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Sample records for activity-based cost accounting

  1. The utilization of activity-based cost accounting in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Dennis; Forget, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Healthcare costs are being examined on all fronts. Healthcare accounts for 11% of the gross national product and will continue to rise as the "babyboomers" reach retirement age. While ascertaining costs is important, most research shows that costing methods have not been implemented in hospitals. This study is concerned with the use of costing methods; particularly activity-based cost accounting. A mail survey of CFOs was undertaken to determine the type of cost accounting method they use. In addition, they were asked whether they were aware of activity-based cost accounting and whether they had implemented it or were planning to implement it. Only 71.8% were aware of it and only 4.7% had implemented it. In addition, only 52% of all hospitals report using any cost accounting systems. Education needs to ensure that all healthcare executives are cognizant of activity-based accounting and its importance in determining costs. Only by determining costs can hospitals strive to contain them.

  2. Allocating physicians' overhead costs to services: an econometric/accounting-activity based-approach.

    PubMed

    Peden, Al; Baker, Judith J

    2002-01-01

    Using the optimizing properties of econometric analysis, this study analyzes how physician overhead costs (OC) can be allocated to multiple activities to maximize precision in reimbursing the costs of services. Drawing on work by Leibenstein and Friedman, the analysis also shows that allocating OC to multiple activities unbiased by revenue requires controlling for revenue when making the estimates. Further econometric analysis shows that it is possible to save about 10 percent of OC by paying only for those that are necessary.

  3. Comparison of cost determination of both resource consumption accounting and time-driven activity-based costing systems in a healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Özyapıcı, Hasan; Tanış, Veyis Naci

    2016-06-02

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between resource consumption accounting (RCA) and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) systems in determining the costs of services of a healthcare setting.Methods A case study was conducted to calculate the unit costs of open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries using TDABC and RCA.Results The RCA system assigns a higher cost both to open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries than TDABC. The total cost of unused capacity under the TDABC system is also double that in RCA.Conclusion Unlike TDABC, RCA calculates lower costs for unused capacities but higher costs for products or services in a healthcare setting in which fixed costs make up a high proportion of total costs.What is known about the topic? TDABC is a revision of the activity-based costing (ABC) system. RCA is also a new costing system that includes both the theoretical advantages of ABC and the practical advantages of German costing. However, little is known about the differences arising from application of TDABC and RCA.What does this paper add? There is no study comparing both TDABC and RCA in a single case study based on a real-world healthcare setting. Thus, the present study fills this gap in the literature and it is unique in the sense that it is the first case study comparing TDABC and RCA for open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries in a healthcare setting.What are the implications for practitioners? This study provides several interesting results for managers and cost accounting researchers. Thus, it will contribute to the spread of RCA studies in healthcare settings. It will also help the implementers of TDABC to revise data concerning the cost of unused capacity. In addition, by separating costs into fixed and variable, the paper will help managers to create a blended (combined) system that can improve both short- and long-term decisions.

  4. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing.

  5. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting...

  6. Time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Anderson, Steven R

    2004-11-01

    In the classroom, activity-based costing (ABC) looks like a great way to manage a company's limited resources. But executives who have tried to implement ABC in their organizations on any significant scale have often abandoned the attempt in the face of rising costs and employee irritation. They should try again, because a new approach sidesteps the difficulties associated with large-scale ABC implementation. In the revised model, managers estimate the resource demands imposed by each transaction, product, or customer, rather than relying on time-consuming and costly employee surveys. This method is simpler since it requires, for each group of resources, estimates of only two parameters: how much it costs per time unit to supply resources to the business's activities (the total overhead expenditure of a department divided by the total number of minutes of employee time available) and how much time it takes to carry out one unit of each kind of activity (as estimated or observed by the manager). This approach also overcomes a serious technical problem associated with employee surveys: the fact that, when asked to estimate time spent on activities, employees invariably report percentages that add up to 100. Under the new system, managers take into account time that is idle or unused. Armed with the data, managers then construct time equations, a new feature that enables the model to reflect the complexity of real-world operations by showing how specific order, customer, and activity characteristics cause processing times to vary. This Tool Kit uses concrete examples to demonstrate how managers can obtain meaningful cost and profitability information, quickly and inexpensively. Rather than endlessly updating and maintaining ABC data,they can now spend their time addressing the deficiencies the model reveals: inefficient processes, unprofitable products and customers, and excess capacity.

  7. Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Management Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    In college and university administration, overhead costs are often charged to programs indiscriminately, whereas the support activities that underlie those costs remain unanalyzed. It is time for institutions to decrease ineffective use of resources. Activity-based management attributes costs more accurately and can improve efficiency. (MSE)

  8. Integrated Cost Accounting System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-27

    few other companies. Harvard Business Review contained articles explaining the ideas behind the new costing methods and examples of applications...technical report. Peter Drucker in an article in Harvard Business Review ’carefully explains that accounting must change in response to the changes in...Kaplan in a Harvard Business Review article develop the idea of four levels of activities: facility sustaining activities; product-sustaining activities

  9. 76 FR 53378 - Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... the measurement and allocation of the cost of infrequent and difficult to predict events. The FAR at... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy...

  10. Predicting hospital accounting costs

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Cretin, Shan; Witsberger, Christina J.

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative methods to Medicare Cost Reports that provide information about hospital costs more promptly but less accurately are investigated. Both employ utilization data from current-year bills. The first attaches costs to utilization data using cost-charge ratios from the previous year's cost report; the second uses charges from current year's bills. The first method is the more accurate of the two, but even using it, only 40 percent of hospitals had predicted costs within plus or minus 5 percent of actual costs. The feasibility and cost of obtaining cost reports from a small, fast-track sample of hospitals should be investigated. PMID:10313352

  11. Activity-Based Costing Systems for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Dennis H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines traditional costing models utilized in higher education and pinpoints shortcomings related to proper identification of costs. Describes activity-based costing systems as a superior alternative for cost identification, measurement, and allocation. (MLF)

  12. Activity-Based Costing in the After Press Services Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevasuthisilp, Suntichai; Punsathitwong, Kosum

    2009-10-01

    This research was conducted to apply activity-based costing (ABC) in an after press service company in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The company produces all of its products by one-stop service (such as coating, stitching, binding, die cutting, and gluing). All products are made to order, and have different sizes and patterns. A strategy of low price is used to compete in the marketplace. After cost analysis, the study found that the company has high overhead (36.5% of total cost). The company's problem is its use of traditional cost accounting, which has low accuracy in assigning overhead costs. If management uses this information when pricing customer orders, losses may occur because real production costs may be higher than the selling price. Therefore, the application of ABC in cost analysis can help executives receive accurate cost information; establish a sound pricing strategy; and improve the manufacturing process by determining work activities which have excessively high production costs. According to this research, 6 out of 56 items had a production cost higher than the selling price, leading to losses of 123,923 baht per year. Methods used to solve this problem were: reducing production costs; establishing suitable prices; and creating a sales promotion with lower prices for customers whose orders include processes involving unused capacity. These actions will increase overall sales of the company, and allow more efficient use of its machinery.

  13. Activity-based costing and its application in a Turkish university hospital.

    PubMed

    Yereli, Ayşe Necef

    2009-03-01

    Resource management in hospitals is of increasing importance in today's global economy. Traditional accounting systems have become inadequate for managing hospital resources and accurately determining service costs. Conversely, the activity-based costing approach to hospital accounting is an effective cost management model that determines costs and evaluates financial performance across departments. Obtaining costs that are more accurate can enable hospitals to analyze and interpret costing decisions and make more accurate budgeting decisions. Traditional and activity-based costing approaches were compared using a cost analysis of gall bladder surgeries in the general surgery department of one university hospital in Manisa, Turkey.

  14. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  15. The Effect of Activity-Based Costing on Logistics Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    361 46. Current Cost Accounting System Can Trace Costs to Specific Vendors ..................... 362 47. Will Need to Accurately...elsewhere in the firm? a. What problems have the logistics functions encountered with their current cost accounting systems? 13 b. What benefits the...have already recognized problems within their current cost accounting systems. He claims the systems ". . .give managers incorrect product costing

  16. 76 FR 81295 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Accounting Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost,'' and CAS 413, ``Adjustment and Allocation of Pension Cost.'' This revision will harmonize the measurement and period assignment of the... cost objectives in accordance with CAS, and the measurement and period assignment requirements...

  17. Library Labor Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Bois, Dan

    The Library Labor Cost Accounting System will provide visibility on current costs of manually processing library materials, at each campus as well as system-wide. The scope of the study includes the following: (1) 100 individual activities, grouped into 14 functional areas, e.g., Ordering, Receiving; and into 3 major operations: Acquisitions,…

  18. The case for implementing activity based costing.

    PubMed

    Monge, Paul H; Bolinger-Perez, Nicole; Boysen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    ABC identifies profitable volumes to give managers information to better manage volumes. Managers must balance the demand for service while maintaining a reasonable profit margin. Disparate systems work extremely well for their intended purposes, but they do not communicate with one another. The strength of the data they hold individually may be leveraged when implementing ABC methodology. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota implemented a pilot of ABC to evaluate CT services where there is a high volume, multiple service location for cost comparison, variety of patient acuity and service mix, and large capital investments.The goal was to reveal the actual cost of CT services at the procedural level.

  19. The Role of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in Educational Support Services: A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edds, Daniel B.

    Many front-line managers who are assuming more financial responsibility for their organizations find traditional cost accounting inadequate for their needs and are turning to Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is not a financial reporting system to serve the needs of regulatory agencies, but a tool that tracks costs from the general ledger…

  20. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Brian J; Prabhakar, Anand M; Warsh, Jonathan; Kaplan, Robert; Brennan, John; Dempsey, Kyle E; Raja, Ali S

    2016-06-01

    Value in emergency medicine is determined by both patient-important outcomes and the costs associated with achieving them. However, measuring true costs is challenging. Without an understanding of costs, emergency department (ED) leaders will be unable to determine which interventions might improve value for their patients. Although ongoing research may determine which outcomes are meaningful, an accurate costing system is also needed. This article reviews current costing mechanisms in the ED and their pitfalls. It then describes how time-driven activity-based costing may be superior to these current costing systems. Time-driven activity-based costing, in addition to being a more accurate costing system, can be used for process improvements in the ED.

  1. Bridging the gap between finance and clinical operations with activity-based cost management.

    PubMed

    Storfjell, J L; Jessup, S

    1996-12-01

    Activity-based cost management (ABCM) is an exciting management tool that links financial information with operations. By determining the costs of specific activities and processes, nurse managers accurately determine true costs of services more accurately than traditional cost accounting methods, and then can target processes for improvement and monitor them for change and improvement. The authors describe the ABCM process applied to nursing management situations.

  2. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987]. First, users of cost accounting information express different levels of satisfaction with the 65 effectiveness of current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987). For example, it was found that, ආ percent of the users are unhappy with current cost accounting

  3. Understanding Time-driven Activity-based Costing.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-03-01

    Transitioning to a value-based health care system will require providers to increasingly scrutinize their outcomes and costs. Although there has been a great deal of effort to understand outcomes, cost accounting in health care has been a greater challenge. Currently the cost accounting methods used by hospitals and providers are based off a fee-for-service system. As resources become increasingly scarce and the health care system attempts to understand which services provide the greatest value, it will be critically important to understand the true costs of delivering a service. An understanding of the true costs of a particular service will help providers make smarter decisions on how to allocate and utilize resources as well as determine which activities are nonvalue added. Achieving value will require providers to have a greater focus on accurate outcome data as well as better methods of cost accounting.

  4. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better.

  5. 76 FR 49365 - Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts Executed and Performed... Budget (OMB), Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board...

  6. Implementing a trustworthy cost-accounting model.

    PubMed

    Spence, Jay; Seargeant, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Hospitals and health systems can develop an effective cost-accounting model and maximize the effectiveness of their cost-accounting teams by focusing on six key areas: Implementing an enhanced data model. Reconciling data efficiently. Accommodating multiple cost-modeling techniques. Improving transparency of cost allocations. Securing department manager participation. Providing essential education and training to staff members and stakeholders.

  7. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  8. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  9. The ABCs of Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Containment and Reallocation Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes activity-based costing (ABC) and how this tool may help management understand the costs of major activities and identify possible alternatives. Also discussed are the traditional costing systems used by higher education and ways of applying ABC to higher education. (GLR)

  10. Cost Accounting: Production and Equipment Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, William T.

    Cost accounting for audiovisual productions should include direct costs, and, in some cases, the media administrator may have to calculate a per-hour surcharge for general operating overhead as well. Such procedures enable the administrator to determine cost effectiveness, to control cost overruns, and to generate more staff efficiency. Cost…

  11. Finance salaries. Account the cost.

    PubMed

    Robling, Andy

    2003-02-06

    Post-qualification salaries have increased by 4-7 per cent, a slowdown on last year's figures when increases were often more than 10 per cent. The highest increases this year tended to be in medium-sized trusts where newly qualified accountants' salaries rose 8.2 per cent. Directors of finance in large trusts earn about 20 per cent more than in medium trusts and about 40 per cent more than in small ones. Newly qualified accountants in large trusts earn 5 per cent more than in medium-sized trusts and 13 per cent more than in small ones. The survey is based on an analysis of salaries from Hays' jobs database, and salaries of registered candidates.

  12. A new costing model in hospital management: time-driven activity-based costing system.

    PubMed

    Öker, Figen; Özyapıcı, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cost systems cause cost distortions because they cannot meet the requirements of today's businesses. Therefore, a new and more effective cost system is needed. Consequently, time-driven activity-based costing system has emerged. The unit cost of supplying capacity and the time needed to perform an activity are the only 2 factors considered by the system. Furthermore, this system determines unused capacity by considering practical capacity. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the efficiency of the time-driven activity-based costing system and to display how it can be applied in a health care institution. A case study was conducted in a private hospital in Cyprus. Interviews and direct observations were used to collect the data. The case study revealed that the cost of unused capacity is allocated to both open and laparoscopic (closed) surgeries. Thus, by using the time-driven activity-based costing system, managers should eliminate the cost of unused capacity so as to obtain better results. Based on the results of the study, hospital management is better able to understand the costs of different surgeries. In addition, managers can easily notice the cost of unused capacity and decide how many employees to be dismissed or directed to other productive areas.

  13. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  14. Cost Accounting and Analysis for University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.; Cooper, Michael D.

    The approach to library planning studied in this report is the use of accounting models to measure library costs and implement program budgets. A cost-flow model for a university library is developed and listed with historical data from the Berkeley General Library. Various comparisons of an exploratory nature are made of the unit costs for…

  15. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.406 - Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost accounting period. 9904.406 Section 9904.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  19. Cost Impact Assessment of Cost Accounting Practice Changes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    7A0-A092 434 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/0 5/1 COST IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF COST ACCOUNTING PRACTICE CHANGES.(UlNL S EP 80 J S ANDERSONUN CL...MNGER 4. TITLE (mod Su&CEI* I. Tyss[ of REPORT & 11.1110 Coyenea Cost Impact Assessment of Cost Accounting Master’ s Thesis; September Practice Chages... Accounting ," IICASB,’I "Audits," IV"DCASŕ "Decision Models." 20. ASTMAC T (CO.COuMMO 10 GW 0ewr 0 Ite 00404.....VI 0114 id..CEF of 001111 inmb,) *This

  20. The business of radiology: cost accounting.

    PubMed

    Camponovo, Ernest J

    2004-08-01

    Radiology practices confront questions of resource allocation every day. Unfortunately, practices frequently fail to adequately analyze revenues and expenses, which are at the heart of success or failure in any business endeavor. Cost allocation problems permeate nearly all aspects of cost analysis and accumulation and exist throughout all types of private-sector and public-sector organizations. "Managerial" or "cost" accounting is the discipline concerned with measuring and assigning the costs of delivering services or producing products. In contrast to financial accounting, management accounting produces relevant information for internal decision making and in general is designed to answer a firm's specific operational questions. Because costs play such a critical role in deriving and planning for revenues and profits, managerial accounting is in large part devoted to measuring and accumulating costs with the aims of control and continuous cost reduction. Because radiologists' salaries are at record highs, when accounting for a practice's clinical activities, such as the provision of mammography services, some allocation of radiologist costs themselves must be made, or the practice will not be able to achieve its goal of efficient allocation of resources. Whatever cost-accounting method is used should be specific enough to allow the differentiation of costs to as detailed a level as necessary for the strategic decision at hand. It is imperative that a practice use some rational method to gather and analyze costs and that management then use these data in decision making. Successful practices will be those most aware of their costs and the minimum acceptable reimbursements necessary for their success.

  1. Savings account for health care costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000864.htm Savings account for health care costs To use the sharing features on this ... can set aside tax-exempt money for your health care expenses. This means you will pay no or ...

  2. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    PubMed

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  3. The cost of an upper gastroduodenal endoscopy: an activity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Crott, Ralph; Makris, Nicholaos; Barkun, Alan; Fallone, Carlo

    2002-07-01

    The cost of medical procedures is often unknown, but is nevertheless crucial for setting reimbursement and health care policies. The cost of an upper gastroduodenal endoscopy was investigated in ambulatory adults in a large academic hospital in the province of Quebec, from the perspective of the hospital. An activity-based costing methodology was used to break down the procedure into a number of priory tasks, to which resources used at the department level (labour, equipment, materials) were allocated. The direct cost of performing an endoscopy ranged from $62 for an unsedated, unbiopsied patient to $89 for a sedated, biopsied patient. Not included in this amount were separate reimbursement fees of $15 for biopsy analysis and the $50 professional fee for the performing physician, which are charged directly to the Ministry of Health. Incorporating overall, general hospital fixed overhead costs raises the cost of the procedure substantially, by $41, as does the use of nonreusable biopsy forceps, which adds about $63 to the total cost of the procedure. Given the high proportion of overall, hospital-wide, overhead costs in the total cost of the procedure, allocation methods of these overhead costs in current hospital accounting systems should be improved to obtain a more precise estimate of the full cost of upper gastroduodenal endoscopy.

  4. The Cost of Library Services: Activity-Based Costing in an Australian Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter; Ellis-Newman, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Explains activity-based costing (ABC), discusses the benefits of ABC to library managers, and describes the steps involved in implementing ABC in an Australian academic library. Discusses the budgeting process in universities, and considers benefits to the library. (Author/LRW)

  5. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  6. Cost Accounting and Analysis for University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.; Cooper, Michael D.

    1971-01-01

    The approach to library planning studied in this paper is the use of accounting models to measure library costs and implement program budgets. A cost-flow model for a university library is developed and tested with historical data from the General Library at the University of California, Berkeley. (4 references) (Author)

  7. A tutorial on activity-based costing of electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Federowicz, Marie H; Grossman, Mila N; Hayes, Bryant J; Riggs, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    As the American Recovery and Restoration Act of 2009 allocates $19 billion to health information technology, it will be useful for health care managers to project the true cost of implementing an electronic health record (EHR). This study presents a step-by-step guide for using activity-based costing (ABC) to estimate the cost of an EHR. ABC is a cost accounting method with a "top-down" approach for estimating the cost of a project or service within an organization. The total cost to implement an EHR includes obvious costs, such as licensing fees, and hidden costs, such as impact on productivity. Unlike other methods, ABC includes all of the organization's expenditures and is less likely to miss hidden costs. Although ABC is used considerably in manufacturing and other industries, it is a relatively new phenomenon in health care. ABC is a comprehensive approach that the health care field can use to analyze the cost-effectiveness of implementing EHRs. In this article, ABC is applied to a health clinic that recently implemented an EHR, and the clinic is found to be more productive after EHR implementation. This methodology can help health care administrators assess the impact of a stimulus investment on organizational performance.

  8. 77 FR 69422 - Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Revision of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Contracts and Subcontracts for the Acquisition of Commercial... Accounting Standards (CAS) Board. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The OFPP and CAS Board invite...

  9. 76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Cost Accounting Standards.'' Included in the provision was a revision to paragraph (2)(B) of Section 26... Accounting Standards by covered Government contractors and subcontractors, consistent with the provisions of... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9903 Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification...

