, sex, and brain region. PMID:24044641

  1. The TASC Wheel Supports a Honey Bee Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The concept of TASC (Thinking Actively in a Social Context) was created by Belle Wallace (Wallace et al., 1993) as a model that can be used to nurture and develop thinking skills. As children work through the TASC wheel, the teacher has a very good opportunity to facilitate explicit conversations about thinking. This allows the children to grow in…

  2. Masking the Color Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Charlene

    1982-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which sixth graders made mirror-image masks using only two primary colors and one secondary color. Students discussed the effect of color combinations and the use of masks in folk and modern cultures. (AM)

  3. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  4. Refining the parameters of Archard's wear model for calculating wear of wheels applied for 25 t per axle freight wagons on Russian railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidova, Alina; Orlova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research is for a reasonable choice of wear coefficients for severe and mild phases in Archard's abrasive wear theory and friction coefficients for wheel flange and tread that correspond to conditions of Russian track for wheel profile wear modelling using dynamic models of wagons. This paper considers the gondola wagon on bogies model 18-9855 that are of the three-piece Barber S-2-R design. The wagon running test results on Experimental Loop Track in Scherbinka, the results of hardness measurements of wheel flange/tread and of wheel profile wear modelling are presented in this paper. In conclusion, a comparison of wheels wear of two freight wagons' bogies (with friction and elastic-friction links of wheel sets with side frames) on the basis of specified wear model was carried out.

  5. Lightweight, Self-Deployable Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur; Sokolowski, Witold; Rand, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-lightweight, self-deployable wheels made of polymer foams have been demonstrated. These wheels are an addition to the roster of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structural applications. Intended originally for use on nanorovers (very small planetary-exploration robotic vehicles), CHEM wheels could also be used for many commercial applications, such as in toys. The CHEM concept was reported in "Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory (CHEM) Expandable Structures" (NPO-20394), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 56. To recapitulate: A CHEM structure is fabricated from a shape-memory polymer (SMP) foam. The structure is compressed to a very small volume while in its rubbery state above its glass-transition temperature (Tg). Once compressed, the structure can be cooled below Tg to its glassy state. As long as the temperature remains

  6. Four-wheel drive car

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.

    1986-03-25

    A drive train in a four-wheel drive vehicle is described having an engine mounted on one end with a crankshaft oriented transverse to the direction of vehicle travel which consists of: a transmission having an output gear driven by the crankshaft and rotatable around an axis parallel to the axis of the crankshaft; a reduction gear operatively engaged with the output gear; a first differential gear having a gear and being concentrically engaged with the reduction gear to transmit the output of the reduction gear in a divided manner; a second differential gear transmitting power from one output of the differential gear to left and right wheels of the one end of the vehicle; a transmission gear meshing with the gear of the first differential gear for transmitting power from another output of the first differential gear in a direction generally perpendicular to the crankshaft through a propeller shaft to the other end of the vehicle, opposite the one end; a third differential gear receiving power from the propeller shaft for transmitting power to left and right wheels on the other end; and wherein a mesh portion where the transmission gear meshes with the gear of the first differential gear is closer to the crankshaft axis of engine than is the axis of the reduction gear.

  7. A Network on Wheels!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Describes mobile computer carts developed at the Lawrence Hall of Science that use IBM PS/2 computers and Personal Science Laboratory probeware. Activities using temperature probes for elementary and secondary school students are described, including greenhouse environments, ice cream/chemical reactions, probe races, motion studies, and…

  8. Classroom on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfreesboro City Schools, TN.

    Designed for 3- and 4-year-old disadvantaged children and their parents, a mobile unit consisting of a renovated school bus turned classroom is described which travels to three areas daily for a 2-hour period. The program for children is designed primarily for developmental skills--visual, sensory, auditory, and cognitive. Activities emphasize…

  9. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  10. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    van Praag, H; Kempermann, G; Gage, F H

    1999-03-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents. Environmental enrichment, however, typically consists of many components, such as expanded learning opportunities, increased social interaction, more physical activity and larger housing. We attempted to separate components by assigning adult mice to various conditions: water-maze learning (learner), swim-time-yoked control (swimmer), voluntary wheel running (runner), and enriched (enriched) and standard housing (control) groups. Neither maze training nor yoked swimming had any effect on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cell number. However, running doubled the number of surviving newborn cells, in amounts similar to enrichment conditions. Our findings demonstrate that voluntary exercise is sufficient for enhanced neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.

  11. Identification of mouse gaits using a novel force-sensing exercise wheel

    PubMed Central

    Cullingford, Lottie; Usherwood, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The gaits that animals use can provide information on neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as the biomechanics of locomotion. Mice are a common research model in many fields; however, there is no consensus in the literature on how (and if) mouse gaits vary with speed. One of the challenges in studying mouse gaits is that mice tend to run intermittently on treadmills or overground; this paper attempts to overcome this issue with a novel exercise wheel that measures vertical ground reaction forces. Unlike previous instrumented wheels, this wheel is able to measure forces continuously and can therefore record data from consecutive strides. By concatenating the maximum limb force at each time point, a force trace can be constructed to quantify and identify gaits. The wheel was three dimensionally printed, allowing the design to be shared with other researchers. The kinematic parameters measured by the wheel were evaluated using high-speed video. Gaits were classified using a metric called “3S” (stride signal symmetry), which quantifies the half wave symmetry of the force trace peaks. Although mice are capable of using both symmetric and asymmetric gaits throughout their speed range, the continuum of gaits can be divided into regions based on the frequency of symmetric and asymmetric gaits; these divisions are further supported by the fact that mice run less frequently at speeds near the boundaries between regions. The boundary speeds correspond to gait transition speeds predicted by the hypothesis that mice move in a dynamically similar fashion to other legged animals. PMID:26139220

  12. Identification of mouse gaits using a novel force-sensing exercise wheel.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin J H; Cullingford, Lottie; Usherwood, James R

    2015-09-15

    The gaits that animals use can provide information on neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as the biomechanics of locomotion. Mice are a common research model in many fields; however, there is no consensus in the literature on how (and if) mouse gaits vary with speed. One of the challenges in studying mouse gaits is that mice tend to run intermittently on treadmills or overground; this paper attempts to overcome this issue with a novel exercise wheel that measures vertical ground reaction forces. Unlike previous instrumented wheels, this wheel is able to measure forces continuously and can therefore record data from consecutive strides. By concatenating the maximum limb force at each time point, a force trace can be constructed to quantify and identify gaits. The wheel was three dimensionally printed, allowing the design to be shared with other researchers. The kinematic parameters measured by the wheel were evaluated using high-speed video. Gaits were classified using a metric called "3S" (stride signal symmetry), which quantifies the half wave symmetry of the force trace peaks. Although mice are capable of using both symmetric and asymmetric gaits throughout their speed range, the continuum of gaits can be divided into regions based on the frequency of symmetric and asymmetric gaits; these divisions are further supported by the fact that mice run less frequently at speeds near the boundaries between regions. The boundary speeds correspond to gait transition speeds predicted by the hypothesis that mice move in a dynamically similar fashion to other legged animals.

