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Sample records for activity-dependent bulk endocytosis

  1. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Smillie, Karen J; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.

  2. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C.; Kokotos, Alexandros C.; Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Smillie, Karen J.; Cousin, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed. PMID:26607000

  3. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis and increased cytosolic calcium are both necessary but not sufficient for activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Morton, Andrew; Marland, Jamie R K; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. By definition this mode is triggered by neuronal activity; however, key questions regarding its mechanism of activation remain unaddressed. To determine the basic requirements for ADBE triggering in central nerve terminals, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. ADBE was monitored both optically and morphologically by observing uptake of the fluid phase markers tetramethylrhodamine-dextran and horse radish peroxidase respectively. Ablation of SV fusion with tetanus toxin resulted in the arrest of ADBE, but had no effect on other calcium-dependent events such as activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation, indicating that SV exocytosis is necessary for triggering. Furthermore, the calcium chelator EGTA abolished ADBE while leaving SV exocytosis intact, demonstrating that ADBE is triggered by intracellular free calcium increases outside the active zone. Activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation was also arrested in EGTA-treated neurons, consistent with its proposed role in triggering ADBE. Thus, SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient individually to trigger ADBE. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. To determine the minimal requirements for ADBE triggering, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. We found that SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient to trigger ADBE.

  4. Synaptic vesicle exocytosis and increased cytosolic calcium are both necessary but not sufficient for activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Morton, Andrew; Marland, Jamie R K; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. By definition this mode is triggered by neuronal activity; however, key questions regarding its mechanism of activation remain unaddressed. To determine the basic requirements for ADBE triggering in central nerve terminals, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. ADBE was monitored both optically and morphologically by observing uptake of the fluid phase markers tetramethylrhodamine-dextran and horse radish peroxidase respectively. Ablation of SV fusion with tetanus toxin resulted in the arrest of ADBE, but had no effect on other calcium-dependent events such as activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation, indicating that SV exocytosis is necessary for triggering. Furthermore, the calcium chelator EGTA abolished ADBE while leaving SV exocytosis intact, demonstrating that ADBE is triggered by intracellular free calcium increases outside the active zone. Activity-dependent dynamin I dephosphorylation was also arrested in EGTA-treated neurons, consistent with its proposed role in triggering ADBE. Thus, SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient individually to trigger ADBE. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis mode in central nerve terminals during intense neuronal activity. To determine the minimal requirements for ADBE triggering, we decoupled SV fusion events from activity-dependent calcium influx using either clostridial neurotoxins or buffering of intracellular calcium. We found that SV fusion and increased cytoplasmic free calcium are both necessary but not sufficient to trigger ADBE. PMID:25913068

  5. Activity-dependent acceleration of endocytosis at a central synapse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jianhua; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2005-12-14

    Accumulated evidence indicates the existence of rapid and slow endocytosis at many synapses. It has been proposed that rapid endocytosis is activated by intense stimulation when vesicle recycling needs to be speeded up to supply vesicles at hippocampal synapses. However, the evidence, as obtained with imaging techniques, which are somewhat indirect in indicating rapid endocytosis, is controversial. Furthermore, a slower time course of endocytosis is often found after more intense nerve activity, casting doubt on the role of rapid endocytosis at synapses. Here, we addressed this issue at a mammalian central synapse, the calyx of Held, using a capacitance measurement technique that provides a higher time resolution than imaging techniques. We found that rapid endocytosis with a time constant of approximately 1-2 s was activated during intense nerve activity. Reducing the presynaptic calcium current or buffering the intracellular calcium with EGTA significantly inhibited rapid endocytosis, suggesting that calcium triggers rapid endocytosis. During intense stimulation, rapid endocytosis retrieved up to approximately eight vesicles per second per active zone, approximately eightfold larger than reported in the hippocampus, and thus played a dominant role during and within 3 s after intense stimulation. Slow endocytosis became dominant 3 s after intense stimulation likely because of the fall of the intracellular calcium level that deactivated rapid endocytosis. These results underscore the importance of calcium-triggered rapid endocytosis, which offers the nerve terminal the plasticity to speed up vesicle cycling during intense nerve activity. PMID:16354926

  6. Synaptotagmin-11 inhibits clathrin-mediated and bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhe; Wang, Yeshi; Hu, Meiqin; Chai, Zuying; Wu, Qihui; Huang, Rong; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Claire Xi; Zhou, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and efficient endocytosis is essential for vesicle recycling during a sustained neurotransmission. The regulation of endocytosis has been extensively studied, but inhibitors have rarely been found. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a non-Ca(2+)-binding Syt implicated in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and bulk endocytosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The frequency of both types of endocytic event increases in Syt11 knockdown neurons, while the sizes of endocytosed vesicles and the kinetics of individual bulk endocytotic events remain unaffected. Specifically, clathrin-coated pits and bulk endocytosis-like structures increase on the plasma membrane in Syt11-knockdown neurons. Structural-functional analysis reveals distinct domain requirements for Syt11 function in CME and bulk endocytosis. Importantly, Syt11 also inhibits endocytosis in hippocampal neurons, implying a general role of Syt11 in neurons. Taken together, we propose that Syt11 functions to ensure precision in vesicle retrieval, mainly by limiting the sites of membrane invagination at the early stage of endocytosis.

  7. Synaptic vesicle generation from activity-dependent bulk endosomes requires calcium and calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael A

    2013-02-20

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant mode of synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis during high-frequency stimulation in central nerve terminals. ADBE generates endosomes direct from the plasma membrane, meaning that high concentrations of calcium will be present in their interior due to fluid phase uptake from the extracellular space. Morphological and fluorescent assays were used to track the generation of SVs from bulk endosomes in primary neuronal culture. This process was functionally uncoupled from both SV exocytosis and plasma membrane retrieval events by intervening only after SV fusion and endocytosis were completed. Either intracellular (BAPTA-AM) or intra-endosomal (Rhod-dextran) calcium chelation inhibited SV generation from bulk endosomes, indicating that calcium efflux from this compartment is critical for this process. The V-type ATPase antagonist bafilomycin A1 also arrested SV generation from bulk endosomes, indicating endosomal acidification may be required for calcium efflux. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin blocked endosomal SV generation, identifying it as a key downstream effector in this process. These results reveal a novel and key role for the fluid phase uptake of extracellular calcium and its subsequent efflux in the SV lifecycle.

  8. Actin- and Dynamin-Dependent Maturation of Bulk Endocytosis Restores Neurotransmission following Synaptic Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Maucort, Guillaume; Sullivan, Robert K. P.; Schenning, Mitja; Lavidis, Nickolas A.; McCluskey, Adam; Robinson, Phillip J.; Meunier, Frederic A.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk endocytosis contributes to the maintenance of neurotransmission at the amphibian neuromuscular junction by regenerating synaptic vesicles. How nerve terminals internalize adequate portions of the presynaptic membrane when bulk endocytosis is initiated before the end of a sustained stimulation is unknown. A maturation process, occurring at the end of the stimulation, is hypothesised to precisely restore the pools of synaptic vesicles. Using confocal time-lapse microscopy of FM1-43-labeled nerve terminals at the amphibian neuromuscular junction, we confirm that bulk endocytosis is initiated during a sustained tetanic stimulation and reveal that shortly after the end of the stimulation, nerve terminals undergo a maturation process. This includes a transient bulging of the plasma membrane, followed by the development of large intraterminal FM1-43-positive donut-like structures comprising large bulk membrane cisternae surrounded by recycling vesicles. The degree of bulging increased with stimulation frequency and the plasmalemma surface retrieved following the transient bulging correlated with the surface membrane internalized in bulk cisternae and recycling vesicles. Dyngo-4a, a potent dynamin inhibitor, did not block the initiation, but prevented the maturation of bulk endocytosis. In contrast, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, hindered both the initiation and maturation processes. Both inhibitors hampered the functional recovery of neurotransmission after synaptic depletion. Our data confirm that initiation of bulk endocytosis occurs during stimulation and demonstrates that a delayed maturation process controlled by actin and dynamin underpins the coupling between exocytosis and bulk endocytosis. PMID:22629340

  9. CPG2 Recruits Endophilin B2 to the Cytoskeleton for Activity-Dependent Endocytosis of Synaptic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Loebrich, Sven; Benoit, Marc Robert; Konopka, Jaclyn Aleksandra; Cottrell, Jeffrey Richard; Gibson, Joanne; Nedivi, Elly

    2016-02-01

    Internalization of glutamate receptors at the postsynaptic membrane via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key mechanism for regulating synaptic strength. A role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in CME is well established, and recently, PKA-dependent association of candidate plasticity gene 2 (CPG2) with the spine-cytoskeleton has been shown to mediate synaptic glutamate receptor internalization. Yet, how the endocytic machinery is physically coupled to the actin cytoskeleton to facilitate glutamate receptor internalization has not been demonstrated. Moreover, there has been no distinction of endocytic-machinery components that are specific to activity-dependent versus constitutive glutamate receptor internalization. Here, we show that CPG2, through a direct physical interaction, recruits endophilin B2 (EndoB2) to F-actin, thus anchoring the endocytic machinery to the spine cytoskeleton and facilitating glutamate receptor internalization. Regulation of CPG2 binding to the actin cytoskeleton by protein kinase A directly impacts recruitment of EndoB2 and clathrin. Specific disruption of EndoB2 or the CPG2-EndoB2 interaction impairs activity-dependent, but not constitutive, internalization of both NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These results demonstrate that, through direct interactions with F-actin and EndoB2, CPG2 physically bridges the spine cytoskeleton and the endocytic machinery, and this tripartite association is critical specifically for activity-dependent CME of synaptic glutamate receptors. PMID:26776730

  10. Live imaging of bulk endocytosis in frog motor nerve terminals using FM dyes

    PubMed Central

    Gaffield, Michael A.; Romberg, Christin F.

    2011-01-01

    We observed endocytosis in real time in stimulated frog motor nerve terminals by imaging the growth of large membrane infoldings labeled with a low concentration of FM dye. The spatial and temporal information made available by these experiments allowed us to image several new aspects of this synaptic vesicle recycling pathway. Membrane infoldings appeared near synaptic vesicle clusters and grew rapidly during long-duration, high-frequency stimulation. In some cases, we observed large, elongated infoldings growing laterally into the terminal. We used these observations to calculate infolding growth rates. A decrease in stimulation frequency caused a decrease in growth rates, but the overall length of these structures was unaffected by frequency changes. Attempts to wash the dye from these infoldings after stimulation were unsuccessful, demonstrating that the fluorescent structures had been endocytosed. We also used this technique to trigger and image infoldings during repeated, short trains. We found that membrane uptake occurred repeatedly at individual endocytosis sites, but only during a portion of the total number of trains delivered to the terminal. Finally, we showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but not actin, was involved in this endocytosis pathway. The ability to monitor many individual bulk endocytosis sites in real time should allow for new types of endocytosis measurements and could reveal novel and unexpected mechanisms for coordinating membrane recovery during synaptic activity. PMID:21543750

  11. Captivating New Roles of F-Actin Cortex in Exocytosis and Bulk Endocytosis in Neurosecretory Cells.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Frédéric A; Gutiérrez, Luis M

    2016-09-01

    The cortical actin network is a tight array of filaments located beneath the plasma membrane. In neurosecretory cells, secretory vesicles are recruited on this network via a small insert isoform of myosin VI in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Upon secretagogue stimulation, myosin II mediates a relaxation of the actin network leading to synchronous translocation of bound or caged vesicles to the plasma membrane where they undergo exocytosis. F-actin is also recruited to secretory sites, where structural changes are detected immediately preceding and following exocytic events. Here we examine the mechanism underpinning the astonishing multifunctionality of this network in the various stages of vesicular exocytosis and compensatory bulk endocytosis. We propose a theoretical framework incorporating critical roles of the actin network in coupling these processes. PMID:27474993

  12. Building a better dynasore: the dyngo compounds potently inhibit dynamin and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Adam; Daniel, James A; Hadzic, Gordana; Chau, Ngoc; Clayton, Emma L; Mariana, Anna; Whiting, Ainslie; Gorgani, Nick N; Lloyd, Jonathan; Quan, Annie; Moshkanbaryans, Lia; Krishnan, Sai; Perera, Swetha; Chircop, Megan; von Kleist, Lisa; McGeachie, Andrew B; Howes, Mark T; Parton, Robert G; Campbell, Michael; Sakoff, Jennette A; Wang, Xuefeng; Sun, Jian-Yuan; Robertson, Mark J; Deane, Fiona M; Nguyen, Tam H; Meunier, Frederic A; Cousin, Michael A; Robinson, Phillip J

    2013-12-01

    Dynamin GTPase activity increases when it oligomerizes either into helices in the presence of lipid templates or into rings in the presence of SH3 domain proteins. Dynasore is a dynamin inhibitor of moderate potency (IC₅₀ ~ 15 μM in vitro). We show that dynasore binds stoichiometrically to detergents used for in vitro drug screening, drastically reducing its potency (IC₅₀ = 479 μM) and research tool utility. We synthesized a focused set of dihydroxyl and trihydroxyl dynasore analogs called the Dyngo™ compounds, five of which had improved potency, reduced detergent binding and reduced cytotoxicity, conferred by changes in the position and/or number of hydroxyl substituents. The Dyngo compound 4a was the most potent compound, exhibiting a 37-fold improvement in potency over dynasore for liposome-stimulated helical dynamin activity. In contrast, while dynasore about equally inhibited dynamin assembled in its helical or ring states, 4a and 6a exhibited >36-fold reduced activity against rings, suggesting that they can discriminate between helical or ring oligomerization states. 4a and 6a inhibited dynamin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin in multiple cell types (IC₅₀ of 5.7 and 5.8 μM, respectively), at least sixfold more potently than dynasore, but had no effect on dynamin-independent endocytosis of cholera toxin. 4a also reduced synaptic vesicle endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis in cultured neurons and synaptosomes. Overall, 4a and 6a are improved and versatile helical dynamin and endocytosis inhibitors in terms of potency, non-specific binding and cytotoxicity. The data further suggest that the ring oligomerization state of dynamin is not required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  13. HDL endocytosis and resecretion.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert

    2013-11-01

    HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers it to the liver and steroidogenic tissues via selective lipid uptake without catabolism of the HDL particle itself. In addition, endocytosis of HDL holo-particles has been debated for nearly 40years. However, neither the connection between HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake, nor the physiological relevance of HDL uptake has been delineated clearly. This review will focus on HDL endocytosis and resecretion and its relation to cholesterol transfer. We will discuss the role of HDL endocytosis in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in tissues and cell types involved in atherosclerosis, focusing on liver, macrophages and endothelium. We will critically summarize the current knowledge on the receptors mediating HDL endocytosis including SR-BI, F1-ATPase and CD36 and on intracellular HDL transport routes. Dependent on the tissue, HDL is either resecreted (retro-endocytosis) or degraded after endocytosis. Finally, findings on HDL transcytosis across the endothelial barrier will be summarized. We suggest that HDL endocytosis and resecretion is a rather redundant pathway under physiologic conditions. In case of disturbed lipid metabolism, however, HDL retro-endocytosis represents an alternative pathway that enables tissues to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

  14. Exocytosis and endocytosis: modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling-Gang; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle exocytosis releases content to mediate many biological events, including synaptic transmission essential for brain functions. Following exocytosis, endocytosis is initiated to retrieve exocytosed vesicles within seconds to minutes. Decades of studies in secretory cells reveal three exocytosis modes coupled to three endocytosis modes: (a) full-collapse fusion, in which vesicles collapse into the plasma membrane, followed by classical endocytosis involving membrane invagination and vesicle reformation; (b) kiss-and-run, in which the fusion pore opens and closes; and (c) compound exocytosis, which involves exocytosis of giant vesicles formed via vesicle-vesicle fusion, followed by bulk endocytosis that retrieves giant vesicles. Here we review these exo- and endocytosis modes and their roles in regulating quantal size and synaptic strength, generating synaptic plasticity, maintaining exocytosis, and clearing release sites for vesicle replenishment. Furthermore, we highlight recent progress in understanding how vesicle endocytosis is initiated and is thus coupled to exocytosis. The emerging model is that calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channels at the calcium microdomain triggers endocytosis and controls endocytosis rate; calmodulin and synaptotagmin are the calcium sensors; and the exocytosis machinery, including SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25, and syntaxin), is needed to coinitiate endocytosis, likely to control the amount of endocytosis.

  15. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-09-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization.

  16. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  17. Endocytosis of Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Gaurav; Alakhova, Daria Y; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2010-01-01

    Novel nanomaterials are being developed to improve diagnosis and therapy of diseases through effective delivery of drugs, biopharmaceutical molecules and imaging agents to target cells in disease sites. Such diagnostic and therapeutic nanomaterials, also termed “nanomedicines”, often require site-specific cellular entry to deliver their payload to subcellular locations hidden beneath cell membranes. Nanomedicines can employ multiple pathways for cellular entry, which are currently insufficiently understood. This review, first, classifies various mechanisms of endocytosis available to nanomedicines including phagocytosis and pinocytosis through clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways. Second, it describes the current experimental tools to study endocytosis of nanomedicines. Third, it provides specific examples from recent literature and our own work on endocytosis of nanomedicines. Finally, these examples are used to ascertain 1) the role of particle size, shape, material composition, surface chemistry and/or charge for utilization of a selected pathway(s); 2) the effect of cell type on the processing of nanomedicines; 3) the effect of nanomaterial-cell interactions on the processes of endocytosis, the fate of the nanomedicines and the resulting cellular responses. This review will be useful to a diverse audience of students and scientists who are interested in understanding endocytosis of nanomedicines. PMID:20226220

  18. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Malerød, Lene; Berg, Trond; Kjeken, Rune

    2004-01-01

    The process by which clathrin-coated vesicles are produced involves interactions of multifunctional adaptor proteins with the plasma membrane, as well as with clathrin and several accessory proteins and phosphoinositides. Here we review recent findings highlighting new insights into mechanisms underlying clathrin-dependent endocytosis. PMID:14505490

  19. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis and Endosomal Recycling in Central Nerve Terminals: Discrete Trafficking Routes?

    PubMed

    Cousin, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Synaptic vesicle (SV) retrieval from the presynaptic plasma membrane occurs via a variety of different and complementary modes. The dominant retrieval mode during high-intensity stimulation is activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE). ADBE involves the generation of endosomes direct from the plasma membrane which then donate membrane and cargo to form SVs that replenish the reserve SV pool. Recent evidence has suggested that ADBE may involve an additional endosomal processing step to produce a mature, functional SV. This suggests that ADBE may utilize key molecules or indeed whole pathways from classical endocytic recycling routes that are ubiquitous across all cell types. This review will assess the current evidence for a contribution of endocytic recycling to the SV life cycle, with a particular focus on ADBE. In doing so it highlights points where both routes may either converge or exploit existing mechanisms to ensure efficient generation of SVs during high-intensity stimulation.

  20. Exploiting Endocytosis for Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Akinc, Akin; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways. A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature. We then focus on the endocytosis of nanomedicines and present how various nanomaterial parameters impact these endocytic processes. This topic is an area of active research, motivated by the recognition that an improved understanding of how nanomaterials interact at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism level will lead to the design of better nanomedicines in the future. Next, we briefly review some of the important nanomedicines already on the market or in clinical development that serve to exemplify how endocytosis can be exploited for medical benefit. Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field. PMID:24186069

  1. SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A regulates presynaptic endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Tim J; Anderson, Dina; Evans, Ashley J; Girach, Fatima; Henley, Jeremy M

    2015-12-04

    Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminal is under very precise spatial and temporal control. Following neurotransmitter release, synaptic vesicles are recycled by endocytosis and refilled with neurotransmitter. During the exocytosis event leading to release, SNARE proteins provide most of the mechanical force for membrane fusion. Here, we show one of these proteins, Syntaxin1A, is SUMOylated near its C-terminal transmembrane domain in an activity-dependent manner. Preventing SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A reduces its interaction with other SNARE proteins and disrupts the balance of synaptic vesicle endo/exocytosis, resulting in an increase in endocytosis. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates the emerging role of Syntaxin1A in vesicle endocytosis, which in turn, modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic function.

  2. Endosome-mediated endocytic mechanism replenishes the majority of synaptic vesicles at mature CNS synapses in an activity-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Park, Joohyun; Cho, Oh Yeon; Kim, Jung Ah; Chang, Sunghoe

    2016-01-01

    Whether synaptic vesicles (SVs) are recovered via endosome-mediated pathways is a matter of debate; however, recent evidence suggests that clathrin-independent bulk endocytosis (CIE) via endosomes is functional and preferentially replenishes SV pools during strong stimulation. Here, using brefeldin-A (BFA) to block CIE, we found that CIE retrieved a minority of SVs at developing CNS synapses during strong stimulation, but its contribution increased up to 61% at mature CNS synapses. Contrary to previous views, BFA not only blocked SV formation from the endosome but also blocked the endosome formation at the plasma membrane. Adaptor protein 1 and 3 (AP-1/3) have key roles in SV reformation from endosomes during CIE, and AP-1 also affects bulk endosome formation from the plasma membrane. Finally, temporary blocking of chronic or acute neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin in mature neurons redirected most SV retrieval to endosome-independent pathways. These results show that during high neuronal activity, CIE becomes the major endocytic pathway at mature CNS synapses. Moreover, mature neurons use clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the CIE pathway to different extents depending on their previous activity; this may result in activity-dependent alterations of the SV composition which ultimately influence transmitter release and contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:27534442

  3. Endosome-mediated endocytic mechanism replenishes the majority of synaptic vesicles at mature CNS synapses in an activity-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joohyun; Cho, Oh Yeon; Kim, Jung Ah; Chang, Sunghoe

    2016-01-01

    Whether synaptic vesicles (SVs) are recovered via endosome-mediated pathways is a matter of debate; however, recent evidence suggests that clathrin-independent bulk endocytosis (CIE) via endosomes is functional and preferentially replenishes SV pools during strong stimulation. Here, using brefeldin-A (BFA) to block CIE, we found that CIE retrieved a minority of SVs at developing CNS synapses during strong stimulation, but its contribution increased up to 61% at mature CNS synapses. Contrary to previous views, BFA not only blocked SV formation from the endosome but also blocked the endosome formation at the plasma membrane. Adaptor protein 1 and 3 (AP-1/3) have key roles in SV reformation from endosomes during CIE, and AP-1 also affects bulk endosome formation from the plasma membrane. Finally, temporary blocking of chronic or acute neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin in mature neurons redirected most SV retrieval to endosome-independent pathways. These results show that during high neuronal activity, CIE becomes the major endocytic pathway at mature CNS synapses. Moreover, mature neurons use clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the CIE pathway to different extents depending on their previous activity; this may result in activity-dependent alterations of the SV composition which ultimately influence transmitter release and contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:27534442

  4. Endocytosis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Ira; Yarden, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis entails selective packaging of cell-surface proteins, such as receptors for cytokines and adhesion components, in cytoplasmic vesicles (endosomes). The series of sorting events that determines the fate of internalized proteins, either degradation in lysosomes or recycling back to the plasma membrane, relies on intrinsic sequence motifs, posttranslational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and ubiquitination), and transient assemblies of both Rab GTPases and phosphoinositide-binding proteins. This multicomponent process is enhanced and skewed in cancer cells; we review mechanisms enabling both major drivers of cancer, p53 and Ras, to bias recycling of integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Likewise, cadherins and other junctional proteins of cancer cells are constantly removed from the cell surface, thereby disrupting tissue polarity and instigating motile phenotypes. Mutant forms of RTKs able to evade Cbl-mediated ubiquitination, along with overexpression of the wild-type forms and a variety of defective feedback regulatory loops, are frequently detected in tumors. Finally, we describe pharmacological attempts to harness the peculiar endocytic system of cancer, in favor of effective patient treatment. PMID:24296170

  5. Arf6 arbitrates fibrinogen endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Matthew T; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Blood, in a departure from studies of classic platelet function, Huang et al turn their attention to endocytosis and show that adenosine 5′-diphosphate-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) plays a key role in fibrinogen engulfment. Although platelets are known to bind, absorb, and load their granules with plasma proteins, this report is one of the first to explore mechanisms that control endocytosis in this anucleate cell. Huang et al demonstrate that Arf6-dependent endocytosis is restricted to fibrinogen, implying that Arf6 also modulates trafficking of αIIbβ3 integrins in platelets. Consistent with this notion, deletion of Arf6 in platelets enhances spreading on fibrinogen and accelerates clot retraction (see figure). However, activation of surface αIIbβ3 is unaffected, and Arf6 deficiency does not alter thrombosis in vivo. These incongruous results point toward the complexity of anucleate platelets and the need for more detailed studies to understand intracellular trafficking, recycling, and endocytosis in platelets and their precurs

  6. The mother of all endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Massive endocytosis is initiated by a series of steps that involve a sudden influx of calcium ions, changes in mitochondria, and modification of surface proteins by lipids. A better understanding of this process could lead to new approaches to reducing the tissue damage that is caused by heart attacks. PMID:24282238

  7. Differential endocytosis of CD4 in lymphocytic and nonlymphocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The endocytosis of the T cell differentiation antigen CD4 has been investigated in CD4-transfected HeLa cells, the promyelocytic HL-60 cell line, and in a number of leukemia- or lymphoma-derived T cell lines. CD4 internalization was followed using radioiodinated antibodies in an acid-elution endocytosis assay, or by covalently modifying cell surface proteins with biotin and analyzing CD4 distributions by immunoprecipitation; both approaches gave equivalent results. The assays demonstrated that in transfected HeLa cells and in HL-60 cells CD4 was constitutively internalized and recycled in the absence of ligand. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy demonstrated that CD4 enters cells through coated pits. In contrast to the nonlymphocytic cells, T cell lines showed very little endocytosis of CD4. Measurements of fluid phase endocytosis and morphometric analysis of the endosome compartment indicated that the endocytic capacities of HeLa and lymphoid cells are equivalent and suggested that the low level of CD4 uptake in lymphocytic cells is due to exclusion of CD4 from coated pits. This conclusion was supported by experiments using truncated CD4 molecules, lacking the bulk of the cytoplasmic domain, which were internalized equally efficiently in both transfected lymphocytes and HeLa cells. Together, these results indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 mediates the different interactions with the endocytic apparatus in lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells. We suggest that the CD4- associated lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase p56lck may be involved in preventing CD4 endocytosis in T cells. PMID:1900077

  8. Endocytosis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lai Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is the major regulator of signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The canonical model of RTK endocytosis involves rapid internalization of an RTK activated by ligand binding at the cell surface and subsequent sorting of internalized ligand-RTK complexes to lysosomes for degradation. Activation of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of RTKs results in autophosphorylation, which is mechanistically coupled to the recruitment of adaptor proteins and conjugation of ubiquitin to RTKs. Ubiquitination serves to mediate interactions of RTKs with sorting machineries both at the cell surface and on endosomes. The pathways and kinetics of RTK endocytic trafficking, molecular mechanisms underlying sorting processes, and examples of deviations from the standard trafficking itinerary in the RTK family are discussed in this work. PMID:23637288

  9. Endocytosis of Viruses and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cossart, Pascale; Helenius, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Of the many pathogens that infect humans and animals, a large number use cells of the host organism as protected sites for replication. To reach the relevant intracellular compartments, they take advantage of the endocytosis machinery and exploit the network of endocytic organelles for penetration into the cytosol or as sites of replication. In this review, we discuss the endocytic entry processes used by viruses and bacteria and compare the strategies used by these dissimilar classes of pathogens. PMID:25085912

  10. Mint proteins are required for synaptic activity-dependent amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking and amyloid β generation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah E; Dillon, Gregory M; Sullivan, Josefa M; Ho, Angela

    2014-05-30

    Aberrant amyloid β (Aβ) production plays a causal role in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. A major cellular pathway for Aβ generation is the activity-dependent endocytosis and proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, the molecules controlling activity-dependent APP trafficking in neurons are less defined. Mints are adaptor proteins that directly interact with the endocytic sorting motif of APP and are functionally important in regulating APP endocytosis and Aβ production. We analyzed neuronal cultures from control and Mint knockout neurons that were treated with either glutamate or tetrodotoxin to stimulate an increase or decrease in neuronal activity, respectively. We found that neuronal activation by glutamate increased APP endocytosis, followed by elevated APP insertion into the cell surface, stabilizing APP at the plasma membrane. Conversely, suppression of neuronal activity by tetrodotoxin decreased APP endocytosis and insertion. Interestingly, we found that activity-dependent APP trafficking and Aβ generation were blocked in Mint knockout neurons. We showed that wild-type Mint1 can rescue APP internalization and insertion in Mint knockout neurons. In addition, we found that Mint overexpression increased excitatory synaptic activity and that APP was internalized predominantly to endosomes associated with APP processing. We demonstrated that presenilin 1 (PS1) endocytosis requires interaction with the PDZ domains of Mint1 and that this interaction facilitates activity-dependent colocalization of APP and PS1. These findings demonstrate that Mints are necessary for activity-induced APP and PS1 trafficking and provide insight into the cellular fate of APP in endocytic pathways essential for Aβ production.