  10. Activities identification for activity-based cost/management applications of the diagnostics outpatient procedures.

    PubMed

    Alrashdan, Abdalla; Momani, Amer; Ababneh, Tamador

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems facing healthcare providers is to determine the actual cost for their procedures, which is important for internal accounting and price justification to insurers. The objective of this paper is to find suitable categories to identify the diagnostic outpatient medical procedures and translate them from functional orientation to process orientation. A hierarchal task tree is developed based on a classification schema of procedural activities. Each procedure is seen as a process consisting of a number of activities. This makes a powerful foundation for activity-based cost/management implementation and provides enough information to discover the value-added and non-value-added activities that assist in process improvement and eventually may lead to cost reduction. Work measurement techniques are used to identify the standard time of each activity at the lowest level of the task tree. A real case study at a private hospital is presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

  11. Counting the costs of accreditation in acute care: an activity-based costing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190

  12. The Effects of the Use of Activity-Based Costing Software in the Learning Process: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Andrea; Ferreira, Aldónio

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the use of accounting software in teaching activity-based costing (ABC) on the learning process. It draws upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and uses the end-user computer satisfaction (EUCS) framework to examine students' satisfaction with the ABC software. The study examines students' satisfaction with…

  13. IVF cycle cost estimation using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto; Rolando, Fabio; Costa, Mauro; Pisaturo, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    The Authors present a new methodological approach in stochastic regime to determine the actual costs of an healthcare process. The paper specifically shows the application of the methodology for the determination of the cost of an Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in Italy. The reason of this research comes from the fact that deterministic regime is inadequate to implement an accurate estimate of the cost of this particular treatment. In fact the durations of the different activities involved are unfixed and described by means of frequency distributions. Hence the need to determine in addition to the mean value of the cost, the interval within which it is intended to vary with a known confidence level. Consequently the cost obtained for each type of cycle investigated (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection), shows tolerance intervals around the mean value sufficiently restricted as to make the data obtained statistically robust and therefore usable also as reference for any benchmark with other Countries. It should be noted that under a methodological point of view the approach was rigorous. In fact it was used both the technique of Activity Based Costing for determining the cost of individual activities of the process both the Monte Carlo simulation, with control of experimental error, for the construction of the tolerance intervals on the final result.

  14. 75 FR 64684 - Cost Accounting Standards: Elimination of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... accounting practices used by Government contractors in the measurement, assignment and allocation of costs to... acknowledged that, in absence of the applicability of CAS, the cost measurement and allocation rules under FAR... CAS, FAR Part 31, including its cost measurement, assignment, and allocation rules, would still...

  15. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a... Accounting Standards (CAS) and to disclose in writing and follow consistently their cost accounting...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.416 - Accounting for insurance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting for insurance costs. 9904.416 Section 9904.416 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416 Accounting for insurance costs....

  17. 48 CFR 9904.416 - Accounting for insurance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Accounting for insurance costs. 9904.416 Section 9904.416 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416 Accounting for insurance costs....

  18. 48 CFR 9904.405 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting for unallowable costs. 9904.405 Section 9904.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405 Accounting for unallowable costs....

  19. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a... Accounting Standards (CAS) and to disclose in writing and follow consistently their cost accounting...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.405 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Accounting for unallowable costs. 9904.405 Section 9904.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405 Accounting for unallowable costs....

  1. 48 CFR 9904.416 - Accounting for insurance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting for insurance costs. 9904.416 Section 9904.416 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416 Accounting for insurance costs....

  2. 48 CFR 9904.416 - Accounting for insurance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for insurance costs. 9904.416 Section 9904.416 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416 Accounting for insurance costs....

  3. 48 CFR 9904.405 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for unallowable costs. 9904.405 Section 9904.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405 Accounting for unallowable costs....

  4. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a... Accounting Standards (CAS) and to disclose in writing and follow consistently their cost accounting...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.405 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs. 9904.405 Section 9904.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405 Accounting for unallowable costs....

  6. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  7. Why revisit your cost-accounting strategy.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Ricky

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare entities seeking to develop effective cost-accounting systems should take six steps to avoid potential pitfalls: Secure broad executive-level support for the effort. Ensure systems are in place to analyze the disparate data. Define measurable objectives to ensure that implementation achieves desired results. Give due consideration to implementation planning. Train support staff sufficiently to avoid underutilization. Develop a sufficiently broad base of staff support for the system.

  8. Activity-Based Costing in the Naval Postgraduate School

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Some colleges have substantial endowments, while others are non-existent. For this reason, the printed tuition price on college websites is not...always equivalent to the cost. Nonetheless, using these college tuition prices as references provides insight to where the Naval Postgraduate School...ABSTRACT (maximum200words) The Naval Postgraduate School is required to report activity costs and set tuition rates annually. The requirement to

  9. 48 CFR 30.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION General 30.101 Cost Accounting Standards. (a) 41 U.S.C. chapter 15, Cost Accounting Standards,requires certain contractors and subcontractors...

  10. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost accounting standards... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost Accounting Standards 1699.70 Cost accounting standards. With respect to all experience-rated contracts...

  11. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost accounting standards... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost Accounting Standards 1699.70 Cost accounting standards. With respect to all experience-rated contracts...

  12. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost accounting standards... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost Accounting Standards 1699.70 Cost accounting standards. With respect to all experience-rated contracts...

  13. 48 CFR 9903.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 9903.101 Section 9903.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE General 9903.101 Cost Accounting Standards. Public Law 100-679 (41...

  14. 48 CFR 9903.307 - Cost Accounting Standards Preambles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards Preambles. 9903.307 Section 9903.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.307 Cost Accounting Standards...

  15. 48 CFR 9903.302-1 - Cost accounting practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting practice. 9903.302-1 Section 9903.302-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.302-1 Cost accounting practice....

  16. 48 CFR 9903.302-1 - Cost accounting practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting practice. 9903.302-1 Section 9903.302-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.302-1 Cost accounting practice....

  17. 48 CFR 9903.307 - Cost Accounting Standards Preambles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost Accounting Standards Preambles. 9903.307 Section 9903.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.307 Cost Accounting Standards...

  18. 48 CFR 9903.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost Accounting Standards. 9903.101 Section 9903.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE General 9903.101 Cost Accounting Standards. Public Law 100-679 (41...

  19. 48 CFR 9903.307 - Cost Accounting Standards Preambles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards Preambles. 9903.307 Section 9903.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.307 Cost Accounting Standards...

  20. 48 CFR 9903.101 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 9903.101 Section 9903.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE General 9903.101 Cost Accounting Standards. Public Law 100-679 (41...

  1. Activity-Based Costing in User Services of an Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Newman, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The rationale for using Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in a library is to allocate indirect costs to products and services based on the factors that most influence them. This paper discusses the benefits of ABC to library managers and explains the steps involved in implementing ABC in the user services area of an Australian academic library.…

  2. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (MAY 2012) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  3. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (OCT 2010) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  4. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (MAY 2012) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  5. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  6. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  7. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (MAY 2014) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  8. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  9. 48 CFR 52.230-2 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards....230-2 Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(a), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards (OCT 2010) (a) Unless the contract is exempt under 48 CFR 9903.201-1 and 9903.201-2,...

  10. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards. 12.214 Section 12.214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts...

  11. 48 CFR 31.201-6 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for unallowable... Organizations 31.201-6 Accounting for unallowable costs. (a) Costs that are expressly unallowable or mutually... accounting for and presentation of unallowable costs must be those described in 48 CFR 9904.405,...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.919 Cost principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure...

  13. Cost accounting in healthcare organizations: who needs it?

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, S; Shepherd, R; Kobrinski, E

    1987-01-01

    There is no question that improved cost information can lead to improved accountability in health care; however, the major proponents of borrowing cost accounting concepts from manufacturing have not gone far enough. They have ignored an important aspect of manufacturing cost accounting that is also a very important prt of hospitals and health care, namely the concern for quality.

  14. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  15. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  16. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and Allowable... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.216-71 Accounting and Allowable Cost. As prescribed in section 1616.7002, the...). Accounting and Allowable Cost (FEHBAR 1652.216-71) (JAN 2003) (a) Annual Accounting Statements. (1)...

  17. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    PubMed

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports.

  18. Towards the use of ontologies for activity-based costing in healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based costing is a methodology which provides a basis for healthcare cost optimization. A robust formal representation of such activities is needed in order to be able to draw inferences as to the costs involved in a reliable manner. An introduction to the basic ontological distinctions involved in such a representation and to the complications one faces in carrying out the task is presented in this paper.

  19. Critical analysis of the Hanford spent nuclear fuel project activity based cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.N.

    1998-09-29

    In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-based cost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.

  20. 48 CFR 9903.302-1 - Cost accounting practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., or measurement of cost. (a) Measurement of cost, as used in this part, encompasses accounting methods and techniques used in defining the components of cost, determining the basis for cost measurement, and establishing criteria for use of alternative cost measurement techniques. The determination of...

  1. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  2. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  3. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and allowable... PRECONTRACT PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.231-70 Accounting and allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cost principles and accounting standards... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... implemented by FAR Parts 30, 31, and 48 CFR part 99. (If the Recipient is a consortium which includes...

  5. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... implemented by FAR Parts 30, 31, and 48 CFR part 99. (If the Recipient is a consortium which includes...

  6. Answering the Call for Accountability: An Activity and Cost Analysis Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Rozana; Kisker, Carrie B.; Chang, June; Schirmer, James

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a case study on the creation and application of an activity-based cost accounting model that links community college salary expenditures to mission-critical practices within academic divisions of a southern California community college. Although initially applied as a financial management tool in private…

  7. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standards. 1699.70 Section 1699.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost...

  8. 48 CFR 1699.70 - Cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standards. 1699.70 Section 1699.70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS Cost...

  9. A critical review of accounting and economic methods for estimating the costs of addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, William S

    2008-04-01

    Researchers have been at the forefront of applying new costing methods to drug abuse treatment programs and innovations. The motivation for such work has been to improve costing accuracy. Recent work has seen applications initiated in establishing charts of account and cost accounting for service delivery. As a result, researchers now have available five methods to apply to the costing of drug abuse treatment programs. In all areas of costing, there is room for more research on costing concepts and measurement applications. Additional work would be useful in establishing studies with activity-based costing for both research and managerial purposes. Studies of economies of scope are particularly relevant because of the integration of social services and criminal justice in drug abuse treatment. In the long run, managerial initiatives to improve the administration and quality of drug abuse treatment will benefit directly from research with new information on costing techniques.

  10. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, D

    1997-02-01

    Most medical cost-effectiveness analyses include future costs only for related illnesses, but this approach is controversial. This paper demonstrates that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with lifetime utility maximization only if it includes all future medical and non-medical expenditures. Estimates of the magnitude of these future costs suggest that they may substantially alter both the absolute and relative cost-effectiveness of medical interventions, particularly when an intervention increases length of life more than quality of life. In older populations, current methods overstate the cost-effectiveness of interventions which extend life compared to interventions which improve the quality of life.

  11. A Trial of Nursing Cost Accounting using Nursing Practice Data on a Hospital Information System.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Akiko; Tada, Kazuko; Ishima, Masatoshi; Nagao, Hidenori; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Takemura, Tadamasa

    2015-01-01

    Hospital administration is very important and many hospitals carry out activity-based costing under comprehensive medicine. However, nursing cost is unclear, because nursing practice is expanding both quantitatively and qualitatively and it is difficult to grasp all nursing practices, and nursing cost is calculated in many cases comprehensively. On the other hand, a nursing information system (NIS) is implemented in many hospitals in Japan and we are beginning to get nursing practical data. In this paper, we propose a nursing cost accounting model and we simulate a cost by nursing contribution using NIS data.

  12. Activity-based costing in the operating room at Valley View Hospital.

    PubMed

    Baker, J J; Boyd, G F

    1997-01-01

    This article presents an example of how one hospital reports the results of activity-based costing (ABC). It examines the composition and supporting assumptions of an ABC report for a particular procedure in the operating room (OR). It describes management uses of the information generated. It comments upon how the continuous quality improvement (CQI) is synchronized with the ABC reporting.

  13. Accounting for the costs of quality.

    PubMed

    Suver, J D; Neumann, B R; Boles, K E

    1992-09-01

    Total quality management (TQM) represents a paradigm shift in the organizational values that shape every aspect of a healthcare provider's activities. The TQM approach to quality management subscribes to the theory that it is not the work of employees of an organization that leads to poor quality; rather, it is the poor design of systems and procedures. In a book recently published by HFMA, Management Accounting for Healthcare Organizations, third edition, authors Suver, Neumann and Boles point out that the changes in behavioral focus and organizational climate brought about by TQM will have a major impact on management accounting function in healthcare organizations. TQM will require new methods of accounting that will enable the effects of declining quality to be recognized and evaluated. It also will require new types of management accounting reports that will identify opportunities for quality improvement and will monitor the effectiveness of quality management endeavors. The following article has been adapted from the book cited above.

  14. Cost accounting and public reimbursement schemes in Spanish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando; Abellán-Perpiñán, José-María; Martínez-Pérez, Jorge-Eduardo; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a description and analysis of the main costing and pricing (reimbursement) systems employed by hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Hospitals cost calculations are mostly based on a full costing approach as opposite to other systems like direct costing or activity based costing. Regional and hospital differences arise on the method used to allocate indirect costs to cost centres and also on the approach used to measure resource consumption. Costs are typically calculated by disaggregating expenditure and allocating it to cost centres, and then to patients and DRGs. Regarding public reimbursement systems, the impression is that unit costs are ignored, except for certain type of high technology processes and treatments.

  15. Conception of a cost accounting model for doctors' offices.

    PubMed

    Britzelmaier, Bernd; Eller, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    Physicians are required, due to economical, financial, competitive, demographical and market-induced framework conditions, to pay increasing attention to the entrepreneurial administration of their offices. Because of restructuring policies throughout the public health system--on the grounds of increasing financing problems--more and better transparency of costs will be indispensable in all fields of medical activities in the future. The more cost-conscious public health insurance institutions or other public health funds will need professional cost accounting systems, which will provide, for minimum maintenance expense, standardised basis cost information as a device for decision. The conception of cost accounting for doctors' offices presented in this paper shows an integrated cost accounting approach based on activity and marginal costing philosophy. The conception presented provides a suitable basis for the development of standard software for cost accounting systems for doctors' offices.

  16. Cost-accounting techniques for health care providers.

    PubMed

    Pelfrey, S

    1995-12-01

    The author reviews cost-accounting techniques and systems used by manufacturing companies. Some of the concepts and techniques used by for-profit companies can be implemented for health care institutions. Nurse executives can learn many lessons in product cost accounting from these for-profit companies. Understanding the various cost-accounting methodologies and techniques that are available can help nurse executives design, implement, and use a cost accounting system that will identify the costs associated with products and services provided. The author also reviews and explains standard costing systems. These systems can serve as valuable tools for budgeting, evaluating, and controlling departmental costs. When used in these instances, they can prove useful, and they furnish important information that is necessary for pricing products, determining alternatives or substitute services, and controlling costs.

  17. Balancing cost and precision in hospital accountability sampling.

    PubMed

    Perla, Rocco J; Allen, Bradford D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between sample size and cost using a benefit to cost ratio in the context of hospital accountability measures. We argue that the decision to use larger samples should include an assessment of the marginal benefit in terms of the cost to obtain the samples. Our main conclusion is that without recognizing and balancing the cost of different sampling schemes and developing reasonable cost limits we lose an opportunity at efficiency.

  18. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    PubMed

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  19. Operations Assessment of Launch Vehicle Architectures using Activity Based Cost Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.; McCleskey, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The growing emphasis on affordability for space transportation systems requires the assessment of new space vehicles for all life cycle activities, from design and development, through manufacturing and operations. This paper addresses the operational assessment of launch vehicles, focusing on modeling the ground support requirements of a vehicle architecture, and estimating the resulting costs and flight rate. This paper proposes the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC) modeling for this assessment. The model uses expert knowledge to determine the activities, the activity times and the activity costs based on vehicle design characteristics. The approach provides several advantages to current approaches to vehicle architecture assessment including easier validation and allowing vehicle designers to understand the cost and cycle time drivers.

  20. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

  1. Cost accounting of radiological examinations. Cost analysis of radiological examinations of intermediate referral hospitals and general practice.

    PubMed

    Lääperi, A L

    1996-01-01

    nonmonetary variables was developed. In it the radiologist, radiographer and examination-specific equipment costs were allocated to the examinations applying estimated cost equivalents. Some minor cost items were replaced by a general cost factor (GCF). The program is suitable for internal cost accounting of radiological departments as well as regional planning. If more accurate cost information is required, cost assignment employing the actual consumption of the resources and applying the principles of activity-based cost accounting is recommended. As an application of the cost accounting formula the average costs of the radiological examinations were calculated. In conventional radiography the average proportion of the cost factors in the total material was: personnel costs 43%, equipment costs 26%, material costs 7%, real estate costs 11%, administration and overheads 14%. The average total costs including radiologist costs in the hospitals were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 188, contrast medium examinations 695, ultrasound 296, mammography 315, roentgen examinations with mobile equipment 1578. The average total costs without radiologist costs in the public health centres were (FIM): conventional roentgen examinations 107, contrast medium examinations 988, ultrasound 203, mammography 557. The average currency rate of exchange in 1991 was USD 1 = FIM 4.046. The following formula is proposed for calculating the cost of a radiological examination (or a group of examinations) performed with a certain piece of equipment during a period of time (e.g. 1 year): a2/ sigma ax*ax+ b2/ sigma bx*bx+ d1/d5*dx+ e1 + [(c1+ c2) + d4 + (e2 - e3) + f5 + g1+ g2+ i]/n.

  2. Cost Accounting in Higher Education. Simplified Macro- and Micro-Costing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.

    This manual covers cost accounting applications and techniques as they apply to institutions of higher education, focusing mainly on the different methods of allocating costs. The manual covers four major costing topics: aggregate institution and systemwide costs; major academic and administrative program costs; academic and administrative…

  3. 48 CFR 9905.506 - Cost accounting period-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Educational institutions. 9905.506 Section 9905.506 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.506 Cost accounting period—Educational institutions....

  4. 48 CFR 9905.506 - Cost accounting period-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Educational institutions. 9905.506 Section 9905.506 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.506 Cost accounting period—Educational institutions....

  5. 48 CFR 9905.506 - Cost accounting period-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Educational institutions. 9905.506 Section 9905.506 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.506 Cost accounting period—Educational institutions....

  6. Time-driven activity-based costing in an outpatient clinic environment: development, relevance and managerial impact.

    PubMed

    Demeere, Nathalie; Stouthuysen, Kristof; Roodhooft, Filip

    2009-10-01

    Healthcare managers are continuously urged to provide better patient services at a lower cost. To cope with these cost pressures, healthcare management needs to improve its understanding of the relevant cost drivers. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing of five outpatient clinic's departments and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  7. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs. 9904.401 Section 9904.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.412 - Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost. 9904.412 Section 9904.412 Federal Acquisition... accounting standard for composition and measurement of pension cost....

  12. The use of activity-based cost estimation as a management tool for cultural change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt; Bilby, Curt

    1991-01-01

    It will be shown that the greatest barrier to American exploration of the planet Mars is not the development of the technology needed to deliver humans and return them safely to earth. Neither is it the cost of such an undertaking, as has been previously suggested, although certainly, such a venture may not be inexpensive by some measures. The predicted costs of exploration have discouraged serious political dialog on the subject. And, in fact, even optimistic projections of the NASA budget do not contain the resources required, under the existing development and management paradigm, for human space exploration programs. It will be demonstrated that the perception of the costs of such a venture, and the cultural responses to the perceptions are factors inhibiting American exploration of the moon and the planet Mars. Cost models employed in the aerospace industry today correctly mirror the history of past space programs, and as such, are representative of the existing management and development paradigms. However, if, under this current paradigm no major exploration programs are feasible, then cost analysis methods based in the past may not have great utility in exploring the needed cultural changes. This paper explores the use of a new type of model, the activity based cost model, which will treat management style as an input variable, in a sense providing a tool whereby a complete, affordable program might be designed, including both the technological and management aspects.

  13. 75 FR 25981 - Cost Accounting Standards: Harmonization of Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413 With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    .... Furthermore, the minimum actuarial liability and minimum normal costs are used for all purposes of measurement... illustrations showing the measurement, assignment and allocation of pension cost for a contractor with an under... liability and normal cost for CAS measurements would enhance uniformity between contractors. This...

  14. SAMICS support study. Volume 1: Cost account catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is examining the feasibility of a new industry to produce photovoltaic solar energy collectors similar to those used on spacecraft. To do this, a standardized costing procedure was developed. The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) support study supplies the following information: (1) SAMICS critique; (2) Standard data base--cost account structure, expense item costs, inflation rates, indirect requirements relationships, and standard financial parameter values; (3) Facilities capital cost estimating relationships; (4) Conceptual plant designs; (5) Construction lead times; (6) Production start-up times; (7) Manufacturing price estimates.