  13. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    DOEpatents

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2005-12-13

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a wheeled vehicle in a flowstream, the vehicle having a vehicle body and a wheel assembly supporting the vehicle body. The apparatus includes a baffle assembly adapted to be positioned upstream of the wheel assembly for deflecting airflow away from the wheel assembly so as to reduce the incident pressure on the wheel assembly.

  14. Reaction wheels for kinetic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to all existing reaction wheel implementations, an order of magnitude increase in speed can be obtained efficiently if power to the actuators can be recovered. This allows a combined attitude control-energy storage system to be developed with structure mounted reaction wheels. The feasibility of combining reaction wheels with energy storage wwheels is demonstrated. The power required for control torques is a function of wheel speed but this energy is not dissipated; it is stored in the wheel. The I(2)R loss resulting from a given torque is shown to be constant, independent of the design speed of the motor. What remains, in order to efficiently use high speed wheels (essential for energy storage) for control purposes, is to reduce rotational losses to acceptable levels. Progress was made in permanent magnet motor design for high speed operation. Variable field motors offer more control flexibility and efficiency over a broader speed range.

  15. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  16. Wheel brakes and their application to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, G H

    1928-01-01

    The advantages to be gained from braking have not been ignored, and in the search for a suitable method many schemes have been suggested and tried. Some of the methods discussed in this paper include: 1) increasing the height of the landing gear; 2) air brakes of various forms; 3) sprags on tail skid and axle; and 4) wheel brakes. This report focuses on the design of wheel brakes and wheel brake controls.

  17. Electronic 4-wheel drive control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayato, S.; Takanori, S.; Shigeru, H.; Tatsunori, S.

    1984-01-01

    The internal rotation torque generated during operation of a 4-wheel drive vehicle is reduced using a control device whose clutch is attached to one part of the rear-wheel drive shaft. One torque sensor senses the drive torque associated with the rear wheel drive shaft. A second sensor senses the drive torque associated with the front wheel drive shaft. Revolution count sensors sense the revolutions of each drive shaft. By means of a microcomputer, the engagement of the clutch is changed to insure that the ratio of the torque sensors remains constant.

  18. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter J; Amat, Jose; McConnell, Sara O; Ghasem, Parsa R; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress). Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA) levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress. PMID:26555633

  19. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Amat, Jose; McConnell, Sara O.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Maier, Steven F.; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress). Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA) levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress. PMID:26555633

  20. Alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on the period and phase of the behavioral free-running activity rhythm.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Nara F; Carlson, Karen N; Amaral, Danielle N; Logan, Ryan W; Seggio, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Bipolar patients have a high prevalence of comorbid alcohol use and abuse disorders, while chronic alcohol drinking may increase the presence and severity of certain symptoms of bipolar disorder. As such, there may be many individuals that are prescribed lithium to alleviate the manic symptoms of bipolar disorder, but also drink alcohol concurrently. In addition, both alcoholics and individuals with bipolar disorder often exhibit disruptions to their sleep-wake cycles and other circadian rhythms. Interestingly, both ethanol and lithium are known to alter both the period and the phase of free-running rhythms in mammals. While lithium is known to lengthen the period, ethanol seems to shorten the period and attenuate the responses to acute light pulses. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether ethanol and lithium have opposing effects on the circadian pacemaker when administered together. C57BL/6J mice were provided drinking solutions containing lithium, alcohol, or both, and their free-running rhythms along with their response to photic phase shifts were investigated. Mice treated with lithium displayed period lengthening, which was almost completely negated when ethanol was added. Moreover, ethanol significantly attenuated light-induced phase delays while the addition of lithium partially restored this response. These results indicate that alcohol and lithium have opposing effects on behavioral circadian rhythms. Individuals with bipolar disorder who are prescribed lithium and who drink alcohol might be inadvertently altering their sleep and circadian cycles, which may exacerbate their symptoms.

  1. ESR1 and ESR2 differentially regulate daily and circadian activity rhythms in female mice.

    PubMed

    Royston, S E; Yasui, N; Kondilis, A G; Lord, S V; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Mahoney, M M

    2014-07-01

    Estrogenic signaling shapes and modifies daily and circadian rhythms, the disruption of which has been implicated in psychiatric, neurologic, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease, among others. However, the activational mechanisms contributing to these effects remain poorly characterized. To determine the activational impact of estrogen on daily behavior patterns and differentiate between the contributions of the estrogen receptors ESR1 and ESR2, ovariectomized adult female mice were administered estradiol, the ESR1 agonist propylpyrazole triol, the ESR2 agonist diarylpropionitrile, or cholesterol (control). Animals were singly housed with running wheels in a 12-hour light, 12-hour dark cycle or total darkness. Estradiol increased total activity and amplitude, consolidated activity to the dark phase, delayed the time of peak activity (acrophase of wheel running), advanced the time of activity onset, and shortened the free running period (τ), but did not alter the duration of activity (α). Importantly, activation of ESR1 or ESR2 differentially impacted daily and circadian rhythms. ESR1 stimulation increased total wheel running and amplitude and reduced the proportion of activity in the light vs the dark. Conversely, ESR2 activation modified the distribution of activity across the day, delayed acrophase of wheel running, and advanced the time of activity onset. Interestingly, τ was shortened by estradiol or either estrogen receptor agonist. Finally, estradiol-treated animals administered a light pulse in the early subjective night, but no other time, had an attenuated response compared with controls. This decreased phase response was mirrored by animals treated with diarylpropionitrile, but not propylpyrazole triol. To conclude, estradiol has strong activational effects on the temporal patterning and expression of daily and circadian behavior, and these effects are due to distinct mechanisms elicited by ESR1 and ESR2 activation.