  11. Endocytosis and signalling: a meeting with mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Birtwistle, Marc R.; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although endocytosis has traditionally been understood as a signal attenuation mechanism, an emerging view considers endocytosis as an integral part of signal propagation and processing. On the short time scale, trafficking of endocytic vesicles contributes to signal propagation from the surface to distant targets, with bi-directional communication between signalling and trafficking. Mathematical modelling helps combine the mechanistic, molecular knowledge with rigorous analysis of the complex output dynamics of endocytosis in time and space. Simulations reveal novel roles for endocytosis, including the control of cell polarity, enhancing the spatial signal propagation, and controlling the signal magnitudes, kinetics, and synchronization with stimulus dynamics. PMID:19596615

  12. Endocytosis and its regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lusheng; Li, Ruili; Pan, Jianwei; Ding, Zhaojun; Lin, Jinxing

    2015-06-01

    Endocytosis provides a major route of entry for membrane proteins, lipids, and extracellular molecules into the cell. Recent evidence indicates that multiple cellular processes require endocytosis, including nutrient uptake, signaling transduction, and plant-microbe interactions. Also, advanced microscopy, combined with biochemical and genetic approaches, has provided more insights into the molecular machinery and functions of endocytosis in plants. Here we review mechanisms of the clathrin-dependent and membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes in plant cells. In addition, degradation of endocytosed proteins and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated vesicle formation at the endosome are discussed. Finally, we summarize the essential roles of various regulators during plant endocytosis.

  13. Energized endocytosis in human erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed Central

    Schriei, S L; Bensch, K G; Johnson, M; Junga, I

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of endocytosis in resealed human erythrocyte ghosts was studied. The energy for endocytosis or micropinocytosis appears to be derived from Mg-ATP, and membrane internalization is preceded by activation of a membrane-associated Ca,Mg-ATPase and by the active efflux of Ca. Endocytosis, Ca,Mg-ATPase activity, and active Ca efflux all require the presence of Mg. Furthermore, these three phenomena, endocytosis, Ca,Mg-ATPase activity, and active Ca extrusion, all have a concentration dependence on Ca such that low concentrations stimulate and higher concentrations inhibit the phenomena. The optimal concentration of Ca is identical for endocytosis, active Ca efflux, and Ca,Mg-ATPase. Morphologic studies indicated that while active Ca efflux and activation of the Ca,Mg-ATPase activity occurred promptly upon onset of incubation, there was a significant time delay before endocytosis occurred, which suggests that endocytosis additionally involved a more slowly functioning mechanicochemical mechanism. Ruthenium red, a specific inhibitor of Ca,Mg-ATPase and Ca transport, inhibited endocytosis in a concentration-related manner. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 had no measurable effect on ghost endocytosis, active Ca efflux, or Ca,Mg-ATPase activity. Images PMID:124748

  14. Evidence for a Clathrin-independent mode of endocytosis at a continuously active sensory synapse.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Michaela; Brandstätter, Johann Helmut; Regus-Leidig, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle exocytosis at chemical synapses is followed by compensatory endocytosis. Multiple pathways including Clathrin-mediated retrieval of single vesicles, bulk retrieval of large cisternae, and kiss-and-run retrieval have been reported to contribute to vesicle recycling. Particularly at the continuously active ribbon synapses of retinal photoreceptor and bipolar cells, compensatory endocytosis plays an essential role to provide ongoing vesicle supply. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to endocytosis at these highly complex synapses. To identify possible specializations in ribbon synaptic endocytosis during different states of activity, we exposed mice to controlled lighting conditions and compared the distribution of endocytotic proteins at rod and cone photoreceptor, and ON bipolar cell ribbon synapses with light and electron microscopy. In mouse ON bipolar cell terminals, Clathrin-mediated endocytosis seemed to be the dominant mode of endocytosis at all adaptation states analyzed. In contrast, in mouse photoreceptor terminals in addition to Clathrin-coated pits, clusters of membranously connected electron-dense vesicles appeared during prolonged darkness. These clusters labeled for Dynamin3, Endophilin1, and Synaptojanin1, but not for AP180, Clathrin LC, and hsc70. We hypothesize that rod and cone photoreceptors possess an additional Clathrin-independent mode of vesicle retrieval supporting the continuous synaptic vesicle supply during prolonged high activity.

  15. Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake Modulates Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Central Nerve Terminals.

    PubMed

    Marland, Jamie Roslin Keynes; Hasel, Philip; Bonnycastle, Katherine; Cousin, Michael Alan

    2016-01-29

    Presynaptic calcium influx triggers synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis and modulates subsequent SV endocytosis. A number of calcium clearance mechanisms are present in central nerve terminals that regulate intracellular free calcium levels both during and after stimulation. During action potential stimulation, mitochondria rapidly accumulate presynaptic calcium via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). The role of mitochondrial calcium uptake in modulating SV recycling has been debated extensively, but a definitive conclusion has not been achieved. To directly address this question, we manipulated the expression of the MCU channel subunit in primary cultures of neurons expressing a genetically encoded reporter of SV turnover. Knockdown of MCU resulted in ablation of activity-dependent mitochondrial calcium uptake but had no effect on the rate or extent of SV exocytosis. In contrast, the rate of SV endocytosis was increased in the absence of mitochondrial calcium uptake and slowed when MCU was overexpressed. MCU knockdown did not perturb activity-dependent increases in presynaptic free calcium, suggesting that SV endocytosis may be controlled by calcium accumulation and efflux from mitochondria in their immediate vicinity.

  16. Activity dependent CAM cleavage and neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Katherine; Allen, Megan; Lim, Seung T.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially localized proteolysis represents an elegant means by which neuronal activity dependent changes in synaptic structure, and thus experience dependent learning and memory, can be achieved. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that matrix metalloproteinase and adamalysin activity is concentrated at the cell surface, and emerging evidence suggests that increased peri-synaptic expression, release and/or activation of these proteinases occurs with enhanced excitatory neurotransmission. Synaptically expressed cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) could therefore represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Several CAM subtypes are expressed at the synapse, and their cleavage can influence the efficacy of synaptic transmission through a variety of non-mutually exclusive mechanisms. In the following review, we discuss mechanisms that regulate neuronal activity-dependent synaptic CAM shedding, including those that may be calcium dependent. We also highlight CAM targets of activity-dependent proteolysis including neuroligin and intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5). We include discussion focused on potential consequences of synaptic CAM shedding, with an emphasis on interactions between soluble CAM cleavage products and specific pre- and post-synaptic receptors. PMID:26321910

  17. Ultrafast endocytosis at mouse hippocampal synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Rost, Benjamin R.; Camacho-Pérez, Marcial; Davis, M. Wayne; Söhl-Kielczynski, Berit; Rosenmund, Christian; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2013-12-01

    To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated approximately 20s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or in approximately 1s by the reversal of fusion pores via `kiss-and-run' endocytosis. Here we use optogenetics to stimulate cultured hippocampal neurons with a single stimulus, rapidly freeze them after fixed intervals and examine the ultrastructure using electron microscopy--`flash-and-freeze' electron microscopy. Docked vesicles fuse and collapse into the membrane within 30ms of the stimulus. Compensatory endocytosis occurs within 50 to 100ms at sites flanking the active zone. Invagination is blocked by inhibition of actin polymerization, and scission is blocked by inhibiting dynamin. Because intact synaptic vesicles are not recovered, this form of recycling is not compatible with kiss-and-run endocytosis; moreover, it is 200-fold faster than clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is likely that `ultrafast endocytosis' is specialized to restore the surface area of the membrane rapidly.

  18. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Facilitate Vesicle Endocytosis by Increasing Presynaptic Calcium Channel Expression at a Central Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-cheng; Ge, Jian-long; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Hao, Mei; Wu, Yi-chen; Lin, Yi-an; La, Ting; Yao, Pan-tong; Mei, Yan-ai; Feng, Yi; Xue, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests significant biological effects caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF). Although exo-endocytosis plays crucial physical and biological roles in neuronal communication, studies on how ELF-EMF regulates this process are scarce. By directly measuring calcium currents and membrane capacitance at a large mammalian central nervous synapse, the calyx of Held, we report for the first time that ELF-EMF critically affects synaptic transmission and plasticity. Exposure to ELF-EMF for 8 to 10 days dramatically increases the calcium influx upon stimulation and facilitates all forms of vesicle endocytosis, including slow and rapid endocytosis, endocytosis overshoot and bulk endocytosis, but does not affect the RRP size and exocytosis. Exposure to ELF-EMF also potentiates PTP, a form of short-term plasticity, increasing its peak amplitude without impacting its time course. We further investigated the underlying mechanisms and found that calcium channel expression, including the P/Q, N, and R subtypes, at the presynaptic nerve terminal was enhanced, accounting for the increased calcium influx upon stimulation. Thus, we conclude that exposure to ELF-EMF facilitates vesicle endocytosis and synaptic plasticity in a calcium-dependent manner by increasing calcium channel expression at the nerve terminal. PMID:26887777

  19. Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Liu, Qiang; Davis, M Wayne; Hollopeter, Gunther; Thomas, Nikita; Jorgensen, Nels B; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles can be released at extremely high rates, which places an extraordinary demand on the recycling machinery. Previous ultrastructural studies of vesicle recycling were conducted in dissected preparations using an intense stimulation to maximize the probability of release. Here, a single light stimulus was applied to motor neurons in intact Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes expressing channelrhodopsin, and the animals rapidly frozen. We found that docked vesicles fuse along a broad active zone in response to a single stimulus, and are replenished with a time constant of about 2 s. Endocytosis occurs within 50 ms adjacent to the dense projection and after 1 s adjacent to adherens junctions. These studies suggest that synaptic vesicle endocytosis may occur on a millisecond time scale following a single physiological stimulus in the intact nervous system and is unlikely to conform to current models of endocytosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00723.001 PMID:24015355

  20. Clathrin-Independent Pathways of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Satyajit; Parton, Robert G.; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2014-01-01

    There are many pathways of endocytosis at the cell surface that apparently operate at the same time. With the advent of new molecular genetic and imaging tools, an understanding of the different ways by which a cell may endocytose cargo is increasing by leaps and bounds. In this review we explore pathways of endocytosis that occur in the absence of clathrin. These are referred to as clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here we primarily focus on those pathways that function at the small scale in which some have distinct coats (caveolae) and others function in the absence of specific coated intermediates. We follow the trafficking itineraries of the material endocytosed by these pathways and finally discuss the functional roles that these pathways play in cell and tissue physiology. It is likely that these pathways will play key roles in the regulation of plasma membrane area and tension and also control the availability of membrane during cell migration. PMID:24890511

  1. Ultrafast endocytosis at mouse hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Davis, M. Wayne; Söhl-Kielczynski, Berit; Rosenmund, Christian; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated ~20 s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or in ~1 s by the reversal of fusion pores via ‘kiss-and-run’ endocytosis. Here we use optogenetics to stimulate cultured hippocampal neurons with a single stimulus, rapidly freeze them after fixed intervals and examine the ultrastructure using electron microscopy – ‘flash-and-freeze’ electron microscopy. Docked vesicles fuse and collapse into the membrane within 30 ms of the stimulus. Compensatory endocytosis occurs with 50-100 ms at sites flanking the active zone. Invagination is blocked by inhibition of actin polymerization, and scission is blocked by inhibiting dynamin. Because intact synaptic vesicles are not recovered, this form of recycling is not compatible with kiss-and-run endocytosis; moreover it is 200-fold faster than clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is likely that ‘ultrafast endocytosis’ is specialized to rapidly restore the surface area of the membrane. PMID:24305055

  2. On the Modeling of Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Sknepnek, Rastko; Bowick, M.J.; Schwarz, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The cell membrane deforms during endocytosis to surround extracellular material and draw it into the cell. Results of experiments on endocytosis in yeast show general agreement that 1) actin polymerizes into a network of filaments exerting active forces on the membrane to deform it, and 2) the large-scale membrane deformation is tubular in shape. In contrast, there are three competing proposals for precisely how the actin filament network organizes itself to drive the deformation. We use variational approaches and numerical simulations to address this competition by analyzing a meso-scale model of actin-mediated endocytosis in yeast. The meso-scale model breaks up the invagination process into three stages: 1) initiation, where clathrin interacts with the membrane via adaptor proteins; 2) elongation, where the membrane is then further deformed by polymerizing actin filaments; and 3) pinch-off. Our results suggest that the pinch-off mechanism may be assisted by a pearling-like instability. We rule out two of the three competing proposals for the organization of the actin filament network during the elongation stage. These two proposals could be important in the pinch-off stage, however, where additional actin polymerization helps break off the vesicle. Implications and comparisons with earlier modeling of endocytosis in yeast are discussed. PMID:25650919

  3. An endocytosis pathway initiated through neuropilin-1 and regulated by nutrient availability

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hong-Bo; Braun, Gary B.; Friman, Tomas; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Ruidiaz, Manuel E.; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilins (NRPs) are trans-membrane receptors involved in axon guidance and vascular development. Many growth factors and other signaling molecules bind to NRPs through a C-terminal, basic sequence motif (C-end Rule or CendR motif). Peptides with this motif (CendR peptides) are taken up into cells by endocytosis. Tumor-homing CendR peptides penetrate through tumor tissue and have shown utility in enhancing drug delivery into tumors. Here we show, using RNAi screening and subsequent validation studies, that NRP1-mediated endocytosis of CendR peptides is distinct from known endocytic pathways. Ultrastructurally, CendR endocytosis resembles macropinocytosis, but is mechanistically different. We also show that nutrient-sensing networks such as mTOR signaling regulate CendR endocytosis and subsequent intercellular transport of CendR cargo, both of which are stimulated by nutrient depletion. As CendR is a bulk transport pathway, our results suggest a role for it in nutrient transport; CendR-enhanced drug delivery then makes use of this natural pathway. PMID:25277522

  4. Multiscale perspectives of virus entry via endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways to gain entry into host cells and initiate infections. Understanding of virus entry via endocytosis is critically important for the design of antiviral strategies. Virus entry via endocytosis is a complex process involving hundreds of cellular proteins. The entire process is dictated by events occurring at multiple time and length scales. In this review, we discuss and evaluate the available means to investigate virus endocytic entry, from both experimental and theoretical/numerical modeling fronts, and highlight the importance of multiscale features. The complexity of the process requires investigations at a systems biology level, which involves the combination of different experimental approaches, the collaboration of experimentalists and theorists across different disciplines, and the development of novel multiscale models. PMID:23734580

  5. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  6. Shank2 Regulates Renal Albumin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Lewis, Linda; Doctor, R Brian; Okamura, Kayo; Lee, Min Goo; Altmann, Christopher; Faubel, Sarah; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong and independent predictor of kidney disease progression but the mechanisms of albumin handling by the kidney remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have shown that podocytes endocytose albumin. Here we demonstrate that Shank2, a large scaffolding protein originally identified at the neuronal postsynaptic density, is expressed in podocytes in vivo and in vitro and plays an important role in albumin endocytosis in podocytes. Knockdown of Shank2 in cultured human podocytes decreased albumin uptake, but the decrease was not statistically significant likely due to residual Shank2 still present in the knockdown podocytes. Complete knockout of Shank2 in podocytes significantly diminished albumin uptake in vitro. Shank2 knockout mice develop proteinuria by 8 weeks of age. To examine albumin handling in vivo in wild-type and Shank2 knockout mice we used multiphoton intravital imaging. While FITC-labeled albumin was rapidly seen in the renal tubules of wild-type mice after injection, little albumin was seen in the tubules of Shank2 knockout mice indicating dysregulated renal albumin trafficking in the Shank2 knockouts. We have previously found that caveolin-1 is required for albumin endocytosis in cultured podocytes. Shank2 knockout mice had significantly decreased expression and altered localization of caveolin-1 in podocytes suggesting that disruption of albumin endocytosis in Shank2 knockouts is mediated via caveolin-1. In summary, we have identified Shank2 as another component of the albumin endocytic pathway in podocytes. PMID:26333830

  7. Cell mobility after endocytosis of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirbhai, Massooma; Flores, Thomas; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Rotkin, Slava

    2013-03-01

    Directed cell movement plays a crucial role in cellular behaviors such as neuronal cell division, cell migration, and cell differentiation. There is evidence in preclinical in vivo studies that small fields have successfully been used to enhance regrowth of damages spinal cord axons but with a small success rate. Fortunately, the evolution of functional biomaterials and nanotechnology may provide promising solutions for enhancing the application of electric fields in guiding neuron migration and neurogenesis within the central nervous system. In this work, we studied how endocytosis and subsequent retention of carbon nanotubes affects the mobility of cells under the influence of an electric field, including the directed cell movement.

  8. Role of conserved intracellular motifs in Serrate signalling, cis-inhibition and endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Glittenberg, Marcus; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Garvey, Clare; Delidakis, Christos; Bray, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Notch is the receptor in a signalling pathway that operates in a diverse spectrum of developmental processes. Its ligands (e.g. Serrate) are transmembrane proteins whose signalling competence is regulated by the endocytosis-promoting E3 ubiquitin ligases, Mindbomb1 and Neuralized. The ligands also inhibit Notch present in the same cell (cis-inhibition). Here, we identify two conserved motifs in the intracellular domain of Serrate that are required for efficient endocytosis. The first, a dileucine motif, is dispensable for trans-activation and cis-inhibition despite the endocytic defect, demonstrating that signalling can be separated from bulk endocytosis. The second, a novel motif, is necessary for interactions with Mindbomb1/Neuralized and is strictly required for Serrate to trans-activate and internalise efficiently but not for it to inhibit Notch signalling. Cis-inhibition is compromised when an ER retention signal is added to Serrate, or when the levels of Neuralized are increased, and together these data indicate that cis-inhibitory interactions occur at the cell surface. The balance of ubiquitinated/unubiquitinated ligand will thus affect the signalling capacity of the cell at several levels. PMID:17006545

  9. Endocytosis of Integrin-Binding Human Picornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses. PMID:23227048

  10. Exocytosis and endocytosis in juxtaglomerular cells.

    PubMed

    Friis, U G; Jensen, B L; Hansen, P B; Andreasen, D; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    The cellular events related to secretion of renin are not well understood. Here we review some of the evidence that has led to the current understanding of renin secretion as a process that involves exocytosis as the predominant mode of secretion. This is based on the observation of occasional fusion events between secretory granules and cell membrane and measurement of intermittent secretion of renin from single afferent arterioles, with a renin content of each secretion episode that corresponds to the renin content of one secretory granule. More recently it has been demonstrated that the afferent arterioles lose a large number of renin granules after acute stimulation without changing the average granular volume. Current electrophysiological techniques have now permitted direct measurements of cell membrane capacitance in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells as a measure of net addition (exocytosis) or removal (endocytosis) of membrane material. With this technique we have shown that cAMP, which is a vasodilator and stimulates renin secretion, enhances net exocytosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations membrane retrieval processes are also stimulated. We suggest that both exocytosis and endocytosis are regulated processes in the JG-cells and both may be important for the long-term control of renin secretion at the single cell level. PMID:10691785

  11. Endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

    PubMed

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

  12. Kinetics of virus entry by endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-04-01

    Entry of virions into the host cells is either endocytotic or fusogenic. In both cases, it occurs via reversible formation of numerous relatively weak bonds resulting in wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent membrane rupture or scission. The corresponding kinetic models are customarily focused on the formation of bonds and do not pay attention to the energetics of the whole process, which is crucially dependent, especially in the case of endocytosis, on deformation of actin filaments forming the cytoskeleton of the host cell. The kinetic model of endocytosis, proposed by the author, takes this factor into account and shows that the whole process can be divided into a rapid initial transient stage and a long steady-state stage. The entry occurs during the latter stage and can be described as a first-order reaction. Depending on the details of the dependence of the grand canonical potential on the number of bonds, the entry can be limited either by the interplay of bond formation and membrane rupture (or scission) or by reaching a maximum of this potential.

  13. Polarised clathrin-mediated endocytosis of EGFR during chemotactic invasion.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Laura Jane; Howden, Jake Davey; Jenner, Emma Poppy Louise; Poulter, Natalie Sarah; Rappoport, Joshua Zachary

    2014-06-01

    Directed cell migration is critical for numerous physiological processes including development and wound healing. However chemotaxis is also exploited during cancer progression. Recent reports have suggested links between vesicle trafficking pathways and directed cell migration. Very little is known about the potential roles of endocytosis pathways during metastasis. Therefore we performed a series of studies employing a previously characterised model for chemotactic invasion of cancer cells to assess specific hypotheses potentially linking endocytosis to directed cell migration. Our results demonstrate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is indispensable for epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed chemotactic invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, caveolar endocytosis is not required in this mode of migration. We further found that chemoattractant receptor (EGFR) trafficking occurs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is polarised towards the front of migrating cells. However, we found no role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis in focal adhesion disassembly in this migration model. Thus, this study has characterised the role of endocytosis during chemotactic invasion and has identified functions mechanistically linking clathrin-mediated endocytosis to directed cell motility.

  14. Physical Principles of Nanoparticle Cellular Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sulin; Gao, Huajian; Bao, Gang

    2015-09-22

    This review article focuses on the physiochemical mechanisms underlying nanoparticle uptake into cells. When nanoparticles are in close vicinity to a cell, the interactions between the nanoparticles and the cell membrane generate forces from different origins. This leads to the membrane wrapping of the nanoparticles followed by cellular uptake. This article discusses how the kinetics, energetics, and forces are related to these interactions and dependent on the size, shape, and stiffness of nanoparticles, the biomechanical properties of the cell membrane, as well as the local environment of the cells. The discussed fundamental principles of the physiochemical causes for nanoparticle-cell interaction may guide new studies of nanoparticle endocytosis and lead to better strategies to design nanoparticle-based approaches for biomedical applications.