  15. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards. 1274.919 Section 1274.919 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Government funds by the Recipient and the allowability of costs recognized as a resource contribution by...

  16. Managerial Cost Accounting for a Technical Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, John G.

    A two-fold solution to the cost information deficiency problem is proposed. A formal managerial cost accounting system is designed expressly for the two information services of retrospective search and selective dissemination. The system was employed during a trial period to test its effectiveness in a technical information center. Once…

  17. SCATS: SRB Cost Accounting and Tracking System handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorv, R. B.; Stewart, R. D.; Coley, G.; Higginbotham, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Cost Accounting and Tracking System (SCATS) which is an automatic data processing system designed to keep a running account of the number, description, and estimated cost of Level 2, 3, and 4 changes is described. Although designed specifically for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Program, the ADP system can be used for any other program that has a similar structure for recording, reporting, and summing numbers and costs of changes. The program stores the alpha-numeric designators for changes, government estimated costs, proposed costs, and negotiated value in a MIRADS (Marshall Information Retrieval and Display System) format which permits rapid access, manipulation, and reporting of current change status. Output reports listing all changes, totals of each level, and totals of all levels, can be derived for any calendar interval period.

  18. Cost accounting for end-of-life care: recommendations to the field by the Cost Accounting Workgroup.

    PubMed

    Seninger, Stephen; Smith, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurement of economic costs is prerequisite to progress in improving the care delivered to Americans during the last stage of life. The Robert Wood Johnson Excellence in End-of-Life Care national program assembled a Cost Accounting Workgroup to identify accurate and meaningful methods to measure palliative and end-of-life health care use and costs. Eight key issues were identified: (1) planning the cost analysis; (2) identifying the perspective for cost analysis; (3) describing the end-of-life care program; (4) identifying the appropriate comparison group; (5) defining the period of care to be studied; (6) identifying the units of health care services; (7) assigning monetary values to health care service units; and (8) calculating costs. Economic principles of cost measurement and cost measurement issues encountered by practitioners were reviewed and incorporated into a set of recommendations.

  19. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Inter-Library Services: A Case Study in a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Although the true costs of inter-library loans (ILL) are unknown, universities increasingly rely on them to provide better library services at lower costs. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing analysis of ILL and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  20. 48 CFR 9905.505 - Accounting for unallowable costs-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs-Educational institutions. 9905.505 Section 9905.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST... PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505 Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions....

  1. 48 CFR 9905.505 - Accounting for unallowable costs-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs-Educational institutions. 9905.505 Section 9905.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST... PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505 Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions....

  2. 48 CFR 9905.505 - Accounting for unallowable costs-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs-Educational institutions. 9905.505 Section 9905.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST... PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505 Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions....

  3. Computer-generated fiscal reports for food cost accounting.

    PubMed

    Fromm, B; Moore, A N; Hoover, L W

    1980-08-01

    To optimize resource utilization for the provision of health-care services, well designed food cost accounting systems should facilitate effective decision-making. Fiscal reports reflecting the financial status of an organization at a given time must be current and representative so that managers have adequate data for planning and controlling. The computer-assisted food cost accounting discussed in this article can be integrated with other sub-systems and operations management techniques to provide the information needed to make decisions regarding revenues and expenses. Management information systems must be routinely evaluated and updated to meet the current needs of administrators. Further improvements in the food cost accounting system will be desirable whenever substantial changes occur within the foodservice operation at the University of Missouri-Columbia Medical Center or when advancements in computer technology provide more efficient methods for manipulating data and generating reports. Development of new systems and better applications of present systems could contribute significantly to the efficiency of operations in both health care and commercial foodservices. The computer-assisted food cost accounting system reported here might serve s a prototype for other management cost information systems.

  4. Activity-Based Management Accounting for DoD Depot Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    driven by the number of production batches. Examples of batch-related activities include machine setups, material requisitions, and inventory...measures (e.g., direct labor hours and machine hours) to allocate overhead costs to individual products. While these volume-related measures are readily...activities (e.g., the number of machine setups or the number of material orders) that each product consumes, product costs are obtained simply by summing the

  5. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. 9904.420 Section 9904.420 Federal Acquisition... AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420 Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs....

  6. Account-based plans curb costs and engage employees.

    PubMed

    Osterndorf, Dave

    2006-01-01

    A growing number of organizations are combining consumer-driven health plans with account-based approaches in order to limit health benefit costs, reinforce key consumerist messages and provide meaningful benefits to both actives and retirees. This article describes how account-based approaches work and can be used to motivate employees to invest in their health today and salt away funds for tomorrow. The author describes what employers can do to ensure that consumer-driven health plans and account-based approaches help employees accomplish their goals.

  7. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lindefors, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Background A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC) method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT). Methods Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013–2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB), cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention. Outcomes Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment), treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130) per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134) in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 < 5) during both 2013 and 2014 and an additional 35% and 33% had achieved partial remission in 2013 and 2014, respectively. At follow-up, 42% were in full remission

  8. New Accounting Systems and Their Effects on DoD Cost Estimating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    10 D. Current Cost Accounting Systems ................................................. 13 III. TODAY’S ENVIRONMENT: NEW MANUFACTURING AND OLD COSTS...information for internal operations, began following more closely the rules of financial accounting to determine product costs. D. CURRENT COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS...operating environment, which is anticipated to be one of continuous improvement. Many of the current cost accounting systems extensively use standard costs

  9. Hamlet without the Prince: Shortcomings of an Activity-Based Account of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, I consider several strengths of the position adopted by Racine and Carpendale (2007), but suggest that the authors are in danger of overstating their case. In doing so, they appear to sideline an issue that should be pivotal for accounts of joint attention: how does a child come to arrive at an understanding that people, both…

  10. 48 CFR 30.603 - Changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established cost accounting practices. 30.603 Section 30.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.603 Changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices....

  11. 48 CFR 30.604 - Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed or established cost accounting practices. 30.604 Section 30.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.604 Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting...

  12. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  13. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions....

  14. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions....

  15. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  16. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions....

  17. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in...

  18. 48 CFR 9905.501 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions. 9905.501 Section 9905... PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501 Cost accounting standard—consistency in...

  19. A user-friendly approach to cost accounting in laboratory animal facilities.

    PubMed

    Baker, David G

    2011-08-19

    Cost accounting is an essential management activity for laboratory animal facility management. In this report, the author describes basic principles of cost accounting and outlines steps for carrying out cost accounting in laboratory animal facilities. Methods of post hoc cost accounting analysis for maximizing the efficiency of facility operations are also described.

  20. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... derived from 41 U.S.C. 1501. Cost Accounting Standards are rules governing the measurement, assignment... and 48 CFR Ch. 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting... Procurement Policy (OFPP) Policy Letters, and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting...

  1. Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Paul R; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Eckerle, Kevin; Hendryx, Michael; Stout Iii, Benjamin M; Heinberg, Richard; Clapp, Richard W; May, Beverly; Reinhart, Nancy L; Ahern, Melissa M; Doshi, Samir K; Glustrom, Leslie

    2011-02-01

    Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered "externalities." We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world.

  2. Improving health care costing with resource consumption accounting.

    PubMed

    Ozyapici, Hasan; Tanis, Veyis Naci

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between a traditional costing system (TCS) and resource consumption accounting (RCA) based on a case study carried out in a hospital. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive case study was first carried out to identify the current costing system of the case hospital. An exploratory case study was then conducted to reveal how implementing RCA within the case hospital assigns costs differently to gallbladder surgeries than the current costing system (i.e. a TCS). Findings - The study showed that, in contrast to a TCS, RCA considers the unused capacity, which is the difference between the work that can be performed based on current resources and the work that is actually being performed. Therefore, it assigns lower total costs to open and laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries. The study also showed that by separating costs into fixed and variable RCA allows managers to benefit from a pricing strategy based on the difference between the service's selling price and variable costs incurred in providing that service. Research limitations/implications - The limitation of this study is that, because of time constraints, the implementation was performed in the general surgery department only. However, since RCA is an advanced system that has the same application procedures for any department inside in a hospital, managers need only time gaps to implement this system to all parts of the hospital. Practical implications - This study concluded that RCA is better than a TCS for use in health care settings that have high overhead costs because it accurately assigns overhead costs to services by considering unused capacities incurred by a hospital. Consequently, this study provides insight into both measuring and managing unused capacities within the health care sector. This study also concluded that RCA helps health care administrators increase their competitive advantage by allowing them to determine the lowest

  3. Price-transparency and cost accounting: challenges for health care organizations in the consumer-driven era.

    PubMed

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers.

  4. 48 CFR 9904.414 - Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital. 9904.414 Section 9904.414 Federal... STANDARDS 9904.414 Cost accounting standard—cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital....

  5. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices for Contracts Awarded to Foreign Concerns... Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign... interim rule was issued in response to the Cost Accounting Standard Board's March 26, 2008, publication...

  6. 48 CFR 9905.505 - Accounting for unallowable costs-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs-Educational institutions. 9905.505 Section 9905.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS...

  7. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  8. Status of costing hospital nursing work within Australian casemix activity-based funding policy.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Liza

    2012-02-01

    Australia has a long history of patient level costing initiated when casemix funding was implemented in several states in the early 1990s. Australia includes, to some extent, hospital payment based on nursing intensity adopted within casemix funding policy and the Diagnostic Related Group system. Costing of hospital nursing services in Australia has not changed significantly in the last few decades despite widespread introduction of casemix funding policy at the state level. Recent Commonwealth of Australia National Health Reform presents change to the management of the delivery of health care including health-care costing. There is agreement for all Australian jurisdictions to progress to casemix-based activity funding. Within this context, nurse costing infrastructure presents contemporary issues and challenges. An assessment is made of the progress of costing nursing services within casemix funding models in Australian hospitals. Valid and reliable Australian-refined nursing service weights might overcome present cost deficiencies and limitations.

  9. 77 FR 69441 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense...: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to... approved information collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration....

  10. Defining the value of magnetic resonance imaging in prostate brachytherapy using time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    Thaker, Nikhil G; Orio, Peter F; Potters, Louis

    2017-02-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulation and planning for prostate brachytherapy (PBT) may deliver potential clinical benefits but at an unknown cost to the provider and healthcare system. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is an innovative bottom-up costing tool in healthcare that can be used to measure the actual consumption of resources required over the full cycle of care. TDABC analysis was conducted to compare patient-level costs for an MRI-based versus traditional PBT workflow. TDABC cost was only 1% higher for the MRI-based workflow, and utilization of MRI allowed for cost shifting from other imaging modalities, such as CT and ultrasound, to MRI during the PBT process. Future initiatives will be required to follow the costs of care over longer periods of time to determine if improvements in outcomes and toxicities with an MRI-based approach lead to lower resource utilization and spending over the long-term. Understanding provider costs will become important as healthcare reform transitions to value-based purchasing and other alternative payment models.

  11. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  15. How can activity-based costing methodology be performed as a powerful tool to calculate costs and secure appropriate patient care?

    PubMed

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Chao, Te-Hsin; Yao, Yuh; Tu, Shu-Min; Wu, Chun-Ching; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chao, Shiu-Hsiung; Shaw, Keh-Yuong

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the advantages of using activity-based costing (ABC) methodology in the health care industry. The potential values of ABC methodology in health care are derived from the more accurate cost calculation compared to the traditional step-down costing, and the potentials to evaluate quality or effectiveness of health care based on health care activities. This project used ABC methodology to profile the cost structure of inpatients with surgical procedures at the Department of Colorectal Surgery in a public teaching hospital, and to identify the missing or inappropriate clinical procedures. We found that ABC methodology was able to accurately calculate costs and to identify several missing pre- and post-surgical nursing education activities in the course of treatment.

  16. Development of Activity-based Cost Functions for Cellulase, Invertase, and Other Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowers, Chris C.; Ferguson, Elizabeth M.; Tanner, Robert D.

    As enzyme chemistry plays an increasingly important role in the chemical industry, cost analysis of these enzymes becomes a necessity. In this paper, we examine the aspects that affect the cost of enzymes based upon enzyme activity. The basis for this study stems from a previously developed objective function that quantifies the tradeoffs in enzyme purification via the foam fractionation process (Cherry et al., Braz J Chem Eng 17:233-238, 2000). A generalized cost function is developed from our results that could be used to aid in both industrial and lab scale chemical processing. The generalized cost function shows several nonobvious results that could lead to significant savings. Additionally, the parameters involved in the operation and scaling up of enzyme processing could be optimized to minimize costs. We show that there are typically three regimes in the enzyme cost analysis function: the low activity prelinear region, the moderate activity linear region, and high activity power-law region. The overall form of the cost analysis function appears to robustly fit the power law form.

  17. 48 CFR 9904.408 - Accounting for costs of compensated personal absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for costs of compensated personal absence. 9904.408 Section 9904.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING...

  18. 76 FR 53377 - Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards; Allocation of... Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board). ACTION: Notice of Discontinuation of Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS)...

  19. 48 CFR 9905.506 - Cost accounting period-Educational institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Educational institutions. 9905.506 Section 9905.506 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.506...

  20. An Analysis of the Cost Accounting System for the Depot Maintenance Service, Air Force Industrial Fund.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Requirements .. ..... 11 * Current Cost Accounting System .. ...... 15 Summary ................... 18 III. Methodology. ................... 19 Data Collection...for depot maintenance operations. The third section describes the current cost accounting system used within the AFLC Depot Maintenance. Management...and provide recommendations for further research. 48 V. Conclusions and Recommendations The current cost accounting system works. Most of the

  1. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.230-6 Administration of Cost Accounting Standards. As prescribed in 30.201-4(d)(1), insert the following clause: Administration of Cost Accounting Standards (JUN 2010) For the purpose of administering the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) requirements under this contract, the Contractor shall take...

  2. 48 CFR 52.230-1 - Cost Accounting Standards Notices and Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 52.230-1 Cost Accounting Standards Notices and Certification. As prescribed in 30.201-3, insert the following provisions: Cost Accounting Standards Notices and Certification (OCT 2008... from the Cost Accounting Standards clause under the provisions of 48 CFR 9903.201-2(b) and...

  3. 77 FR 27550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General... revise the threshold for applicability of cost accounting standards in order to implement a recent rule of the Cost Accounting Standards Board and statutory requirements. DATES: Effective Date: May...

  4. Comprehensive cost analysis of sentinel node biopsy in solid head and neck tumors using a time-driven activity-based costing approach.

    PubMed

    Crott, Ralph; Lawson, Georges; Nollevaux, Marie-Cécile; Castiaux, Annick; Krug, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is predominantly a locoregional disease. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy offers a minimally invasive means of accurately staging the neck. Value in healthcare is determined by both outcomes and the costs associated with achieving them. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) may offer more precise estimates of the true cost. Process maps were developed for nuclear medicine, operating room and pathology care phases. TDABC estimates the costs by combining information about the process with the unit cost of each resource used. Resource utilization is based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs are calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a Euros/min (2014), for each resource consumed. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost for each phase of care. Three time equations with six different scenarios were modeled based on the type of camera, the number of SLN and the type of staining used. Total times for different SLN scenarios vary between 284 and 307 min, respectively, with a total cost between 2794 and 3541€. The unit costs vary between 788€/h for the intraoperative evaluation with a gamma-probe and 889€/h for a preoperative imaging with a SPECT/CT. The unit costs for the lymphadenectomy and the pathological examination are, respectively, 560 and 713€/h. A 10 % increase of time per individual activity generates only 1 % change in the total cost. TDABC evaluates the cost of SLN in HNC. The total costs across all phases which varied between 2761 and 3744€ per standard case.

  5. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    PubMed

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness.

  6. Evaluation of the Mean Cost and Activity Based Cost in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the Laboratory Routine of a High-Complexity Hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Isabela N.; de Assis Figueredo, Lida J.; Soares, Valéria M.; Vater, Maria C.; Alves, Suely; da Silva Carvalho, Wânia; Kritski, Afrânio L.; de Miranda, Silvana S.

    2017-01-01

    At a global level, with the increase in healthcare costs, there is a need to assess the economic impact of the incorporation of new technologies in different health disorders in different countries. There is scarce information regarding costs incurred with the use of current or new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis or from the vantage point of their incorporation within the healthcare systems of high-burden countries. The present study aimed to assess the mean cost and the activity based cost of the laboratory diagnosis for tuberculosis by means of conventional techniques and from the Detect TB®LabTest molecular test kit in a general high-complexity hospital of the public health system in Brazil. Cost analysis was performed by means of primary data, collected in the Mycobacteria and Molecular Biology Laboratory in 2013. The mean cost and activity based cost were, respectively, U$10.06/U$5.61 for centrifuged bacilloscopy by Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) and Auramine (AU); U$7.42/U$4.15 for direct bacilloscopy by ZN; U$27.38/U$16.50 for culture in a Loweinstein-Jensen solid medium; and U$115.74/U$73.46 for the Detect TB®LabTest Kit. The calculation of the ABC should be used in making decisions by administrators to be the best method of assessing the costs of conventional techniques and molecular method for providing the real value of the tests. So it is need to calculate the ABC, and not of the mean cost, in various scenarios before incorporating new technologies in health institutions. PMID:28261194

  7. Accounting for the cost of scaling-up health interventions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob

    2004-11-01

    Recent studies such as the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health have highlighted the need for expanding the coverage of services for HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, immunisations and other diseases. In order for policy makers to plan for these changes, they need to analyse the change in costs when interventions are 'scaled-up' to cover greater percentages of the population. Previous studies suggest that applying current unit costs to an entire population can misconstrue the true costs of an intervention. This study presents the methodology used in WHO-CHOICE's generalised cost effectiveness analysis, which includes non-linear cost functions for health centres, transportation and supervision costs, as well as the presence of fixed costs of establishing a health infrastructure. Results show changing marginal costs as predicted by economic theory.

  8. Applicability of an Activity Based Cost System in Government Service Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    InfAormato Pzowxu2 Library Process 2: Pc Cot of Activities Comprising Process 2LirryPoes :Provide Technica Sevi , Activity 68% Administrative Supplies 76...personnel within those categories. Within the case study organization, civilian management personnel were adamant about presenting detailed process and...America. Conyers, John Jr. "Vigilance in Government," The Government Accountants Journal, Vol XXXX, No 5, Spring 1991. Cooper, Robin . "The Rise of

  9. The Medicare Cost Report and the limits of hospital accountability: improving financial accounting data.

    PubMed

    Kane, N M; Magnus, S A

    2001-02-01

    Health policy makers, legislators, providers, payers, and a broad range of other players in the health care market routinely seek information on hospital financial performance. Yet the data at their disposal are limited, especially since hospitals' audited financial statements--the "gold standard" in hospital financial reporting--are not publicly available in many states. As a result, the Medicare Cost Report (MCR), filed annually by most U.S. hospitals in order to receive payment for treating Medicare patients, has become the primary public source of hospital financial information. However, financial accounting elements in the MCR are unreliable, poorly defined, and lacking in critical detail. Comparative analyses of MCRs and matched, audited financial statements reveal long-standing problems with the MCR's data, including major differences in reported profits; variations in the reporting of both revenues and expenses; an absence of relevant details, such as charity care, bad debt, operating versus nonoperating income, and affiliate transactions; an inconsistent classification of changes in net assets; and a failure to provide cash flow statements. Because of these problems, MCR financial data give only a limited and often inaccurate picture of the financial position of hospitals. Audited financial statements provide a more complete perspective, enabling analysts to address important questions left unanswered by the MCR data. Regulatory action is needed to create a national database of financial information based upon audited statements.

  10. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    PubMed

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Financial Costs of Large Carnivore Translocations – Accounting for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Florian J.; Stratford, Ken J.; van Vuuren, Rudolf J.

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID

  12. Using cost accounting data to improve clinical value.

    PubMed

    Andrianos, J; Dykan, M

    1996-05-01

    Value in health care can be defined as the provision of appropriate care at appropriate cost. While appropriate care is the province of clinical providers, cost data usually is maintained by financial managers. Collaboration between clinical providers and financial managers therefore is essential if optimum value is to be created. To this end, cost data are frequently given to providers for use in clinical care improvement projects. One such project has been implemented successfully at Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington.

  13. 14 CFR § 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards. Â... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... implemented by FAR Parts 30, 31, and 48 CFR part 99. (If the Recipient is a consortium which includes...

  14. 48 CFR 52.230-7 - Proposal Disclosure-Cost Accounting Practice Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 52.230-7 Proposal Disclosure—Cost Accounting Practice Changes. As prescribed in 30.201-3(c), insert the following provision: Proposal Disclosure—Cost Accounting Practice Changes (APR 2005... Accounting Practice Changes. 52.230-7 Section 52.230-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  15. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... final agreement on price as shown on the subcontractor's signed Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e),...