  2. A microstructural analysis distinguishes motor and motivational influences over voluntary running in animals chronically exposed to methylmercury and nimodipine.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel J; Newland, M Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Adult-onset methylmercury (MeHg) exposure produces sensorimotor impairment and related changes in behavior. The present study investigated MeHg effects on the microstructure of spontaneous wheel running in adult BALB/c mice chronically exposed to 0ppm or 15ppm MeHg via daily drinking water. To test the hypothesis that MeHg neurotoxicity is related to impaired calcium homeostasis, MeHg-exposed mice received 0, 20, or 200ppm of the L-type calcium-channel blocker nimodipine in their daily chow diet. To examine MeHg-related changes in the microstructure of running, we partitioned spontaneous wheel running into activity epochs using a change-point algorithm and derived estimates of the within-bout response rate (primarily a motor-function measure), the duration of pausing between bouts (primarily a motivation measure), and the length of response bouts (a hybrid measure) from those epochs. Mice also performed regular rotarod sessions, providing a second measure of motor coordination. MeHg impaired rotarod performance and nimodipine dose-dependently mitigated that effect. MeHg decreased the distance run and within-bout running rate, especially during the final weeks of exposure and nimodipine attenuated and delayed that impairment. The interbout interval was only slightly but significantly affected by MeHg with no evidence of decline at the end of exposure and no influence of nimodipine. Despite the presence of impaired running, there was no evidence of fatigue through the course of long, three-hour sessions. These findings suggest that the microstructure of behavior provides sensitive and interpretable measures of MeHg effects, support the utility of bout analysis for separating motor and motivational effects of drug and toxicant exposure, and show selective neuroprotection by nimodipine.

  3. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  4. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  5. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  6. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  7. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall...

  8. Non-Circular Wheels: Reuleaux and Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Circular wheels are so familiar on vehicles of all types that it is seldom realized that alternatives do exist. This short non-mathematical article describes Reuleaux and square wheels that, rolling along appropriate tracks, can maintain a moving platform at a constant height. Easily made working models lend themselves to demonstrations at science…

  9. 21 CFR 880.6910 - Wheeled stretcher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheeled stretcher. 880.6910 Section 880.6910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... platform mounted on a wheeled frame that is designed to transport patients in a horizontal position....

  10. Next NASA Mars Rover Gets Its Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Wheels were first attached to NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover in August 2008. The rover and its descent stage and cruise stage are being assembled and tested at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for launch in 2009.

    The rover has a ground clearance of about 60 centimeters, or 2 feet. The wheel base is 2.2 meters, or 7 feet.

  11. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange on the car is worn to a thickness of 7/8 of an inch, or less, at a point 3/8 of an inch above...

  12. Dual role of G-runs and hnRNP F in the regulation of a mutation-activated pseudoexon in the fibrinogen gamma-chain transcript.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Asselta, Rosanna; Spena, Silvia; Stuani, Cristiana; Buratti, Emanuele; Duga, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Most pathological pseudoexon inclusion events originate from single activating mutations, suggesting that many intronic sequences are on the verge of becoming exons. However, the precise mechanisms controlling pseudoexon definition are still largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the cis-acting elements and trans-acting regulatory factors contributing to the regulation of a previously described fibrinogen gamma-chain (FGG) pseudoexon, which is activated by a deep-intronic mutation (IVS6-320A>T). This pseudoexon contains several G-run elements, which may be bound by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) F and H. To explore the effect of these proteins on FGG pseudoexon inclusion, both silencing and overexpression experiments were performed in eukaryotic cells. While hnRNP H did not significantly affect pseudoexon splicing, hnRNP F promoted pseudoexon inclusion, indicating that these two proteins have only partially redundant functions. To verify the binding of hnRNP F and the possible involvement of other trans-acting splicing modulators, pulldown experiments were performed on the region of the pseudoexon characterized by both a G-run and enrichment for exonic splicing enhancers. This 25-bp-long region strongly binds hnRNP F/H and weakly interacts with Serine/Arginine-rich protein 40, which however was demonstrated to be dispensable for FGG pseudoexon inclusion in overexpression experiments. Deletion analysis, besides confirming the splicing-promoting role of the G-run within this 25-bp region, demonstrated that two additional hnRNP F binding sites might instead function as silencer elements. Taken together, our results indicate a major role of hnRNP F in regulating FGG pseudoexon inclusion, and strengthen the notion that G-runs may function either as splicing enhancers or silencers of the same exon.

  13. Retail wheeling: Is this revolution necessary?

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    As of a former state regulator and a once enthusiastic practitioner of public utility law, I find it fascinating to see the latest nostrum to burst on the electric utility scene: retail wheeling. Wheeling became a personal interest in the Texas interconnection fight of the late seventies and may have led to the interconnection and wheeling provision of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Retail wheeling contemplates that every electric power customer should be given an opportunity to seek out the lowest cost source of power wherever it can be found. As a practical matter, the drums for retail wheeling are presently being beaten by large industrial users, who believe that they have the capability to find low cost sources and to make advantageous commercial arrangements to acquire electricity. Large industrials have long been fighting the utilities for cheaper electricity, frequently using the threat of self-generation and cogeneration.

  14. Development of the FASTER Wheeled Bevameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Eder, V.; Hoheneder, W.; Imhof, B.; Lewinger, W.; Ransom, S.; Saaj, C.; Weclewski, P.; Waclavicek, R.,

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) within the FASTER project (Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain Data for Exploration Rovers), funded by the European Union's FP7 programme. In FASTER, novel and innovative concepts for in situ forward sensing of soil properties and terrain conditions in the planned path of a planetary rover are developed. Terrain strength measurements for assessment of the mobility of crosscountry vehicles have decades of heritage on Earth, but typically trafficability of terrains is only gauged by human operators ahead of vehicle operations rather than in-line by probes deployed from the vehicle itself, as is intended for FASTER. For FASTER, a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) has been selected as the terrain sensing instrument for the vehicle. Wheeled Bevameters are suitable for terrain measurements while driving but traditionally have mostly been employed on terrestrial vehicles to evaluate particular wheel designs. The WB as conceived in FASTER uses a dedicated, passive-rolling test wheel (‚test wheel') placed on the terrain as the loading device to enable to determine bearing strength, compressive strength and shear strength of the terrain immediately ahead of the vehicle, as well as rover-terrain interaction parameters used in semi-empirical vehicle-terrain traction models. The WB includes a placement mechanism for the test wheel. The test wheel would remain lowered onto the ground during nominal rover motion, including when climbing and descending slopes. During normal operations, the placement mechanism assumes the function of a passive suspension of the wheel, allowing it to follow the terrain contour. Quantities measured with the WB are: test wheel sinkage (through a laser sensor), test wheel vertical load, test wheel horizontal reaction force, and test wheel rotation rate. Measurements are performed while the rover is in motion. Measured test wheel rotation rate (with appropriate corrections for slight skid) can

  15. Effects of an Activity-Based Anorexia Procedure on Within-Session Changes in Nose-Poke Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of an activity-based anorexia (ABA) procedure on within-session changes in responding. In the ABA group (N = 8), rats were given a 60-min feeding session and allowed to run in a running wheel for the remainder of each day. During the daily 60-min feeding session, each nose-poke response was reinforced by a food…

  16. Validity and reliability of the 1/4 mile run-walk test in physically active children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Castro-Piñero, Jose

    2014-11-30

    We investigated the criterion-related validity and the reliability of the 1/4 mile run-walk test (MRWT) in children and adolescents. A total of 86 children (n=42 girls) completed a maximal graded treadmill test using a gas analyzer and the 1/4MRW test. We investigated the test-retest reliability of the 1/4MRWT in a different group of children and adolescents (n=995, n=418 girls). The 1/4MRWT time, sex, and BMI significantly contributed to predict measured VO2peak (R2= 0.32). There was no systematic bias in the cross-validation group (P>0.1). The root mean sum of squared errors (RMSE) and the percentage error were 6.9 ml/kg/min and 17.7%, respectively, and the accurate prediction (i.e. the percentage of estimations within ±4.5 ml/kg/min of VO2peak) was 48.8%. The reliability analysis showed that the mean inter-trial difference ranged from 0.6 seconds in children aged 6-11 years to 1.3 seconds in adolescents aged 12-17 years (all P.