  15. Synthetic antigens reveal dynamics of BCR endocytosis during inhibitory signaling.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Adam H; Bennett, Nitasha R; Zwick, Daniel B; Hudon, Jonathan; Kiessling, Laura L

    2014-01-17

    B cells detect foreign antigens through their B cell antigen receptor (BCR). The BCR, when engaged by antigen, initiates a signaling cascade. Concurrent with signaling is endocytosis of the BCR complex, which acts to downregulate signaling and facilitate uptake of antigen for processing and display on the cell surface. The relationship between signaling and BCR endocytosis is poorly defined. Here, we explore the interplay between BCR endocytosis and antigens that either promote or inhibit B cell activation. Specifically, synthetic antigens were generated that engage the BCR alone or both the BCR and the inhibitory co-receptor CD22. The lectin CD22, a member of the Siglec family, binds sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates found on host tissues, inhibiting BCR signaling to prevent erroneous B cell activation. At low concentrations, antigens that can cocluster the BCR and CD22 promote rapid BCR endocytosis; whereas, slower endocytosis occurs with antigens that bind only the BCR. At higher antigen concentrations, rapid BCR endocytosis occurs upon treatment with either stimulatory or inhibitory antigens. Endocytosis of the BCR, in response to synthetic antigens, results in its entry into early endocytic compartments. Although the CD22-binding antigens fail to activate key regulators of antigen presentation (e.g., Syk), they also promote BCR endocytosis, indicating that inhibitory antigens can be internalized. Together, our observations support a functional role for BCR endocytosis in downregulating BCR signaling. The reduction of cell surface BCR levels in the absence of B cell activation should raise the threshold for BCR subsequent activation. The ability of the activating synthetic antigens to trigger both signaling and entry of the BCR into early endosomes suggests strategies for targeted antigen delivery.

  16. Preferred sites of exocytosis and endocytosis colocalize during high but not lower frequency stimulation in mouse motor nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Gaffield, Michael A.; Tabares, Lucia; Betz, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial relationship of exocytosis and endocytosis in motor nerve terminals has been explored, with varied results, mostly in fixed preparations and without direct information on the utilization of each exocytic site. We sought to determine these spatial properties in real time using synaptopHluorin (spH) and FM 4-64. Earlier we showed that nerve stimulation elicits the appearance of spH fluorescence hot spots, which mark preferred sites of exocytosis. Here we show that nerve stimulation in the presence of the styryl dye FM 4-64 evokes hot spots of FM 4-64 fluorescence. Their size, density, and rate of appearance are similar to the spH hot spots, but their rate of disappearance after stimulation was much slower (t½ ∼9 min versus ∼10 s for spH hot spots), consistent with FM 4-64 spots identifying bulk endocytosis and subsequent slow intracellular dispersion of nascent vesicles. Simultaneous imaging of both fluorophores revealed a strong colocalization of spH and FM 4-64 spots, but only during high (100 Hz) stimulation. At 40 Hz stimulation, exo- and endocytic spots did not colocalize. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that hot spots of endocytosis, possibly in the form of bulk uptake, occur at or very near highly active exocytic sites during high frequency stimulation. PMID:19955383

  17. Synucleins regulate the kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Karina J; Makani, Sachin; Davis, Taylor; Westphal, Christopher H; Castillo, Pablo E; Chandra, Sreeganga S

    2014-07-01

    Genetic and pathological studies link α-synuclein to the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the normal function of this presynaptic protein remains unknown. α-Synuclein, an acidic lipid binding protein, shares high sequence identity with β- and γ-synuclein. Previous studies have implicated synucleins in synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking, although the precise site of synuclein action continues to be unclear. Here we show, using optical imaging, electron microscopy, and slice electrophysiology, that synucleins are required for the fast kinetics of SV endocytosis. Slowed endocytosis observed in synuclein null cultures can be rescued by individually expressing mouse α-, β-, or γ-synuclein, indicating they are functionally redundant. Through comparisons to dynamin knock-out synapses and biochemical experiments, we suggest that synucleins act at early steps of SV endocytosis. Our results categorize α-synuclein with other familial PD genes known to regulate SV endocytosis, implicating this pathway in PD.

  18. Endocytic Accessory Factors and Regulation of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Christien J.; Kaksonen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Up to 60 different proteins are recruited to the site of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in an ordered sequence. These accessory proteins have roles during all the different stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. First, they participate in the initiation of the endocytic event, thereby determining when and where endocytic vesicles are made; later they are involved in the maturation of the clathrin coat, recruitment of specific cargo molecules, bending of the membrane, and finally in scission and uncoating of the nascent vesicle. In addition, many of the accessory components are involved in regulating and coupling the actin cytoskeleton to the endocytic membrane. We will discuss the different accessory components and their various roles. Most of the data comes from studies performed with cultured mammalian cells or yeast cells. The process of endocytosis is well conserved between these different organisms, but there are also many interesting differences that may shed light on the mechanistic principles of endocytosis. PMID:25280766

  19. Calcium-independent calmodulin requirement for endocytosis in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, E; Schimmöller, F; Riezman, H

    1994-01-01

    We have recently shown that actin and fimbrin are required for the internalization step of endocytosis in yeast. Using a yeast strain with a temperature-sensitive allele of CMD1, encoding calmodulin, we demonstrate that this protein is also required for this process. Calmodulin mutants that have lost their high-affinity calcium binding sites are, however, able to carry out endocytosis normally. A mutation in Myo2p, an unconventional myosin that is a possible target of calmodulin, did not inhibit endocytosis. The function of calmodulin in endocytosis seems to be specific among membrane trafficking events, because the calmodulin mutants are not defective for biogenesis of soluble vacuolar hydrolases nor invertase secretion. Calmodulin does not seem to play a major role in the post-internalization steps of the endocytic pathway in yeast. Images PMID:7988551

  20. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  1. SNARE proteins synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin are involved in rapid and slow endocytosis at synapses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhua; Luo, Fujun; Zhang, Zhen; Xue, Lei; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2013-05-30

    Rapid endocytosis, which takes only a few seconds, is widely observed in secretory cells. Although it is more efficient in recycling vesicles than in slow clathrin-mediated endocytosis, its underlying mechanism, thought to be clathrin independent, is largely unclear. Here, we report that cleavage of three SNARE proteins essential for exocytosis, including synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin, inhibited rapid endocytosis at the calyx of Held nerve terminal, suggesting the involvement of the three SNARE proteins in rapid endocytosis. These SNARE proteins were also involved in slow endocytosis. In addition, SNAP-25 and syntaxin facilitated vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool, most likely via their roles in endocytosis and/or exocytosis. We conclude that both rapid and slow endocytosis share the involvement of SNARE proteins. The dual role of three SNARE proteins in exo- and endocytosis suggests that SNARE proteins may be molecular substrates contributing to the exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, which maintains exocytosis in secretory cells.

  2. Synapse Maturation by Activity-Dependent Ectodomain Shedding of SIRPα

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Anna B.; Terauchi, Akiko; Zhang, Lily Y.; Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M.; Larsen, David J.; Sutton, Michael A.; Umemori, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Formation of appropriate synaptic connections is critical for proper functioning of the brain. After initial synaptic differentiation, active synapses are stabilized by neural activity-dependent signals to establish functional synaptic connections. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synapse maturation remain to be elucidated. Here we show that activity-dependent ectodomain shedding of SIRPα mediates presynaptic maturation. Two target-derived molecules, FGF22 and SIRPα, sequentially organize the glutamatergic presynaptic terminals during the initial synaptic differentiation and synapse maturation stages, respectively, in the mouse hippocampus. SIRPα drives presynaptic maturation in an activity-dependent fashion. Remarkably, neural activity cleaves the extracellular domain of SIRPα, and the shed ectodomain, in turn, promotes the maturation of the presynaptic terminal. This process involves CaM kinase, matrix metalloproteinases, and the presynaptic receptor CD47. Finally, SIRPα-dependent synapse maturation has significant impacts on synaptic function and plasticity. Thus, ectodomain shedding of SIRPα is an activity-dependent trans-synaptic mechanism for the maturation of functional synapses. PMID:24036914

  3. Distinct Functions of Endophilin Isoforms in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jifeng; Tan, Minghui; Yin, Yichen; Ren, Bingyu; Jiang, Nannan; Guo, Guoqing; Chen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Endophilin isoforms perform distinct characteristics in their interactions with N-type Ca(2+) channels and dynamin. However, precise functional differences for the endophilin isoforms on synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis remain unknown. By coupling RNA interference and electrophysiological recording techniques in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated the functional differences of three isoforms of endophilin in SV endocytosis. The results showed that the amplitude of normalized evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in endophilin1 knockdown neurons decreased significantly for both single train and multiple train stimulations. Similar results were found using endophilin2 knockdown neurons, whereas endophilin3 siRNA exhibited no change compared with control neurons. Endophilin1 and endophilin2 affected SV endocytosis, but the effect of endophilin1 and endophilin2 double knockdown was not different from that of either knockdown alone. This result suggested that endophilin1 and endophilin2 functioned together but not independently during SV endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that SV endocytosis is sustained by endophilin1 and endophilin2 isoforms, but not by endophilin3, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

  4. Crosslinking-induced endocytosis of acetylcholine receptors by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Wai; Zhang, Hailong; Geng, Lin; Peng, H Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  5. Ankyrin-G Inhibits Endocytosis of Cadherin Dimers.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Chantel M; Jenkins, Paul M; Bennett, Vann; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of endothelial cell adhesion is central to vascular development and maintenance. Furthermore, altered endothelial adhesion is implicated in numerous diseases. Therefore, normal vascular patterning and maintenance require tight regulation of endothelial cell adhesion dynamics. However, the mechanisms that control junctional plasticity are not fully understood. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) is an adhesive protein found in adherens junctions of endothelial cells. VE-cadherin mediates adhesion through trans interactions formed by its extracellular domain. Trans binding is followed by cis interactions that laterally cluster the cadherin in junctions. VE-cadherin is linked to the actin cytoskeleton through cytoplasmic interactions with β- and α-catenin, which serve to increase adhesive strength. Furthermore, p120-catenin binds to the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin and stabilizes it at the plasma membrane. Here we report that induced cis dimerization of VE-cadherin inhibits endocytosis independent of both p120 binding and trans interactions. However, we find that ankyrin-G, a protein that links membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton, associates with VE-cadherin and inhibits its endocytosis. Ankyrin-G inhibits VE-cadherin endocytosis independent of p120 binding. We propose a model in which ankyrin-G associates with and inhibits the endocytosis of VE-cadherin cis dimers. Our findings support a novel mechanism for regulation of VE-cadherin endocytosis through ankyrin association with cadherin engaged in lateral interactions.

  6. Myoferlin is critical for endocytosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bernatchez, Pascal N.; Sharma, Arpeeta; Kodaman, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Myoferlin is a member of the ferlin family of proteins that promotes endomembrane fusion with the plasma membrane in muscle cells and endothelial cells. In addition, myoferlin is necessary for the surface expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 through the formation of a protein complex with dynamin-2 (Dyn-2). Since Dyn-2 is necessary for the fission of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, we tested the hypothesis that myoferlin may regulates aspects of receptor-dependent endocytosis. Here we show that myoferlin gene silencing decreases both clathrin and caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis, whereas ectopic myoferlin expression in COS-7 cells increases endocytosis by up to 125%. Interestingly, we have observed that inhibition of Dyn-2 activity or caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression impairs endocytosis as well as membrane resealing after injury, indicating that Dyn-2 and Cav-1 also participate in both membrane fission and fusion processes. Mechanistically, myoferlin partially colocalizes with Dyn-2 and Cav-1 and forms a protein complex with Cav-1 solubilized from tissue extracts. Together, these data describe a new role for myoferlin in receptor-dependent endocytosis and an overlapping role for myoferlin-Dyn-2-Cav-1 protein complexes in membrane fusion and fission events. PMID:19494235

  7. Pharmacological attenuation of Paramecium fluid-phase endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Spectrophotometric quantification of fluid phase endocytosis in the presence of different pharmacological compounds was performed in the model unicellular eukaryote Paramecium. The kinetics of Lucifer Yellow Carbohydrazide (LY) uptake in cells exposed to forskolin and isoproterenol--known to stimulate phagocytosis in this cell--was analyzed. Reduction in both the rate of endocytosis and total accumulation of fluid phase marker was observed following the treatment. Forskolin diminished total LY accumulation by 11% and 21% after 5 min and 25 min of incubation, respectively, whereas the rate of uptake was lowered by 21% in comparison to control cells. The inhibitory effect ofisoproterenol was less pronounced than that of forskolin. The total accumulation of LY was decreased by 11% in 5 min as compared to the untreated cells and this effect was persistent upon further exposition to this reagent up to 25 min. To better understand these observations, the effect of inhibitors of PKA and cAMP phosphodiesterase on fluid phase uptake was tested. 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) caused 12% decrease in LY accumulation after 5 min of incubation. In combination with isoproterenol or forskolin, IBMX enhanced their inhibitory effect on fluid endocytosis, which was lowered by 25% and 29%, respectively. The strongest inhibitory effect on fluid endocytosis was exerted by the 10 microM PKA inhibitor, which diminished endocytosis by 35% in 5 min. These results suggest that Paramecium fluid phase uptake may be regulated through activation of PKA, although the precise mechanism of this process has not yet been elucidated.

  8. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine.

  9. Crosslinking-Induced Endocytosis of Acetylcholine Receptors by Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lin; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  10. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine. PMID:27698943

  11. Imaging the Dynamics of Endocytosis in Live Mammalian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian cells, endocytosis plays a pivotal role in regulating several basic cellular functions. Up to now, the dynamics and the organization of the endocytic pathways have been primarily investigated in reductionist model systems such as cell and organ cultures. Although these experimental models have been fully successful in unraveling the endocytic machinery at a molecular level, our understanding of the regulation and the role of endocytosis in vivo has been limited. Recently, advancements in intravital microscopy have made it possible to extend imaging in live animals to subcellular structures, thus revealing new aspects of the molecular machineries regulating membrane trafficking that were not previously appreciated in vitro. Here, we focus on the use of intravital microscopy to study endocytosis in vivo, and discuss how this approach will allow addressing two fundamental questions: (1) how endocytic processes are organized in mammalian tissues, and (2) how they contribute to organ physiopathology. PMID:24691962

  12. Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking of Human Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Borrego, Francisco; Coligan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the defense against viral infections and tumor development. NK cell function is primarily regulated by the sum of signals from a broad array of activation and inhibitory receptors. Key to generating the input level of either activating or inhibitory signals is the maintenance of receptor expression levels on the cell surface. Although the mechanisms of endocytosis and trafficking for some cell surface receptors, such as transferrin receptor, and certain immune receptors, are very well known, that is not the situation for receptors expressed by NK cells. Recent studies have uncovered that endocytosis and trafficking routes characteristic for specific activation and inhibitory receptors can regulate the functional responses of NK cells. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of receptor endocytosis and trafficking, and integrate this with our current understanding of NK cell receptor trafficking. PMID:19719476

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  14. Endocytosis and exocytosis of nanoparticles in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nuri; Park, Ji-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles that can be injected into the human body hold tremendous potential to detect and treat complex diseases. Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application. In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites. Here, we review the recent research on the endocytosis and exocytosis of functionalized nanoparticles based on various sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries. We believe that this review contributes to the design of safe nanoparticles that can efficiently enter and leave human cells and tissues. PMID:24872703

  15. Cdk5 and the mystery of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chan; Bibb, James A

    2003-11-24

    Regulation of endocytosis by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is critical to synaptic vesicle recycling. Two groups have now identified the neuronal kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) as an important regulator of this process. Robinson and coworkers recently demonstrated that Cdk5 is necessary for synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) (Tan et al., 2003), whereas a new report in this issue claims that Cdk5 negatively regulates SVE (Tomizawa et al., 2003). Careful examination of the data reveals a model that helps resolve the apparently contradictory nature of these reports.

  16. Human podocytes perform polarized, caveolae-dependent albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Okamura, Kayo; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Doctor, R Brian; Blaine, Judith

    2014-05-01

    The renal glomerulus forms a selective filtration barrier that allows the passage of water, ions, and small solutes into the urinary space while restricting the passage of cells and macromolecules. The three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier include the vascular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and podocyte epithelium. Podocytes are capable of internalizing albumin and are hypothesized to clear proteins that traverse the GBM. The present study followed the fate of FITC-labeled albumin to establish the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis and processing by podocytes. Confocal imaging and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of immortalized human podocytes showed FITC-albumin endocytosis occurred preferentially across the basal membrane. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis demonstrated that the majority of FITC-albumin entered podocytes through caveolae. Once internalized, FITC-albumin colocalized with EEA1 and LAMP1, endocytic markers, and with the neonatal Fc receptor, a marker for transcytosis. After preloading podocytes with FITC-albumin, the majority of loaded FITC-albumin was lost over the subsequent 60 min of incubation. A portion of the loss of albumin occurred via lysosomal degradation as pretreatment with leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, partially inhibited the loss of FITC-albumin. Consistent with transcytosis of albumin, preloaded podocytes also progressively released FITC-albumin into the extracellular media. These studies confirm the ability of podocytes to endocytose albumin and provide mechanistic insight into cellular mechanisms and fates of albumin handling in podocytes.

  17. Bladder Uptake of Liposomes after Intravesical Administration Occurs by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Chancellor, Michael B.; Nirmal, Jayabalan; Dang, Loan; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery. PMID:25811468

  18. Role of turgor pressure in endocytosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Basu, Roshni; Munteanu, Emilia Laura; Chang, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Yeast and other walled cells possess high internal turgor pressure that allows them to grow and survive in the environment. This turgor pressure, however, may oppose the invagination of the plasma membrane needed for endocytosis. Here we study the effects of turgor pressure on endocytosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by time-lapse imaging of individual endocytic sites. Decreasing effective turgor pressure by addition of sorbitol to the media significantly accelerates early steps in the endocytic process before actin assembly and membrane ingression but does not affect the velocity or depth of ingression of the endocytic pit in wild-type cells. Sorbitol also rescues endocytic ingression defects of certain endocytic mutants and of cells treated with a low dose of the actin inhibitor latrunculin A. Endocytosis proceeds after removal of the cell wall, suggesting that the cell wall does not contribute mechanically to this process. These studies suggest that endocytosis is governed by a mechanical balance between local actin-dependent inward forces and opposing forces from high internal turgor pressure on the plasma membrane.

  19. Cell adhesion defines the topology of endocytosis and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Grossier, Jean-Philippe; Xouri, Georgia; Goud, Bruno; Schauer, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Preferred sites of endocytosis have been observed in various cell types, but whether they occur randomly or are linked to cellular cues is debated. Here, we quantified the sites of endocytosis of transferrin (Tfn) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells whose adhesion geometry was defined by micropatterns. 3D probabilistic density maps revealed that Tfn was enriched in adhesive sites during uptake, whereas EGF endocytosis was restricted to the dorsal cellular surface. This spatial separation was not due to distributions of corresponding receptors but was regulated by uptake mechanisms. Asymmetric uptake of Tfn resulted from the enrichment of clathrin and adaptor protein 2 at adhesive areas. Asymmetry in EGF uptake was strongly dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and led to asymmetry in EGF receptor activation. Mild alteration of actin dynamics abolished asymmetry in EGF uptake and decreased EGF-induced downstream signaling, suggesting that cellular adhesion cues influence signal propagation. We propose that restriction of endocytosis at distinct sites allows cells to sense their environment in an “outside-in” mechanism. PMID:24366944

  20. Antimalarial quinolines and artemisinin inhibit endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Heinrich C; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Wiehart, Ursula I M; Meredith, Sandra A; Egan, Joanne; Weber, Brandon W

    2004-07-01

    Endocytosis is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells and fulfills numerous functions, most notably, that of macromolecular nutrient uptake. Malaria parasites invade red blood cells and during their intracellular development endocytose large amounts of host cytoplasm for digestion in a specialized lysosomal compartment, the food vacuole. In the present study we have examined the effects of artemisinin and the quinoline drugs chloroquine and mefloquine on endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum. By using novel assays we found that mefloquine and artemisinin inhibit endocytosis of macromolecular tracers by up to 85%, while the latter drug also leads to an accumulation of undigested hemoglobin in the parasite. During 5-h incubations, chloroquine inhibited hemoglobin digestion but had no other significant effect on the endocytic pathway of the parasite, as assessed by electron microscopy, the immunofluorescence localization of hemoglobin, and the distribution of fluorescent and biotinylated dextran tracers. By contrast, when chloroquine was added to late ring stage parasites, followed by a 12-h incubation, macromolecule endocytosis was inhibited by more than 40%. Moreover, there is an accumulation of transport vesicles in the parasite cytosol, possibly due to a disruption in vacuole-vesicle fusion. This fusion block is not observed with mefloquine, artemisinin, quinine, or primaquine but is mimicked by the vacuole alkalinizing agents ammonium chloride and monensin. These results are discussed in the light of present theories regarding the mechanisms of action of the antimalarials and highlight the potential use of drugs in manipulating and studying the endocytic pathway of malaria parasites.

  1. Activity-dependent plasticity of hippocampal place maps

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Philipp; O'Neill, Joseph; Csicsvari, Jozsef

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons encode a cognitive map of space. These maps are thought to be updated during learning and in response to changes in the environment through activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here we examine how changes in activity influence spatial coding in rats using halorhodopsin-mediated, spatially selective optogenetic silencing. Halorhoposin stimulation leads to light-induced suppression in many place cells and interneurons; some place cells increase their firing through disinhibition, whereas some show no effect. We find that place fields of the unaffected subpopulation remain stable. On the other hand, place fields of suppressed place cells were unstable, showing remapping across sessions before and after optogenetic inhibition. Disinhibited place cells had stable maps but sustained an elevated firing rate. These findings suggest that place representation in the hippocampus is constantly governed by activity-dependent processes, and that disinhibition may provide a mechanism for rate remapping. PMID:27282121

  2. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Controls AMPAR Endocytosis through a Direct Interaction with Clathrin-Adaptor Protein 2.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, Luis L P; Wall, Mark J; P de Almeida, Luciana; Wauters, Sandrine C; Januário, Yunan C; Müller, Jürgen; Corrêa, Sonia A L

    2016-01-01

    The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs). Mutations of Arc, that prevent the AP-2 interaction reduce Arc-mediated endocytosis of GluA1 and abolish the reduction in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC amplitude and rectification. Depletion of the AP-2 subunit µ2 blocks the Arc-mediated reduction in mEPSC amplitude, an effect that is restored by reintroducing µ2. The Arc-AP-2 interaction plays an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling as the Arc-dependent decrease in mEPSC amplitude, induced by a chronic increase in neuronal activity, is inhibited by AP-2 depletion. These data provide a mechanism to explain how activity-dependent expression of Arc decisively controls the fate of AMPAR at the cell surface and modulates synaptic strength, via the direct interaction with the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2. PMID:27257628

  3. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Controls AMPAR Endocytosis through a Direct Interaction with Clathrin-Adaptor Protein 2123

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J.; P. de Almeida, Luciana; Wauters, Sandrine C.; Januário, Yunan C.; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs). Mutations of Arc, that prevent the AP-2 interaction reduce Arc-mediated endocytosis of GluA1 and abolish the reduction in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC amplitude and rectification. Depletion of the AP-2 subunit µ2 blocks the Arc-mediated reduction in mEPSC amplitude, an effect that is restored by reintroducing µ2. The Arc–AP-2 interaction plays an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling as the Arc-dependent decrease in mEPSC amplitude, induced by a chronic increase in neuronal activity, is inhibited by AP-2 depletion. These data provide a mechanism to explain how activity-dependent expression of Arc decisively controls the fate of AMPAR at the cell surface and modulates synaptic strength, via the direct interaction with the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2. PMID:27257628

  4. Entry of aminoglycosides into renal tubular epithelial cells via endocytosis-dependent and endocytosis-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Junya; Takano, Mikihisa

    2014-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin and amikacin are well recognized as a clinically important antibiotic class because of their reliable efficacy and low cost. However, the clinical use of aminoglycosides is limited by their nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Nephrotoxicity is induced mainly due to high accumulation of the antibiotics in renal proximal tubular cells. Therefore, a lot of studies on characterization of the renal transport system for aminoglycosides so far reported involved various in-vivo and in-vitro techniques. Early studies revealed that aminoglycosides are taken up through adsorptive endocytosis in renal epithelial cells. Subsequently, it was found that megalin, a multiligand endocytic receptor abundantly expressed on the apical side of renal proximal tubular cells, can bind aminoglycosides and that megalin-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in renal accumulation of aminoglycosides. Therefore, megalin has been suggested to be a promising molecular target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity. On the other hand, recently, some reports have indicated that aminoglycosides are transported via a pathway that does not require endocytosis, such as non-selective cation channel-mediated entry, in cultured renal tubular cells as well as cochlear outer hair cells. In this commentary article, we review the cellular transport of aminoglycosides in renal epithelial cells, focusing on endocytosis-dependent and -independent pathways.

  5. Myosin light chain kinase accelerates vesicle endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity triggers endocytosis at synaptic terminals to retrieve efficiently the exocytosed vesicle membrane, ensuring the membrane homeostasis of active zones and the continuous supply of releasable vesicles. The kinetics of endocytosis depends on Ca(2+) and calmodulin which, as a versatile signal pathway, can activate a broad spectrum of downstream targets, including myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK is known to regulate vesicle trafficking and synaptic transmission, but whether this kinase regulates vesicle endocytosis at synapses remains elusive. We investigated this issue at the rat calyx of Held synapse, where previous studies using whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement have characterized two common forms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent endocytosis, i.e., slow clathrin-dependent endocytosis and rapid endocytosis. Acute inhibition of MLCK with pharmacological agents was found to slow down the kinetics of both slow and rapid forms of endocytosis at calyces. Similar impairment of endocytosis occurred when blocking myosin II, a motor protein that can be phosphorylated upon MLCK activation. The inhibition of endocytosis was not accompanied by a change in Ca(2+) channel current. Combined inhibition of MLCK and calmodulin did not induce synergistic inhibition of endocytosis. Together, our results suggest that activation of MLCK accelerates both slow and rapid forms of vesicle endocytosis at nerve terminals, likely by functioning downstream of Ca(2+)/calmodulin.