  16. 18 CFR 367.4031 - Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. 367.4031 Section 367.4031 Conservation of Power and Water... § 367.4031 Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. This account must include the depreciation expense for asset retirement costs included in service company property....

  17. 18 CFR 367.3991 - Account 399.1, Asset retirement costs for service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 399.1, Asset retirement costs for service company property. 367.3991 Section 367.3991 Conservation of Power and Water..., Asset retirement costs for service company property. This account must include asset retirement costs...

  18. 18 CFR 367.3991 - Account 399.1, Asset retirement costs for service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 399.1, Asset retirement costs for service company property. 367.3991 Section 367.3991 Conservation of Power and Water..., Asset retirement costs for service company property. This account must include asset retirement costs...

  19. 18 CFR 367.4031 - Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. 367.4031 Section 367.4031 Conservation of Power and Water... § 367.4031 Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. This account must include the depreciation expense for asset retirement costs included in service company property....

  20. 18 CFR 367.3991 - Account 399.1, Asset retirement costs for service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 399.1, Asset retirement costs for service company property. 367.3991 Section 367.3991 Conservation of Power and Water..., Asset retirement costs for service company property. This account must include asset retirement costs...

  1. 18 CFR 367.4031 - Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. 367.4031 Section 367.4031 Conservation of Power and Water... § 367.4031 Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. This account must include the depreciation expense for asset retirement costs included in service company property....

  2. 18 CFR 367.4031 - Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. 367.4031 Section 367.4031 Conservation of Power and Water... § 367.4031 Account 403.1, Depreciation expense for asset retirement costs. This account must include the depreciation expense for asset retirement costs included in service company property....

  3. 48 CFR 31.201-6 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unbiased sample that is a reasonable representation of the sampling universe. (ii) Any large dollar value... universe from that sampled cost is also subject to the same penalty provisions. (4) Use of...

  4. 48 CFR 31.201-6 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unbiased sample that is a reasonable representation of the sampling universe. (ii) Any large dollar value... universe from that sampled cost is also subject to the same penalty provisions. (4) Use of...

  5. 48 CFR 31.201-6 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unbiased sample that is a reasonable representation of the sampling universe. (ii) Any large dollar value... universe from that sampled cost is also subject to the same penalty provisions. (4) Use of...

  6. 48 CFR 31.201-6 - Accounting for unallowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unbiased sample that is a reasonable representation of the sampling universe. (ii) Any large dollar value... universe from that sampled cost is also subject to the same penalty provisions. (4) Use of...

  7. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  8. Regression Analysis: Instructional Resource for Cost/Managerial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a classroom-tested instructional resource, grounded in principles of active learning and a constructivism, that embraces two primary objectives: "demystify" for accounting students technical material from statistics regarding ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression analysis--material that students may find obscure or…

  9. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts... following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated...) Based on the results of either the independent audit prescribed by the Guide or a Government audit,...

  10. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts... following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated...) Based on the results of either the independent audit prescribed by the Guide or a Government audit,...

  11. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Cost Accounting Practices. 52.230-3 Section 52.230-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.230-3 Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices....

  12. Using the Student Research Project to Integrate Macroeconomics and Statistics in an Advanced Cost Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Mahamood M.; Schwartz, Bill N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a student research project that is part of an advanced cost accounting class. The project emphasizes active learning, integrates cost accounting with macroeconomics and statistics by "learning by doing" using real world data. Students analyze sales data for a publicly listed company by focusing on the company's…

  13. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (MAY 2012) (a) Unless...

  14. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (MAY 2014) (a) Unless...

  15. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (OCT 2010) (a) Unless...

  16. 48 CFR 52.230-5 - Cost Accounting Standards-Educational Institution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Educational Institution. 52.230-5 Section 52.230-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.230-5 Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution. As prescribed in 30.201-4(e), insert the following clause: Cost Accounting Standards—Educational Institution (MAY 2012) (a) Unless...

  17. 48 CFR 970.5232-5 - Liability with respect to cost accounting standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost accounting standards. 970.5232-5 Section 970.5232-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5232-5 Liability with respect to cost accounting standards. As prescribed in 970.3270(a)(5), insert the following clause: Liability...

  18. 75 FR 3236 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... and the provision at 52.230-5 include pertinent rules and regulations related to the Cost Accounting... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCIES: Department of...-0129). SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35),...

  19. Study on environmental cost accounting under low-carbon economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhoukun

    2017-03-01

    With the strengthen of people's ability to use and transform nature, on the one hand, people acquire more resources from nature and make life more comfortable, on the other hand, the amount of waste that people emit has also increased rapidly. Excessive excavation of resources and disposal of waste emissions led to the deterioration of the environment, affecting the country's sustainable development and the Earth's ecological balance. In this paper, from the perspective of low-carbon economy, to explore corporate environmental cost recognition, measurement, collection, distribution methods, expectations for the relevant enterprises, especially high-polluting, high-emission energy-based enterprises to learn from.

  20. An Evaluation of the Application of the Cost Accounting Standards: A case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    contract reviewers over the application of Cost Accounting Standards. The company, which for the sake of anonymity will be called American Electronics...AD-A245 271 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ELECT. JAN 29 1992 D D THESIS AN EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF THE COST ACCOUNTING ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS: A CASE STUDY (UNCLASSIFIED) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lemler, Bruce Neil 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (year

  1. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    PubMed

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system.

  2. Procuring Contracting Officers’ Perceptions of the Contributions Made to Defense Cost Accounting Practices by CAS 401-416.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    8217 PERCEPTIONS OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS MADE TO DEFENSE COST ACCOUNTING PRACTICES BY CAS 401-416 Captain Bruce E. Simpson, USA LSSR 70-81 The contents of...CONTRIBUTIONS MADE TO DEFENSE MastersThesis COST ACCOUNTING PRACTICES BY CAS 401-416 6. PEROR ING OG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Con~tiue, on revere side it naoeaaeuy and Identify by block nuffler) Accounting Cost Accounting Cost Accounting Standards

  3. Accounting for the Full Cost of Research. A Study of Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiches, James J.; Vallely, Rebecca

    Faculty and administrative concern over the rising indirect cost rates at Cornell University (New York) precipitated this study, focusing on research funding and the expenses not easily identifiable with specific projects. Some of the questions addressed include: what are the costs, who pays for them, and which arrangements, policies,…

  4. Cost analysis and the practicing radiologist/manager: an introduction to managerial accounting.

    PubMed

    Forman, H P; Yin, D

    1996-06-01

    Cost analysis is inherently one of the most tedious tasks falling on the shoulders of any manager. In today's world, whether in a service business such as radiology or medicine or in a product line such as car manufacturing, accurate cost analysis is critical to all aspects of management: marketing, competitive strategy, quality control, human resource management, accounting (financial), and operations management, to name but a few. This is a topic that we will explore with the intention of giving the radiologist/manager the understanding and the basic skills to use cost analysis efficiently, making sure that major financial decisions are being made with adequate cost information, and showing that cost accounting is really managerial accounting in that it pays little attention to the bottom line of financial statements but places much more emphasis on equipping managers with the information to determine budgets, prices, salaries, and incentives and influences capital budgeting decisions through an understanding of product profitability rather than firm profitability.

  5. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    PubMed

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals.

  6. 78 FR 13675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... accounting practice change, the total potential impact of the change on contracts containing a CAS provision... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense...: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting...

  7. Measuring Resources in Education: A Comparison of Accounting and the Resource Cost Model Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.

    2000-01-01

    The need for programmatic cost information, data compatibility, and understanding input/output relationships are sparking efforts to improve standards for organizing and reporting educational-resource data. Unlike accountants, economists measure resources in real terms and organize information around service delivery, using a resource-cost model.…

  8. 48 CFR 52.230-4 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns. 52.230-4 Section 52.230-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.230-4 Disclosure and Consistency of Cost...

  9. 48 CFR 4.705-1 - Financial and cost accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial and cost accounting records. 4.705-1 Section 4.705-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.705-1 Financial and cost...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.409 - Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-depreciation of tangible capital assets. 9904.409 Section 9904.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST...—depreciation of tangible capital assets....

  11. ABC's of Higher Education. Getting Back to the Basics: An Activity-Based Costing Approach to Planning and Financial Decision Making. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Kelline S.; Downey, Ronald G.; Smith, Laurinda G.

    This paper describes the activity-based costing approach used to report and capture the time spent by faculty for specified activities at one Midwestern university. For each department, four major areas (instruction, research, public service, and administration) and 14 activities were identified. During the annual goal-setting period, each faculty…

  12. Cost unit accounting based on a clinical pathway: a practical tool for DRG implementation.

    PubMed

    Feyrer, R; Rösch, J; Weyand, M; Kunzmann, U

    2005-10-01

    Setting up a reliable cost unit accounting system in a hospital is a fundamental necessity for economic survival, given the current general conditions in the healthcare system. Definition of a suitable cost unit is a crucial factor for success. We present here the development and use of a clinical pathway as a cost unit as an alternative to the DRG. Elective coronary artery bypass grafting was selected as an example. Development of the clinical pathway was conducted according to a modular concept that mirrored all the treatment processes across various levels and modules. Using service records and analyses the process algorithms of the clinical pathway were developed and visualized with CorelTM iGrafix Process 2003. A detailed process cost record constituted the basis of the pathway costing, in which financial evaluation of the treatment processes was performed. The result of this study was a structured clinical pathway for coronary artery bypass grafting together with a cost calculation in the form of cost unit accounting. The use of a clinical pathway as a cost unit offers considerable advantages compared to the DRG or clinical case. The variance in the diagnoses and procedures within a pathway is minimal, so the consumption of resources is homogeneous. This leads to a considerable improvement in the value of cost unit accounting as a strategic control instrument in hospitals.

  13. A U.K. cost-benefit analysis of circles of support and accountability interventions.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ian A; Beech, Anthony R

    2013-06-01

    Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA) aim to augment sex offender risk management at the point of community reentry by facilitating "Circles" of volunteers who provide support, guidance, and advice, while ensuring that the offender remains accountable for their actions. In this study, the authors provide (a) a rapid evidence assessment of the effectiveness of CoSA in reducing reoffending, and (b) a U.K. cost-benefit analysis for CoSA when compared to the criminal justice costs of reoffending. From the study analysis, the average cost of a "Circle" was estimated to be £11,303 per annum and appears to produce a 50% reduction in reoffending (sexual and nonsexual), as the estimated cost of reoffending was estimated to be £147,161 per offender, per annum. Based on a hypothetical cohort of 100 offenders--50 of whom receive CoSA and 50 of whom do not--investment in CoSA appears to provide a cost saving of £23,494 and a benefit-cost ratio of 1.04. Accounting for estimates that the full extent of the cost to society may be 5 to 10 times the tangible costs substantially increases estimated cost savings related to CoSA.

  14. Pharmacy component of a hospital end-product cost-accounting system.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Sheaffer, S L; Meyer, G E; Giorgilli, F

    1988-04-01

    Determination of pharmacy department standard costs for providing drug products to patients at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia is described. The hospital is implementing a cost-accounting system (CAS) that uses software developed at the New England Medical Center, Boston. The pharmacy identified nine categories of intermediate products on the basis of labor consumption. Standard labor times for each product category are based on measurement or estimation of time for each task in the preparation and distribution of a dose. Variable-labor standard time was determined by adjusting the cumulative time for the tasks to account for nonproductive time and nonroutine activities, and a variable-labor standard cost for each category was calculated. The standard cost per dose included the costs of labor and supplies (variable and fixed) and equipment; this standard cost plus the acquisition cost of a drug line item is the total intermediate product cost. Because the CAS is based on the hospital's patient charges, clinical pharmacy services are excluded. Intermediate products that substantially affect end-product costs (costs per patient case) will be identified for inclusion in CAS reports. The CAS will give a more accurate picture of resource consumption, enabling managers to focus their efforts to improve efficiency and productivity and reduce supply use; it could also improve the accuracy of the budgeting process. The CAS will support hospital administration decisions about marketing end products and department managers' decisions about controlling intermediate-product costs.

  15. A Study of the Impact of the Lack of a Cost Accounting Standards Board.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    California 00 ,: SE P 9 7 THESIS SE& A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE LACK OF A COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD by James F. Sumner, III June 1987 Thesis...O’ATON COSA1. CODES 16 SuB,*CT j’J.45 Comr~nue n- p.ono ol neeeterV ani denltiy by flO(k f1LrmbCr) E,) ROUP StA IRucost accounting , cost accounting ...standards, CostJ GR~uP Accounting Standards Board, Procurement, Pensions 3 48srR Cont’lut o revrs ’CV𔃻 Motur anCC d de~ntilv by booch nuP"OterJ -This

  16. A simulation model of hospital management based on cost accounting analysis according to disease.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2004-12-01

    Since a little before 2000, hospital cost accounting has been increasingly performed at Japanese national university hospitals. At Kumamoto University Hospital, for instance, departmental costs have been analyzed since 2000. And, since 2003, the cost balance has been obtained according to certain diseases for the preparation of Diagnosis-Related Groups and Prospective Payment System. On the basis of these experiences, we have constructed a simulation model of hospital management. This program has worked correctly at repeated trials and with satisfactory speed. Although there has been room for improvement of detailed accounts and cost accounting engine, the basic model has proved satisfactory. We have constructed a hospital management model based on the financial data of an existing hospital. We will later improve this program from the viewpoint of construction and using more various data of hospital management. A prospective outlook may be obtained for the practical application of this hospital management model.

  17. Accounting for a not-for-profit organization's fund-raising costs.

    PubMed

    Clark, S J; Jordan, C E

    2001-02-01

    The AICPA's Statement of Position (SOP) 98-2 provides guidance on how a not-for-profit entity should account for costs associated with activities that involve a fund-raising component in combination with one or more mission-related components. Costs may be allocated among the various components of such an activity as long as the activity meets certain criteria specified by SOP 98-2. These criteria are related to the activity's purpose, audience, and content. If the activity does not meet the criteria, then all costs of the activity must be shown as fund-raising costs.

  18. An Analysis of Proposed Changes to Incentivize Facilities Capital Investment through Cost Accounting Standard 409.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Force Institute of Technology, WPAFB, OH II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAMIE AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT OATS September 1982 Department of Commnication and...Exchange Commission’s (SEC) focus was on the financial condition of the corporation as a whole. Neither the SEC nor the IRS were concerned with reporting...Private corporations recognized the need for internal cost center accounting or managerial accounting. Nothing existed to fill the govern- ment’s special

  19. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system.

    PubMed

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  20. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    PubMed Central

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  1. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Shannon M.; González, Marta C.; Markuzon, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. Methodology The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. Conclusions The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy. PMID:26288274

  2. Time-driven activity-based costing of multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting across national boundaries to identify improvement opportunities: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Erhun, F; Mistry, B; Platchek, T; Milstein, A; Narayanan, V G; Kaplan, R S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a well-established, commonly performed treatment for coronary artery disease—a disease that affects over 10% of US adults and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, the mean cost for a CABG procedure among Medicare beneficiaries in the USA was $32 201±$23 059. The same operation reportedly costs less than $2000 to produce in India. The goals of the proposed study are to (1) identify the difference in the costs incurred to perform CABG surgery by three Joint Commission accredited hospitals with reputations for high quality and efficiency and (2) characterise the opportunity to reduce the cost of performing CABG surgery. Methods and analysis We use time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) to quantify the hospitals’ costs of producing elective, multivessel CABG. TDABC estimates the costs of a given clinical service by combining information about the process of patient care delivery (specifically, the time and quantity of labour and non-labour resources utilised to perform each activity) with the unit cost of each resource used to provide the care. Resource utilisation was estimated by constructing CABG process maps for each site based on observation of care and staff interviews. Unit costs were calculated as a capacity cost rate, measured as a $/min, for each resource consumed in CABG production. Multiplying together the unit costs and resource quantities and summing across all resources used will produce the average cost of CABG production at each site. We will conclude by conducting a variance analysis of labour costs to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for CABG production in the USA. Ethics and dissemination All our methods were exempted from review by the Stanford Institutional Review Board. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific meetings. PMID:26307621

  3. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... / Thursday, November 10, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 5 CFR Chapter III 48 CFR Chapter 1 Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of Federal Activities; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of...

  4. Constrained Optimization Problems in Cost and Managerial Accounting--Spreadsheet Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amlie, Thomas T.

    2009-01-01

    A common problem addressed in Managerial and Cost Accounting classes is that of selecting an optimal production mix given scarce resources. That is, if a firm produces a number of different products, and is faced with scarce resources (e.g., limitations on labor, materials, or machine time), what combination of products yields the greatest profit…

  5. 78 FR 40665 - Cost Accounting Standards: CAS 413 Pension Adjustments for Extraordinary Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Adjustments for Extraordinary Events AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement... Staff Discussion Paper (SDP) on CAS 413 Pension Adjustments for Extraordinary Events. This is the first... extraordinary events'' in the subject line. To ensure seating due to space constraints, potential attendees...

  6. 18 CFR 367.4160 - Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work. 367.4160 Section 367.4160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  7. 18 CFR 367.4160 - Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work. 367.4160 Section 367.4160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  8. 75 FR 34283 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-025, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Accounting Practices for Contracts Awarded to Foreign Concerns AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General... Regulation (FAR) to align the FAR with the revised Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns. DATES: Effective Date: June 16,...

  9. Implementation of a cost-accounting model in a biobank: practical implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, Maria Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; García-Montero, Andres C

    2014-01-01

    Given the state of global economy, cost measurement and control have become increasingly relevant over the past years. The scarcity of resources and the need to use these resources more efficiently is making cost information essential in management, even in non-profit public institutions. Biobanks are no exception. However, no empirical experiences on the implementation of cost accounting in biobanks have been published to date. The aim of this paper is to present a step-by-step implementation of a cost-accounting tool for the main production and distribution activities of a real/active biobank, including a comprehensive explanation on how to perform the calculations carried out in this model. Two mathematical models for the analysis of (1) production costs and (2) request costs (order management and sample distribution) have stemmed from the analysis of the results of this implementation, and different theoretical scenarios have been prepared. Global analysis and discussion provides valuable information for internal biobank management and even for strategic decisions at the research and development governmental policies level.

  10. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  11. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  12. Accounting for enforcement costs in the spatial allocation of marine zones.

    PubMed

    Davis, Katrina; Kragt, Marit; Gelcich, Stefan; Schilizzi, Steven; Pannell, David

    2015-02-01

    Marine fish stocks are in many cases extracted above sustainable levels, but they may be protected through restricted-use zoning systems. The effectiveness of these systems typically depends on support from coastal fishing communities. High management costs including those of enforcement may, however, deter fishers from supporting marine management. We incorporated enforcement costs into a spatial optimization model that identified how conservation targets can be met while maximizing fishers' revenue. Our model identified the optimal allocation of the study area among different zones: no-take, territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs), or open access. The analysis demonstrated that enforcing no-take and TURF zones incurs a cost, but results in higher species abundance by preventing poaching and overfishing. We analyzed how different enforcement scenarios affected fishers' revenue. Fisher revenue was approximately 50% higher when territorial user rights were enforced than when they were not. The model preferentially allocated area to the enforced-TURF zone over other zones, demonstrating that the financial benefits of enforcement (derived from higher species abundance) exceeded the costs. These findings were robust to increases in enforcement costs but sensitive to changes in species' market price. We also found that revenue under the existing zoning regime in the study area was 13-30% lower than under an optimal solution. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for both the benefits and costs of enforcement in marine conservation, particularly when incurred by fishers.

  13. Extending the Aircraft Availability Model to a Constrained Depot Environment Using Activity-Based Costing and the Theory of Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    decreasing I and OE. 5 Authors such as Kaplan and Kee have an integrated vision of both ABC and TOC methodologies. On the one hand, the TOC...the differences in product cost treatment and time frame visions under both ABC and TOC methodologies are interrelated. Most of the OE are...Financieras en la Practica. Inversion y Financiacion en la Empresa . Bilbao: Editorial Desclee de Brouwer, S.A., 1998. Hirsch, Maurice H., Jr. and

  14. 48 CFR 9903.302 - Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, “cost accounting practice” and “change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, âcost accounting practiceâ and âchange to a cost accounting practice.â... illustrations of the terms, “cost accounting practice” and “change to a cost accounting practice.”...