  17. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  18. The response of a high-speed train wheel to a harmonic wheel-rail force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yuxia; Zhou, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The maximum speed of China's high-speed trains currently is 300km/h and expected to increase to 350-400km/h. As a wheel travels along the rail at such a high speed, it is subject to a force rotating at the same speed along its periphery. This fast moving force contains not only the axle load component, but also many components of high frequencies generated from wheel-rail interactions. Rotation of the wheel also introduces centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. How the wheel responds is fundamental to many issues, including wheel-rail contact, traction, wear and noise. In this paper, by making use of its axial symmetry, a special finite element scheme is developed for responses of a train wheel subject to a vertical and harmonic wheel-rail force. This FE scheme only requires a 2D mesh over a cross-section containing the wheel axis but includes all the effects induced by wheel rotation. Nodal displacements, as a periodic function of the cross-section angle 6, can be decomposed, using Fourier series, into a number of components at different circumferential orders. The derived FE equation is solved for each circumferential order. The sum of responses at all circumferential orders gives the actual response of the wheel.

  19. Stability Improvement of Two Wheel Driven Mobile Manipulator Using Nonlinear PD Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    This paper proposes the stability improvement of two wheeled mobile manipulator using nonlinear Proportional Derivative (PD) controller. Nonlinear PD controller is a controller which automatically adjusts its gains according to the stability conditions on running. Lyapunov function based on kinetic energy of the system and position error are used to re-schedule the gains of the nonlinear PD controller. This method will expand the stability margin of the two wheeled mobile manipulator. Further advantages of this method are reducing the parameter uncertainty and difficulty of adjusting gains due to nonlinear nature of system. In the proposed approach, virtual double inverted pendulum is introduced for the control of the two wheeled mobile manipulator. The model based on the double inverted pendulum, makes it easy to design the controller. Here, wheel control and manipulator control are designed separately and unified by using two nonlinear PD controllers. Two nonlinear PD controllers are implemented for better stability. The method proposed in this paper has used nonlinear PD controller in work space of the manipulator controller together with null space control. Here the null space control increases the control stability of manipulator configuration. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed by the experiment of two wheel mobile manipulator.

  20. Flooding and sedimentation in Wheeling Creek basin, Belmont County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolva, J.R.; Koltun, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Wheeling Creek basin, which is located primarily in Belmont County, Ohio, experienced three damaging floods and four less severe floods during the 29-month period from February 1979 through June 1981. Residents of the basin became concerned about factors that could have affected the severity and frequency of out-of-bank floods. In response to those concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, undertook a study to estimate peak discharges and recurrence intervals for the seven floods of interest, provide information on current and historical mining-related stream-channel fill or scour, and examine storm-period subbasin contributions to the sediment load in Wheeling Creek. Streamflow data for adjacent basins, rainfall data, and, in two cases, flood-profile data were used in conjunction with streamflow data subsequently collected on Wheeling Creek to provide estimates of peak discharge for the seven floods that occurred from February 1979 through June 1981. Estimates of recurrence intervals were assigned to the Peak discharges on the basin of regional regression equations that relate selected basin characteristics to peak discharge with fixed recurrence intervals. These estimates indicate that a statistically unusual number of floods with recurrence intervals of 2 years or more occurred within that time period. Three cross sections located on Wheeling Creek and four located on tributaries were established and surveyed quarterly for approximately 2 years. No evidence of appreciable stream-channel fill or scour was observed at any of the cross sections, although minor profile changes were apparent at some locations. Attempts were made to obtain historical cross-section profile data for comparison with current cross-section profiles; however, no usable data were found. Excavations of stream-bottom materials were made near the three main-stem cross-section locations and near the mouth of Jug Run. The bottom

  1. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  2. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  3. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  4. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... storm; (2) A run-off control system from the active portion of the landfill to collect and control at least the water volume resulting from a 24-hour, 25-year storm. (b) Run-off from the active portion...

  5. A double gimballed magnetic bearing momentum wheel for high pointing accuracy and vibration sensitive space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, U. J.

    1991-12-01

    A fully controlled magnetic bearing momentum wheel is well suited as gyroscopic actuator in the attitude control system of spacecraft. It offers the following advantages: an active tilting of the momentum vector with respect to the spacecraft ('vernier gimballing') with the following features: very little power required; three axis attitude control of the spacecraft in a fine pointing range with only one wheel on a control moment gyro mode; no separate nutation damping device necessary; cross momentum storage capability; active vibration suppression, enabling isolation of unbalance vibrations of the wheel from the spacecraft which meets the increasing demand for quiet wheels which can be used in microgravity and in manned space missions; active damping of flexible structures through fully controllable translational bearing forces. The MW-X, a five degree of freedom magnetic bearing momentum wheel incorporates all these advantages and is ideally suited to support all high pointing accuracy and vibration sensitive space missions. Possible applications are communication satellites, especially those with inclined orbit, satellites with optical communication links, microgravity missions, space telescopes and high resolution Earth observation satellites. In long term manned space missions low noise wheels can reduce the effect of vibrations and the associated noise on the spacecraft environment and crew.