  6. The yin and yang of calcium effects on synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-02-12

    A large number of studies suggest that calcium triggers and accelerates vesicle endocytosis at many synapses and non-neuronal secretory cells. However, many studies show that prolonging the duration of the stimulation train, which induces more calcium influx, slows down endocytosis; and several studies suggest that instead of triggering endocytosis, calcium actually inhibits endocytosis. Here we addressed this apparent conflict at a large nerve terminal, the calyx of Held in rat brainstem, in which recent studies suggest that transient calcium increase up to tens of micromolar concentration at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis. By dialyzing 0-1 μM calcium into the calyx via a whole-cell pipette, we found that slow endocytosis was inhibited by calcium dialysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, prolonged, small, and global calcium increase inhibits endocytosis, whereas transient and large calcium increase at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis and facilitates endocytosis. This yin and yang effect of calcium may reconcile apparent conflicts regarding whether calcium accelerates or inhibits endocytosis. Whether endocytosis is fast or slow depends on the net outcome between the yin and yang effect of calcium.

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  8. A memristor SPICE model accounting for synaptic activity dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingjiang; Serb, Alexander; Prodromakis, Themistoklis; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new memristor SPICE model that accounts for the typical synaptic characteristics that have been previously demonstrated with practical memristive devices. We show that this model could account for both volatile and non-volatile memristance changes under distinct stimuli. We then demonstrate that our model is capable of supporting typical STDP with simple non-overlapping digital pulse pairs. Finally, we investigate the capability of our model to simulate the activity dependence dynamics of synaptic modification and present simulated results that are in excellent agreement with biological results. PMID:25785597

  9. A memristor SPICE model accounting for synaptic activity dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingjiang; Serb, Alexander; Prodromakis, Themistoklis; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new memristor SPICE model that accounts for the typical synaptic characteristics that have been previously demonstrated with practical memristive devices. We show that this model could account for both volatile and non-volatile memristance changes under distinct stimuli. We then demonstrate that our model is capable of supporting typical STDP with simple non-overlapping digital pulse pairs. Finally, we investigate the capability of our model to simulate the activity dependence dynamics of synaptic modification and present simulated results that are in excellent agreement with biological results.

  10. A Memristor SPICE Model Accounting for Synaptic Activity Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingjiang; Serb, Alexander; Prodromakis, Themistoklis; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new memristor SPICE model that accounts for the typical synaptic characteristics that have been previously demonstrated with practical memristive devices. We show that this model could account for both volatile and non-volatile memristance changes under distinct stimuli. We then demonstrate that our model is capable of supporting typical STDP with simple non-overlapping digital pulse pairs. Finally, we investigate the capability of our model to simulate the activity dependence dynamics of synaptic modification and present simulated results that are in excellent agreement with biological results. PMID:25785597

  11. The use of FM dyes to analyze plant endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Malínská, Kateřina; Jelínková, Adriana; Petrášek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    FM (Fei-Mao) styryl dyes are compounds of amphiphilic character that are used for the fluorescence tracking of endocytosis and related processes, i.e., the internalization of membrane vesicles from the plasma membrane (PM) and dynamics of endomembranes. Staining with FM dyes and subsequent microscopical observations could be performed both on the tissue and cellular level. Here, we describe simple procedures for the effective FM dye staining and de-staining in root epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progression of FM dye uptake, reflected by an increased amount of the dye in the endosomal compartments, is monitored under the fluorescence microscope in a time-lapse manner. The data obtained can be used for the characterization of the rate of endocytosis and the function of components of endosomal recycling machinery.

  12. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms. PMID:25114214

  13. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-09-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms.

  14. Systems biology and physical biology of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Vyas; Agrawal, Neeraj J; Liu, Jin; Engles, Sean; Toy, Randall; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-08-01

    In this review, we describe the application of experimental data and modeling of intracellular endocytic trafficking mechanisms with a focus on the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A detailed parts-list for the protein-protein interactions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis has been available for some time. However, recent experimental, theoretical, and computational tools have proved to be critical in establishing a sequence of events, cooperative dynamics, and energetics of the intracellular process. On the experimental front, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, photo-activated localization microscopy, and spinning-disk confocal microscopy have focused on assembly and patterning of endocytic proteins at the membrane, while on the theory front, minimal theoretical models for clathrin nucleation, biophysical models for membrane curvature and bending elasticity, as well as methods from computational structural and systems biology, have proved insightful in describing membrane topologies, curvature mechanisms, and energetics.

  15. Statin-sensitive endocytosis of albumin by glomerular podocytes.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Jeanette; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Grubb, Blair D; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Brunskill, Nigel J; Christensen, Erik I; Topham, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    Glomerular podocytes are critical regulators of glomerular permeability via the slit diaphragm and may play a role in cleaning the glomerular filter. Whether podocytes are able to endocytose proteins is uncertain. We studied protein endocytosis in conditionally immortalized mouse and human podocytes using FITC-albumin by direct quantitative assay and by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy in mouse podocytes. Furthermore, in vivo uptake was studied in human, rat, and mouse podocytes. Both mouse and human podocytes displayed specific one-site binding for FITC-albumin with K(d) of 0.91 or 0.44 mg/ml and B(max) of 3.15 or 0.81 microg/mg cell protein, respectively. In addition, they showed avid endocytosis of FITC-albumin with K(m) of 9.48 or 4.5 mg/ml and V(max) of 474.3 or 97.4 microg.mg cell protein(-1).h(-1), respectively. Immunoglobulin and transferrin were inefficient competitors of this process, indicating some specificity for albumin. Accumulation of endocytosed albumin could be demonstrated in intracellular vesicles by fluorescence confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Endocytosis was sensitive to pretreatment with simvastatin. In vivo accumulation of albumin was found in all three species but was most pronounced in the rat. We conclude that podocytes are able to endocytose protein in a statin-sensitive manner. This function is likely to be highly significant in health and disease. In addition, protein endocytosis by podocytes may represent a useful, measurable phenotypic characteristic against which potentially injurious or beneficial interventions can be assessed. PMID:17032937

  16. Phospholipase D in Endocytosis and Endosomal Recycling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Julie G.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that Arf GTPases, mediators of membrane traffic, activate phospholipase D (PLD) raised the possibility that Arfs could facilitate membrane traffic by altering membrane lipid composition. PLD hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid that favors membranes with negative curvature and thus can facilitate both membrane fission and fusion. This review examines studies that have reported a role for PLD in endocytosis and membrane recycling from endocytic pathways. PMID:19540357

  17. Visualization of Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Jon; Konopka, James; Singer-Kruger, Birgit; Zerial, Marino; Botstein, David

    1999-01-01

    We studied the ligand-induced endocytosis of the yeast α-factor receptor Ste2p by immuno-electron microscopy. We observed and quantitated time-dependent loss of Ste2p from the plasma membrane of cells exposed to α-factor. This ligand-induced internalization of Ste2p was blocked in the well-characterized endocytosis-deficient mutant sac6Δ. We provide evidence that implicates furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane as the site of receptor internalization. These invaginations are distinct from the finger-like plasma membrane invaginations within actin cortical patches. Consistent with this, we show that Ste2p is not located within the cortical actin patch before and during receptor-mediated endocytosis. In wild-type cells exposed to α-factor we also observed and quantitated a time-dependent accumulation of Ste2p in intracellular, membrane-bound compartments. These compartments have a characteristic electron density but variable shape and size and are often located adjacent to the vacuole. In immuno-electron microscopy experiments these compartments labeled with antibodies directed against the rab5 homologue Ypt51p (Vps21p), the resident vacuolar protease carboxypeptidase Y, and the vacuolar H+-ATPase Vph1p. Using a new double-labeling technique we have colocalized antibodies against Ste2p and carboxypeptidase Y to this compartment, thereby identifying these compartments as prevacuolar late endosomes. PMID:10069819

  18. Architectural remodeling of the tonoplast during fluid-phase endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-07-01

    During fluid phase endocytosis (FPE) in plant storage cells, the vacuole receives a considerable amount of membrane and fluid contents. If allowed to accumulate over a period of time, the enlarging tonoplast and increase in fluids would invariably disrupt the structural equilibrium of the mature cells. Therefore, a membrane retrieval process must exist that will guarantee membrane homeostasis in light of tonoplast expansion by membrane addition during FPE. We examined the morphological changes to the vacuolar structure during endocytosis in red beet hypocotyl tissue using scanning laser confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The heavily pigmented storage vacuole allowed us to visualize all architectural transformations during treatment. When red beet tissue was incubated in 200 mM sucrose, a portion of the sucrose accumulated entered the cell by means of FPE. The accumulation process was accompanied by the development of vacuole-derived vesicles which transiently counterbalanced the addition of surplus endocytic membrane during rapid rates of endocytosis. Topographic fluorescent confocal micrographs showed an ensuing reduction in the size of the vacuole-derived vesicles and further suggest their reincorporation into the vacuole to maintain vacuolar unity and solute concentration. PMID:23656870

  19. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael . E-mail: rlinden@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-06-29

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP{sup C}), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP{sup C} and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP{sup C} by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases.

  20. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of gold nanoparticles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cheng Teng; Tang, Florence Mei Ai; Li, Jasmine Jia'en; Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lanry Lin Yue; Bay, Boon Huat

    2015-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have potential biomedical and scientific applications. In this study, we evaluated the uptake and internalization of FBS-coated 20 nm AuNPs into lung fibroblasts and liver cells by different microscopy techniques. AuNP aggregates were observed inside MRC5 lung fibroblasts and Chang liver cells under light microscopy, especially after enhancement with automegallography. Clusters of AuNPs were observed to be adsorbed on the cell surface by scanning electron microscopy. Ultrathin sections showed that AuNPs were mainly enclosed within cytoplasmic vesicles when viewed under transmission electron microscopy. We also investigated the mechanism of uptake for AuNPs, using endocytosis inhibitors and quantification of Au with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cells treated with concanavalin A and chlorpromazine showed significant decrease of Au uptake in MRC5 lung fibroblasts and Chang liver cells, respectively, implying that the uptake of AuNPs was facilitated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It would therefore appear that uptake of 20 nm AuNPs in both cell types with different tissues of origin, was dependent upon clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  1. Translocation and Endocytosis for Cell-penetrating Peptide Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Chen-Yu; Delaroche, Diane; Burlina, Fabienne; Alves, Isabel D.; Chassaing, Gérard; Sagan, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) share the property of cellular internalization. The question of how these peptides reach the cytoplasm of cells is still widely debated. Herein, we have used a mass spectrometry-based method that enables quantification of internalized and membrane-bound peptides. Internalization of the most used CPP was studied at 37 °C (endocytosis and translocation) and 4 °C (translocation) in wild type and proteoglycan-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both translocation and endocytosis are internalization pathways used by CPP. The choice of one pathway versus the other depends on the peptide sequence (not the number of positive changes), the extracellular peptide concentration, and the membrane components. There is no relationship between the high affinity of these peptides for the cell membrane and their internalization efficacy. Translocation occurs at low extracellular peptide concentration, whereas endocytosis, a saturable and cooperative phenomenon, is activated at higher concentrations. Translocation operates in a narrow time window, which implies a specific lipid/peptide co-import in cells. PMID:19833724

  2. Nodal-mediated epigenesis requires dynamin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Robin P.; Robertson, Anthony J.; Saunders, Diane; Coffman, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Nodal proteins are diffusible morphogens that drive pattern formation via short-range feedback activation coupled to long-range Lefty-mediated inhibition. In the sea urchin embryo, specification of the secondary (oral-aboral) axis occurs via zygotic expression of nodal, which is localized to the prospective oral ectoderm at early blastula stage. In mid-blastula stage embryos treated with low micromolar nickel or zinc, nodal expression expands progressively beyond the confines of this localized domain to encompass the entire equatorial circumference of the embryo, producing radialized embryos lacking an oral-aboral axis. RNAseq analysis of embryos treated with nickel, zinc or cadmium (which does not radialize embryos) showed that several genes involved in endocytosis were similarly perturbed by nickel and zinc but not cadmium. Inhibiting dynamin, a GTPase required for receptor-mediated endocytosis, phenocopies the effects of nickel and zinc, suggesting that dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required as a sink to limit the range of Nodal signaling. PMID:21337468

  3. Cholesterol regulates multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at a mammalian central synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-07-01

    Endocytosis in synapses sustains neurotransmission by recycling vesicle membrane and maintaining the homeostasis of synaptic membrane. A role of membrane cholesterol in synaptic endocytosis remains controversial because of conflicting observations, technical limitations in previous studies, and potential interference from non-specific effects after cholesterol manipulation. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether cholesterol participates in distinct forms of endocytosis that function under different activity levels. In this study, applying the whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement to monitor endocytosis in real time at the rat calyx of Held terminals, we found that disrupting cholesterol with dialysis of cholesterol oxidase or methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired three different forms of endocytosis, including slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, and endocytosis of the retrievable membrane that exists at the surface before stimulation. The effects were observed when disruption of cholesterol was mild enough not to change Ca(2+) channel current or vesicle exocytosis, indicative of stringent cholesterol requirement in synaptic endocytosis. Extracting cholesterol with high concentrations of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced exocytosis, mainly by decreasing the readily releasable pool and the vesicle replenishment after readily releasable pool depletion. Our study suggests that cholesterol is an important, universal regulator in multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses.

  4. Dimerization drives EGFR endocytosis through two sets of compatible endocytic codes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    We have shown previously that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is controlled by EGFR dimerization. However, it is not clear how the dimerization drives receptor internalization. We propose that EGFR endocytosis is driven by dimerization, bringing two sets of endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor monomer, in close proximity. Here, we tested this hypothesis by generating specific homo- or hetero-dimers of various receptors and their mutants. We show that ErbB2 and ErbB3 homodimers are endocytosis deficient owing to the lack of endocytic codes. Interestingly, EGFR-ErbB2 or EGFR-ErbB3 heterodimers are also endocytosis deficient. Moreover, the heterodimer of EGFR and the endocytosis-deficient mutant EGFRΔ1005-1017 is also impaired in endocytosis. These results indicate that two sets of endocytic codes are required for receptor endocytosis. We found that an EGFR-PDGFRβ heterodimer is endocytosis deficient, although both EGFR and PDGFRβ homodimers are endocytosis-competent, indicating that two compatible sets of endocytic codes are required. Finally, we found that to mediate the endocytosis of the receptor dimer, the two sets of compatible endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor molecule, have to be spatially coordinated.

  5. Cholesterol Regulates Multiple Forms of Vesicle Endocytosis at a Mammalian Central Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis in synapses sustains neurotransmission by recycling vesicle membrane and maintaining the homeostasis of synaptic membrane. A role of membrane cholesterol in synaptic endocytosis remains controversial because of conflicting observations, technical limitations in previous studies, and potential interference from nonspecific effects after cholesterol manipulation. Furthermore, it is unclear whether cholesterol participates in distinct forms of endocytosis that function under different activity levels. In this study, applying the whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement to monitor endocytosis in real time at the rat calyx of Held terminals, we found that disrupting cholesterol with dialysis of cholesterol oxidase (COase) or methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) impaired three different forms of endocytosis, i.e., slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, and endocytosis of the retrievable membrane that exists at the surface before stimulation. The effects were observed when disruption of cholesterol was mild enough not to change Ca2+ channel current or vesicle exocytosis, indicative of stringent cholesterol requirement in synaptic endocytosis. Extracting cholesterol with high concentrations of MCD reduced exocytosis, mainly by decreasing the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the vesicle replenishment after RRP depletion. Our study suggests that cholesterol is an important, universal regulator in multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses. PMID:25893258

  6. The role of mu opioid receptor desensitization and endocytosis in morphine tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lene; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2007-10-01

    Following activation, most G protein coupled receptors undergo regulation by a cascade of events that promote receptor desensitization and endocytosis. Following endocytosis, receptors can then be recycled to the plasma membrane, retained in an intracellular compartment, or targeted for degradation. For receptors that are recycled, like the mu opioid receptor (MOR), endocytosis serves as the first step toward resensitizing receptors. For receptors that are degraded, endocytosis serves as the first step toward receptor downregulation. Thus, for receptors like the MOR, the desensitization-endocytosis-resensitization cycle serves as a rapid and dynamic means to titrate signaling through the receptor. However, not all agonist ligands at the MOR promote the same degree of receptor desensitization and endocytosis. For example, the endogenous peptide ligands at the MOR induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis, and recycling. By contrast, morphine induces only weak or partial desensitization and little to no endocytosis. As a consequence, signal transduction promoted by morphine is less dynamic than that induced by endogenous ligands as well as other opioid agonists that promote endocytosis. The resulting imbalance of desensitization-endocytosis-resensitization has at least two consequences: (1) in cell types where morphine induces desensitization but not endocytosis and/or resensitization, desensitization is protracted; (2) in cell types where morphine induces neither desensitization nor endocytosis, prolonged signaling through the receptor leads to multiple cellular adaptations downstream of receptor-G protein coupling. Both protracted desensitization and adaptive cellular changes probably contribute to the pronounced in vivo tolerance and dependence that occur with chronic morphine treatment. As a consequence, facilitating receptor endocytosis, using either genetic or pharmacological approaches, can restore the balance of signaling through the receptor and affect the

  7. Bilateral Activity-Dependent Interactions in the Developing Corticospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Kathleen M.; Martin, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent competition between the corticospinal (CS) systems in each hemisphere drives postnatal development of motor skills and stable CS tract connections with contralateral spinal motor circuits. Unilateral restriction of motor cortex (M1) activity during an early postnatal critical period impairs contralateral visually guided movements later in development and in maturity. Silenced M1 develops aberrant connections with the contralateral spinal cord whereas the initially active M1, in the other hemisphere, develops bilateral connections. In this study, we determined whether the aberrant pattern of CS tract terminations and motor impairments produced by early postnatal M1 activity restriction could be abrogated by reducing activity-dependent synaptic competition from the initially active M1 later in development. We first inactivated M1 unilaterally between postnatal weeks 5–7. We next inactivated M1 on the other side from weeks 7–11 (alternate inactivation), to reduce the competitive advantage that this side may have over the initially inactivated side. Alternate inactivation redirected aberrant contralateral CS tract terminations from the initially silenced M1 to their normal spinal territories and reduced the density of aberrant ipsilateral terminations from the initially active side. Normal movement endpoint control during visually guided locomotion was fully restored. This reorganization of CS terminals reveals an unsuspected late plasticity after the critical period for establishing the pattern of CS terminations in the spinal cord. Our findings show that robust bilateral interactions between the developing CS systems on each side are important for achieving balance between contralateral and ipsilateral CS tract connections and visuomotor control. PMID:17928450

  8. The SNARE proteins SNAP25 and synaptobrevin are involved in endocytosis at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Dongsheng; Sun, Tao; Xu, Jianhua; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2013-05-22

    SNAP25, an essential component of the soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex that mediates exocytosis, is not considered to play a role in endocytosis, which couples to exocytosis by retrieving a similar amount of exocytosed vesicles. By knocking down SNAP25 and imaging slow endocytosis at a conventional synapse, the rat cultured hippocampal synapse, we found that SNAP25 is involved in slow, clathrin-dependent endocytosis. With similar techniques, we found that not only SNAP25, but also synaptobrevin is involved in slow endocytosis. These results provide the first evidence showing the dual role of SNAP25 and synaptobrevin in both exocytosis and slow endocytosis at conventional synapses. Such a dual role may contribute to mediate the coupling between exocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis at conventional synapses, a mechanism critical for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and the normal structure of nerve terminals.

  9. Calcineurin is universally involved in vesicle endocytosis at neuronal and nonneuronal secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Luo, Fujun; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-05-22

    Calcium influx triggers and accelerates endocytosis in nerve terminals and nonneuronal secretory cells. Whether calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin, which dephosphorylates endocytic proteins, mediates this process is highly controversial for different cell types, developmental stages, and endocytic forms. Using three preparations that previously produced discrepant results (i.e., large calyx-type synapses, conventional cerebellar synapses, and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells containing large dense-core vesicles), we found that calcineurin gene knockout consistently slowed down endocytosis, regardless of cell type, developmental stage, or endocytic form (rapid or slow). In contrast, calcineurin and calmodulin blockers slowed down endocytosis at a relatively small calcium influx, but did not inhibit endocytosis at a large calcium influx, resulting in false-negative results. These results suggest that calcineurin is universally involved in endocytosis. They may also help explain the discrepancies among previous pharmacological studies. We therefore suggest that calcineurin should be included as a key player in mediating calcium-triggered and -accelerated vesicle endocytosis.

  10. Rapid kinetics of endocytosis at rod photoreceptor synapses depends upon endocytic load and calcium.

    PubMed

    Cork, Karlene M; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-05-01

    Release from rods is triggered by the opening of L-type Ca2+ channels that lie beneath synaptic ribbons. After exocytosis, vesicles are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis. Previous work showed that endocytosis is dynamin-dependent in rods but dynamin-independent in cones. We hypothesized that fast endocytosis in rods may also differ from cones in its dependence upon the amount of Ca2+ influx and/or endocytic load. We measured exocytosis and endocytosis from membrane capacitance (C m) changes evoked by depolarizing steps in voltage clamped rods from tiger salamander retinal slices. Similar to cones, the time constant for endocytosis in rods was quite fast, averaging <200 ms. We manipulated Ca2+ influx and the amount of vesicle release by altering the duration and voltage of depolarizing steps. Unlike cones, endocytosis kinetics in rods slowed after increasing Ca2+ channel activation with longer step durations or more strongly depolarized voltage steps. Endocytosis kinetics also slowed as Ca2+ buffering was decreased by replacing BAPTA (10 or 1 mM) with the slower Ca2+ buffer EGTA (5 or 0.5 mM) in the pipette solution. These data provide further evidence that endocytosis mechanisms differ in rods and cones and suggest that endocytosis in rods is regulated by both endocytic load and local Ca2+ levels.

  11. TRIM72 modulates caveolar endocytosis in repair of lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nagre, Nagaraja; Wang, Shaohua; Kellett, Thomas; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Deng, Jing; Nishi, Miyuki; Shilo, Konstantin; Oeckler, Richard A; Yalowich, Jack C; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Christman, John; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury is a major feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, in particular when in conjunction with ventilation therapies. Previously we showed [Kim SC, Kellett T, Wang S, Nishi M, Nagre N, Zhou B, Flodby P, Shilo K, Ghadiali SN, Takeshima H, Hubmayr RD, Zhao X. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L449-L459, 2014.] that tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) is essential for amending alveolar epithelial cell injury. Here, we posit that TRIM72 improves cellular integrity through its interaction with caveolin 1 (Cav1). Our data show that, in primary type I alveolar epithelial cells, lack of TRIM72 led to significant reduction of Cav1 at the plasma membrane, accompanied by marked attenuation of caveolar endocytosis. Meanwhile, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRIM72 selectively increases caveolar endocytosis in rat lung epithelial cells, suggesting a functional association between these two. Further coimmunoprecipitation assays show that deletion of either functional domain of TRIM72, i.e., RING, B-box, coiled-coil, or PRY-SPRY, abolishes the physical interaction between TRIM72 and Cav1, suggesting that all theoretical domains of TRIM72 are required to forge a strong interaction between these two molecules. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that injurious ventilation-induced lung cell death was significantly increased in knockout (KO) TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) lungs compared with wild-type controls and was particularly pronounced in double KO mutants. Apoptosis was accompanied by accentuation of gross lung injury manifestations in the TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) mice. Our data show that TRIM72 directly and indirectly modulates caveolar endocytosis, an essential process involved in repair of lung epithelial cells through removal of plasma membrane wounds. Given TRIM72's role in endomembrane trafficking and cell repair, we consider this molecule an attractive therapeutic target for patients with injured lungs.