  15. 48 CFR 9903.302 - Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, “cost accounting practice” and “change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, âcost accounting practiceâ and âchange to a cost accounting practice.â... illustrations of the terms, “cost accounting practice” and “change to a cost accounting practice.”...

  16. Cost accounting methodologies in price setting of acute inpatient services in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gaal, Peter; Stefka, Nóra; Nagy, Júlia

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of documentary analysis and interviews with decision makers, this paper discusses the cost accounting methodologies used for price setting of inpatient services in the Hungarian health care system focusing on sector of acute inpatient care, which is financed through the Hungarian adaptation of Diagnosis Related Groups since 1993. Hungary has a quite sophisticated DRG system, which had a deep impact on the efficiency of the acute inpatient care sector. Nevertheless, the system requires continuous maintenance, where the cooperation of hospitals, as well as the minimisation of political influence are critical success factors.

  17. 48 CFR 9903.302-3 - Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of “change to a cost accounting practice.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to a cost accounting practice.” (a) The method or technique used for measuring costs has been changed. Description Accounting treatment (1) Contractor changes its actuarial cost method for computing pension costs. (1)(i) Before change: The contractor computed pension costs using the aggregate cost...

  18. Analysis of early accountable care organizations defines patient, structural, cost, and quality-of-care characteristics.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Arnold M; Jha, Ashish K; Orav, E John; Liebman, Daniel L; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Zezza, Mark A; Guterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have attracted interest from many policy makers and clinical leaders because of their potential to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. Federal ACO programs for Medicare beneficiaries are now up and running, but little information is available about the baseline characteristics of early entrants. In this descriptive study we present data on the structural and market characteristics of these early ACOs and compare ACOs' patient populations, costs, and quality with those of their non-ACO counterparts at baseline. We found that ACO patients were more likely than non-ACO patients to be older than age eighty and had higher incomes. ACO patients were less likely than non-ACO patients to be black, covered by Medicaid, or disabled. The cost of care for ACO patients was slightly lower than that for non-ACO patients. Slightly fewer than half of the ACOs had a participating hospital. Hospitals that were in ACOs were more likely than non-ACO hospitals to be large, teaching, and not-for-profit, although there was little difference in their performance on quality metrics. Our findings can be useful in interpreting the early results from the federal ACO programs and in establishing a baseline to assess the programs' development.

  19. Cost accounting to determine prices: how well do prices reflect costs in the German DRG-system?

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Busse, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Germany has recently introduced a system of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) to engender more appropriate resource allocation. The following article describes the German DRG-system and the methodologies used to determine prices. It analyses the extent to which prices, or calculated cost weights, reflect the actual costs incurred by hospitals for their respective services. We reveal that a "compression" of DRG cost weights occurs, and that the data sample used to calculate cost weights is lacking in terms of its representativeness. Although cost data accuracy has improved over the last few years there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed.

  20. Resolving Inadequacies of the Navy Industrial Fund Cost Accounting System to Enable Its Use in the RAMP SMP (Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts Small Manufactured Parts) Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    development is drawn from current cost accounting practices, and theoretical cost accounting principles in the commercial workplace. A detailed...production or service output. These definitions are sound in the man-paced environment. However, current cost accounting practices create the

  1. 48 CFR 9903.302 - Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, “cost accounting practice” and “change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, âcost accounting practiceâ and âchange to a cost accounting practice.â 9903.302 Section 9903.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE...

  2. 48 CFR 9903.302 - Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, “cost accounting practice” and “change...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the terms, âcost accounting practiceâ and âchange to a cost accounting practice.â 9903.302 Section 9903.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE...

  3. 48 CFR 4.705-1 - Financial and cost accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wages: Retain 4 years. (e) Accounts payable records to support disbursements of funds for materials... records. (a) Accounts receivable invoices, adjustments to the accounts, invoice registers, carrier freight...: Retain 4 years. (c) Cash advance recapitulations, prepared as posting entries to accounts...

  4. Task uncertainty can account for mixing and switch costs in task-switching.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Patrick S; Garrett, Paul M; Rennie, Jaime L; Karayanidis, Frini

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is required in situations that involve uncertainty or change, such as when resolving conflict, selecting responses and switching tasks. Recently, it has been suggested that cognitive control can be conceptualised as a mechanism which prioritises goal-relevant information to deal with uncertainty. This hypothesis has been supported using a paradigm that requires conflict resolution. In this study, we examine whether cognitive control during task switching is also consistent with this notion. We used information theory to quantify the level of uncertainty in different trial types during a cued task-switching paradigm. We test the hypothesis that differences in uncertainty between task repeat and task switch trials can account for typical behavioural effects in task-switching. Increasing uncertainty was associated with less efficient performance (i.e., slower and less accurate), particularly on switch trials and trials that afford little opportunity for advance preparation. Interestingly, both mixing and switch costs were associated with a common episodic control process. These results support the notion that cognitive control may be conceptualised as an information processor that serves to resolve uncertainty in the environment.

  5. 48 CFR 9903.302-2 - Change to a cost accounting practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES... practice. The partial or total elimination of a cost or the cost of a function is not a change in...

  6. 41 CFR 102-33.190 - What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the aircraft operations and ownership costs for which we must account? 102-33.190 Section 102-33.190 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  7. 41 CFR 102-33.195 - Do we need an automated system to account for aircraft costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Do we need an automated system to account for aircraft costs? 102-33.195 Section 102-33.195 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  8. Household Rates of Return to Education in Rural Bangladesh: Accounting for Direct Costs, Child Labour, and Option Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the returns to boys' education for rural Bangladeshi households by accounting for some conventionally neglected items: direct costs of education, foregone child labour earnings, and option value. The estimated returns are 13.5% for primary education, 7.8% for junior-secondary education, 12.9% for higher-secondary education,…

  9. Learning Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Print versus e-Book Instructional Material in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annand, David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the concurrent development of paper-based and e-book versions of a textbook and related instructional material used in an introductory-level financial accounting course. Break-even analysis is used to compare costs of the two media. A study conducted with 109 students is also used to evaluate the two media with respect to…

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.195 - Do we need an automated system to account for aircraft costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). The functional specifications and data definitions for a... system to account for aircraft costs? 102-33.195 Section 102-33.195 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  11. A collaborative accountable care model in three practices showed promising early results on costs and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Richard B; Sanderson, Mark I; Walters, Barbara A; Kennedy, Karen; Flores, Robert C; Muney, Alan M

    2012-11-01

    Cigna's Collaborative Accountable Care initiative provides financial incentives to physician groups and integrated delivery systems to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients in commercial open-access benefit plans. Registered nurses who serve as care coordinators employed by participating practices are a central feature of the initiative. They use patient-specific reports and practice performance reports provided by Cigna to improve care coordination, identify and close care gaps, and address other opportunities for quality improvement. We report interim quality and cost results for three geographically and structurally diverse provider practices in Arizona, New Hampshire, and Texas. Although not statistically significant, these early results revealed favorable trends in total medical costs and quality of care, suggesting that a shared-savings accountable care model and collaborative support from the payer can enable practices to take meaningful steps toward full accountability for care quality and efficiency.

  12. Measuring Resources in Education: From Accounting to the Resource Cost Model Approach. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.

    This report describes two alternative approaches to measuring resources in K-12 education. One approach relies heavily on traditional accounting data, whereas the other draws on detailed information about the jobs and assignments of individual school personnel. It outlines the differences between accounting and economics and discusses how each…

  13. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  14. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    PubMed

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs.

  15. An evaluation of accounting-based finding costs as efficiency measures for oil and gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, C.E. IV; Boone, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have operationalized firm-specific exploration efficiency as the difference between a firm-specific intercept estimated in a fixed-effects panel data Cobb-Douglas production frontier model and the maximum firm-specific intercept estimated in that model. The production model was estimated during two different time periods, 1982--1985 and 1989--1992, allowing efficiency to vary intertemporally. This efficiency estimate served as a benchmark against which they compared various measures of inverse finding costs. They assumed that the degree of association with an efficiency benchmark is an important attribute of any finding cost measure and that, further, the degree of association may be used as a metric for choosing between alternative finding cost measures. Accordingly, they evaluated the cross-sectional statistical association between estimated efficiency and alternative inverse finding cost measures. They discovered that the inverse finding cost measure that exhibited the strongest association with efficiency during the two time periods was a three-year moving-average finding cost which included exploration plus development expenditures as costs and reserve extensions and additions plus revisions as the units added.

  16. 48 CFR 52.230-6 - Administration of Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by the CFAO, submit on or before a date specified by the CFAO— (1) A general dollar magnitude (GDM... estimated general dollar magnitude of the cost impact), until such time as the Contractor provides...

  17. 18 CFR 367.4120 - Account 412, Cost and expenses of construction or other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... undertakes projects to construct physical property for associate or non-associate companies (see General Instructions § 367.24, Construction and service contracts for other companies) and the cost of...

  18. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  19. Risk factor and cost accounting analysis for dialysis patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Guang; Tsai, Kai-Li; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Ho, Yi-Yi; Liu, Shin-Yi; Rivers, Patrick A

    2010-05-01

    According to the 2004 US Renal Data System's annual report, the incidence rate of chronic renal failure in Taiwan increased from 120 to 352 per million populations between 1990 and 2003. This incidence rate is the highest in the world. The prevalence rate, which ranks number two in the world (Japan ranks number one), also increased from 384 to 1630 per million populations. Based on 2005 Taiwan national statistics, there were 52,958 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving routine dialysis treatment. This number, which comprised less than 0.2% of the total population and consumed $2.6 billion New Taiwan dollars, was more than 6.12% of the total annual spending of national health insurance during 2005. Dialysis expenditures for patients with ESRD rank the highest among all major injuries (traumas) and diseases. This article identifies and discusses the risk factors associated with consumption of medical resources during dialysis. Instead of using reimbursement data to estimate cost, as seen in previous studies, this study uses cost data within organizations and focuses on evaluating and predicting the resource consumption pattern for dialysis patients with different risk factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify 23 risk factors for routine dialysis patients. Of these risk factors, six were associated with the increase of dialysis cost: age (i.e. 75 years old and older), liver function disorder, hypertension, bile-duct disorder, cancer and high blood lipids. Patients with liver function disorder incurred much higher costs for injection medication and supplies. Hypertensive patients incurred higher costs for injection medication, supplies and oral medication. Patients with bile-duct disorder incurred a significant difference in check-up costs (i.e. costs were higher for those aged 75 years and older than those who were younger than 30 years of age). Cancer patients also incurred significant differences in cost of medical supplies. Patients

  20. Upon Accounting for the Impact of Isoenzyme Loss, Gene Deletion Costs Anticorrelate with Their Evolutionary Rates.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Christopher; Lambourne, Luke; Xia, Yu; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism's genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene's fitness contribution to an organism "here and now" and the same gene's historical importance as evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution. Here we show that this negative correlation does exist, and can be exposed by revisiting a broadly employed assumption of flux balance models. In particular, we introduce a new metric that we call "function-loss cost", which estimates the cost of a gene loss event as the total potential functional impairment caused by that loss. This new metric displays significant negative correlation with evolutionary rate, across several thousand minimal environments. We demonstrate that the improvement gained using function-loss cost over gene-loss cost is explained by replacing the base assumption that isoenzymes provide unlimited capacity for backup with the assumption that isoenzymes are completely non-redundant. We further show that this change of the assumption regarding isoenzymes increases the recall of epistatic interactions predicted by the flux balance model at the cost of a reduction in the precision of the predictions. In addition to suggesting that the gene-to-reaction mapping in genome-scale flux balance models should be used with caution, our analysis provides new evidence that evolutionary gene importance captures much more than strict essentiality.

  1. Accounting for management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population models.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Peter W J; McCarthy, Michael A; Possingham, Hugh P; Menkhorst, Peter W; McLean, Natasha

    2006-06-01

    Traditional sensitivity and elasticity analyses of matrix population models have been used to inform management decisions, but they ignore the economic costs of manipulating vital rates. For example, the growth rate of a population is often most sensitive to changes in adult survival rate, but this does not mean that increasing that rate is the best option for managing the population because it may be much more expensive than other options. To explore how managers should optimize their manipulation of vital rates, we incorporated the cost of changing those rates into matrix population models. We derived analytic expressions for locations in parameter space where managers should shift between management of fecundity and survival, for the balance between fecundity and survival management at those boundaries, and for the allocation of management resources to sustain that optimal balance. For simple matrices, the optimal budget allocation can often be expressed as simple functions of vital rates and the relative costs of changing them. We applied our method to management of the Helmeted Honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix; an endangered Australian bird) and the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as examples. Our method showed that cost-efficient management of the Helmeted Honeyeater should focus on increasing fecundity via nest protection, whereas optimal koala management should focus on manipulating both fecundity and survival simultaneously. These findings are contrary to the cost-negligent recommendations of elasticity analysis, which would suggest focusing on managing survival in both cases. A further investigation of Helmeted Honeyeater management options, based on an individual-based model incorporating density dependence, spatial structure, and environmental stochasticity, confirmed that fecundity management was the most cost-effective strategy. Our results demonstrate that decisions that ignore economic factors will reduce management efficiency.

  2. Motivations, Costs and Results of AOL: Perceptions of Accounting and Economics Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenfelder, Mark J.; Bryan, Lois D.; Lee, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) on improving student learning through Assurance of Learning (AOL) makes faculty involvement in the process at AACSB accredited schools important. This study examines the attitudes of accounting and economics faculty at AACSB accredited institutions toward the AOL…

  3. Chemeketa's Accountability Defined: A Study of the Costs and Benefits of Nine Vocational-Technical Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.; Woodnutt, Tom

    The purpose of this report is to present the background and findings of a study conducted at Chemeketa Community College (CCC) during 1978-79 in which survey information gathered from former students and their employers was applied to a cost-benefit model to determine the usefulness of nine vocational programs. These programs were early childhood…

  4. 18 CFR 367.4160 - Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: (1) Advertising in newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, and other similar items. (2) Cost of..., on a jobbing or contract basis. (5) Preparing advertising materials for appliance sales purposes. (6.... (4) Fees and expenses of advertising and commercial artists' agencies. (5) Printing booklets,...

  5. 18 CFR 367.4160 - Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: (1) Advertising in newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, and other similar items. (2) Cost of..., on a jobbing or contract basis. (5) Preparing advertising materials for appliance sales purposes. (6.... (4) Fees and expenses of advertising and commercial artists' agencies. (5) Printing booklets,...

  6. 18 CFR 367.4160 - Account 416, Costs and expenses of merchandising, jobbing and contract work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: (1) Advertising in newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, and other similar items. (2) Cost of..., on a jobbing or contract basis. (5) Preparing advertising materials for appliance sales purposes. (6.... (4) Fees and expenses of advertising and commercial artists' agencies. (5) Printing booklets,...

  7. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers aim to design environmental studies that optimize precision and allow for generalization of results, while keeping the costs of associated field and laboratory work at a reasonable level. Ranked set sampling is one method to potentially increase precision and reduce ...

  8. Upon Accounting for the Impact of Isoenzyme Loss, Gene Deletion Costs Anticorrelate with Their Evolutionary Rates

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; Segrè, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism’s genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene’s fitness contribution to an organism “here and now” and the same gene’s historical importance as evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution. Here we show that this negative correlation does exist, and can be exposed by revisiting a broadly employed assumption of flux balance models. In particular, we introduce a new metric that we call “function-loss cost”, which estimates the cost of a gene loss event as the total potential functional impairment caused by that loss. This new metric displays significant negative correlation with evolutionary rate, across several thousand minimal environments. We demonstrate that the improvement gained using function-loss cost over gene-loss cost is explained by replacing the base assumption that isoenzymes provide unlimited capacity for backup with the assumption that isoenzymes are completely non-redundant. We further show that this change of the assumption regarding isoenzymes increases the recall of epistatic interactions predicted by the flux balance model at the cost of a reduction in the precision of the predictions. In addition to suggesting that the gene-to-reaction mapping in genome-scale flux balance models should be used with caution, our analysis provides new evidence that evolutionary gene importance captures much more than strict essentiality. PMID:28107392

  9. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbours at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  10. A dynamic water accounting framework based on marginal resource opportunity cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Marques, G.; Mohamed, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins have become more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependent on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoir operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding hypothetical transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  11. 30 CFR 206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 206.181 Section 206.181 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Processing Allowances § 206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I...

  12. Human Resource Accounting: Operationalization and Effects of Human Resource Replacement Cost System in Naval Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-20

    MANAGEM UNCLASSIFIED E G FLAMHOLTZ 20 DEC 85 CHRM-85-81 F/G 5/i N Ehhhmhhmhiu I: 1 , flflflfllfl...flmflmEEhEhhhmh ji *..0 w im U .L2= 1.25 1111.4 1.6...PAGE (When O-,*emtered__ READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1 . REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENT’S...CATALOG NUMBER CHRM - 85 - 01 P- 1 1 / ., "/) , 4. TITLE (endSubit.) Human Resource Accounting: S. TYPEOF REPORT PERIODCOVERED Operationalizatin and Effects

  13. Multiobjective optimization of water distribution systems accounting for economic cost, hydraulic reliability, and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenyan; Maier, Holger R.; Simpson, Angus R.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, three objectives are considered for the optimization of water distribution systems (WDSs): the traditional objectives of minimizing economic cost and maximizing hydraulic reliability and the recently proposed objective of minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is particularly important to include the GHG minimization objective for WDSs involving pumping into storages or water transmission systems (WTSs), as these systems are the main contributors of GHG emissions in the water industry. In order to better understand the nature of tradeoffs among these three objectives, the shape of the solution space and the location of the Pareto-optimal front in the solution space are investigated for WTSs and WDSs that include pumping into storages, and the implications of the interaction between the three objectives are explored from a practical design perspective. Through three case studies, it is found that the solution space is a U-shaped curve rather than a surface, as the tradeoffs among the three objectives are dominated by the hydraulic reliability objective. The Pareto-optimal front of real-world systems is often located at the "elbow" section and lower "arm" of the solution space (i.e., the U-shaped curve), indicating that it is more economic to increase the hydraulic reliability of these systems by increasing pipe capacity (i.e., pipe diameter) compared to increasing pumping power. Solutions having the same GHG emission level but different cost-reliability tradeoffs often exist. Therefore, the final decision needs to be made in conjunction with expert knowledge and the specific budget and reliability requirements of the system.

  14. Introducing high-cost health care to patients: dentists' accounts of offering dental implant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vernazza, Christopher R; Rousseau, Nikki; Steele, Jimmy G; Ellis, Janice S; Thomason, John Mark; Eastham, Jane; Exley, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The decision-making process within health care has been widely researched, with shared decision-making, where both patients and clinicians share technical and personal information, often being cited as the ideal model. To date, much of this research has focused on systems where patients receive their care and treatment free at the point of contact (either in government-funded schemes or in insurance-based schemes). Oral health care often involves patients making direct payments for their care and treatment, and less is known about how this payment affects the decision-making process. It is clear that patient characteristics influence decision-making, but previous evidence suggests that clinicians may assume characteristics rather than eliciting them directly. The aim was to explore the influences on how dentists' engaged in the decision-making process surrounding a high-cost item of health care, dental implant treatments (DITs). Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken using a purposive sample of primary care dentists (n = 25). Thematic analysis was undertaken to reveal emerging key themes. Results There were differences in how dentists discussed and offered implants. Dentists made decisions about whether to offer implants based on business factors, professional and legal obligations and whether they perceived the patient to be motivated to have treatment and their ability to pay. There was evidence that assessment of these characteristics was often based on assumptions derived from elements such as the appearance of the patient, the state of the patient's mouth and demographic details. The data suggest that there is a conflict between three elements of acting as a healthcare professional: minimizing provision of unneeded treatment, trying to fully involve patients in shared decisions and acting as a business person with the potential for financial gain. Conclusions It might be expected that in the context of a high-cost

  15. Monitoring groundwater: optimising networks to take account of cost effectiveness, legal requirements and enforcement realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Spray, C.

    2013-12-01

    regulator to ensure compliance with legal standards. On the other hand, it can be ruinously expensive to set up a monitoring network in remote areas and regulators must therefore balance the cost effectiveness of these networks against the chance that a court might question their fitness for purpose. This presentation will examine how regulators can balance legal standards for monitoring against the cost of developing and maintaining the requisite networks, while still producing observable improvements in water and ecosystem quality backed by legally enforceable sanctions for breaches. Reflecting the findings from the EU-funded GENESIS project, it will look at case law from around the world to assess how tribunals balance competing models, and the extent to which decisions may be revisited in the light of new scientific understanding. Finally, it will make recommendations to assist regulators in optimising their network designs for enforcement.