  6. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  7. Effects of voluntary activity and genetic selection on muscle metabolic capacities in house mice Mus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Houle-Leroy, P; Garland, T; Swallow, J G; Guderley, H

    2000-10-01

    Selective breeding is an important tool in behavioral genetics and evolutionary physiology, but it has rarely been applied to the study of exercise physiology. We are using artificial selection for increased wheel-running behavior to study the correlated evolution of locomotor activity and physiological determinants of exercise capacity in house mice. We studied enzyme activities and their response to voluntary wheel running in mixed hindlimb muscles of mice from generation 14, at which time individuals from selected lines ran more than twice as many revolutions per day as those from control (unselected) lines. Beginning at weaning and for 8 wk, we housed mice from each of four replicate selected lines and four replicate control lines with access to wheels that were free to rotate (wheel-access group) or locked (sedentary group). Among sedentary animals, mice from selected lines did not exhibit a general increase in aerobic capacities: no mitochondrial [except pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)] or glycolytic enzyme activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in control mice. Sedentary mice from the selected lines exhibited a trend for higher muscle aerobic capacities, as indicated by higher levels of mitochondrial (cytochrome-c oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, citrate synthase, and PDH) and glycolytic (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) enzymes, with concomitant lower anaerobic capacities, as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase (especially in male mice). Consistent with previous studies of endurance training in rats via voluntary wheel running or forced treadmill exercise, cytochrome-c oxidase, citrate synthase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity increased in the wheel-access groups for both genders; hexokinase also increased in both genders. Some enzymes showed gender-specific responses: PDH and lactate dehydrogenase increased in wheel-access male but not female mice, and glycogen phosphorylase decreased in female but not in male mice. Two

  8. Wheel Abrasion Experiment Conducted on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1998-01-01

    Sojourner rover showing Lewis' wheel abrasion experiment. The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft soft-landed on Mars on July 4, 1997. Among the many experiments on its small Sojourner rover are three technology experiments from the NASA Lewis Research Center, including the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The WAE was designed, built, delivered, and operated on Mars by a team of engineers and scientists from Lewis' Photovoltaics and Space Environments Branch. This experiment collected data to assess wheel surface wear on the Sojourner. It used a specially designed rover wheel, with thin films (200 to 1000 angstroms) of aluminum, nickel, and platinum deposited on black, anodized aluminum strips attached to the rover's right center wheel. As the wheel spun in the Martian soil, a photovoltaic sensor monitored changes in film reflectivity. These changes indicated abrasion of the metal films by Martian surface material. Rolling wear data were accumulated by the WAE. Also, at frequent intervals, all the rover wheels, except the WAE test wheel, were locked to hold the rover stationary while the test wheel alone was spun and dug into the Martian regolith. These tests created wear conditions more severe than simple rolling. The WAE will contribute substantially to our knowledge of Martian surface characteristics. Marked abrasion would indicate a surface composed of hard, possibly sharply edged grains, whereas lack of abrasion would suggest a somewhat softer surface. WAE results will be correlated with ground simulations to determine which terrestrial materials behave most like those on Mars. This knowledge will enable a deeper understanding of erosion processes on Mars and the role they play in Martian surface evolution. Preliminary results show that electrostatic charging of the rover wheels sometimes caused dust to accumulate on the WAE wheel, making interpretation of the reflectance data problematic. If electrostatic charging is the mechanism for dust attraction, this indicates

  9. Cells on the run: shear-regulated integrin activation in leukocyte rolling and arrest on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alon, Ronen; Ley, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The arrest of rolling leukocytes on various target vascular beds is mediated by specialized leukocyte integrins and their endothelial immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) ligands. These integrins are kept in largely inactive states and undergo in situ activation upon leukocyte-endothelial contact by both biochemical and mechanical signals from flow-derived shear forces. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that leukocyte integrin activation involves conformational alterations through inside-out signaling followed by ligand-induced rearrangements accelerated by external forces. This activation process takes place within fractions of seconds by in situ signals transduced to the rolling leukocyte as it encounters specialized endothelial-displayed chemoattractants, collectively termed arrest chemokines. In neutrophils, selectin rolling engagements trigger intermediate affinity integrins to support reversible adhesions before chemokine-triggered arrest. Different leukocyte subsets appear to use different modalities of integrin activation during rolling and arrest at distinct endothelial sites.

  10. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  11. 49 CFR 393.209 - Steering wheel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steering wheel systems. 393.209 Section 393.209... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.209 Steering wheel systems. (a) The steering wheel shall be secured and must not have any...

  12. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  13. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  14. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  15. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  16. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  17. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  18. 49 CFR 393.209 - Steering wheel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steering wheel systems. 393.209 Section 393.209... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.209 Steering wheel systems. (a) The steering wheel shall be secured and must not have any...

  19. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  20. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  1. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  2. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  3. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  4. 14 CFR 27.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 27.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  5. 14 CFR 29.483 - One-wheel landing conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One-wheel landing conditions. 29.483... One-wheel landing conditions. For the one-wheel landing condition, the rotorcraft is assumed to be in the level attitude and to contact the ground on one aft wheel. In this attitude— (a) The vertical...

  6. Chronic Ethanol Intake Alters Circadian Phase Shifting and Free-Running Period in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seggio, Joseph A.; Fixaris, Michael C.; Reed, Jeffrey D.; Logan, Ryan W.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake is associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms in both human alcoholics and in experimental animals. Recent studies have demonstrated that chronic and acute ethanol treatments alter fundamental properties of the circadian pacemaker—including free-running period and responsiveness to photic and nonphotic phase-shifting stimuli—in rats and hamsters. In the present work, the authors extend these observations to the C57BL/6J mouse, an inbred strain characterized by very high levels of voluntary ethanol intake and by reliable and stable free-running circadian activity rhythms. Mice were housed individually in running-wheel cages under conditions of either voluntary or forced ethanol intake, whereas controls were maintained on plain water. Forced ethanol intake significantly attenuated photic phase delays (but not phase advances) and shortened free-running period in constant darkness, but voluntary ethanol intake failed to affect either of these parameters. Thus, high levels of chronic ethanol intake, beyond those normally achieved under voluntary drinking conditions, are required to alter fundamental circadian pacemaker properties in C57BL/6J mice. These observations may be related to the relative ethanol insensitivity displayed by this strain in several other phenotypic domains, including ethanol-induced sedation, ataxia, and withdrawal. Additional experiments will investigate chronobiological sensitivity to ethanol in a range of inbred strains showing diverse ethanol-related phenotypes. PMID:19625732

  7. Chronic ethanol intake alters circadian phase shifting and free-running period in mice.

    PubMed

    Seggio, Joseph A; Fixaris, Michael C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Logan, Ryan W; Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2009-08-01

    Chronic alcohol intake is associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms in both human alcoholics and in experimental animals. Recent studies have demonstrated that chronic and acute ethanol treatments alter fundamental properties of the circadian pacemaker--including free-running period and responsiveness to photic and nonphotic phase-shifting stimuli--in rats and hamsters. In the present work, the authors extend these observations to the C57BL/6J mouse, an inbred strain characterized by very high levels of voluntary ethanol intake and by reliable and stable free-running circadian activity rhythms. Mice were housed individually in running-wheel cages under conditions of either voluntary or forced ethanol intake, whereas controls were maintained on plain water. Forced ethanol intake significantly attenuated photic phase delays (but not phase advances) and shortened free-running period in constant darkness, but voluntary ethanol intake failed to affect either of these parameters. Thus, high levels of chronic ethanol intake, beyond those normally achieved under voluntary drinking conditions, are required to alter fundamental circadian pacemaker properties in C57BL/6J mice. These observations may be related to the relative ethanol insensitivity displayed by this strain in several other phenotypic domains, including ethanol-induced sedation, ataxia, and withdrawal. Additional experiments will investigate chronobiological sensitivity to ethanol in a range of inbred strains showing diverse ethanol-related phenotypes. PMID:19625732