  12. An ultrasensitive sorting mechanism for EGF Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Vacheva, Ivayla; Hoeller, Daniela; Dikic, Ivan; Eils, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor has been shown to internalize via clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) in a ligand concentration dependent manner. From a modeling point of view, this resembles an ultrasensitive response, which is the ability of signaling networks to suppress a response for low input values and to increase to a pre-defined level for inputs exceeding a certain threshold. Several mechanisms to generate this behaviour have been described theoretically, the underlying assumptions of which, however, have not been experimentally demonstrated for the EGF receptor internalization network. Results Here, we present a mathematical model of receptor sorting into alternative pathways that explains the EGF-concentration dependent response of CIE. The described mechanism involves a saturation effect of the dominant clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway and implies distinct steady-states into which the system is forced for low vs high EGF stimulations. The model is minimal since no experimentally unjustified reactions or parameter assumptions are imposed. We demonstrate the robustness of the sorting effect for large parameter variations and give an analytic derivation for alternative steady-states that are reached. Further, we describe extensibility of the model to more than two pathways which might play a role in contexts other than receptor internalization. Conclusion Our main result is that a scenario where different endocytosis routes consume the same form of receptor corroborates the observation of a clear-cut, stimulus dependent sorting. This is especially important since a receptor modification discriminating between the pathways has not been found experimentally. The model is not restricted to EGF receptor internalization and might account for ultrasensitivity in other cellular contexts. PMID:18394191

  13. Solar activity dependence of nightside aurora in winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Su; Luan, Xiaoli; Dou, Xiankang

    2016-02-01

    The dependence of the nightside (21:00-03:00 MLT; magnetic local time) auroral energy flux on solar activity was quantitatively studied for winter/dark and geomagnetically quiet conditions. Using data combined from Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Global Ultraviolet Imager and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager observations, we separated the effects of geomagnetic activity from those of solar flux on the nightside auroral precipitation. The results showed that the nightside auroral power was reduced by ~42% in solar maximum (F10.7 = 200 sfu; solar flux unit 1 sfu = 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1) with respect to that under solar minimum (F10.7 = 70 sfu) for the Kp = 1 condition, and this change rate became less (~21%) for the Kp = 3 condition. In addition, the solar cycle dependence of nightside auroral power was similar with that from both the premidnight (21:00-23:00 MLT) and postmidnight (01:00-03:00 MLT) sectors. These results indicated that as the ionospheric ionization increases with the enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activities, the solar activity dependences of nightside auroral power become weaker, at least under geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  14. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Carmen E.; Méndez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons. PMID:25386117

  15. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carmen E; Méndez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons. PMID:25386117

  16. Stretch-regulated Exocytosis/Endocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Truschel, Steven T.; Wang, Edward; Ruiz, Wily G.; Leung, Som-Ming; Rojas, Raul; Lavelle, John; Zeidel, Mark; Stoffer, David; Apodaca, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    The epithelium of the urinary bladder must maintain a highly impermeable barrier despite large variations in urine volume during bladder filling and voiding. To study how the epithelium accommodates these volume changes, we mounted bladder tissue in modified Ussing chambers and subjected the tissue to mechanical stretch. Stretching the tissue for 5 h resulted in a 50% increase in lumenal surface area (from ∼2900 to 4300 μm2), exocytosis of a population of discoidal vesicles located in the apical cytoplasm of the superficial umbrella cells, and release of secretory proteins. Surprisingly, stretch also induced endocytosis of apical membrane and 100% of biotin-labeled membrane was internalized within 5 min after stretch. The endocytosed membrane was delivered to lysosomes and degraded by a leupeptin-sensitive pathway. Last, we show that the exocytic events were mediated, in part, by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate, protein kinase A-dependent process. Our results indicate that stretch modulates mucosal surface area by coordinating both exocytosis and endocytosis at the apical membrane of umbrella cells and provide insight into the mechanism of how mechanical forces regulate membrane traffic in nonexcitable cells. PMID:11907265

  17. The architectural relationship of components controlling mast cell endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cleyrat, Cédric; Darehshouri, Anza; Anderson, Karen L.; Page, Christopher; Lidke, Diane S.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic cells use multiple routes for receptor internalization. Here, we examine the topographical relationships of clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic structures on the plasma membranes of leukemia-derived mast cells. The high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) utilizes both pathways, whereas transferrin receptor serves as a marker for the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Both receptors were tracked by live-cell imaging in the presence or absence of inhibitors that established their differential dependence on specific endocytic adaptor proteins. The topology of antigen-bound FcεRI, clathrin, dynamin, Arf6 and Eps15-positive structures were analyzed by 2D and 3D immunoelectron microscopy techniques, revealing their remarkable spatial relationships and unique geometry. We conclude that the mast cell plasma membrane has multiple specialized domains for endocytosis. Their close proximity might reflect shared components, such as lipids and adaptor proteins, that facilitate inward membrane curvature. Intersections between these specialized domains might represent sorting stations that direct cargo to specific endocytic pathways. PMID:23986485

  18. Transferrin: Endocytosis and Cell Signaling in Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element on Earth and the most abundant metal in the human body. This element is crucial for life because almost all organisms need iron for several biological activities. This is the case with pathogenic organisms, which are at the vanguard in the battle with the human host for iron. The latest regulates Fe concentration through several iron-containing proteins, such as transferrin. The transferrin receptor transports iron to each cell that needs it and maintains it away from pathogens. Parasites have developed several strategies to obtain iron as the expression of specific transferrin receptors localized on plasma membrane, internalized through endocytosis. Signal transduction pathways related to the activation of the receptor have functional importance in proliferation. The study of transferrin receptors and other proteins with action in the signaling networks is important because these proteins could be used as therapeutic targets due to their specificity or to differences with the human counterpart. In this work, we describe proteins that participate in signal transduction processes, especially those that involve transferrin endocytosis, and we compare these processes with those found in T. brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania spp., and E. histolytica parasites. PMID:26090431

  19. Lysosomal Trafficking of TGFBIp via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-il; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-im; Lee, Yangsin; Kim, Yong-Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues and cell lines. Progressive accumulation of mutant TGFBIp is directly involved in the pathogenesis of TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. Recent studies reported that mutant TGFBIp accumulates in cells; however, the trafficking of TGFBIp is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated TGFBIp trafficking to determine the route of its internalization and secretion and to elucidate its roles in the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Our data indicate that newly synthesized TGFBIp was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway, and this secretion was delayed in the corneal fibroblasts of patients with GCD2. We also found that TGFBIp was internalized by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the internalized TGFBIp accumulated after treatment with bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of lysosomal degradation. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits the endocytosis of TGFBIp. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that TGFBIp interacted with integrin αVβ3. Moreover, treatment with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide suppressed the internalization of TGFBIp. These insights on TGFBIp trafficking could lead to the identification of novel targets and the development of new therapies for TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. PMID:25853243

  20. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guangqing

    2013-01-01

    Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed. PMID:23840214

  1. Arrestin-mediated endocytosis of yeast plasma membrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B

    2009-12-01

    Many plasma membrane transporters in yeast are endocytosed in response to excess substrate or certain stresses and degraded in the vacuole. Endocytosis invariably requires ubiquitination by the HECT domain ligase Rsp5. In the cases of the manganese transporter Smf1 and the amino acid transporters Can1, Lyp1 and Mup1 it has been shown that ubiquitination is mediated by arrestin-like adaptor proteins that bind to Rsp5 and recognize specific transporters. As yeast contains a large family of arrestins, this has been suggested as a general model for transporter regulation; however, analysis is complicated by redundancy amongst the arrestins. We have tested this model by removing all the arrestins and examining the requirements for endocytosis of four more transporters, Itr1 (inositol), Hxt6 (glucose), Fur4 (uracil) and Tat2 (tryptophan). This reveals functions for the arrestins Art5/Ygr068c and Art4/Rod1, and additional roles for Art1/Ldb19, Art2/Ecm21 and Art8/Csr2. It also reveals functional redundancy between arrestins and the arrestin-like adaptors Bul1 and Bul2. In addition, we show that delivery to the vacuole often requires multiple additional ubiquitin ligases or adaptors, including the RING domain ligase Pib1, and the adaptors Bsd2, Ear1 and Ssh4, some acting redundantly. We discuss the similarities and differences in the requirements for regulation of different transporters.

  2. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Regulates Nephrin Endocytosis in Developing Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Babayeva, Sima; Rocque, Brittany; Aoudjit, Lamine; Zilber, Yulia; Li, Jane; Baldwin, Cindy; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Takano, Tomoko; Torban, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway controls a variety of cell behaviors such as polarized protrusive cell activity, directional cell movement, and oriented cell division and is crucial for the normal development of many tissues. Mutations in the PCP genes cause malformation in multiple organs. Recently, the PCP pathway was shown to control endocytosis of PCP and non-PCP proteins necessary for cell shape remodeling and formation of specific junctional protein complexes. During formation of the renal glomerulus, the glomerular capillary becomes enveloped by highly specialized epithelial cells, podocytes, that display unique architecture and are connected via specialized cell-cell junctions (slit diaphragms) that restrict passage of protein into the urine; podocyte differentiation requires active remodeling of cytoskeleton and junctional protein complexes. We report here that in cultured human podocytes, activation of the PCP pathway significantly stimulates endocytosis of the core slit diaphragm protein, nephrin, via a clathrin/β-arrestin-dependent endocytic route. In contrast, depletion of the PCP protein Vangl2 leads to an increase of nephrin at the cell surface; loss of Vangl2 functions in Looptail mice results in disturbed glomerular maturation. We propose that the PCP pathway contributes to podocyte development by regulating nephrin turnover during junctional remodeling as the cells differentiate. PMID:23824190

  4. Rapid endocytosis is triggered upon imbibition in Arabidopsis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, Luciana; Burbach, Christian; Baluška, František; de la Canal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    During seed imbibition and embryo activation, rapid change from a metabolically resting state to the activation of diverse extracellular and/or membrane bound molecules is essential and, hence, endocytosis could be activated too. In fact, we have documented endocytic internalization of the membrane impermeable endocytic tracer FM4–64 already upon 30 min of imbibition of Arabidopsis seeds. This finding suggest that endocytosis is activated early during seed imbibition in Arabidopsis. Immunolocalization of rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) complexed with boron showed that whereas this pectin is localized only in the cell walls of dry seed embryos, it starts to be intracellular once the imbibition started. Brefeldin A (BFA) exposure resulted in recruitment of the intracellular RG-II pectin complexes into the endocytic BFA-induced compartments, confirming the endocytic origin of the RG-II signal detected intracellularly. Finally, germination was significantly delayed when Arabidopsis seeds were germinated in the presence of inhibitors of endocytic pathways, suggesting that trafficking of extracellular molecules might play an important role in the overcome of germination. This work constitutes the first demonstration of endocytic processes during germination and opens new perspectives about the role of the extracellular matrix and membrane components in seed germination. PMID:22476454

  5. Membrane Mechanics of Endocytosis in Cells with Turgor.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2015-10-01

    Endocytosis is an essential process by which cells internalize a piece of plasma membrane and material from the outside. In cells with turgor, pressure opposes membrane deformations, and increases the amount of force that has to be generated by the endocytic machinery. To determine this force, and calculate the shape of the membrane, we used physical theory to model an elastic surface under pressure. Accurate fits of experimental profiles are obtained assuming that the coated membrane is highly rigid and preferentially curved at the endocytic site. The forces required from the actin machinery peaks at the onset of deformation, indicating that once invagination has been initiated, endocytosis is unlikely to stall before completion. Coat proteins do not lower the initiation force but may affect the process by the curvature they induce. In the presence of isotropic curvature inducers, pulling the tip of the invagination can trigger the formation of a neck at the base of the invagination. Hence direct neck constriction by actin may not be required, while its pulling role is essential. Finally, the theory shows that anisotropic curvature effectors stabilize membrane invaginations, and the loss of crescent-shaped BAR domain proteins such as Rvs167 could therefore trigger membrane scission.

  6. Actin-Mediated Endocytosis Limits Intracellular Cr Accumulation and Cr Toxicity during Chromate Stress

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Sara L.; Avery, Simon V.

    2009-01-01

    Chromate toxicity is well documented, but the underlying toxic mechanism(s) has yet to be fully elucidated. Following a Cr toxicity screen against > 6000 heterozygous yeast mutants, here we show that Cr resistance requires normal function of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, Cr-stressed yeast cells exhibited an increased number of actin patches, the sites of endocytosis. This was coincident with a marked stimulation of endocytosis following Cr exposure. Genetic dissection of actin nucleation from endocytosis revealed that endocytosis, specifically, was required for Cr resistance. A series of further endocytosis mutants (sac6Δ, chc1Δ, end3Δ) exhibited elevated Cr sensitivity. These mutants also showed markedly elevated cellular Cr accumulation, explaining their sensitivities. In wild-type cells, an initial endocytosis-independent phase of Cr uptake was followed by an endocytosis-dependent decline in Cr accumulation. The results indicate that actin-mediated endocytosis is required to limit Cr accumulation and toxicity. It is proposed that this involves ubiquitin-dependent endocytic inactivation of a plasma membrane Cr transporter(s). We showed that such an action was not dependent on the transporters that have been characterized to date, the sulfate (and chromate) permeases Sul1p and Sul2p. PMID:19628586

  7. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-05-01

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly. PMID:25864702

  8. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  9. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other. PMID:25010412

  10. Visualizing the endocytosis of phenylephrine in living cells by quantum dot-based tracking.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Lina; Hou, Zhun; Song, Yao; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To study the intracellular receptor-drug transportation, a fluorescent probe consisting of phenylephrine-polyethylene glycol-quantum dots conjugate was employed to track endocytosis process of phenylephrine in living cells. This type of movement was studied by continuously filming fluorescent images in the same cell. We also calculated the movement parameters, and divided the endocytosis process into 6 stages. Furthermore, the movement parameters of this probe in different organelles were determined by co-localization of the probe fluorescent images and different cellular organelles. After comparing the parameters in cellular organelles with these in 6 stages, the whole endocytosis pathway was demonstrated. These results verified that this probe successfully tracked the whole intracellular dynamic endocytosis process of phenylephrine. Our method realized the visual tracking the whole receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is a new approach on investigating the molecular mechanisms and kinetic properties of intracellular receptor-drug transportation.

  11. Notch Ligand Endocytosis Generates Mechanical Pulling Force Dependent on Dynamin, Epsins and Actin

    PubMed Central

    Meloty-Kapella, Laurence; Shergill, Bhupinder; Kuon, Jane; Botvinick, Elliot; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Notch signaling induced by cell surface ligands is critical to development and maintenance of many eukaryotic organisms. Notch and its ligands are integral membrane proteins that facilitate direct cell-cell interactions to activate Notch proteolysis and release the intracellular domain that directs Notch-specific cellular responses. Genetic studies suggest Notch ligands require endocytosis, ubiquitylation and epsin endocytic adaptors to activate signaling, yet the exact role ligand endocytosis serves remains unresolved. Here we characterize a molecularly distinct mode of clathrin-mediated endocytosis requiring ligand ubiquitylation, epsins and actin for ligand cells to activate signaling in Notch cells. Using a cell-bead optical tweezers system, we obtained evidence for cell-mediated mechanical force dependent on this distinct mode of ligand endocytosis. We propose mechanical pulling force produced by endocytosis of Notch-bound ligand drives conformational changes in Notch that permit activating proteolysis. PMID:22658936

  12. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  13. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  14. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Promotes the Endocytosis of Transferrin in the African Trypanosome.

    PubMed

    Guyett, Paul J; Xia, Shuangluo; Swinney, David C; Pollastri, Michael P; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo

    2016-07-01

    Human parasite Trypanosoma brucei proliferates in the blood of its host, where it takes up iron via receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin (Tf). Mechanisms of Tf endocytosis in the trypanosome are not fully understood. Small molecule lapatinib inhibits Tf endocytosis in T. brucei and associates with protein kinase GSK3β (TbGSK3β). Therefore, we hypothesized that Tf endocytosis may be regulated by TbGSK3β, and we used three approaches (both genetic and small molecule) to test this possibility. First, the RNAi knock-down of TbGSK3β reduced Tf endocytosis selectively, without affecting the uptake of haptaglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Second, the overexpression of TbGSK3β increased the Tf uptake. Third, small-molecule inhibitors of TbGSK3β, TWS119 (IC50 = 600 nM), and GW8510 (IC50 = 8 nM) reduced Tf endocytosis. Furthermore, TWS119, but not GW8510, selectively blocked Tf uptake. Thus, TWS119 phenocopies the selective endocytosis effects of a TbGSK3β knockdown. Two new inhibitors of TbGSK3β, LY2784544 (IC50 = 0.6 μM) and sorafenib (IC50 = 1.7 μM), were discovered in a focused screen: at low micromolar concentrations, they prevented Tf endocytosis as well as trypanosome proliferation (GI50's were 1.0 and 3.1 μM, respectively). These studies show that (a) TbGSK3β regulates Tf endocytosis, (b) TWS119 is a small-molecule tool for investigating the endocytosis of Tf, PMID:27626104

  15. Bulk Fuel Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by bulk fuel workers. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: bulk fuel equipment, bulk fuel systems, procedures for handling fuels, and…

  16. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  17. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  18. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  19. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  20. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from...

  1. Endocytosis of simian virus 40 into the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kartenbeck, J.; Stukenbrok, H.; Helenius, A. )

    1989-12-01

    The endocytosis of SV-40 into CV-1 cells we studied using biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The half-time of binding of ({sup 35}S)methionine-radiolabeled SV-40 to CV-1 cells was 25 min. Most of the incoming virus particles remained undegraded for several hours. Electron microscopy showed that some virus entered the endosomal/lysosomal pathway via coated vesicles, while the majority were endocytosed via small uncoated vesicles. After infection at high multiplicity, one third of total cell-associated virus was observed to enter the ER, starting 1-2 h after virus application. The viruses were present in large, tubular, smooth membrane networks generated as extentions of the ER. The results describe a novel and unique membrane transport pathway that allows endocytosed viral particles to be targeted from the plasma membrane to the ER.

  2. Developmental Function of Nm23/awd - A Mediator of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nallamothu, Gouthami; Dammai, Vincent; Hsu, Tien

    2009-01-01

    The metastasis suppressor gene Nm23 is highly conserved from yeast to human, implicating a critical developmental function. Studies in cultured mammalian cells have identified several potential functions, but many have not been directly verified in vivo. Here we summarize the studies on the Drosophila homologue of the Nm23 gene, named abnormal wing discs (awd), which shares 78% amino acid identity with the human Nm23-H1 and H2 isoforms. These studies confirmed that awd gene encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and provided strong evidence of a role for awd in regulating cell differentiation and motility via regulation of growth factor receptor signaling. The latter function is mainly mediated by control of endocytosis. This review provides a historical account of the discovery and subsequent analyses of the awd gene. We will also discuss the possible molecular function of the Awd protein that underlies the endocytic function. PMID:19373545

  3. Clostridial Glucosylating Toxins Enter Cells via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Genisyuerek, Selda; Guttenberg, Gregor; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and C. novyi α-toxin (TcnA) are important pathogenicity factors, which represent the family of the clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs). Toxin A and B are associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis. Lethal toxin is involved in toxic shock syndrome after abortion and α-toxin in gas gangrene development. CGTs enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and require an acidified endosome for translocation of the catalytic domain into the cytosol. Here we studied the endocytic processes that mediate cell internalization of the CGTs. Intoxication of cells was monitored by analyzing cell morphology, status of Rac glucosylation in cell lysates and transepithelial resistance of cell monolayers. We found that the intoxication of cultured cells by CGTs was strongly delayed when cells were preincubated with dynasore, a cell-permeable inhibitor of dynamin, or chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. Additional evidence about the role of clathrin in the uptake of the prototypical CGT family member toxin B was achieved by expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Eps15 DN) or by siRNA against the clathrin heavy chain. Accordingly, cells that expressed dominant-negative caveolin-1 were not protected from toxin B-induced cell rounding. In addition, lipid rafts impairment by exogenous depletion of sphingomyelin did not decelerate intoxication of HeLa cells by CGTs. Taken together, our data indicate that the endocytic uptake of the CGTs involves a dynamin-dependent process that is mainly governed by clathrin. PMID:20498856

  4. Iterative endocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S P; Bomford, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. Subsequent release of the apotransferrin was very rapid with a t 1/2 of 3.01 min, compared with 5.5 min for diferric transferrin. Release of apotransferrin was slowed by the weak base methylamine, t 1/2 8.0 min, but the effect of this agent was substantially greater when iron-transferrin was used, t 1/2 18.65 min, suggesting that methylamine affects both iron removal and receptor recycling. Release of iron-transferrin could be accelerated to a rate comparable with that of apotransferrin by addition of the permeant iron-chelator desferrioxamine. The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a protease-containing medium to digest transferrin accessible at the cell surface. It appears that in cells incubated under control conditions, re-endocytosis of transferrin, which is incompletely depleted of iron, occurs and that a transferrin molecule may make two passes through the cell before all the iron is removed. This mechanism helps to explain why very little iron-transferrin is released from cells and why the efficiency of the iron uptake process is so high. PMID:8129715

  5. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  6. Morphine-induced receptor endocytosis in a novel knockin mouse reduces tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joseph A; Bartlett, Selena; He, Li; Nielsen, Carsten K; Chang, Amy M; Kharazia, Viktor; Waldhoer, Maria; Ou, Chrissi J; Taylor, Stacy; Ferwerda, Madeline; Cado, Dragana; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2008-01-22

    Opioid drugs, such as morphine, are among the most effective analgesics available. However, their utility for the treatment of chronic pain is limited by side effects including tolerance and dependence. Morphine acts primarily through the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-R) , which is also a target of endogenous opioids. However, unlike endogenous ligands, morphine fails to promote substantial receptor endocytosis both in vitro, and in vivo. Receptor endocytosis serves at least two important functions in signal transduction. First, desensitization and endocytosis act as an "off" switch by uncoupling receptors from G protein. Second, endocytosis functions as an "on" switch, resensitizing receptors by recycling them to the plasma membrane. Thus, both the off and on function of the MOP-R are altered in response to morphine compared to endogenous ligands. To examine whether the low degree of endocytosis induced by morphine contributes to tolerance and dependence, we generated a knockin mouse that expresses a mutant MOP-R that undergoes morphine-induced endocytosis. Morphine remains an excellent antinociceptive agent in these mice. Importantly, these mice display substantially reduced antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. These data suggest that opioid drugs with a pharmacological profile similar to morphine but the ability to promote endocytosis could provide analgesia while having a reduced liability for promoting tolerance and dependence.

  7. Notch1 endocytosis is induced by ligand and is required for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G; Major, J A; Iyer, K; James, A C; Pursglove, S E; Moreau, J L M; Dunwoodie, S L

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signalling pathway is widely utilised during embryogenesis in situations where cell-cell interactions are important for cell fate specification and differentiation. DSL ligand endocytosis into the ligand-expressing cell is an important aspect of Notch signalling because it is thought to supply the force needed to separate the Notch heterodimer to initiate signal transduction. A functional role for receptor endocytosis during Notch signal transduction is more controversial. Here we have used live-cell imaging to examine trafficking of the Notch1 receptor in response to ligand binding. Contact with cells expressing ligands induced internalisation and intracellular trafficking of Notch1. Notch1 endocytosis was accompanied by transendocytosis of ligand into the Notch1-expressing signal-receiving cell. Ligand caused Notch1 endocytosis into SARA-positive endosomes in a manner dependent on clathrin and dynamin function. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis in the receptor-expressing cell impaired ligand-induced Notch1 signalling. Our findings resolve conflicting observations from mammalian and Drosophila studies by demonstrating that ligand-dependent activation of Notch1 signalling requires receptor endocytosis. Endocytosis of Notch1 may provide a force on the ligand:receptor complex that is important for potent signal transduction.

  8. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1

    PubMed Central

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M.; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion. PMID:24743596

  9. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1.

    PubMed

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-06-15

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion.

  10. Endocytosis of VAMP is facilitated by a synaptic vesicle targeting signal

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    After synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents, vesicle membrane proteins recycle by endocytosis and are targeted to newly formed synaptic vesicles. The membrane traffic of an epitope-tagged form of VAMP-2 (VAMP-TAg) was observed in transfected cells to identify sequence requirements for recycling of a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. In the neuroendocrine PC12 cell line VAMP-TAg is found not only in synaptic vesicles, but also in endosomes and on the plasma membrane. Endocytosis of VAMP-TAg is a rapid and saturable process. At high expression levels VAMP-TAg accumulates at the cell surface. Rapid endocytosis of VAMP-TAg also occurs in transfected CHO cells and is therefore independent of other synaptic proteins. The majority of the measured endocytosis is not directly into synaptic vesicles since mutations in VAMP-TAg that enhance synaptic vesicle targeting did not affect endocytosis. Nonetheless, mutations that inhibited synaptic vesicle targeting, in particular replacement of methionine-46 by alanine, inhibited endocytosis by 85% in PC12 cells and by 35% in CHO cells. These results demonstrate that the synaptic vesicle targeting signal is also used for endocytosis and can be recognized in cells lacking synaptic vesicles. PMID:8647886

  11. Ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 protein does not require endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tory A.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Human NPC1L1 protein mediates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and liver and is the target of the drug ezetimibe, which is used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Previous studies concluded that NPC1L1-GFP protein trafficking is regulated by cholesterol binding and that ezetimibe blocks NPC1L1-GFP function by inhibiting its endocytosis. We used cell surface biotinylation to monitor NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis and show that ezetimibe does not alter the rate of NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis in cultured rat hepatocytes grown under normal growth conditions. As expected, NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis depends in part on C-terminal, cytoplasmically oriented sequences, but endocytosis does not require cholesterol binding to NPC1L1’s N-terminal domain. In addition, two small- molecule inhibitors of general (and NPC1L1-GFP) endocytosis failed to inhibit the ezetimibe-sensitive uptake of [3H]cholesterol from taurocholate micelles. These experiments demonstrate that cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 does not require endocytosis; moreover, ezetimibe interferes with NPC1L1’s cholesterol adsorption activity without blocking NPC1L1 internalization in RH7777 cells. PMID:27075173

  12. Clathrin- and Dynamin-Independent Endocytosis of FGFR3 – Implications for Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Haugsten, Ellen Margrethe; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Brech, Andreas; Pust, Sascha; Olsnes, Sjur; Sandvig, Kirsten; Wesche, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Endocytosis of tyrosine kinase receptors can influence both the duration and the specificity of the signal emitted. We have investigated the mechanisms of internalization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and compared it to that of FGFR1 which is internalized predominantly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, we observed that FGFR3 was internalized at a slower rate than FGFR1 indicating that it may use a different endocytic mechanism than FGFR1. Indeed, after depletion of cells for clathrin, internalization of FGFR3 was only partly inhibited while endocytosis of FGFR1 was almost completely abolished. Similarly, expression of dominant negative mutants of dynamin resulted in partial inhibition of the endocytosis of FGFR3 whereas internalization of FGFR1 was blocked. Interfering with proposed regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis such as Arf6, flotillin 1 and 2 and Cdc42 did not affect the endocytosis of FGFR1 or FGFR3. Furthermore, depletion of clathrin decreased the degradation of FGFR1 resulting in sustained signalling. In the case of FGFR3, both the degradation and the signalling were only slightly affected by clathrin depletion. The data indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is required for efficient internalization and downregulation of FGFR1 while FGFR3, however, is internalized by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. PMID:21779335

  13. Dynamic caveolae exclude bulk membrane proteins and are required for sorting of excess glycosphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Shvets, Elena; Bitsikas, Vassilis; Howard, Gillian; Hansen, Carsten Gram; Nichols, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Caveolae have long been implicated in endocytosis. Recent data question this link, and in the absence of specific cargoes the potential cellular function of caveolar endocytosis remains unclear. Here we develop new tools, including doubly genome-edited cell lines, to assay the subcellular dynamics of caveolae using tagged proteins expressed at endogenous levels. We find that around 5% of the cellular pool of caveolae is present on dynamic endosomes, and is delivered to endosomes in a clathrin-independent manner. Furthermore, we show that caveolae are indeed likely to bud directly from the plasma membrane. Using a genetically encoded tag for electron microscopy and ratiometric light microscopy, we go on to show that bulk membrane proteins are depleted within caveolae. Although caveolae are likely to account for only a small proportion of total endocytosis, cells lacking caveolae show fundamentally altered patterns of membrane traffic when loaded with excess glycosphingolipid. Altogether, these observations support the hypothesis that caveolar endocytosis is specialized for transport of membrane lipid. PMID:25897946

  14. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi; Antonescu, Costin N

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  15. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Koral, Kelly; Li, Hui; Ganesh, Nandita; Birnbaum, Morris J; Hallows, Kenneth R; Erkan, Elif

    2014-12-15

    Proximal tubule epithelial cells have a highly sophisticated endocytic machinery to retrieve the albumin in the glomerular filtrate. The megalin-cubilin complex and the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) play a pivotal role in albumin endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that protein kinase B (Akt) regulates albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule through an interaction with Dab2. Here, we examined the nature of Akt-Dab2 interaction. The pleckstrin homology (PH) and catalytic domains (CD) of Akt interacted with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of Dab2 based on yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Pull-down experiments utilizing the truncated constructs of Dab2 demonstrated that the initial 11 amino acids of Dab2-PRD were sufficient to mediate the interaction between Akt and Dab2. Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; therefore, Akt1 and Akt2 may play a compensatory role in albumin endocytosis. Furthermore, both Akt isoforms phosphorylated Dab2 at Ser residues 448 and 449. Ser-to-Ala mutations of these Dab2 residues inhibited albumin endocytosis and resulted in a shift in location of Dab2 from the peripheral to the perinuclear area, suggesting the physiological relevance of these phosphorylation sites in albumin endocytosis. We conclude that both Akt1 and Akt2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of Dab2 by Akt induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Further delineation of how Akt affects expression/phosphorylation of endocytic adaptors and receptors will enhance our understanding of the molecular network triggered by albumin overload in the proximal tubule.