  16. 30 CFR 1206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 1206.181 Section 1206.181 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 1206.181 Section 1206.181 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.181 How do I establish processing costs for...

  18. The young, the old, and the economists: rethinking how agencies account for age in cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Herz-Roiphe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Federal agencies count all fatalities prevented by regulation as having the same value for the purposes of cost-benefit analysis, making no adjustment for the age of the person saved. This uniform valuation is guided by empirical studies that find that the young are not willing to pay more than the elderly for small risk reductions in private markets. This Note argues for a different approach. It proposes that agencies take account of a previously ignored body of "public choice" research that finds that most individuals think government should adopt lifesaving programs that benefit the young over those that benefit the old. These data illustrate a divergence between people's private and public preferences. While the economic theory that guides current agency practice prioritizes the former over the latter, this Note argues that it should be the other way around. The Note maintains that public choice data reflect a wider range of societal commitments than individual willingness-to-pay metrics, and therefore that the use of public choice data could help agencies satisfy their mandate under Executive Order 13,563 to engage in broader forms of analysis. The Note also posits that public choice data actually provide a better guide to the welfare consequences of prioritizing lifesaving regulations for different age groups than do individual willingness-to-pay data. It accordingly recommends a new system of age adjustment based on public choice results.

  19. Inflation Accounting Methods and their Effectiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.

  20. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  1. 48 CFR 9903.302-3 - Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of “change to a cost accounting practice.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of âchange to a cost accounting practice.â 9903.302-3 Section 9903.302-3... COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.302-3 Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of...

  2. 48 CFR 9903.302-3 - Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of “change to a cost accounting practice.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of âchange to a cost accounting practice.â 9903.302-3 Section 9903.302-3... COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.302-3 Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of...

  3. 48 CFR 9903.302-3 - Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of “change to a cost accounting practice.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of âchange to a cost accounting practice.â 9903.302-3 Section 9903.302-3... COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.302-3 Illustrations of changes which meet the definition of...

  4. Factors Affecting Examination Attrition: Does Academic Support Help? A Survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) Students at Unisa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tladi, Lerato Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the attributing and contributing factors to examination absence as well as whether the academic and social support available to students had a role to play in discouraging or reducing absence from examinations using results from a quantitative survey of ACN203S (Cost Accounting and Control) students who were admitted…

  5. 78 FR 41857 - Simplified Cost Accounting and Other Actions To Reduce Paperwork in the Summer Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... budgeted costs, an annual budget submission continues to be an important aspect of participating in the..., Infants and children, Nutrition, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, School breakfast...

  6. The Welfare Cost of Homicides in Brazil: Accounting for Heterogeneity in the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Reductions.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Daniel; Soares, Rodrigo R

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates the health dimension of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil incorporating age, gender, educational, and regional heterogeneities. We use a marginal willingness to pay approach to assign monetary values to the welfare cost of increased mortality due to violence. Results indicate that the present discounted value of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil corresponds to roughly 78% of the GDP or, in terms of yearly flow, 2.3%. The analysis also shows that reliance on aggregate data to perform such calculations can lead to biases of around 20% in the estimated social cost of violence.

  7. A Suggested Model for an Accountability System for Cost Effectiveness Management and Evaluation of Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Neil W.; And Others

    This model for a cost effective management and evaluation system is intended to help the administrator of an adult basic education (ABE) program (1) to gather data on a monthly basis, (2) to maintain a monthly data review, (3) to modify program costs and/or student enrollment and class size, and (4) to prepare the following year's budget.…

  8. Full cost accounting as a tool for the financial assessment of Pay-As-You-Throw schemes: a case study for the Panorama municipality, Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Xirogiannopoulou, Anna; Tchobanoglous, George

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, implementation scenarios of a Pay-As-You-Throw program were developed and analyzed for the first time in Greece. Firstly, the necessary steps for implementing a Pay-As-You-Throw program were determined. A database was developed for the needs of the full cost accounting method, where all financial and waste-production data were inserted, in order to calculate the unit price of charging for four different implementation scenarios of the "polluter-pays" principle. For each scenario, the input in waste management cost was estimated, as well as the total waste charges for households. Finally, a comparative analysis of the results was performed.

  9. A new accounting system for financial balance based on personnel cost after the introduction of a DPC/DRG system.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Takemura, Tadamasa; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2011-04-01

    A hospital director must estimate the revenues and expenses not only in a hospital but also in each clinical division to determine the proper management strategy. A new prospective payment system based on the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC/PPS) introduced in 2003 has made the attribution of revenues and expenses for each clinical department very complicated because of the intricate involvement between the overall or blanket component and a fee-for service (FFS). Few reports have so far presented a programmatic method for the calculation of medical costs and financial balance. A simple method has been devised, based on personnel cost, for calculating medical costs and financial balance. Using this method, one individual was able to complete the calculations for a hospital which contains 535 beds and 16 clinics, without using the central hospital computer system.

  10. Food Assistance: Financial Information on WIC Nutrition Services and Administrative Costs. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a federally funded nutrition assistance program administered by the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). Responding to Congressional requests for information regarding program costs, this report provides information on: (1) funding…

  11. Defense Acquisitions: Better Approach Needed to Account for Number, Cost, and Performance of Non-Major Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    and equipment. About 40 percent of that total is for major defense acquisition programs or ACAT I programs. DOD also invests in other, non-major... ACAT II and III programs that are generally less costly at the individual program level. These programs typically have fewer reporting requirements...and are overseen at lower organizational levels than ACAT I programs, although they may have annual funding needs that are just as significant

  12. A method for accounting for maintenance costs in flux balance analysis improves the prediction of plant cell metabolic phenotypes under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C Y Maurice; Williams, Thomas C R; Poolman, Mark G; Fell, David A; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2013-09-01

    Flux balance models of metabolism generally utilize synthesis of biomass as the main determinant of intracellular fluxes. However, the biomass constraint alone is not sufficient to predict realistic fluxes in central heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells because of the major demand on the energy budget due to transport costs and cell maintenance. This major limitation can be addressed by incorporating transport steps into the metabolic model and by implementing a procedure that uses Pareto optimality analysis to explore the trade-off between ATP and NADPH production for maintenance. This leads to a method for predicting cell maintenance costs on the basis of the measured flux ratio between the oxidative steps of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. We show that accounting for transport and maintenance costs substantially improves the accuracy of fluxes predicted from a flux balance model of heterotrophic Arabidopsis cells in culture, irrespective of the objective function used in the analysis. Moreover, when the new method was applied to cells under control, elevated temperature and hyper-osmotic conditions, only elevated temperature led to a substantial increase in cell maintenance costs. It is concluded that the hyper-osmotic conditions tested did not impose a metabolic stress, in as much as the metabolic network is not forced to devote more resources to cell maintenance.

  13. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Relative Treatment Effects for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models and Value-of-Information Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta O.; Palmer, Stephen; Ades, Anthony E.; Harrison, David; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Rowan, Kathy M.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models are routinely used to inform health care policy. Key model inputs include relative effectiveness of competing treatments, typically informed by meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in meta-analysis, and random effects models are usually used when there is variability in effects across studies. In the absence of observed treatment effect modifiers, various summaries from the random effects distribution (random effects mean, predictive distribution, random effects distribution, or study-specific estimate [shrunken or independent of other studies]) can be used depending on the relationship between the setting for the decision (population characteristics, treatment definitions, and other contextual factors) and the included studies. If covariates have been measured that could potentially explain the heterogeneity, then these can be included in a meta-regression model. We describe how covariates can be included in a network meta-analysis model and how the output from such an analysis can be used in a CEA model. We outline a model selection procedure to help choose between competing models and stress the importance of clinical input. We illustrate the approach with a health technology assessment of intravenous immunoglobulin for the management of adult patients with severe sepsis in an intensive care setting, which exemplifies how risk of bias information can be incorporated into CEA models. We show that the results of the CEA and value-of-information analyses are sensitive to the model and highlight the importance of sensitivity analyses when conducting CEA in the presence of heterogeneity. The methods presented extend naturally to heterogeneity in other model inputs, such as baseline risk. PMID:25712447

  14. The folly of using RCCs and RVUs for intermediate product costing.

    PubMed

    Young, David W

    2007-04-01

    Two measures for computing the cost of intermediate projects--a ratio of cost to charges and relative value units--are highly flawed and can have serious financial implications for the hospitals that use them. Full-cost accounting, using the principles of activity-based costing, enables hospitals to measure their costs more accurately, both for competitive bidding purposes and to manage them more effectively.

  15. National Activity Based Total Accountability Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Posey, Bill [R-FL-15

    2011-04-05

    04/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  17. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  18. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  19. Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Kim; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Geballe, Linda; Max, Wendy; Solomon, Gina M

    2011-11-01

    The future health costs associated with predicted climate change-related events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and floods are projected to be enormous. This article estimates the health costs associated with six climate change-related events that struck the United States between 2000 and 2009. The six case studies came from categories of climate change-related events projected to worsen with continued global warming-ozone pollution, heat waves, hurricanes, infectious disease outbreaks, river flooding, and wildfires. We estimate that the health costs exceeded $14 billion, with 95 percent due to the value of lives lost prematurely. Actual health care costs were an estimated $740 million. This reflects more than 760,000 encounters with the health care system. Our analysis provides scientists and policy makers with a methodology to use in estimating future health costs related to climate change and highlights the growing need for public health preparedness.

  20. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  1. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  2. Implementation of Activity Based Cost Management Aboard Base Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Shared Services Concept (After Penn State Briefing) .....................................30 Figure 8. Command Levels and Applicable Tools (From...resulting analysis of this duplication of efforts resulted in what they refer to as the “ Shared Services Concept.” Simply put, there should be “no...more than one of anything in the Base organization.” (Penn State Briefing) This Shared Services concept combined common support services that were

  3. Activity-based costing in services: literature bibliometric review.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Nara Medianeira; Filho, Nelson Casarotto

    2013-12-01

    This article is aimed at structuring a bibliography portfolio to treat the application of the ABC method in service and contribute to discussions within the scientific community. The methodology followed a three-stage procedure: Planning, execution and Synthesis. Also, the process ProKnow-C (Knowledge Process Development - Constructivist) was used in the execution stage. International databases were used to collect information (ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus). As a result, we obtained a bibliography portfolio of 21 articles (with scientific recognition) dealing with the proposed theme.

  4. An example of activity based costing of treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Farrokh; Sullivan, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new tool that can be used for estimating number, length of time, and nature of services patient receive in drug treatment programs. While the field has made significant progress in standardizing the collection of expenditure data, little progress has been made on creating a standard measure for estimating program activities and census. We report on a method of estimating program activities.

  5. A Study to Develop a Methodology to Enable Direct Cost UCA (Uniform Chart of Accounts) Data to Be Expressed in Terms of Cost per Admission for Specific Diagnosis Related Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    revision has a dramatic effect on the calculation of the costs for the remaining DRGs, which were artificially depressed in the first sets of...itself are charged to the ICU. Thus, costs are artificially depressed in the affected clinical services, and incompletely described for the ICU. It would...Neurology EA AAJF Neurology Family Practice AK AAKA Oncology AL AALA Pulmonary/Upper Respiratory Disease FA AALF Pulmon /Upper Resp Dis Family Practice

  6. DOD Oversight Improvements are Needed on the Contractor Accounting System for the Army’s Cost-Reimbursable Stryker Logistics Support Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-16

    Policy FAR Federal Acquisition Regulation GDLS General Dynamics Land System PCO Procuring Contracting Officer PEO Program Executive Officer...our March 2012 preliminary briefing of the accounting system deficiencies, PMO Stryker issued a procuring contracting officer ( PCO ) letter that...and such a billing practice must be corrected. Specifically, the PCO letter, dated March 7, 2012, stated: This PCO [procuring contracting officer

  7. Measuring accounts receivable performance: a comprehensive method.

    PubMed

    Newton, R L

    1993-05-01

    Nonperforming assets, such as accounts receivable, are frequently cited as sources of financial difficulty for hospitals. Yet, many hospitals, relying on the traditional measure of accounts receivable--days revenue outstanding--may not have a true grasp of the real cost of their accounts receivable. The author discusses the costs imposed on a hospital by accounts receivable and describes three cost components that must be calculated if the true cost of accounts receivable is to be determined and controlled.

  8. Development of a practical costing method for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengyu; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2006-03-01

    To realize an effective cost control, a practical and accurate cost accounting system is indispensable in hospitals. In traditional cost accounting systems, the volume-based costing (VBC) is the most popular cost accounting method. In this method, the indirect costs are allocated to each cost object (services or units of a hospital) using a single indicator named a cost driver (e.g., Labor hours, revenues or the number of patients). However, this method often results in rough and inaccurate results. The activity based costing (ABC) method introduced in the mid 1990s can prove more accurate results. With the ABC method, all events or transactions that cause costs are recognized as "activities", and a specific cost driver is prepared for each activity. Finally, the costs of activities are allocated to cost objects by the corresponding cost driver. However, it is much more complex and costly than other traditional cost accounting methods because the data collection for cost drivers is not always easy. In this study, we developed a simplified ABC (S-ABC) costing method to reduce the workload of ABC costing by reducing the number of cost drivers used in the ABC method. Using the S-ABC method, we estimated the cost of the laboratory tests, and as a result, similarly accurate results were obtained with the ABC method (largest difference was 2.64%). Simultaneously, this new method reduces the seven cost drivers used in the ABC method to four. Moreover, we performed an evaluation using other sample data from physiological laboratory department to certify the effectiveness of this new method. In conclusion, the S-ABC method provides two advantages in comparison to the VBC and ABC methods: (1) it can obtain accurate results, and (2) it is simpler to perform. Once we reduce the number of cost drivers by applying the proposed S-ABC method to the data for the ABC method, we can easily perform the cost accounting using few cost drivers after the second round of costing.

  9. The legal liability regime: how well is it doing in assuring quality, accounting for costs, and coping with an evolving reality in the health care marketplace?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, James F

    2002-01-01

    Professor Blumstein's timely article deals with two competing paradigms that provide the poles in the spectrum of legal liability regimes. The "professional" or "scientific" model of liability assumes a rigidly normative approach to medical practice while the second more recent paradigm reflects the principles of marketplace economics in considering cost and resource availability to determine quality of care standards. Professor Blumstein concludes that the traditional approach to determining legal liability is being eroded by both the economics of managed care and the recent emphasis on systemic management of health care to promote patient safety, and that the traditional regime will have to "bend" in order to remain legally viable.

  10. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  11. Estimating the Economic Value of Ice Climbing in Hyalite Canyon: An Application of Travel Cost Count Data Models that Account for Excess Zeros*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the sport of ice climbing has seen a drastic increase in popularity. This paper uses the travel cost method to estimate the demand for ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon, Montana, one of the premier ice climbing venues in North America. Access to Hyalite and other ice climbing destinations have been put at risk due to liability issues, public land management agendas, and winter road conditions. To this point, there has been no analysis on the economic benefits of ice climbing. In addition to the novel outdoor recreation application, this study applies econometric methods designed to deal with “excess zeros” in the data. Depending upon model specification, per person per trip values are estimated to be in the range of $76 to $135. PMID:20044202

  12. Estimating the economic value of ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon: An application of travel cost count data models that account for excess zeros.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Mark

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the sport of ice climbing has seen a dramatic increase in popularity. This paper uses the travel cost method to estimate the demand for ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon, Montana, one of the premier ice climbing venues in North America. Access to Hyalite and other ice climbing destinations have been put at risk due to liability issues, public land management agendas, and winter road conditions. To this point, there has been no analysis on the economic benefits of ice climbing. In addition to the novel outdoor recreation application, this study applies econometric methods designed to deal with "excess zeros" in the data. Depending upon model specification, per person per trip values are estimated to be in the range of $76 to $135.

  13. Activity-Based Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institution: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Noor Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how activity-based costing (ABC) technique can be applied in the context of higher education institutions. It also discusses the obstacles and challenges to the successful implementation of activity-based management (ABM) in the higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This paper…

  14. A Method of Accounting for Enzyme Costs in Flux Balance Analysis Reveals Alternative Pathways and Metabolite Stores in an Illuminated Arabidopsis Leaf.

    PubMed

    Cheung, C Y Maurice; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-11-01

    Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism is an established method for predicting metabolic flux phenotypes and for exploring the way in which the plant metabolic network delivers specific outcomes in different cell types, tissues, and temporal phases. A recurring theme is the need to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting its objectives and, in particular, to establish the extent to which alternative pathways can contribute to achieving specific outcomes. Unfortunately, predictions from conventional flux balance analysis minimize the simultaneous operation of alternative pathways, but by introducing flux-weighting factors to allow for the variable intrinsic cost of supporting each flux, it is possible to activate different pathways in individual simulations and, thus, to explore alternative pathways by averaging thousands of simulations. This new method has been applied to a diel genome-scale model of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf metabolism to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting the metabolic requirements of the leaf in the light. This identified alternative flux modes in the Calvin-Benson cycle revealed the potential for alternative transitory carbon stores in leaves and led to predictions about the light-dependent contribution of alternative electron flow pathways and futile cycles in energy rebalancing. Notable features of the analysis include the light-dependent tradeoff between the use of carbohydrates and four-carbon organic acids as transitory storage forms and the way in which multiple pathways for the consumption of ATP and NADPH can contribute to the balancing of the requirements of photosynthetic metabolism with the energy available from photon capture.

  15. A Method of Accounting for Enzyme Costs in Flux Balance Analysis Reveals Alternative Pathways and Metabolite Stores in an Illuminated Arabidopsis Leaf1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, C.Y. Maurice; Ratcliffe, R. George; Sweetlove, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    Flux balance analysis of plant metabolism is an established method for predicting metabolic flux phenotypes and for exploring the way in which the plant metabolic network delivers specific outcomes in different cell types, tissues, and temporal phases. A recurring theme is the need to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting its objectives and, in particular, to establish the extent to which alternative pathways can contribute to achieving specific outcomes. Unfortunately, predictions from conventional flux balance analysis minimize the simultaneous operation of alternative pathways, but by introducing flux-weighting factors to allow for the variable intrinsic cost of supporting each flux, it is possible to activate different pathways in individual simulations and, thus, to explore alternative pathways by averaging thousands of simulations. This new method has been applied to a diel genome-scale model of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf metabolism to explore the flexibility of the network in meeting the metabolic requirements of the leaf in the light. This identified alternative flux modes in the Calvin-Benson cycle revealed the potential for alternative transitory carbon stores in leaves and led to predictions about the light-dependent contribution of alternative electron flow pathways and futile cycles in energy rebalancing. Notable features of the analysis include the light-dependent tradeoff between the use of carbohydrates and four-carbon organic acids as transitory storage forms and the way in which multiple pathways for the consumption of ATP and NADPH can contribute to the balancing of the requirements of photosynthetic metabolism with the energy available from photon capture. PMID:26265776

  16. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.

  17. Managerial accounting applications in radiology.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank James; Mehta, Tushar; Seidmann, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    We review the core issues in managerial accounting for radiologists. We introduce the topic and then explore its application to diagnostic imaging. We define key terms such as fixed cost, variable cost, marginal cost, and marginal revenue and discuss their role in understanding the operational and financial implications for a radiology facility by using a cost-volume-profit model. Our work places particular emphasis on the role of managerial accounting in understanding service costs, as well as how it assists executive decision making.

  18. Cost Analysis of Selected Patient Categories within a Dermatology Department Using an ABC Approach

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Šárka; Popesko, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Present trends in hospital management are facilitating the utilization of more accurate costing methods, which potentially results in superior cost-related information and improved managerial decision-making. However, the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC), which was designed for cost allocation purposes in the 1980s, is not widely used by healthcare organizations. This study analyzes costs related to selected categories of patients, those suffering from psoriasis, varicose ulcers, eczema and other conditions, within a dermatology department at a Czech regional hospital. Methods: The study was conducted in a hospital department where both inpatient and outpatient care are offered. Firstly, the diseases treated at the department were identified. Further costs were determined for each activity using ABC. The study utilized data from managerial and financial accounting, as well as data obtained through interviews with departmental staff. Using a defined cost-allocation procedure makes it possible to determine the cost of an individual patient with a given disease more accurately than via traditional costing procedures. Results: The cost analysis focused on the differences between the costs related to individual patients within the selected diagnoses, variations between inpatient and outpatient treatments and the costs of activities performed by the dermatology department. Furthermore, comparing the costs identified through this approach and the revenue stemming from the health insurance system is an option. Conclusions: Activity-Based Costing is more accurate and relevant than the traditional costing method. The outputs of ABC provide an abundance of additional information for managers. The benefits of this research lie in its practically-tested outputs, resulting from calculating the costs of hospitalization, which could prove invaluable to persons involved in hospital management and decision-making. The study also defines the managerial implications of

  19. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  20. GME: at what cost?