  8. Dynamics and wheel's slip ratio of a wheel-legged robot in wheeled motion considering the change of height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xilun; Li, Kejia; Xu, Kun

    2012-09-01

    The existing research on dynamics and slip ratio of wheeled mobile robot (WMR) are derived without considering the effect of height, and the existing models can not be used to analyze the dynamics performance of the robot with variable height while moving such as NOROS-II. The existing method of dynamics modeling is improved by adding the constraint equation between perpendicular displacement of body and horizontal displacement of wheel into the constraint conditions. The dynamic model of NOROS-II in wheel motion is built by the Lagrange method under nonholonomic constraints. The inverse dynamics is calculated in three different paths based on this model, and the results demonstrate that torques of hip pitching joints are inversely proportional to the height of robot. The relative error of calculated torques is less than 2% compared with that of ADAMS simulation, by which the validity of dynamic model is verified. Moreover, the relative horizontal motion between fore/hind wheels and body is produced when the height is changed, and thus the accurate slip ratio can not be obtained by the traditional equation. The improved slip ratio equations with the parameter of the vertical velocity of body are introduced for fore wheels and hind wheels respectively. Numerical simulations of slip ratios are conducted to reveal the effect of varied height on slip ratios of different wheels. The result shows that the slip ratios of fore/hind wheels become larger/smaller respectively as the height increases, and as the height is reduced, the reverse applies. The proposed research of dynamic model and slip ratio based on the robot height provides the effective method to analyze the dynamics of WMRs with varying height.

  9. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum which the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical implementation strategies for specific wheel configurations are also considered.

  10. [Fracture of the diaphyseal radius during Cyr wheel practice - an uncommon injury of wheel gymnastics].

    PubMed

    Kauther, M D; Rummel, S; Hussmann, B; Lendemans, S; Nast-Kolb, D; Wedemeyer, C

    2011-12-01

    The cyr wheel is a modified gymnastic wheel with only one ring that can lead to extreme forces on the gymnast. We report on a distal radius shaft fracture (AO 22 A 2.1) and a fracture of the styloid process of the ulna that occurred after holding on to a slipping Cyr wheel and exposition to high pressure on the lower arm. The fracture was fixed by screws and a plate. PMID:22161268

  11. The Drag of Airplane Wheels, Wheel Fairings, and Landing Gears - III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrnstein, William H , Jr; Biermann, David

    1936-01-01

    The tests reported in this report conclude the investigation of landing-gear drag that has been carried out in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. They supplement earlier tests (reported in Technical Report No. 485) made with full-scale dummy wheels, wheel fairings, and landing gears intended for airplanes of 3,000 pounds gross weight and include tests of tail wheels and tail skids.

  12. Progress toward a performance based specification for diamond grinding wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Piscotty, M.S.; Blaedel, K.L.

    1996-11-12

    This work sought to improve the communication between users and makers of fine diamond grinding wheels. A promising avenue for this is to formulate a voluntary product standard that comprises performance indicators that bridge the gap between specific user requirements and the details of wheel formulations. We propose a set of performance specifiers of figures-of-merit, that might be assessed by straightforward and traceable testing methods, but do not compromise proprietary information of the wheel user of wheel maker. One such performance indicator might be wheel hardness. In addition we consider technologies that might be required to realize the benefits of optimized grinding wheels. A non-contact wheel-to- workpiece proximity sensor may provide a means of monitoring wheel wear and thus wheel position, for wheels that exhibit high wear rates in exchange for improved surface finish.

  13. An Animal Model of Active (Act) Versus Sedentary (Sed) Lifestyle and Susceptibility to Air Pollution: Response to Ozone (O3) in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Allowed to Train Chronically On Running Wheels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological data suggest that a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to increased suseptibility to environmental pollutants. Furthermore, the association between a sedentary pattern and development of obesity may exacerbate susceptibility. To study the effects of ACT vs. SED l...

  14. 77 FR 67400 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as Wheeling Corrugating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as Wheeling Corrugating Company, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Severstal Wheeling, Beech... Wheeling Corrugating Company, Beech Bottom, West Virginia. The Department's notice of determination...

  15. Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Metal Bond Diamond Wheels- Part II: Wheel Wear Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    The use of stereo scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to investigate the wear mechanism of the wire EDM true metal bond diamond wheel for ceramic grinding is presented. On the grinding wheel, a wedge-shape removal part was machined to enable the examination and measurement of the worn wheel surfaces using the stereo SEM. The stereo SEM was calibrated by comparing results of depth profile of a wear groove with the profilometer measurements. On the surface of the grinding wheel after wire EDM truing and before grinding, the diamond protruding heights were measured in the level of 35 {micro}m, comparing to the 54 {micro}m average size of the diamond in the grinding wheel. The gap between the EDM wire and rotating grinding wheel is estimated to be about 35 to 40 {micro}m. This observation indicates that, during the wire EDM, electrical sparks occur between the metal bond and EDM wire, which leaves the diamond protruding in the gap between the wire and wheel. The protruding diamond is immediately fractured at the start of the grinding process, even under a light grinding condition. After heavy grinding, the grinding wheel surface and the diamond protrusion heights are also investigated using the stereo SEM. The height of diamond protrusion was estimated in the 5 to 15 {micro}m range. This study has demonstrated the use of stereo SEM as a metrology tool to study the grinding wheel surface.

  16. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets. PMID:24526883

  17. The influence of wheel/rail contact conditions on the microstructure and hardness of railway wheels.

    PubMed

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Davis, Claire; Bevan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an "in-service" wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  18. STEM after School: How to Design and Run Great Programs and Activities. A Guidebook for Program Leaders, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This guidebook was prepared by TASC (The After-School Corporation) and their Frontiers in Urban Science Education (FUSE) programs. FUSE is TASC's initiative to help more out-of-school-time programs and expanded learning time schools offer kids engaging, exciting and inspiring activities that promote science inquiry. The guidebook offers a a…