  16. Developmental changes in Ca2+ channel subtypes regulating endocytosis at the calyx of Held.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Mitsuharu; Okamoto, Yuji; Sakaba, Takeshi

    2014-08-15

    At the mammalian central synapse, Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+) channels triggers neurotransmitter release by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, which fuse with the presynaptic membrane and are subsequently retrieved by endocytosis. At the calyx of Held terminal, P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels mainly mediate exocytosis, while N- and R-type channels have a minor role in young terminals (postnatal days 8-11). The role of each Ca(2+) channel subtype in endocytosis remains to be elucidated; therefore, we examined the role of each type of Ca(2+) channel in endocytosis, by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in conjunction with capacitance measurement techniques. We found that at the young calyx terminal, when R-type Ca(2+) channels were blocked, the slow mode of endocytosis was further slowed, while blocking of either P/Q- or N-type Ca(2+) channels had no major effect. In more mature terminals (postnatal days 14-17), the slow mode of endocytosis was mainly triggered by P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, suggesting developmental changes in the regulation of the slow mode of endocytosis by different Ca(2+) channel subtypes. In contrast, a fast mode of endocytosis was observed after strong stimulation in young terminals that was mediated mainly by P/Q-type, but not R- or N-type Ca(2+) channels. These results suggest that different types of Ca(2+) channels regulate the two different modes of endocytosis. The results may also suggest that exo- and endocytosis are regulated independently at different sites in young animals but are more tightly coupled in older animals, allowing more efficient synaptic vesicle cycling adapted for fast signalling.

  17. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  18. ALG-2 interacting protein-X (Alix) is essential for clathrin-independent endocytosis and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Vincent; Laporte, Marine H.; Destaing, Olivier; Blot, Béatrice; Blouin, Cédric M.; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Chatellard, Christine; Saoudi, Yasmina; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Lamaze, Christophe; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Petiot, Anne; Sadoul, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and the biological functions of clathrin independent endocytosis (CIE) remain largely elusive. Alix (ALG-2 interacting protein X), has been assigned roles in membrane deformation and fission both in endosomes and at the plasma membrane. Using Alix ko cells, we show for the first time that Alix regulates fluid phase endocytosis and internalization of cargoes entering cells via CIE, but has no apparent effect on clathrin mediated endocytosis or downstream endosomal trafficking. We show that Alix acts with endophilin-A to promote CIE of cholera toxin and to regulate cell migration. We also found that Alix is required for fast endocytosis and downstream signaling of the interleukin-2 receptor giving a first indication that CIE is necessary for activation of at least some surface receptors. In addition to characterizing a new function for Alix, our results highlight Alix ko cells as a unique tool to unravel the biological consequences of CIE. PMID:27244115

  19. ALG-2 interacting protein-X (Alix) is essential for clathrin-independent endocytosis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Vincent; Laporte, Marine H; Destaing, Olivier; Blot, Béatrice; Blouin, Cédric M; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Chatellard, Christine; Saoudi, Yasmina; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Lamaze, Christophe; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Petiot, Anne; Sadoul, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and the biological functions of clathrin independent endocytosis (CIE) remain largely elusive. Alix (ALG-2 interacting protein X), has been assigned roles in membrane deformation and fission both in endosomes and at the plasma membrane. Using Alix ko cells, we show for the first time that Alix regulates fluid phase endocytosis and internalization of cargoes entering cells via CIE, but has no apparent effect on clathrin mediated endocytosis or downstream endosomal trafficking. We show that Alix acts with endophilin-A to promote CIE of cholera toxin and to regulate cell migration. We also found that Alix is required for fast endocytosis and downstream signaling of the interleukin-2 receptor giving a first indication that CIE is necessary for activation of at least some surface receptors. In addition to characterizing a new function for Alix, our results highlight Alix ko cells as a unique tool to unravel the biological consequences of CIE. PMID:27244115

  20. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-04-01

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental procedures and the results of the control experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01020a

  1. A luminescent assay for real-time measurements of receptor endocytosis in living cells.

    PubMed

    Robers, Matthew B; Binkowski, Brock F; Cong, Mei; Zimprich, Chad; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Otto, George; Eggers, Christopher T; Hartnett, Jim; Machleidt, Thomas; Fan, Frank; Wood, Keith V

    2015-11-15

    Ligand-mediated endocytosis is a key autoregulatory mechanism governing the duration and intensity of signals emanating from cell surface receptors. Due to the mechanistic complexity of endocytosis and its emerging relevance in disease, simple methods capable of tracking this dynamic process in cells have become increasingly desirable. We have developed a bioluminescent reporter technology for real-time analysis of ligand-mediated receptor endocytosis using genetic fusions of NanoLuc luciferase with various G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This method is compatible with standard microplate formats, which should decrease work flows for high-throughput screens. This article also describes the application of this technology to endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), demonstrating potential applicability of the method beyond GPCRs.

  2. Sensing the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles using magneto-photo-acoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qu, M.; Mehrmohammadi, M.; Emelianov, S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedical applications necessitate a targeted intracellular delivery of the nanomaterial to specific cells. Therefore, a non-invasive and reliable imaging tool is required to detect both the delivery and cellular endocytosis of the nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrate that magneto-photo-acoustic (MPA) imaging can be used to monitor the delivery and to identify endocytosis of magnetic and optically absorbing nanoparticles. The relationship between photoacoustic (PA) and magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) signals from the in vitro samples were analyzed to identify the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles. The results indicated that during the delivery of nanoparticles to the vicinity of the cells, both PA and MMUS signals are almost linearly proportional. However, accumulation of nanoparticles within the cells leads to nonlinear MMUS-PA relationship, due to non-linear MMUS signal amplification. Therefore, through longitudinal MPA imaging, it is possible to monitor the delivery of nanoparticles and identify the endocytosis of the nanoparticles by living cells. PMID:26640773

  3. Actin-Based Feedback Circuits in Cell Migration and Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxin

    In this thesis, we study the switch and pulse functions of actin during two important cellular processes, cell migration and endocytosis. Actin is an abundant protein that can polymerize to form a dendritic network. The actin network can exert force to push or bend the cell membrane. During cell migration, the actin network behaves like a switch, assembling mostly at one end or at the other end. The end with the majority of the actin network is the leading edge, following which the cell can persistently move in the same direction. The other end, with the minority of the actin network, is the trailing edge, which is dragged by the cell as it moves forward. When subjected to large fluctuations or external stimuli, the leading edge and the trailing edge can interchange and change the direction of motion, like a motion switch. Our model of the actin network in a cell reveals that mechanical force is crucial for forming the motion switch. We find a transition from single state symmetric behavior to switch behavior, when tuning parameters such as the force. The model is studied by both stochastic simulations, and a set of rate equations that are consistent with the simulations. Endocytosis is a process by which cells engulf extracellular substances and recycle the cell membrane. In yeast cells, the actin network is transiently needed to overcome the pressure difference across the cell membrane caused by turgor pressure. The actin network behaves like a pulse, which assembles and then disassembles within about 30 seconds. Using a stochastic model, we reproduce the pulse behaviors of the actin network and one of its regulatory proteins, Las17. The model matches green fluorescence protein (GFP) experiments for wild-type cells. The model also predicts some phenotypes that modify or diminish the pulse behavior. The phenotypes are verified with both experiments performed at Washington University and with other groups' experiments. We find that several feedback mechanisms are

  4. Different dynamin blockers interfere with distinct phases of synaptic endocytosis during stimulation in motoneurones

    PubMed Central

    Linares-Clemente, Pedro; Rozas, José L; Mircheski, Josif; García-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Martínez-López, José A; Nieto-González, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Pintado, C Oscar; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Key points Neurotransmitter release requires a tight coupling between synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis with dynamin being a key protein in that process. We used imaging techniques to examine the time course of endocytosis at mouse motor nerve terminals expressing synaptopHluorin, a genetically encoded reporter of the synaptic vesicle cycle. We separated two sequential phases of endocytosis taking place during the stimulation train: early and late endocytosis. Freshly released synaptic vesicle proteins are preferentially retrieved during the early phase, which is very sensitive to dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin GTPase activity. Synaptic vesicle proteins pre-existing at the plasma membrane before the stimulation are preferentially retrieved during the late phase, which is very sensitive to myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (MitMAB), an inhibitor of the dynamin–phospholipid interaction. Abstract Synaptic endocytosis is essential at nerve terminals to maintain neurotransmitter release by exocytosis. Here, at the neuromuscular junction of synaptopHluorin (spH) transgenic mice, we have used imaging to study exo- and endocytosis occurring simultaneously during nerve stimulation. We observed two endocytosis components, which occur sequentially during stimulation. The early component of endocytosis apparently internalizes spH molecules freshly exocytosed. This component was sensitive to dynasore, a blocker of dynamin 1 GTPase activity. In contrast, this early component was resistant to myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (MiTMAB), a competitive agent that blocks dynamin binding to phospholipid membranes. The late component of endocytosis is likely to internalize spH molecules that pre-exist at the plasma membrane before stimulation starts. This component was blocked by MiTMAB, perhaps by impairing the binding of dynamin or other key endocytic proteins to phospholipid membranes. Our study suggests the co-existence of two sequential synaptic endocytosis

  5. Endocytosis of hyaluronic acid by rat liver endothelial cells. Evidence for receptor recycling.

    PubMed Central

    McGary, C T; Raja, R H; Weigel, P H

    1989-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is cleared from the blood by liver endothelial cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis [Eriksson, Fraser, Laurent, Pertoft & Smedsrod (1983) Exp. Cell Res. 144, 223-238]. We have measured the capacity of cultured rat liver endothelial cells to endocytose and degrade 125I-HA (Mr approximately 44,000) at 37 degrees C. Endocytosis was linear for 3 h and then reached a plateau. The rate of endocytosis was concentration-dependent and reached a maximum of 250 molecules/s per cell. Endocytosis of 125I-HA was inhibited more than 92% by a 150-fold excess of non-radiolabelled HA. HA, chondroitin sulphate and heparin effectively competed for endocytosis of 125I-HA, whereas glucuronic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, DNA, RNA, polygalacturonic acid and dextran did not compete. In the absence of cycloheximide, endothelial cells processed 13 times more 125I-HA in 6 h than their total (cell-surface and intracellular) specific HA-binding capacity. This result was not due to degradation and rapid replacement of receptors, because, even in the presence of cycloheximide, these cells processed 6 times more HA than their total receptor content in 6 h. Also, in the presence of cycloheximide, no decrease in 125I-HA-binding capacity was seen in cells processing or not processing HA for 6 h, indicating that receptors are not degraded after the endocytosis of HA. During endocytosis of HA at 37 degrees C, at least 65% of the intracellular HA receptors became occupied with HA within 30 min. This indicates that the intracellular HA receptors (75% of the total) function during continuous endocytosis. Hyperosmolarity inhibits endocytosis and receptor recycling in the asialoglycoprotein and low-density-lipoprotein receptor systems by disrupting the coated-pit pathway [Heuser & Anderson (1987) J. Cell Biol. 105, 230a; Oka & Weigel (1988) J. Cell. Biochem. 36, 169-183]. Hyperosmolarity inhibited 125I-HA endocytosis in liver endothelial cells by more than 90%, suggesting use of a

  6. Inhibitor of endocytosis impairs gene electrotransfer to mouse muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Markelc, Bostjan; Skvarca, Eva; Dolinsek, Tanja; Kloboves, Veronika Prevodnik; Coer, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Cemazar, Maja

    2015-06-01

    Application of electric pulses (electroporation/electropermeabilization) is an effective method for gene transfer (i.e. gene electrotransfer (GET)) in vitro and in vivo. Currently, the mechanisms by which the DNA enters the cell are not yet fully understood. Experimental evidence is building up that endocytosis is the main mechanism by which the DNA, which is later expressed, enters the cell. Therefore the aim of our study was to elucidate whether inhibitors of endocytosis, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), Concanavalin A (ConA) and Dynasore, can impair the transfection efficacy of GET in vitro in B16F1 murine melanoma and in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis in mice. We show that MβCD--general inhibitor of endocytosis--can almost prevent GET of EGFP-N1 plasmid in vitro, that ConA--inhibitor of clathrin mediated endocytosis--also abrogates GET but to a lesser extent, and when using Dynasore--reversible inhibitor of dynamin--there is no effect on GET efficacy, if endocytosis is blocked for only 5 min after GET. Moreover, MβCD also reduced GET efficacy in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis and this effect was long lasting. The results of this study show that endocytosis is probably the main mechanism of entrance of DNA after GET in vitro and also in vivo.

  7. Molecular mediators for raft-dependent endocytosis of syndecan-1, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keyang; Williams, Kevin Jon

    2013-05-17

    Endocytosis via rafts has attracted considerable recent interest, but the molecular mediators remain incompletely characterized. Here, we focused on the syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor that we previously showed to undergo raft-dependent endocytosis upon clustering. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of three to five consecutive cytoplasmic residues at a time revealed that a conserved juxtamembrane motif, MKKK, was the only region required for efficient endocytosis after clustering. Endocytosis of clustered syndecan-1 occurs in two phases, each requiring a kinase and a corresponding cytoskeletal partner. In the initial phase, ligands trigger rapid MKKK-dependent activation of ERK and the localization of syndecan-1 into rafts. Activation of ERK drives the dissociation of syndecan-1 from α-tubulin, a molecule that may act as an anchor for syndecan-1 at the plasma membrane in the basal state. In the second phase, Src family kinases phosphorylate tyrosyl residues within the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of syndecan-1, a process that also requires MKKK. Tyrosine phosphorylation of syndecan-1 triggers the robust recruitment of cortactin, which we found to be an essential mediator of efficient actin-dependent endocytosis. These findings represent the first detailed characterization of the molecular events that drive endocytosis of a raft-dependent receptor and identify a novel endocytic motif, MKKK. Moreover, the results provide new tools to study syndecan function and regulation during uptake of its biologically and medically important ligands, such as HIV-1, atherogenic postprandial remnant lipoproteins, and molecules implicated in Alzheimer disease.

  8. Quantification of endocytosis using a folate functionalized silica hollow nanoshell platform.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Sergio; Mendez, Natalie; Alfaro, Jesus G; Yang, Jian; Aschemeyer, Sharraya; Liberman, Alex; Trogler, William C; Kummel, Andrew C

    2015-08-01

    A quantification method to measure endocytosis was designed to assess cellular uptake and specificity of a targeting nanoparticle platform. A simple N -hydroxysuccinimide ester conjugation technique to functionalize 100-nm hollow silica nanoshell particles with fluorescent reporter fluorescein isothiocyanate and folate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed. Functionalized nanoshells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the maximum amount of folate functionalized on nanoshell surfaces was quantified with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The extent of endocytosis by HeLa cervical cancer cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF-1) cells was investigated in vitro using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. A simple fluorescence ratio analysis was developed to quantify endocytosis versus surface adhesion. Nanoshells functionalized with folate showed enhanced endocytosis by cancer cells when compared to PEG functionalized nanoshells. Fluorescence ratio analyses showed that 95% of folate functionalized silica nanoshells which adhered to cancer cells were endocytosed, while only 27% of PEG functionalized nanoshells adhered to the cell surface and underwent endocytosis when functionalized with 200 and 900  μg , respectively. Additionally, the endocytosis of folate functionalized nanoshells proved to be cancer cell selective while sparing normal cells. The developed fluorescence ratio analysis is a simple and rapid verification/validation method to quantify cellular uptake between datasets by using an internal control for normalization.

  9. Quantification of endocytosis using a folate functionalized silica hollow nanoshell platform.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Sergio; Mendez, Natalie; Alfaro, Jesus G; Yang, Jian; Aschemeyer, Sharraya; Liberman, Alex; Trogler, William C; Kummel, Andrew C

    2015-08-01

    A quantification method to measure endocytosis was designed to assess cellular uptake and specificity of a targeting nanoparticle platform. A simple N -hydroxysuccinimide ester conjugation technique to functionalize 100-nm hollow silica nanoshell particles with fluorescent reporter fluorescein isothiocyanate and folate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed. Functionalized nanoshells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the maximum amount of folate functionalized on nanoshell surfaces was quantified with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The extent of endocytosis by HeLa cervical cancer cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF-1) cells was investigated in vitro using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. A simple fluorescence ratio analysis was developed to quantify endocytosis versus surface adhesion. Nanoshells functionalized with folate showed enhanced endocytosis by cancer cells when compared to PEG functionalized nanoshells. Fluorescence ratio analyses showed that 95% of folate functionalized silica nanoshells which adhered to cancer cells were endocytosed, while only 27% of PEG functionalized nanoshells adhered to the cell surface and underwent endocytosis when functionalized with 200 and 900  μg , respectively. Additionally, the endocytosis of folate functionalized nanoshells proved to be cancer cell selective while sparing normal cells. The developed fluorescence ratio analysis is a simple and rapid verification/validation method to quantify cellular uptake between datasets by using an internal control for normalization. PMID:26315280

  10. Endocytosis of Seven-Transmembrane RGS Protein Activates G- protein Coupled Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Daisuke; Phan, Nguyen; Jones, Janice C.; Yang, Jing; Huang, Jirong; Grigston, Jeffrey; Taylor, J. Philip; Jones, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction typically begins by ligand-dependent activation of a concomitant partner which is otherwise in its resting state. However, in cases where signal activation is constitutive by default, the mechanism of regulation is unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric Gα protein self-activates without accessory proteins, and is kept in its resting state by the negative regulator, AtRGS1 (Regulator of G protein Signaling 1), which is the prototype of a seven transmembrane receptor fused with an RGS domain. Endocytosis of AtRGS1 by ligand-dependent endocytosis physically uncouples the GTPase accelerating activity of AtRGS1 from the Gα protein, permitting sustained activation. Phosphorylation of AtRGS1 by AtWNK8 kinase causes AtRGS1 endocytosis, required both for G protein-mediated sugar signaling and cell proliferation. In animals, receptor endocytosis results in signal desensitization, whereas in plants, endocytosis results in signal activation. These findings reveal how different organisms rearrange a regulatory system to result in opposite outcomes using similar phosphorylation-dependent endocytosis. PMID:22940907

  11. Genetic analysis of endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans: coelomocyte uptake defective mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Fares, H; Greenwald, I

    2001-01-01

    The coelomocytes of Caenorhabditis elegans are scavenger cells that continuously and nonspecifically endocytose fluid from the pseudocoelom (body cavity). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) secreted into the pseudocoelom from body wall muscle cells is endocytosed and degraded by coelomocytes. We show that toxin-mediated ablation of coelomocytes results in viable animals that fail to endocytose pseudocoelomic GFP, indicating that endocytosis by coelomocytes is not essential for growth or survival of C. elegans under normal laboratory conditions. We examined known viable endocytosis mutants, and performed RNAi for other known endocytosis genes, for coelomocyte uptake defective (Cup) phenotypes. We also screened for new genes involved in endocytosis by isolating viable mutants with Cup defects; this screen identified 14 different genes, many with multiple alleles. A variety of Cup terminal phenotypes were observed, consistent with defects at various steps in the endocytic pathway. Available molecular information indicates that the Cup mutant screen has identified novel components of the endocytosis machinery that are conserved in mammals but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the only other organism for which large-scale genetic screens for endocytosis mutants have been performed. PMID:11560892

  12. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of proteoglycans by human fibroblasts involves recognition of the protein core.

    PubMed Central

    Glössl, J; Schubert-Prinz, R; Gregory, J D; Damle, S P; von Figura, K; Kresse, H

    1983-01-01

    Endocytosis by cultured human skin fibroblasts of 35SO4(2-)-labelled or [3H]leucine-labelled proteoglycans from fibroblast secretions and of 125I-proteodermatan sulphate from pig skin was quantitatively investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) Core proteins prepared by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase were at least as efficiently endocytosed as native proteoglycans. Pig skin proteodermatan sulphate was a competitive inhibitor of endocytosis of 35SO4(2-)-labelled proteoglycans. (2) Proteoglycans produced in the presence of tunicamycin and native proteoglycans degraded with endoglycosaminidase H were internalized at a normal rate. Several monosaccharides that can be bound by mammalian lectins were unable to influence the internalization of proteoglycans. Treatment of proteoglycans with neuraminidase, however, resulted in an increased clearance rate. (3) Reductive methylation or acetoacetylation of lysine residues was accompanied by a parallel decrease in the rate of proteoglycan endocytosis. Reversal of acetoacetylation normalized the uptake properties. Endocytosis of native proteoglycans was also reduced in the presence of poly-L-lysine, and this reduction in endocytosis was observed as well with proteoglycans synthesized in the presence of the lysine analogue S-2-aminoethylcysteine. These results suggest that the recognition marker required for receptor-mediated endocytosis of proteodermatan sulphate resides in its protein moiety and involves lysine residues. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6316923

  13. Ouabain uptake by endocytosis in isolated guinea pig atria

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez-Duran, H.; Riboni, L.; Ubaldo, E.; Kabela, E.; Barcenas-Ruiz, L. Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico DF )

    1988-10-01

    Mammalian cells specifically internalize some molecular species through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). The authors have used four different experimental protocols to investigate whether ouabain enters cardiac cells of guinea pig atrium through this pathway. First, by electron microscope morphometry the authors found that ouabain increased endocytic vesicles in atrial cells. Second, by scintillation counting they found that ({sup 3}H)ouabain uptake by the tissue is decreased by three treatments that decrease RME, i.e., NH{sub 4}Cl, trifluoperazine, and 16 mM (K{sup +}){sub 0}. Third, by radioautography at the electron microscope level, they checked that in preceding experiments ({sup 3}H)ouabain was washed out of plasma membrane after 60-min rinse and interiorized into the cardiac cells. Fourth, isometric tension recordings showed that the positive inotropic effect of ouabain was diminished in the presence of inhibitors, whereas that of a hydrophobic analogue, ouabagenin, was not affected. These results suggest that ouabain enters cardiac cells through RME and also that an intracellular site may, at least in part, be responsible for its inotropic effect.