    PubMed

    Young, David W

    2003-11-01

    Current computing methods impede determining the real cost of graduate medical education. However, a more accurate estimate could be obtained if policy makers would allow for the application of basic cost-accounting principles, including consideration of department-level costs, unbundling of joint costs, and other factors.

  1. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  2. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  3. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  4. [Calculation of workers' health care costs].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference

  5. Demonstrating accountability.

    PubMed

    Melton, V B

    1983-01-01

    Clearly, the department of education has an important role to play in assisting the hospital to become more effective and efficient. The key competencies required of today's manager and practitioner are educational needs assessment, evaluation, and measurement. ASHET educational programs, including the highly successful teleconference "Productivity and Performance Improvement" broadcast nationally last fall, are addressing this need for increased knowledge and skill in educational diagnosis. The key to the success of the health care education and training field depends, to a large extent, on the value, productivity, quality, and cost-effectiveness of our education programs and activities. With the advent of cost-per-case reimbursement, these will play an increasingly important part in the expectations that will be placed on education in the coming years.

  6. Toward Reflective Accountability: Using NSSE for Accountability and Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexander C.

    2009-01-01

    Accountability pressures in higher education are not new; they are part of an enduring public policy discourse about the costs and benefits, both individual and social, of higher education. What is relatively new, however, is the prominent place that issues of accountability now occupy on the nation's higher education agenda. There is an important…

  7. Good Asset Accounting Procedures for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golz, William C.

    1981-01-01

    Increased accountability is required in school accounting due to rising education costs and the significant investment made in property and equipment in educational facilities. Guidelines for planning and implementing a property record-keeping system are provided. (Author/MLF)

  8. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...

  9. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...

  10. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...

  11. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...

  12. A Guide To Measuring College Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Gordon C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that full-cost models in higher education fail to account correctly for capital and financial aid expenditures. Urges full accounting of all cost drivers that impact on higher education expenditures, e.g., operating costs, maintenance costs, physical capital costs, the current replacement value of capital stock, and the opportunity cost of…

  13. Costing and pricing.

    PubMed

    Jones, T

    1993-01-01

    With spreadsheets at the ready, accountants in the NHS are waiting to apply the uniform costing methodology emerging from the National Steering Group on Costing. Before the money-number-crunchers hijack its eventual final report Costing for contracts, general managers need to work out the implications for their role in pricing services and contracts.

  14. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts.

  15. Elements of Designing for Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    During recent history in the United States, government systems development has been performance driven. As a result, systems within a class have experienced exponentially increasing cost over time in fixed year dollars. Moreover, little emphasis has been placed on reducing cost. This paper defines designing for cost and presents several tools which, if used in the engineering process, offer the promise of reducing cost. Although other potential tools exist for designing for cost, this paper focuses on rules of thumb, quality function deployment, Taguchi methods, concurrent engineering, and activity based costing. Each of these tools has been demonstrated to reduce cost if used within the engineering process.

  16. Elements of designing for cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    During recent history in the United States, government systems development has been performance driven. As a result, systems within a class have experienced exponentially increasing cost over time in fixed year dollars. Moreover, little emphasis has been placed on reducing cost. This paper defines designing for cost and presents several tools which, if used in the engineering process, offer the promise of reducing cost. Although other potential tools exist for designing for cost, this paper focuses on rules of thumb, quality function deployment, Taguchi methods, concurrent engineering, and activity-based costing. Each of these tools has been demonstrated to reduce cost if used within the engineering process.

  17. How Much? Cost Models for Online Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, George

    2001-01-01

    Reviews some of the research being done in the area of cost models for online education. Describes a cost analysis handbook; an activity-based costing model that was based on an economic model for traditional instruction at the Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis; and blending other costing models. (LRW)

  18. An introduction to cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Camponovo, Ernest

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basics of cost accounting for healthcare providers and how these concepts relate to decision making in medical practice. By understanding cost accounting and cost analysis, providers can be better prepared to compete and survive in a changing healthcare environment.

  19. Issue Brief #2: Metrics for Improving Cost Accountability (Hint: Not More Detailed Cost Accounting...)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Most fiscal reporting focuses on revenues (whether or not they go to core purposes), tuition and fees, and financial aid. "How" the money is spent is something that remains shrouded in too much mystery. Several national efforts to address this problem have largely come to naught--probably because those common methodologies are simultaneously not…

  20. 18 CFR 367.9050 - Account 905, Miscellaneous customer accounts expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 905, Miscellaneous customer accounts expenses. 367.9050 Section 367.9050 Conservation of Power and Water Resources..., Miscellaneous customer accounts expenses. (a) This account must include the cost of labor, materials used...

  1. Confidentiality of Accounting Academics: Consequences of Nonconformity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amponsah, Emmanuel B.; Boateng, Peter Agyekum; Onuoha, Luke N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined ways by which nonconformity to confidentiality among accounting academics could lead to increased-recruitment-and-legal-costs to their employing universities in Ghana that offered accounting degree programmes. With a cross-sectional design, data collected from 1,225 accountants analysed via Cronbach's alpha,…

  2. Educational Leadership in an Era of Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riles, Wilson

    Given the present economic situation, it is inevitable that more state legislatures and school boards will adopt a "cost accounting" attitude toward education. However, schools aren't factories, and using an industrial model for accountability doesn't work. To have a viable system of accountability, everyone who is concerned with education must be…

  3. OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND THE ACCOUNTANT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    There has been a certain amount of scepticism and even apprehension on the part of accountants with respect to the sudden appearance of scientists in...sharpened form of common sense. As an illustration of the use of mathematics, a cost accounting problem is discussed and it is shown that a statistical...definition of ’overhead’ can lead to simplified pricing methods and management controls. Also, some of the confusing aspects of ’overhead’ accounting can be avoided by using mathematical techniques. (Author)

  4. 14 CFR 151.55 - Accounting and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Costs of force account construction. (5) Engineering costs of plans and designs. (6) Engineering costs... United States, or an authorized representative of either of them, access to any of its books,...

  5. Accountability: Stepping Stones to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loy, Darcy

    2010-01-01

    Lack of accountability is a leading topic in today's workforce. It costs corporate America billions of dollars each year and has financial impact on educational institutions as well. From employee theft to poor production of product and inefficiency, it is a serious problem. Facilities leaders need to take ownership and strive to implement…

  6. JSC interactive basic accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Design concepts for an interactive basic accounting system (IBAS) are considered in terms of selecting the design option which provides the best response at the lowest cost. Modeling the IBAS workload and applying this workload to a U1108 EXEC 8 based system using both a simulation model and the real system is discussed.

  7. Rodent model of activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Olaia; Fraga, Ángela; Pellón, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emilio

    2014-04-10

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased activity, and a severe progression of weight loss. Due to the parallelism with the clinical manifestations of anorexia nervosa including increased activity, reduced food intake and severe weight loss, the ABA procedure has been proposed as the best analog of human anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, ABA research could both allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN and generate useful leads for treatment development in AN.

  8. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  9. Cost Reporting at a Navy Branch Clinic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    focusing on fundamental cost ingredients . D. EVALUATING ACTIVITIES An activity is a process or workload pattern that can be quantified. Once the...Field [Group ISubgroup Activity Based Costing, James Brimson, Navy Branch Medical Clinic, Full Cost I I - Reporting, Fixed and Variable Costs 19...model, costs are disaggregated into fixed and variable components. Using the Brimson approach, the thesis further explores the application of activity

  10. Research misconduct oversight: defining case costs.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Elizabeth; Franzini, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a sequential mixed method study design to define cost elements of research misconduct among faculty at academic medical centers. Using time driven activity based costing, the model estimates a per case cost for 17 cases of research misconduct reported by the Office of Research Integrity for the period of 2000-2005. Per case cost of research misconduct was found to range from $116,160 to $2,192,620. Research misconduct cost drivers are identified.

  11. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly.

  12. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  13. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  14. The importance of activity-based methods in radiology and the technology that now makes this possible.

    PubMed

    Monge, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based methods serve as a dynamic process that has allowed many other industries to reduce and control their costs, increase productivity, and streamline their processes while improving product quality and service. The method could serve the healthcare industry in an equally beneficial way. Activity-based methods encompass both activity based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM). ABC is a cost management approach that links resource consumption to activities that an enterprise performs, and then assigns those activities and their associated costs to customers, products, or product lines. ABM uses the resource assignments derived in ABC so that operation managers can improve their departmental processes and workflows. There are three fundamental problems with traditional cost systems. First, traditional systems fail to reflect the underlying diversity of work taking place within an enterprise. Second, it uses allocations that are, for the most part, arbitrary Single step allocations fail to reflect the real work-the activities being performed and the associate resources actually consumed. Third, they only provide a cost number that, standing alone, does not provide any guidance on how to improve performance by lowering cost or enhancing throughput.

  15. Teaching ABC & Cost Behaviors to Non-Numbers People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Virginia Anne; Rudnick, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Simply put, a cost analysis studies how you spend your money. Activity based costing models associate costs with services and cost benefit analysis weighs whether or not the costs expended were worth the money given the efforts involved and the results achieved. This study seeks to understand the financial choices and information seeking behaviors…

  16. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  17. 47 CFR 32.2000 - Instructions for telecommunications plant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs includable in Account 2111, Land, and Account 2690, Intangibles. (viii) “Taxes” includes taxes..., Land, and amounts for works of art recorded in Account 2122, Furniture, shall be treated at disposition... expense, as applicable. If land or artwork is retained by the company and held for sale, the cost shall...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2000 - Instructions for telecommunications plant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs includable in Account 2111, Land, and Account 2690, Intangibles. (viii) “Taxes” includes taxes..., Land, and amounts for works of art recorded in Account 2122, Furniture, shall be treated at disposition... expense, as applicable. If land or artwork is retained by the company and held for sale, the cost shall...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2000 - Instructions for telecommunications plant accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... costs includable in Account 2111, Land, and Account 2690, Intangibles. (viii) “Taxes” includes taxes..., Land, and amounts for works of art recorded in Account 2122, Furniture, shall be treated at disposition... expense, as applicable. If land or artwork is retained by the company and held for sale, the cost shall...

  20. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  1. Is International Accounting Education Delivering Pedagogical Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Chris; Millanta, Brian; Tweedie, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether universities are delivering pedagogical value to international accounting students commensurate with the costs of studying abroad. The paper uses survey and interview methods to explore the extent to which Chinese Learners (CLs) in an Australian postgraduate accounting subject have distinct learning needs. The paper…

  2. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  3. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  4. Custom accounts receivable modeling.

    PubMed

    Veazie, J

    1994-04-01

    In hospital and clinic management, accounts are valued as units and handled equally--a $20 account receives the same minimum number of statements as a $20,000 account. Quite often, the sheer number of accounts a hospital or clinic has to handle forces executives to manage accounts by default and failure--accounts mature on an aging track and, if left unpaid by patients, eventually are sent to collections personnel. Of the bad-debt accounts placed with collections agencies, many are misclassified as charity or hardship cases, while others could be collected by hospital or clinic staff with a limited amount of additional effort.

  5. 18 CFR 367.1280 - Account 128, Other special funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... special funds. (a) This account must include the amount of cash and book cost of investments that have... trading and available-for-sale types of security investments. A separate account with appropriate...

  6. 18 CFR 367.3950 - Account 395, Laboratory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 395, Laboratory... ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3950 Account 395, Laboratory equipment. (a) This account must include the cost installed of laboratory equipment used for general laboratory purposes....

  7. 18 CFR 367.3950 - Account 395, Laboratory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 395, Laboratory... ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3950 Account 395, Laboratory equipment. (a) This account must include the cost installed of laboratory equipment used for general laboratory purposes....

  8. 18 CFR 367.3950 - Account 395, Laboratory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 395, Laboratory... ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3950 Account 395, Laboratory equipment. (a) This account must include the cost installed of laboratory equipment used for general laboratory purposes....

  9. Student Academic Performance in Undergraduate Managerial-Accounting Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Twaijry, Abdulrahman Ali

    2010-01-01

    The author's purpose was to identify potential factors possibly affecting student performance in three sequential management-accounting courses: Managerial Accounting (MA), Cost Accounting (CA), and Advanced Managerial Accounting (AMA) within the Saudi Arabian context. The sample, which was used to test the developed hypotheses, included 312…

  10. Defense Working Capital Fund Pricing in the Defense Finance Accounting Service: A Useful, but Limited, Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    reduce the cost of DoD finance and accounting operations while strengthening its financial manage- ment. DFAS’s real costs have been trending downward... accounting data for both financial accounting (mandated reporting) and managerial accounting (leadership decisionmaking) purposes. Beyond the direct...should be capable of performing some of the same financial transactions and accounting reconciliations currently performed by DFAS. Conclusions and

  11. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  12. Legal mechanisms supporting accountable care principles.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Tara

    2014-11-01

    Public health and private providers and facilities may shape the future of the US health system by engaging in new ways to deliver care to patients. "Accountable care" contracts allow private health care and public health providers and facilities to collaboratively serve defined populations. Accountable care frameworks emphasize health care quality and cost savings, among other goals. In this article, I explore the legal context for accountable care, including the mechanisms by which providers, facilities, and public health coordinate activities, avoid inefficiencies, and improve health outcomes. I highlight ongoing evaluations of the impact of accountable care on public health outcomes.

  13. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  14. Curbing Workers' Comp Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb, William S.

    1998-01-01

    An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…

  15. Covering Construction Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    A 1996 U.S. General Accounting Office report indicates one-third of the nation's schools need $111 billion worth of repairs or partial replacement. Local school districts cannot keep up with enrollment increases or construction costs and will receive little help from federal or state governments. Capital improvement funding inequities are heating…

  16. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  17. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  18. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  19. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  20. Cost model for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections.

  1. Estimating 'costs' for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Miners, Alec

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal Programme has been charged with producing guidance for the NHS in England and Wales on the appropriate use of new and existing healthcare programmes. Guidance is based on an assessment of a number of factors, including cost effectiveness. The identification, measurement and valuation of costs are important components of any cost-effectiveness analysis. However, working through these steps raises a number of important methodological questions. For example, how should 'future' resource use be estimated, and is there a need to consider all 'future' costs? Given that NICE produces national guidance, should national unit cost data be used to value resources or should local variations in negotiated prices be taken into account? This paper was initially prepared as a briefing paper as part of the process of updating NICE's 2004 Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal for a workshop on 'costs'. It outlines the issues that were raised in the original briefing paper and the subsequent questions that were discussed at the workshop.

  2. Dynamic Cost Risk Assessment for Controlling the Cost of Naval Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-24

    in 1996. Her research interests include the application of activity-based costing in government organizations, cost estimating, the valuation of R& D ...situation should prompt the project manager to seek help from the acquisition community. There is an ongoing major shift in R& D and complex...risks using the standard DoD risk-identification process. PROJECT COST RANGE LI K EL IH O O D (P R O B A B IL IT Y) Macroscopic baseline costs

  3. Medical Logistics Functional Integration Management Activity Based Costing and Data Modeling Workshop. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-02

    e.g., mobile and cellular), radios, pagers, security systems, access codes, and personal identification machines . COMMUNICATION-OUTLET A subtype of...delivering mail. PREVENTIVE- MAINTANCE Systematic and/or prescribed maintenance intended to reduce the probability of failure. (JCS Publ) PROGRAM A planed

  4. Activity-Based Costing Models for Alternative Modes of Delivering On-Line Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbett, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been growth in online distance learning courses. This has been prompted by; new technology such as the Internet, mobile learning, video and audio conferencing: the explosion in student numbers in Higher Education, and the need for outreach to a world wide market. Web-based distance learning is seen as a solution to…

  5. Medical Logistics Functional Integration Management Activity Based Costing and Data Modeling Workshop. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-02

    Appendix wre Incuded to give the reader a cursory3 ~look at the IDEF data moideling techniques; ( IDEFIX ). Definition 3 ~documentation of data elements...and their relationships in the enerprise. The IDEFIX technique is the key to achieving integration. As a resut of applying the techniquie,3 ~unique data...definitions emerge, which describe the stable wacwe of an organizaion’s rwsable data. Components Activities I Th~e basic components of an IDEFIX

  6. The costs of schizophrenia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2006-09-01

    This study estimated the economic impact of schizophrenia-related direct costs (medical and nonmedical costs) in Spain. Direct medical costs (hospitalizations, outpatient consultations, drug costs) and direct nonmedical costs (costs of informal care) were estimated based on prevalence costs for 2002. The total costs of schizophrenia were estimated at euro 1,970.8 million; direct medical costs accounted for 53% and informal care costs 47%. Despite having implemented a conservative approach, the health care costs associated with schizophrenia account for 2.7% of total public health care expenditure in Spain. The sum of medical and nonmedical costs give us a better definition of the magnitude of the problem in Spain as well as contributing to helping make the debate on this issue more transparent.

  7. Cost Allocation and Overpricing of Spare Parts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    5 defense contractors are presently treating spare parts as cost objectives and using a type of spare parts accounting system as described in the...survey instrument. The other 7 contractor respondents who do not treat spare parts as cost objectives were not favor- able to this accounting treatment...company accounting systems or lised to resolve specific contract or formula pricing cost allocation issues, contribute signi- ficantly to overpricing

  8. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2012-01-01

    ASSET LEVELS GROWING: In 2011, there was $12.4 billion in health savings accounts (HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs), spread across 8.4 million accounts, according to data from the 2011 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey, sponsored by EBRI and Matthew Greenwald & Associates. This is up from 2006, when there were 1.3 million accounts with $873.4 million in assets, and 2010, when 5.4 million accounts held $7.3 billion in assets. AFTER LEVELING OFF, AVERAGE ACCOUNT BALANCES INCREASED: After average account balances leveled off in 2008 and 2009, and fell slightly in 2010, they increased in 2011. In 2006, account balances averaged $696. They increased to $1,320 in 2007, a 90 percent increase. Account balances averaged $1,356 in 2008 and $1,419 in 2009, 3 percent and 5 percent increases, respectively. In 2010, average account balances fell to $1,355, down 4.5 percent from the previous year. In 2011, average account balances increased to $1,470, a 9 percent increase from 2010. TOTAL AND AVERAGE ROLLOVERS INCREASE: After declining to $1,029 in 2010, average rollover amounts increased to $1,208 in 2011. Total assets being rolled over increased as well: $6.7 billion was rolled over in 2011, up from $3.7 billion in 2010. The percentage of individuals without a rollover remained at 13 percent in 2011. HEALTHY BEHAVIOR DOES NOT MEAN HIGHER ACCOUNT BALANCES AND HIGHER ROLLOVERS: Individuals who smoke have more money in their accounts than those who do not smoke. In contrast, obese individuals have less money in their account than the nonobese. There is very little difference in account balances by level of exercise. Very small differences were found in account balances and rollover amounts between individuals who used cost or quality information, compared with those who did not use such information. However, next to no relationship was found between either account balance or rollover amounts and various cost-conscious behaviors. When a difference

  9. Accounting: "Balancing Out" the Accounting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Coleen

    1979-01-01

    The vocational accounting laboratory is a viable, meaningful educational experience for high school seniors, due to the uniqueness of its educational approach and the direct involvement of the professional and business community. A balance of experiences is provided to match individual needs and goals of students. (CT)

  10. Environmental Accounting Coverage in the Accounting Curriculum: A Survey of U.S. Universities and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakhou, Mehenna; Dorweiler, Vernon P.

    2002-01-01

    In a survey of accounting department chairs (122 of 660 responded), only 11% thought that environmental issues should be a standalone course; only four schools had such a course. Environmental topics rated highest were managerial and cost accounting and external reporting and auditing. Respondents believed that integrating topics into courses…

  11. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  12. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  13. FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board) issues new accounting rules for debt and equity securities.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, A; Bayou, M E

    1994-10-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently issued a new statement that requires all companies to change their methods of accounting for debt and equity securities. Rather than allowing organizations to use a historical cost approach in accounting for such financial instruments, FASB Statement No. 115 requires organizations to adopt a market value approach. The provisions of this statement will affect significantly organizations in the healthcare industry that have large investment portfolios.

  14. 18 CFR 367.3010 - Account 301, Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... readiness to do business. (b) This account must include the following items: (1) Cost of obtaining... service company. (5) Stock and minute books and corporate seal. (c) This account must not include any discounts upon securities issued or assumed; nor may it include any costs incident to negotiating...