  19. Track of Right-Wheel Drag (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 313th martian day (Nov. 19, 2004). The site, labeled Spirit site 93, is in the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater. The rover tracks point westward. Spirit had driven eastward, in reverse and dragging its right front wheel, for about 30 meters (100 feet) on the day the picture was taken. Driving backwards while dragging that wheel is a precautionary strategy to extend the usefulness of the wheel for when it is most needed, because it has developed more friction than the other wheels. The right-hand track in this look backwards shows how the dragging disturbed the soil. This view is presented in a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Track of Right-Wheel Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 313th martian day (Nov. 19, 2004). The site, labeled Spirit site 93, is in the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater. The rover tracks point westward. Spirit had driven eastward, in reverse and dragging its right front wheel, for about 30 meters (100 feet) on the day the picture was taken. Driving backwards while dragging that wheel is a precautionary strategy to extend the usefulness of the wheel for when it is most needed, because it has developed more friction than the other wheels. The right-hand track in this look backwards shows how the dragging disturbed the soil. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Track of Right-Wheel Drag (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 313th martian day (Nov. 19, 2004). The site, labeled Spirit site 93, is in the 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev Crater. The rover tracks point westward. Spirit had driven eastward, in reverse and dragging its right front wheel, for about 30 meters (100 feet) on the day the picture was taken. Driving backwards while dragging that wheel is a precautionary strategy to extend the usefulness of the wheel for when it is most needed, because it has developed more friction than the other wheels. The right-hand track in this look backwards shows how the dragging disturbed the soil. This view is presented in a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Fifth wheel modification assembly, Issue U

    SciTech Connect

    Arning, C.

    1994-12-31

    This report consists of one engineering drawing showing modifications to the Fifth Wheel System for a semi-tractor trailer truck. Notes give instructions for installation of some items, where other items may be purchased, testing instructions, and shipping instructions.

  3. Mechanics of wheel-soil interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    An approximate theory for wheel-soil interaction is presented which forms the basis for a practical solution to the problem. It is shown that two fundamental observations render the problem determinate: (1) The line of action of the resultant of radial stresses acting at the wheel soil interface approximately bisects the wheel-soil contact angle for all values of slip. (2) A shear stress surface can be hypothesized. The influence of soil inertia forces is also evaluated. A concept of equivalent cohesion is introduced which allows a convenient experimental comparison for both cohesive and frictional soils. This theory compares favorably with previous analyses and experimental data, and shows that soil inertia forces influencing the motion of a rolling wheel can be significant.

  4. An Ultrasonic Wheel-Array Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, B. W.; Brotherhood, C. J.; Freemantle, R. J.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the development and modeling of an ultrasonic array wheel probe scanning system. The system operates at 10 MHz using a 64 element array transducer which is 50 mm in length and located in a fluid filled wheel. The wheel is coupled to the test structure dry, or with a small amount of liquid couplant. When the wheel is rolled over the surface of the test structure a defect map (C-Scan) is generated in real-time. The tyre is made from a soft, durable polymer which has very little acoustic loss. Two application studies are presented; the inspection of sealant layers in an aluminum aircraft wing structure and the detection of embedded defects in a thick section carbon composite sample.

  5. Magnetic Levitation Experiments with the Electrodynamic Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordrey, Vincent; Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Gaul, Nathan; Majewski, Walerian

    Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation using circular Halbach arrays with the strong variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed two Electrodynamic Wheels with different diameters and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW which can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW. The focus of our experiments is the direct measurement of lift and drag forces to compare with theoretical models using wheels of two different radii. Supported by Grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.

  6. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1978-01-01

    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  7. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combined Federal Campaign Text to Give Donate a Vehicle Shop for Good Give Stock Corporate Giving Ways ... UP Meals on Wheels America is thrilled to launch a first-of-its-kind national awareness campaign ...

  8. Constant four wheel drive vehicle transaxle

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, P.H.; Cameron, D.

    1986-04-15

    A dual differential four-wheel drive assembly is described adapted for a two-wheel drive front transaxle vehicle having an internal combustion engine with a transverse oriented crankshaft for driving the vehicle with front and rear pairs of road wheels, a transmission gear unit for the transaxle including transverse input and output shafts, and right and left laterally extending front axle drive shafts, each drive shaft having front wheel mounting means on its outboard end. The dual differential assembly consists of: housing means having a laterally extending passage therethrough aligned on a transverse axis, the housing means having first and second differential casings for associated first and second bevel gear differentials, the casings supported in laterally spaced alignment for rotation about the transverse axis, each first and second differential casing enclosing inboard and outboard side gears in meshing relation with planetary pinion gears, each casing having opposed inboard and outboard axial extensions thereon.

  9. Reduced physical activity and risk of chronic disease: the biology behind the consequences.

    PubMed

    Booth, Frank W; Laye, Matthew J; Lees, Simon J; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2008-03-01

    This review focuses on three preserved, ancient, biological mechanisms (physical activity, insulin sensitivity, and fat storage). Genes in humans and rodents were selected in an environment of high physical activity that favored an optimization of aerobic metabolic pathways to conserve energy for a potential, future food deficiency. Today machines and other technologies have replaced much of the physical activity that selected optimal gene expression for energy metabolism. Distressingly, the negative by-product of a lack of ancient physical activity levels in our modern civilization is an increased risk of chronic disease. We have been employing a rodent wheel-lock model to approximate the reduction in physical activity in humans from the level under which genes were selected to a lower level observed in modern daily functioning. Thus far, two major changes have been identified when rats undertaking daily, natural voluntary running on wheels experience an abrupt cessation of the running (wheel lock model). First, insulin sensitivity in the epitrochlearis muscle of rats falls to sedentary values after 2 days of the cessation of running, confirming the decline to sedentary values in whole-body insulin sensitivity when physically active humans stop high levels of daily exercise. Second, visceral fat increases within 1 week after rats cease daily running, confirming the plasticity of human visceral fat. This review focuses on the supporting data for the aforementioned two outcomes. Our primary goal is to better understand how a physically inactive lifestyle initiates maladaptations that cause chronic disease.

  10. A Nontoxic Barlow's Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Barlow's wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822. In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns…

  11. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, John F.

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering and rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.

  12. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering andmore » rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.« less

  13. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  14. Wheel drives for large telescopes: save the cost and keep the performance over hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Marvin F.