  14. Quantifying endocytosis in vivo using intravital two-photon microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Ruben M; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    The recent introduction of multiphoton microscopy coupled with advances in optics, computer sciences, designer fluorophores, molecular labeling, and previously developed physiologic approaches have empowered investigators to quantitatively study the cell-specific dynamic events, such as endocytosis, within a functioning organ with subcellular resolution. This rapidly emerging field of investigation, with superior spatial and temporal resolution and high sensitivity, enables investigators to track molecules and determine their mode of cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and metabolism in a cell-specific fashion in complex heterogeneous organs such as the kidney with repeated determinations possible over a prolonged period of time. This approach is enhanced by the ability to obtain and quantify volumetric data with using up to three different fluorophores simultaneously. We have utilized this intravital approach to understand and quantify kidney proximal tubule cell uptake and intracellular distribution and metabolism of fluorescently labeled molecules, including folic acid, gentamicin, and small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA). Limitations of this technique include tissue penetration, which is the major barrier to successful clinical utilization of this technology. However, its use in preclinical animal models offers new insight into physiologic processes and the pathophysiology and treatment of disease processes. PMID:18369960

  15. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  16. Novel activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy: the general waking trance.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a highly edited version of a videotape made in 1980 by Marion Moore, M.D., showing Milton H. Erickson and Moore demonstrating novel, activity-dependent approaches to hand-levitation and therapeutic hypnosis on their subject, Ernest Rossi. Erickson's naturalistic and utilization approach is described in his very direct and surprising induction in a trance challenged patient. These novel, and surprising inductions are examples of how Erickson was prescient in developing activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy several generations before modern neuroscience documented the activity-dependent molecular-genomic mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior change. Erickson describes a case where he utilized what he called, "The General Waking Trance" when he "dared" not use an obvious hypnotic induction. It is proposed that the states of intense mental absorption and response attentiveness that are facilitated by the general waking trance are functionally related to the three conditions neuroscientists have identified as novelty, enrichment, and exercise (both mental and physical), which can turn on activity-dependent gene expression and activity-dependent brain plasticity, that are the molecular-genomic and neural basis ofmemory, learning, consciousness, and behavior change. We recommend that the next step in investigating the efficacy of therapeutic hypnosis will be in partnering with neuroscientists to explore the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the activity-dependent approaches to hypnotic induction and the general waking trance in facilitating activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity.

  17. Steering neuronal growth cones by shifting the imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Takuro; Itofusa, Rurika; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-21

    Extracellular molecular cues guide migrating growth cones along specific routes during development of axon tracts. Such processes rely on asymmetric elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations across the growth cone that mediates its attractive or repulsive turning toward or away from the side with Ca(2+) elevation, respectively. Downstream of these Ca(2+) signals, localized activation of membrane trafficking steers the growth cone bidirectionally, with endocytosis driving repulsion and exocytosis causing attraction. However, it remains unclear how Ca(2+) can differentially regulate these opposite membrane-trafficking events. Here, we show that growth cone turning depends on localized imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis and identify Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways mediating such imbalance. In embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons, repulsive Ca(2+) signals promote clathrin-mediated endocytosis through a 90 kDa splice variant of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1γ (PIPKIγ90). In contrast, attractive Ca(2+) signals facilitate exocytosis but suppress endocytosis via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) that can inactivate PIPKIγ90. Blocking CaMKII or Cdk5 leads to balanced activation of both exocytosis and endocytosis that causes straight growth cone migration even in the presence of guidance signals, whereas experimentally perturbing the balance restores the growth cone's turning response. Remarkably, the direction of this resumed turning depends on relative activities of exocytosis and endocytosis, but not on the type of guidance signals. Our results suggest that navigating growth cones can be redirected by shifting the imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis, highlighting the importance of membrane-trafficking imbalance for axon guidance and, possibly, for polarized cell migration in general.

  18. Recruitment of endocytosis in sonopermeabilization-mediated drug delivery: a real-time study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derieppe, Marc; Rojek, Katarzyna; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Microbubbles (MBs) in combination with ultrasound (US) can enhance cell membrane permeability, and have the potential to facilitate the cellular uptake of hydrophilic molecules. However, the exact mechanism behind US- and MB-mediated intracellular delivery still remains to be fully understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are formation of transient pores and endocytosis stimulation. In our study, we investigated whether endocytosis is involved in US- and MB-mediated delivery of small molecules. Dynamic fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effects of endocytosis inhibitors on the pharmacokinetic parameters of US- and MB-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green, a 600 Da hydrophilic model drug. C6 rat glioma cells, together with SonoVue® MBs, were exposed to 1.4 MHz US waves at 0.2 MPa peak-negative pressure. Collection of the signal intensity in each individual nucleus was monitored during and after US exposure by a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope designed for real-time imaging. Exposed to US waves, C6 cells pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showed up to a 2.5-fold significant increase of the uptake time constant, and a 1.1-fold increase with genistein, an inhibitor of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Both inhibitors slowed down the US-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green. With C6 cells and our experimental settings, these quantitative data indicate that endocytosis plays a role in sonopermeabilization-mediated delivery of small molecules with a more predominant contribution of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  19. Recruitment of endocytosis in sonopermeabilization-mediated drug delivery: a real-time study.

    PubMed

    Derieppe, Marc; Rojek, Katarzyna; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-06-29

    Microbubbles (MBs) in combination with ultrasound (US) can enhance cell membrane permeability, and have the potential to facilitate the cellular uptake of hydrophilic molecules. However, the exact mechanism behind US- and MB-mediated intracellular delivery still remains to be fully understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are formation of transient pores and endocytosis stimulation. In our study, we investigated whether endocytosis is involved in US- and MB-mediated delivery of small molecules. Dynamic fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effects of endocytosis inhibitors on the pharmacokinetic parameters of US- and MB-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green, a 600 Da hydrophilic model drug. C6 rat glioma cells, together with SonoVue(®) MBs, were exposed to 1.4 MHz US waves at 0.2 MPa peak-negative pressure. Collection of the signal intensity in each individual nucleus was monitored during and after US exposure by a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope designed for real-time imaging. Exposed to US waves, C6 cells pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showed up to a 2.5-fold significant increase of the uptake time constant, and a 1.1-fold increase with genistein, an inhibitor of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Both inhibitors slowed down the US-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green. With C6 cells and our experimental settings, these quantitative data indicate that endocytosis plays a role in sonopermeabilization-mediated delivery of small molecules with a more predominant contribution of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  20. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  1. The effect of substrate elasticity and actomyosin contractility on different forms of endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Missirlis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Substrate mechanical properties have emerged as potent determinants of cell functions and fate. We here tested the hypothesis that different forms of endocytosis are regulated by the elasticity of the synthetic hydrogels cells are cultured on. Towards this objective, we quantified cell-associated fluorescence of the established endocytosis markers transferrin (Tf) and cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) using a flow-cytometry based protocol, and imaged marker internalization using microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis of Tf following a 10-minute incubation with a fibroblast cell line was lower on the softer substrates studied (5 kPa) compared to those with elasticities of 40 and 85 kPa. This effect was cancelled after 1-hour incubation revealing that intracellular accumulation of Tf at this time point did not depend on substrate elasticity. Lipid-raft mediated endocytosis of CTb, on the other hand, was not affected by substrate elasticity in the studied range of time and substrate elasticity. The use of pharmacologic contractility inhibitors revealed inhibition of endocytosis for both Tf and CTb after a 10-minute incubation and a dissimilar effect after 1 hour depending on the inhibitor type. Further, the internalization of fluorescent NPs, used as model drug delivery systems, showed a dependence on substrate elasticity, while transfection efficiency was unaffected by it. Finally, an independence on substrate elasticity of Tf and CTb association with HeLa cells indicated that there are cell-type differences in this respect. Overall, our results suggest that clathrin-mediated but not lipid-raft mediated endocytosis is potentially influenced by substrate mechanics at the cellular level, while intracellular trafficking and accumulation show a more complex dependence. Our findings are discussed in the context of previous work on how substrate mechanics affect the fundamental process of endocytosis and highlight important

  2. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  3. ER network homeostasis is critical for plant endosome streaming and endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Lai, YaShiuan; Slabaugh, Erin; Mannino, Nicole; Buono, Rafael A; Otegui, Marisa S; Brandizzi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells internalize cargo at the plasma membrane via endocytosis, a vital process that is accomplished through a complex network of endosomal organelles. In mammalian cells, the ER is in close association with endosomes and regulates their fission. Nonetheless, the physiological role of such interaction on endocytosis is yet unexplored. Here, we probed the existence of ER–endosome association in plant cells and assayed its physiological role in endocytosis. Through live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies, we established that endosomes are extensively associated with the plant ER, supporting conservation of interaction between heterotypic organelles in evolutionarily distant kingdoms. Furthermore, by analyzing ER–endosome dynamics in genetic backgrounds with defects in ER structure and movement, we also established that the ER network integrity is necessary for homeostasis of the distribution and streaming of various endosome populations as well as for efficient endocytosis. These results support a novel model that endocytosis homeostasis depends on a spatiotemporal control of the endosome dynamics dictated by the ER membrane network. PMID:27462431

  4. Dissecting BAR Domain Function in the Yeast Amphiphysins Rvs161 and Rvs167 during Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Ji-Young; Friesen, Helena; Kishimoto, Takuma; Henne, William M.; Kurat, Christoph F.; Ye, Wei; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Sicheri, Frank; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; McMahon, Harvey T.

    2010-01-01

    BAR domains are protein modules that bind to membranes and promote membrane curvature. One type of BAR domain, the N-BAR domain, contains an additional N-terminal amphipathic helix, which contributes to membrane-binding and bending activities. The only known N-BAR-domain proteins in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rvs161 and Rvs167, are required for endocytosis. We have explored the mechanism of N-BAR-domain function in the endocytosis process using a combined biochemical and genetic approach. We show that the purified Rvs161–Rvs167 complex binds to liposomes in a curvature-independent manner and promotes tubule formation in vitro. Consistent with the known role of BAR domain polymerization in membrane bending, we found that Rvs167 BAR domains interact with each other at cortical actin patches in vivo. To characterize N-BAR-domain function in endocytosis, we constructed yeast strains harboring changes in conserved residues in the Rvs161 and Rvs167 N-BAR domains. In vivo analysis of the rvs endocytosis mutants suggests that Rvs proteins are initially recruited to sites of endocytosis through their membrane-binding ability. We show that inappropriate regulation of complex sphingolipid and phosphoinositide levels in the membrane can impinge on Rvs function, highlighting the relationship between membrane components and N-BAR-domain proteins in vivo. PMID:20610658

  5. A critical role for PSD-95/AKAP interactions in endocytosis of synaptic AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Biou, Virginie; Xu, Weifeng; Schlüter, Oliver; Malenka, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) underlies several forms of synaptic plasticity including NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this trafficking remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PSD-95, a major postsynaptic density protein, plays a key role in NMDAR-triggered endocytosis of synaptic AMPARs because of its binding to AKAP150, a scaffold for specific protein kinases and phosphatases. Knockdown of PSD-95 with shRNA blocks NMDAR-triggered, but not constitutive nor mGluR-triggered endocytosis of AMPARs. Deletion of PSD-95’s SH3 and GK domains as well as a point mutation (L460P), both of which inhibit binding of PSD-95 to AKAP150, also block NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis. Furthermore, expression of a mutant AKAP150 that does not bind calcineurin inhibits this NMDAR-triggered trafficking event. These results suggest that PSD-95’s interaction with AKAP150 is critical for NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis and LTD, possibly because these scaffolds position calcineurin in the appropriate subsynaptic domain. PMID:19169250

  6. HSV-1 Glycoproteins Are Delivered to Virus Assembly Sites Through Dynamin-Dependent Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Albecka, Anna; Laine, Romain F; Janssen, Anne F J; Kaminski, Clemens F; Crump, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a large enveloped DNA virus that belongs to the family of Herpesviridae. It has been recently shown that the cytoplasmic membranes that wrap the newly assembled capsids are endocytic compartments derived from the plasma membrane. Here, we show that dynamin-dependent endocytosis plays a major role in this process. Dominant-negative dynamin and clathrin adaptor AP180 significantly decrease virus production. Moreover, inhibitors targeting dynamin and clathrin lead to a decreased transport of glycoproteins to cytoplasmic capsids, confirming that glycoproteins are delivered to assembly sites via endocytosis. We also show that certain combinations of glycoproteins colocalize with each other and with the components of clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that the uptake of neutralizing antibodies that bind to glycoproteins when they become exposed on the cell surface during virus particle assembly leads to the production of non-infectious HSV-1. Our results demonstrate that transport of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane prior to endocytosis is the major route by which these proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic virus assembly compartments. This highlights the importance of endocytosis as a major protein-sorting event during HSV-1 envelopment.

  7. Clathrin to Lipid Raft-Endocytosis via Controlled Surface Chemistry and Efficient Perinuclear Targeting of Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-09-17

    Nanoparticle interacts with live cells depending on their surface chemistry, enters into cell via endocytosis, and is commonly trafficked to an endosome/lysozome that restricts subcellular targeting options. Here we show that nanoparticle surface chemistry can be tuned to alter their cell uptake mechanism and subcellular trafficking. Quantum dot based nanoprobes of 20-30 nm hydrodynamic diameters have been synthesized with tunable surface charge (between +15 mV to -25 mV) and lipophilicity to influence their cellular uptake processes and subcellular trafficking. It is observed that cationic nanoprobe electrostatically interacts with cell membrane and enters into cell via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. At lower surface charge (between +10 mV to -10 mV), the electrostatic interaction with cell membrane becomes weaker, and additional lipid raft endocytosis is initiated. If a lipophilic functional group is introduced on a weakly anionic nanoparticle surface, the uptake mechanism shifts to predominant lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. In particular, the zwitterionic-lipophilic nanoprobe has the unique advantage as it weakly interacts with anionic cell membrane, migrates toward lipid rafts for interaction through lipophilic functional group, and induces lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. While predominate or partial clathrin-mediated entry traffics most of the nanoprobes to lysozome, predominate lipid raft-mediated entry traffics them to perinuclear region, particularly to the Golgi apparatus. This finding would guide in designing appropriate nanoprobe for subcellular targeting and delivery.

  8. The miR-199-dynamin regulatory axis controls receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking.

  9. Pan1 regulates transitions between stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Mary Katherine; Whitworth, Karen; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-04-01

    Endocytosis is a well-conserved process by which cells invaginate small portions of the plasma membrane to create vesicles containing extracellular and transmembrane cargo proteins. Dozens of proteins and hundreds of specific binding interactions are needed to coordinate and regulate these events. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model system with which to study clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Pan1 is believed to be a scaffolding protein due to its interactions with numerous proteins that act throughout the endocytic process. Previous research characterized many Pan1 binding interactions, but due to Pan1's essential nature, the exact mechanisms of Pan1's function in endocytosis have been difficult to define. We created a novel Pan1-degron allele, Pan1-AID, in which Pan1 can be specifically and efficiently degraded in <1 h upon addition of the plant hormone auxin. The loss of Pan1 caused a delay in endocytic progression and weakened connections between the coat/actin machinery and the membrane, leading to arrest in CME. In addition, we determined a critical role for the central region of Pan1 in endocytosis and viability. The regions important for endocytosis and viability can be separated, suggesting that Pan1 may have a distinct role in the cell that is essential for viability.

  10. An organized co-assembly of clathrin adaptors is essential for endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Skruzny, Michal; Desfosses, Ambroise; Prinz, Simone; Dodonova, Svetlana O; Gieras, Anna; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Jakobi, Arjen J; Abella, Marc; Hagen, Wim J H; Schulz, Joachim; Meijers, Rob; Rybin, Vladimir; Briggs, John A G; Sachse, Carsten; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-04-20

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the main trafficking route from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, is critical to many fundamental cellular processes. Clathrin, coupled to the membrane by adaptor proteins, is thought to play a major structural role in endocytosis by self-assembling into a cage-like lattice around the forming vesicle. Although clathrin adaptors are essential for endocytosis, little is known about their structural role in this process. Here we show that the membrane-binding domains of two conserved clathrin adaptors, Sla2 and Ent1, co-assemble in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner to form organized lattices on membranes. We determined the structure of the co-assembled lattice by electron cryo-microscopy and designed mutations that specifically impair the lattice formation in vitro. We show that these mutations block endocytosis in vivo. We suggest that clathrin adaptors not only link the polymerized clathrin to the membrane but also form an oligomeric structure, which is essential for membrane remodeling during endocytosis.

  11. Endocytosis as a biological response in receptor pharmacology: evaluation by fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Campa, Víctor M; Capilla, Almudena; Varela, María J; de la Rocha, Arlet M Acanda; Fernandez-Troyano, Juan C; Barreiro, R Belén; Lopez-Gimenez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method -the Q-Endosomes algorithm- that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution.

  12. EphA2 signaling following endocytosis: role of Tiam1.

    PubMed

    Boissier, Pomme; Chen, Jin; Huynh-Do, Uyen

    2013-12-01

    Eph receptors and their membrane-bound ligands, the ephrins, represent a complex subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Eph/ephrin binding can lead to various and opposite cellular behaviors such as adhesion versus repulsion, or cell migration versus cell-adhesion. Recently, Eph endocytosis has been identified as one of the critical steps responsible for such diversity. Eph receptors, as many RTKs, are rapidly endocytosed following ligand-mediated activation and traffic through endocytic compartments prior to degradation. However, it is becoming obvious that endocytosis controls signaling in many different manners. Here we showed that activated EphA2 are degraded in the lysosomes and that about 35% of internalized receptors are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Our study is also the first to demonstrate that EphA2 retains the capacity to signal in endosomes. In particular, activated EphA2 interacted with the Rho family GEF Tiam1 in endosomes. This association led to Tiam1 activation, which in turn increased Rac1 activity and facilitated Eph/ephrin endocytosis. Disrupting Tiam1 function with RNA interference impaired both ephrinA1-dependent Rac1 activation and ephrinA1-induced EphA2 endocytosis. In summary, our findings shed new light on the regulation of EphA2 endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and signal termination and establish Tiam1 as an important modulator of EphA2 signaling.

  13. Specific factors are required for kinase-dependent endocytosis of insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, J B; Worthylake, R; Wiley, H S; Gill, G N

    1994-01-01

    Mouse B82 cells that support high affinity saturable endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) exhibited only low rates of nonsaturable internalization of insulin receptors (InsR). To investigate the defect in endocytosis of InsR in B82 cells, we examined the role of sequence motifs and tyrosine kinase, the two receptor components shown to be required for efficient saturable endocytosis of InsR in Rat 1 cells. Placement of residues encoded by exon 16 of the InsR onto an EGFR truncated to residue 958 restored EGF-induced internalization of this mutant receptor indicating that the sequence codes in exon 16 are recognized by B82 cells. To determine whether the kinase function could be provided in trans, a B82 cell expressing both receptors was established. EGF-activated EGFR kinase was not able to restore insulin-dependent rapid endocytosis to InsR. However, fusion of untransfected Rat1 cells with InsR-expressing B82 cells enabled rapid endocytosis of InsR, indicating that the internalization defect can be complemented. These results indicate that, although internalization codes can function in the context of other receptors, activation of tyrosine kinase receptors requires an additional specific component. Images PMID:7919536

  14. Characterization of endocytosis and exocytosis of cationic nanoparticles in airway epithelium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youta Dombu, Christophe; Kroubi, Maya; Zibouche, Rima; Matran, Regis; Betbeder, Didier

    2010-09-01

    A major challenge of drug delivery using colloids via the airway is to understand the mechanism implied in their interactions with epithelial cells. The purpose of this work was to characterize the process of endocytosis and exocytosis of cationic nanoparticles (NPs) made of maltodextrin which were developed as a delivery system for antigens in vaccine applications. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that these NP are rapidly endocytosed after as little as 3 min incubation, and that the endocytosis was also faster than NP binding since most of the NPs were found in the middle of the cells around the nuclei. A saturation limit was observed after a 40 min incubation, probably due to an equilibrium becoming established between endocytosis and exocytosis. Endocytosis was dramatically reduced at 4 °C compared with 37 °C, or by NaN3 treatment, both results suggesting an energy dependent process. Protamine pretreatment of the cells inhibited NPs uptake and we found that clathrin pathway is implied in their endocytosis. Cholesterol depletion increased NP uptake by 300% and this phenomenon was explained by the fact that cholesterol depletion totally blocked NP exocytosis. These results suggest that these cationic NPs interact with anionic sites, are quickly endocytosed via the clathrin pathway and that their exocytosis is cholesterol dependent, and are similar to those obtained in other studies with viruses such as influenza.

  15. The function of EHD2 in endocytosis and defense signaling is affected by SUMO.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Schuster, Silvia; Leibman, Meirav; Ezer, Ran; Avni, Adi

    2014-03-01

    Post-translational modification of target proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO) regulates many cellular processes. SUMOylation has been shown to regulate cellular localization and function of a variety of proteins, in some cases affecting nuclear import or export. We have previously characterized two EHDs (EH domain containing proteins) in Arabidospis and showed their involvement in plant endocytosis. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and the leucine rich repeat receptor like protein LeEix2, an effect that requires and intact coiled-coil domain. Inhibition of endocytosis of LeEix2 by EHD2 is effective in inhibiting defense responses mediated by the LeEix2 receptor in response to its ligand EIX. In the present work we demonstrate that SUMOylation of EHD2 appears to be required for EHD2-induced inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis. Indeed, we found that a mutant form of EHD2, possessing a defective SUMOylation site, has an increased nuclear abundance, can no longer be SUMOylated and is no longer effective in inhibiting LeEix2 endocytosis or defense signaling in response to EIX. PMID:24154852

  16. Specific analogues uncouple transport, signalling, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis in the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor.

    PubMed

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Schothorst, Joep; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-07-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transceptor Gap1 functions as receptor for signalling to the PKA pathway and concomitantly undergoes substrate-induced oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. We have identified specific amino acids and analogues that uncouple to certain extent signalling, transport, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. L-lysine, L-histidine and L-tryptophan are transported by Gap1 but do not trigger signalling. Unlike L-histidine, L-lysine triggers Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination without substantial induction of endocytosis. Two transported, non-metabolizable signalling agonists, β-alanine and D-histidine, are strong and weak inducers of Gap1 endocytosis, respectively, but both causing Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination. The non-signalling agonist, non-transported competitive inhibitor of Gap1 transport, L-Asp-γ-L-Phe, induces oligo-ubiquitination but no discernible endocytosis. The Km of L-citrulline transport is much lower than the threshold concentration for signalling and endocytosis. These results show that molecules can be transported without triggering signalling or substantial endocytosis, and that oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis do not require signalling nor metabolism. Oligo-ubiquitination is required, but apparently not sufficient to trigger endocytosis. In addition, we demonstrate intracellular cross-induction of endocytosis of transport-defective Gap1(Y395C) by ubiquitination- and endocytosis-deficient Gap1(K9R,K16R). Our results support the concept that different substrates bind to partially overlapping binding sites in the same general substrate-binding pocket of Gap1, triggering divergent conformations, resulting in different conformation-induced downstream processes.

  17. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis prevents amyloid β-induced axonal damage.

    PubMed

    Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Lee, Young-A; Nishiko, Hiroaki; Tohda, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced axonal degeneration is a major cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the critical target to prevent Aβ-induced axonal degeneration remains unknown. Here, we analyzed growth cone collapse elicited by Aβ, a putative early Aβ-induced event in axons. Although no study has yet shown influence of Aβ on the growth cone, we first visualized Aβ-initiated growth cone collapse in cultured neurons. Furthermore, we determined that the collapse was triggered by clathrin-mediated endocytosis probably via Aβ-Ca(2+) signaling. The inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis prevented Aβ-induced axonal loss both in vitro and in vivo and prevented memory impairment in an AD mouse model. Our results clarified the important role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in Aβ-induced collapse of growth cone that leads to axonal degeneration and memory impairment.

  18. The mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis: A new molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Lu; Chen, Linxi; Li, Lanfang

    2016-05-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor APJ elicits cellular response to diverse extracellular stimulus. Accumulating evidence reveals that APJ receptor plays a prominent role in the cardiomyocyte adapting to hypertrophic stimulation. At present, it remains obscure that the regulatory mechanism of APJ receptor in myocardial hypertrophy. The natural endogenous ligands apelin and Elabela as well as agonists maintain high affinity for the APJ receptor and drive its internalization. Ligand-activated receptor internalization is mainly performed by clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Simultaneously, clathrin-mediated endocytosis takes participate in the occurrence and development of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we hypothesize that natural ligands and agonists induce the mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. APJ internalization may contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis may be a new molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27063076

  19. Drosophila p120-catenin is crucial for endocytosis of the dynamic E-cadherin–Bazooka complex

    PubMed Central

    Bulgakova, Natalia A.; Brown, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intracellular functions of classical cadherins are mediated through the direct binding of two catenins: β-catenin and p120-catenin (also known as CTNND1 in vertebrates, and p120ctn in Drosophila). Whereas β-catenin is crucial for cadherin function, the role of p120-catenin is less clear and appears to vary between organisms. We show here that p120-catenin has a conserved role in regulating the endocytosis of cadherins, but that its ancestral role might have been to promote endocytosis, followed by the acquisition of a new inhibitory role in vertebrates. In Drosophila, p120-catenin facilitates endocytosis of the dynamic E-cadherin–Bazooka subcomplex, which is followed by its recycling. The absence of p120-catenin stabilises this subcomplex at the membrane, reducing the ability of cells to exchange neighbours in embryos and expanding cell–cell contacts in imaginal discs. PMID:26698216

  20. Clathrin and synaptic vesicle endocytosis: studies at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Augustine, G J; Morgan, J R; Villalba-Galea, C A; Jin, S; Prasad, K; Lafer, E M

    2006-02-01

    The role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in SV (synaptic vesicle) recycling has been studied by combining molecular biology, physiology and electron microscopy at the squid giant synapse. Procedures that prevent clathrin from assembling into membrane coats, such as impairment of binding of the AP180 and AP-2 adaptor proteins, completely prevent membrane budding during endocytosis. These procedures also reduce exocytosis, presumably an indirect effect of a reduction in the number of SVs following block of endocytosis. Disrupting the binding of auxilin to Hsc70 (heat-shock cognate 70) prevents clathrin-coated vesicles from uncoating and also disrupts SV recycling. Taken together, these results indicate that a clathrin-dependent pathway is the primary means of SV recycling at this synapse under physiological conditions.