  15. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-16

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.

  16. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  17. Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed.

  18. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  19. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Diverse cost-estimating techniques and data combined into single program. Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM 1.0) is interactive accounting software tool providing means for combining several independent cost-estimating programs into fully-integrated mathematical model capable of assessing costs, analyzing benefits, providing file-handling utilities, and putting out information in text and graphical forms to screen, printer, or plotter. Program based on Lotus 1-2-3, version 2.0. Developed to provide clear, concise traceability and visibility into methodology and rationale for estimating costs and benefits of operations of Space Station tether deployer system.

  20. Estimating nursing costs--a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Bea

    2009-05-01

    A critical cost accounting issue relating to nursing costs is that nursing costs are currently averaged into the daily room rate in the hospitals. This accounting practice treats nursing units as cost centers as nursing costs are bundled into a per diem rate instead of billed separately. As a result, all patients in a given care unit of the hospital are presumed to consume the same amount of nursing care resources. This costing and billing system creates a mismatch between resources consumption and billed charges. The objective of this paper is to (1) demonstrate current practice to estimate nursing costs, (2) classify nursing costs into direct and indirect costs in order to refine the existing approaches and (3) argue that a system of billing nursing costs separately better reflects the costs of patient care.

  1. Department of Defense Environmental Cleanup Cost Allowability Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    with the Burbank facility would violate current cost accounting standards. [Ref. 47:p. 31] In 1992, Lockheed began negotiating with its insurers for...principle must restate both the credit requirement and the pursuit of insurance recovery. 3. Cost Accounting Standards The current Cost Accounting Standards

  2. The many costs of sex.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Jennions, Michael D; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-03-01

    Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted. If a cost of this magnitude exists, the benefits of sex must be large for it to have evolved and be maintained. Focusing on benefits can be misleading, as this sidelines important questions about the cost of sex: what is the source of the twofold cost: males, genome dilution or both? Does the cost deviate from twofold? What other factors make sex costly? How should the costs of sex be empirically measured? The total cost of sex and how it varies in different contexts must be known to determine the benefits needed to account for the origin and maintenance of sex.

  3. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  4. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning"…

  5. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  6. Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

  7. The Accountability Illusion: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  8. The Accountability Illusion: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  9. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  10. The Accountability Illusion: Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  11. The Accountability Illusion: Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  12. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This…

  13. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  14. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  15. The Accountability Illusion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  16. 18 CFR 367.3920 - Account 392, Transportation equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Transportation equipment. 367.3920 Section 367.3920 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3920 Account 392, Transportation equipment. (a) This account must include the cost of transportation vehicles used for service company...

  17. 18 CFR 367.1240 - Account 124, Other investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investments. 367.1240 Section 367.1240 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Other Property and Investments § 367.1240 Account 124, Other investments. (a) This account must include the book cost of investments in securities issued or assumed by...

  18. 43 CFR 29.6 - Financing, accounting, and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financing, accounting, and audit. 29.6... LIABILITY FUND § 29.6 Financing, accounting, and audit. (a)(1) The Operator of the Pipeline shall notify... the day at the end of each month or other agreed upon accounting period. (b) Costs of...

  19. 43 CFR 29.6 - Financing, accounting, and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financing, accounting, and audit. 29.6... LIABILITY FUND § 29.6 Financing, accounting, and audit. (a)(1) The Operator of the Pipeline shall notify... the day at the end of each month or other agreed upon accounting period. (b) Costs of...

  20. 48 CFR 43.203 - Change order accounting procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Change order accounting... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 43.203 Change order accounting procedures. (a) Contractors' accounting systems are seldom designed to segregate the costs of performing changed...

  1. 48 CFR 31.002 - Availability of accounting guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Availability of accounting... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 31.002 Availability of accounting guide. Contractors needing assistance in developing or improving their accounting systems and...

  2. 48 CFR 31.002 - Availability of accounting guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Availability of accounting... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 31.002 Availability of accounting guide. Contractors needing assistance in developing or improving their accounting systems and...

  3. 48 CFR 31.002 - Availability of accounting guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Availability of accounting... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 31.002 Availability of accounting guide. Contractors needing assistance in developing or improving their accounting systems and...

  4. 43 CFR 29.6 - Financing, accounting, and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Financing, accounting, and audit. 29.6... LIABILITY FUND § 29.6 Financing, accounting, and audit. (a)(1) The Operator of the Pipeline shall notify... the day at the end of each month or other agreed upon accounting period. (b) Costs of...

  5. 48 CFR 31.002 - Availability of accounting guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of accounting... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 31.002 Availability of accounting guide. Contractors needing assistance in developing or improving their accounting systems and...

  6. 18 CFR 367.3970 - Account 397, Communication equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Communication equipment. 367.3970 Section 367.3970 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3970 Account 397, Communication equipment. (a) This account must include the cost installed of telephone, telegraph, and wireless equipment...

  7. 18 CFR 367.3970 - Account 397, Communication equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Communication equipment. 367.3970 Section 367.3970 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3970 Account 397, Communication equipment. (a) This account must include the cost installed of telephone, telegraph, and wireless equipment...

  8. 49 CFR 1511.9 - Accounting and auditing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... air carrier must submit an audit performed by an independent certified public accountant of the... cost of the audit will be borne by the carrier. The accountant must express an opinion as to the... and remitting the fees. The accountant's working papers with respect to the audit must accompany...

  9. How Much Does Instruction and Research Really Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Patrick M.; Borden, Victor M. H.; Thomas, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an institution-wide activity-based costing study conducted at a large, urban, public university. The program cost study provides campus-, school-, and department-level cost information for the full range of mission-critical activities in teaching, research, and service. It also includes allocation of all levels of overhead to…

  10. Full Costing of Business Programs: Benefits and Caveats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cynthia; Wright, Michael; Jones, Vernon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To suggest an approach to program costing that includes the approaches and concepts developed in activity based costing. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a hypothetical case study of an Executive MBA program as a means of illustrating the suggested approach to costing. Findings: The paper illustrates both the benefits of…

  11. Activity-based intervention in motor skill development.

    PubMed

    Apache, R R Goyakla

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an activity-based intervention program and a direct instruction program for preschool children with disabilities. Two groups of preschool students (average age=4.1 yr.), classified as having developmental delays or at risk for such delays, were selected. They were provided 15 weeks of physical education through activity-based intervention and 15 weeks of physical education by direct instruction. Instruction was provided three times a week for 30-min. each session. In the fall semester the morning group received physical education through activity-based intervention, while the afternoon group received physical education through direct instruction. In the spring semester delivery of instruction was reversed for each group. The curriculum and activities provided to each group were identical with only the instructional delivery format altered. Two sets of pre- and post-tests using the Test of Gross Motor Development were administered before and after each 15-wk. instructional period. Group improvement in skills was compared between instructional methods. Significant improvement in both locomotor and object control skills through the activity-based intervention was found compared to direct instruction. Activity-based intervention was shown to be easily adapted to a naturalistic educational setting befitting that of preschool education.

  12. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  13. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. (2) B & P costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs. (3) B & P costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in the current period. However, if the organization's established practice is to treat these costs by some...

  14. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable as costs of the current period. However, if the organization's...

  15. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  16. DOD CONSULTING SERVICES: Erroneous Accounting and Reporting of Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    develop market strategies and to support engineering and business planning functions. We asked AMC personnel to reassess the coding of these contract...laboratory disclosed that advisory and assistance services such as technical assistance to develop market strategies and engineering and business ... planning support were being misclassified in the other category. Of 21 contract actions reviewed, 16 actions, with a value of $12.3 million, were

  17. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Administration of Unit Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    additional copies of this audit report, contact the Secondary Reports Distribution Unit of the Analysis, Planning , and Technical Support Directorate at (703...604-8937 (DSN 664-8937) or FAX (703) 604-8932. Suggestions for Future Audits To suggest ideas for or to request future audits, contact the Planning ...and Coordination Branch of the Analysis, Planning , and Technical Support Directorate at (703) 604-8939 (DSN 664-8939) or FAX (703) 604-8932. Ideas and

  18. SPECS 2. Component Two: Program Budgeting and Cost Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuVall, Lloyd A.

    The School Planning, Evaluation, and Communication System (SPECS) is an overall design for districtwide program assessment and development. It is both a way of interrelating planning and evaluation of individual programs and a way of comparing the outcomes of all district programs with the district's community-defined educational goals. Component…

  19. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS... along with the annual financial report. (3) Based on the results of either the independent audit or a... Employees' Group Life Insurance Acquisition Regulation (LIFAR) applicable on October 1 of each year; and...

  20. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS... along with the annual financial report. (3) Based on the results of either the independent audit or a... Employees' Group Life Insurance Acquisition Regulation (LIFAR) applicable on October 1 of each year; and...

  1. Divided attention interferes with fulfilling activity-based intentions.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gene A; Ball, B Hunter; Knight, Justin B; Dewitt, Michael R; Marsh, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of divided attention on activity-based prospective memory. After establishing a goal to fulfill an intention upon completion of an ongoing activity, successful completion of the intention generally suffered when attention was being devoted to an additional task (Experiment 1). Forming an implementation intention at encoding ameliorated the negative effects of divided attention (Experiment 2). The results from the present experiments demonstrate that activity-based prospective memory is susceptible to distraction and that implementing encoding strategies that enhance prospective memory performance can reduce this interference. The current work raises interesting questions about the similarities and differences between event- and activity-based prospective memories.

  2. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  3. Future pension accounting changes: implications for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weld, Tim; Klein, Gina

    2011-05-01

    Proposed rules in accounting for defined benefit plans may affect hospitals' statement of operations and affect the time, effort, and cost to comply with periodic financial reporting requirements. The new standard would require immediate recognition of the full amount of plan amendments in determining operating income. Hospitals should consider the role of pension plans in their compensation programs.

  4. Engineering Accountability for Results into Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessinger, Leon

    "Accountability" is a classical term in management theory, but new in education. It is the product of the process of performance contracting, in which a public authority grants money to a local educational agency to contract with private enterprise to achieve specific goals within a specific period for specific costs. This process can be…

  5. Ideas for the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Innovative ideas for accounting education include having students study accounting across historical periods, using businesses for student research, exploring nontraditional accounting careers, and collaborating with professional associations. (SK)

  6. Readability of Accounting Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razek, Joseph R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of the readability of most of the intermediate and advanced accounting textbooks currently in use at colleges and universities throughout the United States. (CT)

  7. Accounting Equals Applied Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sondra

    1997-01-01

    Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)

  8. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2010-06-01

    ASSET LEVELS GROWING: In 2009, there was $7.1 billion in consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs), which include health savings accounts (or HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (or HRAs), spread across 5 million accounts. This is up from 2006, when there were 1.2 million accounts with $835.4 million in assets, and 2008, when 4.2 million accounts held $5.7 billion in assets. AVERAGE ACCOUNT BALANCE LEVELING OFF: Increases in average account balances appear to have leveled off. In 2006, account balances averaged $696. They increased to $1320 in 2007, a 90 percent increase. Account balances averaged $1356 in 2008 and $1419 in 2009, 3 percent and 5 percent increases, respectively. TYPICAL ENROLLEE: The typical CDHP enrollee was more likely than traditional plan enrollees to be young, unmarried, higher-income, educated, and exhibit healthy behavior. No differences were found between CDHPs enrollees and traditional plan enrollees with respect to gender, race, and presence of children. MORE ROLLOVERS: Overall, the number of people with a rollover, as well as the total level of assets being rolled over, have been increasing. The average rollover increased from $592 in 2006 to $1295 in 2009. DIFFERENCES IN ACCOUNT BALANCES: Men tend to have higher account balances than women, account balances increase with household income, education has a significant impact on account balances independent of income and other variables, and no statistically significant differences in account balances were found by smoking, obesity, or the presence of chronic health conditions. Individuals who developed a budget to manage their health care expenses had a higher account balance ($1726) than those who did not ($1428), but otherwise, no statistically significant differences in average account balances were found between individuals who exhibited various aspects of cost-conscious decision-making behaviors and those who did not. DIFFERENCES IN ROLLOVER AMOUNTS: Men rolled over more money than

  9. 18 CFR 367.1840 - Account 184, Clearing accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts. This account must include undistributed balances in clearing accounts at the date of the balance sheet... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  10. Spacecraft platform cost estimating relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruhl, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The three main cost areas of unmanned satellite development are discussed. The areas are identified as: (1) the spacecraft platform (SCP), (2) the payload or experiments, and (3) the postlaunch ground equipment and operations. The SCP normally accounts for over half of the total project cost and accurate estimates of SCP costs are required early in project planning as a basis for determining total project budget requirements. The development of single formula SCP cost estimating relationships (CER) from readily available data by statistical linear regression analysis is described. The advantages of single formula CER are presented.

  11. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  12. Radiology applications of financial accounting.

    PubMed

    Leibenhaut, Mark H

    2005-03-01

    A basic knowledge of financial accounting can help radiologists analyze business opportunities and examine the potential impacts of new technology or predict the adverse consequences of new competitors entering their service area. The income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement are the three basic financial statements that document the current financial position of the radiology practice and allow managers to monitor the ongoing financial operations of the enterprise. Pro forma, or hypothetical, financial statements can be generated to predict the financial impact of specific business decisions or investments on the profitability of the practice. Sensitivity analysis, or what-if scenarios, can be performed to determine the potential impact of changing key revenue, investment, operating cost or financial assumptions. By viewing radiology as both a profession and a business, radiologists can optimize their use of scarce economic resources and maximize the return on their financial investments.

  13. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  14. Health savings accounts and health reimbursement arrangements: assets, account balances, and rollovers, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    ASSET LEVELS GROWING: In 2010, there was $7.7 billion in health savings accounts (HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs), spread across 5.7 million accounts. This is up from 2006, when there were 1.2 million accounts with $835.4 million in assets, and 2009, when 5 million accounts held $7.1 billion in assets. AFTER LEVELING OFF, AVERAGE ACCOUNT BALANCE DROPS SLIGHTLY: Increases in average account balances leveled off in 2008 and 2009, and fell slightly in 2010. In 2006, account balances averaged $696. They increased to $1,320 in 2007, a 90 percent increase. Account balances averaged $1,356 in 2008 and $1,419 in 2009, 3 percent and 5 percent increases, respectively. In 2010, average account balances fell to $1,355, down 4.5 percent from the previous year. AVERAGE ROLLOVER DECLINES, WHILE TOTAL ROLLOVERS INCREASE: Despite a decline in the average rollover amount in 2010, total assets being rolled over have been increasing. $4.2 billion was rolled over in 2010, up from $4 billion in 2009. The average rollover increased from $592 in 2006 to $1,295 in 2009, and fell to $1,029 in 2010. The percentage of individuals without a rollover decreased from 23 percent in 2006 to 10 percent in 2009 and increased slightly to 13 percent in 2010. HEALTHY BEHAVIOR MEANS HIGHER ACCOUNT BALANCES AND HIGHER ROLLOVERS: Individuals who exercised, those who did not smoke, and those who were not obese had higher account balances and higher rollovers than those with less healthy behaviors. It was also found that individuals who used cost or quality information had higher account balances and higher rollovers compared with those who did not use such information. However, no relationship was found between either account balance or rollover amounts and various cost-conscious behaviors such as checking pricing before getting services or asking for generic drugs instead of brand names, among other things. DIFFERENCES IN ACCOUNT BALANCES: Men have higher account balances than women

  15. The Economics of Medicare Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, Erwin A.; Fuhr, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have been created to improve patient care, enhance population health, and reduce costs. Medicare in particular has focused on ACOs as a primary device to improve quality and reduce costs. Objective To examine whether the current Medicare ACOs are likely to be successful. Discussion Patients receiving care in ACOs have little incentive to use low-cost quality providers. Furthermore, the start-up costs of ACOs for providers are high, contributing to the minimal financial success of ACOs. We review issues such as reducing readmissions, palliative care, and the difficulty in coordinating care, which are major cost drivers. There are mixed incentives facing hospital-controlled ACOs, whereas physician-controlled ACOs could play hospitals against each other to obtain high quality and cost reductions. This discussion also considers whether the current structure of ACOs is likely to be successful. Conclusion The question remains whether Medicare ACOs can achieve the Triple Aim of “improving the experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing per capita costs of health care.” Care coordination in ACOs and information technology are proving more complicated and expensive to implement than anticipated. Even if ACOs can decrease healthcare costs and increase quality, it is unclear if the current incentives system can achieve these objectives. A better public policy may be to implement a system that encompasses the best practices of successful private integrated systems rather than promoting ACOs. PMID:27066191

  16. Accounting for Money. Supervising: Economic and Financial Aspects. The Choice Series #70. A Self Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Dennis

    This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in accounting for money. Discussed in the first four sections are the following topics: the need for accounts; financial accounting (basics of financial accounting, creditors and debtors, assets and liabilities, and balance sheets); cost and management accounting (company,…

  17. 18 CFR 367.83 - Training costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Training costs. 367.83... Expense Instructions § 367.83 Training costs. When it is necessary that employees be trained to specifically operate or maintain facilities that are being constructed, the related costs must be accounted...

  18. 20 CFR 631.62 - Cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost limitations. 631.62 Section 631.62... Reserve Account Funds § 631.62 Cost limitations. The expenditure of funds provided to grantees under this subpart shall be consistent with the cost limitations specified in the grant. Applicants for grants...

  19. In Search of Cost-Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raywid, Mary Anne; Shaheen, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines major cost-effectiveness proposals, describing developments that highlight concerns over making schools cost effective. The article discusses ways to blend the concerns of educational quality, equity, and costs (district consolidations, shared service and facilities arrangements, new accountability strategies, new information systems,…

  20. Recalculating the Economic Cost of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2007-01-01

    These authors argue that estimates of the net economic cost of suicide should go beyond accounting for direct medical costs and indirect costs from loss of earnings by those who commit suicide. There are potential savings from (a) not having to treat the depressive and other psychiatric disorders of those who kill themselves; (b) avoidance of…

  1. Assessing the Cost Efficiency of Italian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Salerno, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the cost efficiency of 52 Italian public universities. In addition to being one of the first such cost studies of the Italian system, it explicitly takes into account the internal cost structure of institutions' education programs; a task not prevalent in past Data Envelopment Analysis studies…

  2. Avoiding potential problems when selling accounts receivable.

    PubMed

    Ayers, D H; Kincaid, T J

    1996-05-01

    Accounts receivable financing is a potential tool for managing a provider organization's working capital needs. But before entering into a financing agreement, organizations need to consider and take steps to avoid serious problems that can arise from participation in an accounts receivable financing program. For example, the purchaser may cease purchasing the receivables, leaving the organization without funding needed for operations. Or, the financing program may be inordinately complex and unnecessarily costly to the organization. Sometimes the organization itself may fail to comply with the terms of the agreement under which the accounts receivable were sold, thus necessitating that restitution be made to the purchaser or provoking charges of fraud. These potential problems should be addressed as early as possible--before an organization enters into an accounts receivable financing program--in order to minimize time, effort, and expanse and maximize the benefits of the financing agreement.

  3. Viewpoints on Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…

  4. Making Accountability Really Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based education has now reached a stage where it is possible to evaluate its overall effectiveness. Several earlier papers in the special issue of "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice" on "Test Scores and State Accountability" (Volume 24, Number 4) examined specific state policies and their effects on schools…

  5. Accountability Update, March 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report provides the Washington State legislature, the Governor, and other interested parties with an update on the accountability performance of each of the state's public baccalaureate institutions (Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Evergreen State College, Washington State University, Western Washington…

  6. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  7. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  8. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  9. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  10. Community Accountability Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsborne, Margaret

    Community Accountability Conferencing (CAC) was first introduced in Queensland, Australia schools in early 1994 after a serious assault in the school community. Some family members, students, and staff were dissatisfied with the solution of suspending the offenders. Seeking an alternative, comprehensive intervention strategy, the school community…

  11. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  12. Institutional Accountability Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This document discusses Santa Fe Community College's (SFCC) (Florida) five accountability measures. The type of data available provided on these measures is as follows: (1) District High School Enrollment Report and Retention and Success Rate Report; (2) Associate of Arts Degree Transfer Performance in the State University System; (3) Licensure…

  13. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  14. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  15. Higher Education Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

  16. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  17. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  18. Full Accounting for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Marie-Louise

    1988-01-01

    Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…

  19. Excel in the Accounting Curriculum: Perceptions from Accounting Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…

  20. A Pariah Profession? Some Student Perceptions of Accounting and Accountancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne

    1995-01-01

    Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…