    2014-07-01

    The use of steel wheels on steel tracks has been around since steel was invented, and before that it was iron wheels on iron tracks. Not to be made obsolete by the passage of time, this approach for moving large objects is still valid, even optimal, but the detailed techniques for achieving high performance and long life have been much improved. The use of wheel-and-track designs has been very popular in radio astronomy for the largest of the large radio telescopes (RT), including such notables as the 305m Arecibo RT, the 100m telescopes at Effelsberg, Germany (at 3600 tonnes) and the Robert C. Byrd, Greenbank Telescope (GBT, 7600 tonnes) at Greenbank, West Virginia. Of course, the 76m Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank is the grandfather of all large aperture radio telescopes that use wheel drives. Smaller sizes include NRAO's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) telescopes at 25m and others. Wheel drives have also been used on large radars of significance such as the 410 tonne Ground Based Radar-Prototype (GBR-P) and the 150 foot (45.7m) Altair Radar, and the 2130 tonne Sea Based X-Band Radar (SBX). There are also many examples of wheel driven communications antennas of 18 meters and larger. All of these instruments have one thing in common: they all use steel wheels that run in a circle on one or more flat, level, steel tracks. This paper covers issues related to designing for wheel driven systems. The intent is for managing motion to sub arc-second levels, and for this purpose it is primary for the designer to manage measurement and alignment errors, and to establish repeatability through dimensional control, structural and drive stiffness management, adjustability and error management. In a practical sense, there are very few, if any, fabricators that can machine structural and drive components to sufficiently small decimal places to matter. In fact, coming within 2-3 orders of magnitude of the precision needed is about the best that can be expected. Further, it is

  15. Effect of axle misalignments on rolling resistance and wheel wear

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, J.F.; Wilson, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    High energy costs impacting the railroad industry and the use of rail lubrication to lower energy consumption have led to investigation of axle misalignment as a cause of train resistance and wear. This paper brings together the results of field and laboratory misalignment tests designed to measure the effects of axle misalignment on roller resistance and wheel wear of standard trucks run on curved and tangent track. These tests employed the Transportation Test Center's Roll Dynamics Unit for the lab tests, an instrumented coupler for field testing, and a modified version of the AAR Curving Model to validate the RDU results and correlate them to field data. All testing was conducted at the Transportation Test Center near Pueblo, Colorado, under the sponsorship of the Association of American Railroads (RDU Test) and the Federal Railroad Administration (Track Test). During testing, deliberate misalignments were introduced in test wheelsets, and measurements were taken in field and laboratory settings. The train resistance and wheel wear data correlated well with the curving model, showing that reasonably accurate results are achievable by modeling within a common range of known conditions. The undesirable effects of axle misalignment on train resistance and wear were confirmed.

  16. Comparison of amino acid profiles between rats subjected to forced running and voluntary running exercises

    PubMed Central

    OKAME, Rieko; NAKAHARA, Keiko; KATO, Yumiko; BANNAI, Makoto; MURAKAMI, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    It has been suspected that in comparison with glucose or fatty acids, the levels of amino acids may readily change with different forms of exercise. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of amino acids, glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in the blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats subjected to forced running exercise on a treadmill, and voluntary running exercise using a wheel, with a constant running distance of 440 m. Rats that performed no running and rats subjected to immobilization stress were used as controls. We observed a few significant changes in the levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in all groups. Whereas, plasma amino acid levels were significantly changed by exercise and stress, especially during the light period. The plasma levels of many amino acids were specifically increased by forced running; some were decreased by immobilization stress. Few amino acids showed similar changes in their levels as a result of voluntary running. In addition, there was a significant difference in the degree of amino acid imbalance between blood and CSF. These results provide the first information on changes in levels of amino acids in plasma and CSF resulting from forced and voluntary exercises. PMID:25715957

  17. Comparison of amino acid profiles between rats subjected to forced running and voluntary running exercises.

    PubMed

    Okame, Rieko; Nakahara, Keiko; Kato, Yumiko; Bannai, Makoto; Murakami, Noboru

    2015-06-01

    It has been suspected that in comparison with glucose or fatty acids, the levels of amino acids may readily change with different forms of exercise. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of amino acids, glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in the blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats subjected to forced running exercise on a treadmill, and voluntary running exercise using a wheel, with a constant running distance of 440 m. Rats that performed no running and rats subjected to immobilization stress were used as controls. We observed a few significant changes in the levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in all groups. Whereas, plasma amino acid levels were significantly changed by exercise and stress, especially during the light period. The plasma levels of many amino acids were specifically increased by forced running; some were decreased by immobilization stress. Few amino acids showed similar changes in their levels as a result of voluntary running. In addition, there was a significant difference in the degree of amino acid imbalance between blood and CSF. These results provide the first information on changes in levels of amino acids in plasma and CSF resulting from forced and voluntary exercises.

  18. Base-pair-resolution genome-wide mapping of active RNA polymerases using precision nuclear run-on (PRO-seq).

    PubMed

    Mahat, Dig Bijay; Kwak, Hojoong; Booth, Gregory T; Jonkers, Iris H; Danko, Charles G; Patel, Ravi K; Waters, Colin T; Munson, Katie; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T

    2016-08-01

    We provide a protocol for precision nuclear run-on sequencing (PRO-seq) and its variant, PRO-cap, which map the location of active RNA polymerases (PRO-seq) or transcription start sites (TSSs) (PRO-cap) genome-wide at high resolution. The density of RNA polymerases at a particular genomic locus directly reflects the level of nascent transcription at that region. Nuclei are isolated from cells and, under nuclear run-on conditions, transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases incorporate one or, at most, a few biotin-labeled nucleotide triphosphates (biotin-NTPs) into the 3' end of nascent RNA. The biotin-labeled nascent RNA is used to prepare sequencing libraries, which are sequenced from the 3' end to provide high-resolution positional information for the RNA polymerases. PRO-seq provides much higher sensitivity than ChIP-seq, and it generates a much larger fraction of usable sequence reads than ChIP-seq or NET-seq (native elongating transcript sequencing). Similarly to NET-seq, PRO-seq maps the RNA polymerase at up to base-pair resolution with strand specificity, but unlike NET-seq it does not require immunoprecipitation. With the protocol provided here, PRO-seq (or PRO-cap) libraries for high-throughput sequencing can be generated in 4-5 working days. The method has been applied to human, mouse, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans cells and, with slight modifications, to yeast. PMID:27442863

  19. Demisable Reaction-Wheel Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell; Ahronovich, Eliezer; Davis, Milton C., III

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the concept of a demisable motor-drive-and-flywheel assembly [reaction-wheel assembly (RWA)] used in controlling the attitude of a spacecraft. Demisable as used here does not have its traditional legal meaning; instead, it signifies susceptible to melting, vaporizing, and/or otherwise disintegrating during re-entry of the spacecraft into the atmosphere of the Earth so as not to pose a hazard to anyone or anything on the ground. Prior RWAs include parts made of metals (e.g., iron, steel, and titanium) that melt at high temperatures and include structures of generally closed character that shield some parts (e.g., magnets) against re-entry heating. In a demisable RWA, the flywheel would be made of aluminum, which melts at a lower temperature. The flywheel web would not be a solid disk but would have a more open, nearly-spoke-like structure so that it would disintegrate more rapidly; hence, the flywheel rim would separate more rapidly so that parts shielded by the rim would be exposed sooner to re-entry heating. In addition, clearances between the flywheel and other components would be made greater, imparting a more open character and thus increasing the exposure of those components.

  20. On Running and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Denzel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)