  1. Clathrin and synaptic vesicle endocytosis: studies at the squid giant synapse

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, G.J.; Morgan, J.R.; Villalba-Galea, C.A.; Jin, S.; Prasad, K.; Lafer, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in SV (synaptic vesicle) recycling has been studied by combining molecular biology, physiology and electron microscopy at the squid giant synapse. Procedures that prevent clathrin from assembling into membrane coats, such as impairment of binding of the AP180 and AP-2 adaptor proteins, completely prevent membrane budding during endocytosis. These procedures also reduce exocytosis, presumably an indirect effect of a reduction in the number of SVs following block of endocytosis. Disrupting the binding of auxilin to Hsc70 (heat-shock cognate 70) prevents clathrin-coated vesicles from uncoating and also disrupts SV recycling. Taken together, these results indicate that a clathrin-dependent pathway is the primary means of SV recycling at this synapse under physiological conditions. PMID:16417485

  2. RIPping notch apart: a new role for endocytosis in signal transduction?

    PubMed

    Krämer, H

    2000-04-25

    Notch proteins are receptors that are important in mediating several developmental processes. Notch receptors are activated upon binding transmembrane ligands, the DSL proteins. Notch is cleaved at several sites and activation of Notch leads to the cleavage of the intracellular domain, which then is translocated to the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes. Krämer discusses how binding of Notch to the DSL ligand, Delta, leads to cleavage and trans-endocytosis of the Notch extracellular domain into the Delta-expressing cell. This trans-endocytosis event contributes to the cleavage and release of the active Notch intracellular domain. The Perspective is accompanied by a movie illustrating the trans-endocytosis of Notch.

  3. Clathrin modulates vesicle scission, but not invagination shape, in yeast endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kukulski, Wanda; Picco, Andrea; Specht, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    In a previous paper (Picco et al., 2015), the dynamic architecture of the protein machinery during clathrin-mediated endocytosis was visualized using a new live imaging and particle tracking method. Here, by combining this approach with correlative light and electron microscopy, we address the role of clathrin in this process. During endocytosis, clathrin forms a cage-like coat around the membrane and associated protein components. There is growing evidence that clathrin does not determine the membrane morphology of the invagination but rather modulates the progression of endocytosis. We investigate how the deletion of clathrin heavy chain impairs the dynamics and the morphology of the endocytic membrane in budding yeast. Our results show that clathrin is not required for elongating or shaping the endocytic membrane invagination. Instead, we find that clathrin contributes to the regularity of vesicle scission and thereby to controlling vesicle size. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16036.001 PMID:27341079

  4. Endocytosis plays a critical role in proteolytic processing of the Hendra virus fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Meulendyke, Kelly Ann; Wurth, Mark Allen; McCann, Richard O; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2005-10-01

    The Hendra virus fusion (F) protein is synthesized as a precursor protein, F(0), which is proteolytically processed to the mature form, F(1) + F(2). Unlike the case for the majority of paramyxovirus F proteins, the processing event is furin independent, does not require the addition of exogenous proteases, is not affected by reductions in intracellular Ca(2+), and is strongly affected by conditions that raise the intracellular pH (C. T. Pager, M. A. Wurth, and R. E. Dutch, J. Virol. 78:9154-9163, 2004). The Hendra virus F protein cytoplasmic tail contains a consensus motif for endocytosis, YXXPhi. To analyze the potential role of endocytosis in the processing and membrane fusion promotion of the Hendra virus F protein, mutation of tyrosine 525 to alanine (Hendra virus F Y525A) or phenylalanine (Hendra virus F Y525F) was performed. The rate of endocytosis of Hendra virus F Y525A was significantly reduced compared to that of the wild-type (wt) F protein, confirming the functional importance of the endocytosis motif. An intermediate level of endocytosis was observed for Hendra virus F Y525F. Surprisingly, dramatic reductions in the rate of proteolytic processing were observed for Hendra virus F Y525A, although initial transport to the cell surface was not affected. The levels of surface expression for both Hendra virus F Y525A and Hendra virus F Y525F were higher than that of the wt protein, and these mutants displayed enhanced syncytium formation. These results suggest that endocytosis is critically important for Hendra virus F protein cleavage, representing a new paradigm for proteolytic processing of paramyxovirus F proteins.

  5. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Raman Deep Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L. Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  6. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages.

  7. Different contributions of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of vascular endothelial cadherin to lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lianyang; Li, Yang; Sun, Shijin; Tan, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common pathogenic process in cases of severe trauma and sepsis. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cad) is a key regulatory molecule involved in this process, although the detailed mechanism through which this molecule acts remains unclear. We assessed the role of clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad in LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability in the human vascular endothelial cell line CRL-2922 and determined that vascular permeability and VE-cad localization at the plasma membrane were negatively correlated after LPS treatment. Additionally, the loss of VE-cad at the plasma membrane was caused by both clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was dominant early after LPS treatment, and caveolae-mediated endocytosis was dominant hours after LPS treatment. The caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad was activated through the LPS-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-Src signaling pathway. Structural changes in the actin cytoskeleton, specifically from polymerization to depolymerization, were important reasons for the switching of the VE-cad endocytosis pathway from clathrin-mediated to caveolae-mediated. Our findings suggest that clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad contribute to LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability, although they contribute via different mechanism. The predominant means of endocytosis depends on the time since LPS treatment.

  8. Activity-Dependent Dendritic Spine Shrinkage and Growth Involve Downregulation of Cofilin via Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Barbara; Saffin, Jean-Michel; Halpain, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    A current model posits that cofilin-dependent actin severing negatively impacts dendritic spine volume. Studies suggested that increased cofilin activity underlies activity-dependent spine shrinkage, and that reduced cofilin activity induces activity-dependent spine growth. We suggest instead that both types of structural plasticity correlate with decreased cofilin activity. However, the mechanism of inhibition determines the outcome for spine morphology. RNAi in rat hippocampal cultures demonstrates that cofilin is essential for normal spine maintenance. Cofilin-F-actin binding and filament barbed-end production decrease during the early phase of activity-dependent spine shrinkage; cofilin concentration also decreases. Inhibition of the cathepsin B/L family of proteases prevents both cofilin loss and spine shrinkage. Conversely, during activity-dependent spine growth, LIM kinase stimulates cofilin phosphorylation, which activates phospholipase D-1 to promote actin polymerization. These results implicate novel molecular mechanisms and prompt a revision of the current model for how cofilin functions in activity-dependent structural plasticity. PMID:24740405

  9. Activity-dependent FMRP requirements in development of the neural circuitry of learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Caleb A.; Broadie, Kendal

    2015-01-01

    The activity-dependent refinement of neural circuit connectivity during critical periods of brain development is essential for optimized behavioral performance. We hypothesize that this mechanism is defective in fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. Here, we use optogenetic tools in the Drosophila FXS disease model to test activity-dependent dendritogenesis in two extrinsic neurons of the mushroom body (MB) learning and memory brain center: (1) the input projection neuron (PN) innervating Kenyon cells (KCs) in the MB calyx microglomeruli and (2) the output MVP2 neuron innervated by KCs in the MB peduncle. Both input and output neuron classes exhibit distinctive activity-dependent critical period dendritic remodeling. MVP2 arbors expand in Drosophila mutants null for fragile X mental retardation 1 (dfmr1), as well as following channelrhodopsin-driven depolarization during critical period development, but are reduced by halorhodopsin-driven hyperpolarization. Optogenetic manipulation of PNs causes the opposite outcome – reduced dendritic arbors following channelrhodopsin depolarization and expanded arbors following halorhodopsin hyperpolarization during development. Importantly, activity-dependent dendritogenesis in both neuron classes absolutely requires dfmr1 during one developmental window. These results show that dfmr1 acts in a neuron type-specific activity-dependent manner for sculpting dendritic arbors during early-use, critical period development of learning and memory circuitry in the Drosophila brain. PMID:25804740

  10. Specific Endocytosis Blockade of Trypanosoma cruzi Exposed to a Poly-LAcNAc Binding Lectin Suggests that Lectin-Sugar Interactions Participate to Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Brosson, Sébastien; Fontaine, Frédéric; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Perez-Morga, David; Pays, Etienne; Bousbata, Sabrina; Salmon, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite transmitted by a triatomine insect, and causing human Chagas disease in South America. This parasite undergoes a complex life cycle alternating between non-proliferative and dividing forms. Owing to their high energy requirement, replicative epimastigotes of the insect midgut display high endocytic activity. This activity is mainly restricted to the cytostome, by which the cargo is taken up and sorted through the endosomal vesicular network to be delivered to reservosomes, the final lysosomal-like compartments. In African trypanosomes tomato lectin (TL) and ricin, respectively specific to poly-N-acetyllactosamine (poly-LacNAc) and β-D-galactose, allowed the identification of giant chains of poly-LacNAc in N-glycoproteins of the endocytic pathway. We show that in T. cruzi epimastigote forms also, glycoproteins of the endocytic pathway are characterized by the presence of N-linked glycans binding to both ricin and TL. Affinity chromatography using both TL and Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSLII), specific to non-reducing terminal residue of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), led to an enrichment of glycoproteins of the trypanosomal endocytic pathway. Incubation of live parasites with TL, which selectively bound to the cytostome/cytopharynx, specifically inhibited endocytosis of transferrin (Tf) but not dextran, a marker of fluid endocytosis. Taken together, our data suggest that N-glycan modification of endocytic components plays a crucial role in receptor-mediated endocytosis of T. cruzi. PMID:27685262

  11. Phosphorylation of Complexin by PKA Regulates Activity-Dependent Spontaneous Neurotransmitter Release and Structural Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Richard W; Buhl, Lauren K; Volfson, Dina; Tran, Adrienne; Li, Feng; Akbergenova, Yulia; Littleton, J Troy

    2015-11-18

    Synaptic plasticity is a fundamental feature of the nervous system that allows adaptation to changing behavioral environments. Most studies of synaptic plasticity have examined the regulated trafficking of postsynaptic glutamate receptors that generates alterations in synaptic transmission. Whether and how changes in the presynaptic release machinery contribute to neuronal plasticity is less clear. The SNARE complex mediates neurotransmitter release in response to presynaptic Ca(2+) entry. Here we show that the SNARE fusion clamp Complexin undergoes activity-dependent phosphorylation that alters the basic properties of neurotransmission in Drosophila. Retrograde signaling following stimulation activates PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the Complexin C terminus that selectively and transiently enhances spontaneous release. Enhanced spontaneous release is required for activity-dependent synaptic growth. These data indicate that SNARE-dependent fusion mechanisms can be regulated in an activity-dependent manner and highlight the key role of spontaneous neurotransmitter release as a mediator of functional and structural plasticity.

  12. The Coiled-Coil Domain of EHD2 Mediates Inhibition of LeEix2 Endocytosis and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Maya; Sharfman, Miya; Schuster, Silvia; Avni, Adi

    2009-01-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD2 that are required for its inhibitory activity on endocytosis remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of EHD2 is crucial for the ability of EHD2 to inhibit endocytosis in plants, as mutant EHD2 forms lacking the coiled-coil lost the ability to inhibit endocytosis and signaling of LeEix2. The coiled-coil was also required for binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor. It is therefore probable that binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor is required for inhibition of LeEix2 internalization. We also show herein that the P-loop of EHD2 is important for EHD2 to function properly. The EH domain of AtEHD2 does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. Moreover, AtEHD2 influences actin organization and may exert its inhibitory effect on endocytosis through actin re-distribution. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 functions in inhibition of endocytosis, while the EH domain does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:19936242

  13. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 mediates inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Sharfman, Miya; Schuster, Silvia; Avni, Adi

    2009-01-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD2 that are required for its inhibitory activity on endocytosis remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of EHD2 is crucial for the ability of EHD2 to inhibit endocytosis in plants, as mutant EHD2 forms lacking the coiled-coil lost the ability to inhibit endocytosis and signaling of LeEix2. The coiled-coil was also required for binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor. It is therefore probable that binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor is required for inhibition of LeEix2 internalization. We also show herein that the P-loop of EHD2 is important for EHD2 to function properly. The EH domain of AtEHD2 does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. Moreover, AtEHD2 influences actin organization and may exert its inhibitory effect on endocytosis through actin re-distribution. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 functions in inhibition of endocytosis, while the EH domain does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:19936242

  14. Asymmetric endocytosis and remodeling of β1-integrin adhesions during growth cone chemorepulsion by MAG

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Jacob H.; Abu-Rub, Mohammad; Henley, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Gradients of chemorepellent factors released from myelin may impair axon pathfinding and neuro-regeneration after injury. Analogous to the process of chemotaxis in invasive tumor cells, we found that axonal growth cones of Xenopus spinal neurons modulate the functional distribution of integrin receptors during chemorepulsion induced by myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). A focal MAG gradient induced polarized endocytosis and concomitant asymmetric loss of β1-integrin and vinculin-containing adhesions on the repellent side during repulsive turning. Loss of symmetrical β1-integrin function was both necessary and sufficient for chemorepulsion, which required internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Induction of repulsive Ca2+ signals was necessary and sufficient for the stimulated rapid endocytosis of β1-integrin. Altogether, these findings identify β1-integrin as an important functional cargo during Ca2+-dependent rapid endocytosis stimulated by a diffusible guidance cue. Such dynamic redistribution allows the growth cone to rapidly adjust adhesiveness across its axis, an essential feature for initiating chemotactic turning. PMID:20512137

  15. Polarized E-cadherin endocytosis directs actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Miranda V; Lee, Donghoon M; Harris, Tony J C; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2015-08-31

    Embryonic epithelia have a remarkable ability to rapidly repair wounds. A supracellular actomyosin cable around the wound coordinates cellular movements and promotes wound closure. Actomyosin cable formation is accompanied by junctional rearrangements at the wound margin. We used in vivo time-lapse quantitative microscopy to show that clathrin, dynamin, and the ADP-ribosylation factor 6, three components of the endocytic machinery, accumulate around wounds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos in a process that requires calcium signaling and actomyosin contractility. Blocking endocytosis with pharmacological or genetic approaches disrupted wound repair. The defect in wound closure was accompanied by impaired removal of E-cadherin from the wound edge and defective actomyosin cable assembly. E-cadherin overexpression also resulted in reduced actin accumulation around wounds and slower wound closure. Reducing E-cadherin levels in embryos in which endocytosis was blocked rescued actin localization to the wound margin. Our results demonstrate a central role for endocytosis in wound healing and indicate that polarized E-cadherin endocytosis is necessary for actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair.

  16. Membrane protrusion powers clathrin-independent endocytosis of interleukin-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Basquin, Cyril; Trichet, Michaël; Vihinen, Helena; Malardé, Valérie; Lagache, Thibault; Ripoll, Léa; Jokitalo, Eija; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Gautreau, Alexis; Sauvonnet, Nathalie

    2015-08-13

    Endocytosis controls many functions including nutrient uptake, cell division, migration and signal transduction. A clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway is used by important physiological cargos, including interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R). However, this process lacks morphological and dynamic data. Our electron microscopy (EM) and tomography studies reveal that IL-2R-pits and vesicles are initiated at the base of protrusions. We identify the WAVE complex as a specific endocytic actor. The WAVE complex interacts with IL-2R, via a WAVE-interacting receptor sequence (WIRS) present in the receptor polypeptide, and allows for receptor clustering close to membrane protrusions. In addition, using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF) and automated analysis we demonstrate that two timely distinct bursts of actin polymerization are required during IL-2R uptake, promoted first by the WAVE complex and then by N-WASP. Finally, our data reveal that dynamin acts as a transition controller for the recruitment of Arp2/3 activators required for IL-2R endocytosis. Altogether, our work identifies the spatio-temporal specific role of factors initiating clathrin-independent endocytosis by a unique mechanism that does not depend on the deformation of a flat membrane, but rather on that of membrane protrusions.

  17. The yeast BDF1 regulates endocytosis via LSP1 under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiafang; Hou, Jin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Mingpeng; Shen, Yu; Zhang, Zhaojie; Bao, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    Bromodomain-containing transcription factor, a kind of important regulating protein, can recognize and bind to acetylated histone. The homologous genes, BDF1 and BDF2, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, encode a bromodomain-containing transcription factor. Previously study has demonstrated that both BDF1 and BDF2 participate in yeast salt stress response. Bdf1p deletion cells are sensitive to salt stress and this phenotype is suppressed by its homologue BDF2 in a dosage-dependent manner. In this study, we show that the histone deacetylase SIR2 over-expression enhanced dosage-dependent compensation of BDF2. SIR2 over-expression induced a global transcription change, and 1959 gene was down-regulated. We deleted some of the most significant down-regulated genes and did the spot assay. The results revealed that LSP1, an upstream component of endocytosis pathway, and CIN5, a transcription factor that mediates cellular resistance to stresses, can enhance salt resistance of bdf1∆. Further analysis demonstrated that under salt stress the endocytosis is over-activated in bdf1∆ but was recovered in bdf1∆ lsp1∆. To our best knowledge, this is the first report that the transcription factor Bdf1p regulates endocytosis under salt stress via LSP1, a major component of eisosomes that regulate the sites of endocytosis.

  18. Molecular components required for resting and stimulated endocytosis of botulinum neurotoxins by glutamatergic and peptidergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianghui; Wang, Jiafu; Lawrence, Gary W; Dolly, J Oliver

    2013-08-01

    Proteins responsible for basal and stimulated endocytosis in nerves containing small clear synaptic vesicles (SCSVs) or large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are revealed herein, using probes that exploit surface-exposed vesicle proteins as acceptors for internalization. Basal uptake of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) by both SCSV-releasing cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and LDCV-enriched trigeminal ganglionic neurons (TGNs) was found to require protein acceptors and acidic compartments. In addition, dynamin, clathrin, adaptor protein complex-2 (AP2), and amphiphysin contribute to the depolarization-evoked entry. For fast recycling of SCSVs, knockdown and knockout strategies demonstrated that CGNs use predominantly dynamin 1, whereas isoform 2 and, to a smaller extent, isoform 3 support a less rapid mode of stimulated endocytosis. Accordingly, proximity ligation assay confirmed that dynamin 1 and 2 colocalize with amphiphysin 1 in CGNs, and the latter copurified with both dynamins from cell extracts. In contrast, LDCV-releasing TGNs preferentially employ dynamins 2 and 3 and amphiphysin 1 for evoked endocytosis and lack the fast phase. Hence, stimulation recruits dynamin, clathrin, AP2, and amphiphysin to augment BoNT internalization, and neurons match endocytosis mediators to the different demands for locally recycling SCSVs or replenishing distally synthesized LDCVs. PMID:23640057

  19. Constitutive endocytosis in characean internodal cells is independent of an intact actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Ilse; Klima, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    We have investigated constitutive endocytosis in internodal cells of the characean green algae. The endocytic tracer FM1-43 accumulated in distinct plasma membrane domains that are probably enriched in sterol-like substances. Internalization of the dye was active but independent of an intact actin or microtubule cytoskeleton.

  20. Dynamin and endocytosis are required for the fusion of osteoclasts and myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Nah-Young; Choi, Hyewon; Neff, Lynn; Wu, Yumei; Saito, Hiroaki; Ferguson, Shawn M.; De Camilli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Cell–cell fusion is an evolutionarily conserved process that leads to the formation of multinucleated myofibers, syncytiotrophoblasts and osteoclasts, allowing their respective functions. Although cell–cell fusion requires the presence of fusogenic membrane proteins and actin-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization, the precise machinery allowing cells to fuse is still poorly understood. Using an inducible knockout mouse model to generate dynamin 1– and 2–deficient primary osteoclast precursors and myoblasts, we found that fusion of both cell types requires dynamin. Osteoclast and myoblast cell–cell fusion involves the formation of actin-rich protrusions closely associated with clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the apposed cell. Furthermore, impairing endocytosis independently of dynamin also prevented cell–cell fusion. Since dynamin is involved in both the formation of actin-rich structures and in endocytosis, our results indicate that dynamin function is central to the osteoclast precursors and myoblasts fusion process, and point to an important role of endocytosis in cell–cell fusion. PMID:25287300

  1. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript…

  2. Taking a bite: endocytosis in the maintenance of the slit diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Sampogna, Rosemary V; Al-Awqati, Qais

    2012-12-01

    In the kidney, the slit diaphragm joins adjacent podocytes, forming an epithelial barrier that filters plasma into the urinary space, yet retains blood cells and proteins within the circulation. In this issue of the JCI, Soda et al. have identified clathrin-mediated endocytosis as a central mechanism by which the function and structural integrity of the slit diaphragm are maintained.

  3. Membrane protrusion powers clathrin-independent endocytosis of interleukin-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Basquin, Cyril; Trichet, Michaël; Vihinen, Helena; Malardé, Valérie; Lagache, Thibault; Ripoll, Léa; Jokitalo, Eija; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Gautreau, Alexis; Sauvonnet, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis controls many functions including nutrient uptake, cell division, migration and signal transduction. A clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway is used by important physiological cargos, including interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R). However, this process lacks morphological and dynamic data. Our electron microscopy (EM) and tomography studies reveal that IL-2R-pits and vesicles are initiated at the base of protrusions. We identify the WAVE complex as a specific endocytic actor. The WAVE complex interacts with IL-2R, via a WAVE-interacting receptor sequence (WIRS) present in the receptor polypeptide, and allows for receptor clustering close to membrane protrusions. In addition, using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF) and automated analysis we demonstrate that two timely distinct bursts of actin polymerization are required during IL-2R uptake, promoted first by the WAVE complex and then by N-WASP. Finally, our data reveal that dynamin acts as a transition controller for the recruitment of Arp2/3 activators required for IL-2R endocytosis. Altogether, our work identifies the spatio-temporal specific role of factors initiating clathrin-independent endocytosis by a unique mechanism that does not depend on the deformation of a flat membrane, but rather on that of membrane protrusions. PMID:26124312

  4. Long-term potentiation decay and memory loss are mediated by AMPAR endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili; Li, Hongjie; Bai, Yanrui; Wang, Wei; Tu, Man; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Limin; He, Wenting; Wu, Xiaobin; Tan, Tao; Liu, Mingjing; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Weihui; Jin, Wuyang; Zhang, Shu; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong; Wang, Yu Tian

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength between hippocampal neurons is associated with learning and memory, and LTP dysfunction is thought to underlie memory loss. LTP can be temporally and mechanistically classified into decaying (early-phase) LTP and nondecaying (late-phase) LTP. While the nondecaying nature of LTP is thought to depend on protein synthesis and contribute to memory maintenance, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of decaying LTP. Here, we demonstrated that inhibiting endocytosis of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) prevents LTP decay, thereby converting it into nondecaying LTP. Conversely, restoration of AMPAR endocytosis by inhibiting protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) converted nondecaying LTP into decaying LTP. Similarly, inhibition of AMPAR endocytosis prolonged memory retention in normal animals and reduced memory loss in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease. These results strongly suggest that an active process that involves AMPAR endocytosis mediates the decay of LTP and that inhibition of this process can prolong the longevity of LTP as well as memory under both physiological and pathological conditions.

  5. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. PMID:27463710

  6. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X; Zamponi, Gerald W; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  7. Adaptor Protein 2 Regulates Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Cyst Formation in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Maria R.; Vranych, Cecilia V.; Bisbal, Mariano; Maletto, Belkys A.; Ropolo, Andrea S.; Touz, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The parasite Giardia lamblia possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) that function as both endosomes and lysosomes and are implicated in the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of the parasite in different environments. The mechanisms by which Giardia traffics essential proteins to these organelles and regulates their secretion have important implications in the control of parasite dissemination. In this study, we describe the participation of the heterotetrameric clathrin-adaptor protein gAP2 complex in lysosomal protein trafficking. A specific monoclonal antibody against the medium subunit (gμ2) of gAP2 showed localization of this complex to the PVs, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane in the growing trophozoites. gAP2 also colocalized with clathrin in the PVs, suggesting its involvement in endocytosis. Uptake experiments using standard molecules for the study of endocytosis revealed that gAP2 specifically participated in the endocytosis of LDL. Targeted downregulation of the gene encoding gμ2 in growing and encysting trophozoites resulted in a large decrease in the amount of cell growth and cyst wall formation, suggesting a distinct mechanism in which gAP2 is directly involved in both endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. PMID:20199400

  8. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis.

  9. Silence of synaptotagmin I in INS-1 cells inhibits fast exocytosis and fast endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Xiong; Zhou Keming; Wu Zhengxing . E-mail: xutao@ibp.ac.cn; Xu Tao . E-mail: ibbwuzx@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2006-08-18

    Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a Ca{sup 2+} sensor for triggering fast synchronized release of neurotransmitters. However, controversy remains whether Syt I is also obligatory for the exocytosis and endocytosis of larger dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in endocrine cells. In this study, we used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to silence the expression of Syt I and investigated the roles of Syt I on exocytosis and endocytosis in INS-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that expression of Syt I is remarkably reduced by the Syt I gene targeting shRNA. Using high-time resolution capacitance measurement, we found that the silence of Syt I decreased the calcium sensitivity of fusion of insulin granules and therefore reduced the exocytotic burst triggered by step-like [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub i} elevation. In addition, the occurrence frequency and amplitude of fast endocytosis were remarkably reduced in the silenced cells. We conclude that Syt I not only participates in the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing of LDCV fusion with plasmalemma, but also plays a crucial role in fast endocytosis in INS-1 cells.

  10. Osmotic Stress Modulates the Balance between Exocytosis and Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zwiewka, Marta; Nodzyński, Tomasz; Robert, Stéphanie; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jiří

    2015-08-01

    The sessile life style of plants creates the need to deal with an often adverse environment, in which water availability can change on a daily basis, challenging the cellular physiology and integrity. Changes in osmotic conditions disrupt the equilibrium of the plasma membrane: hypoosmotic conditions increase and hyperosmotic environment decrease the cell volume. Here, we show that short-term extracellular osmotic treatments are closely followed by a shift in the balance between endocytosis and exocytosis in root meristem cells. Acute hyperosmotic treatments (ionic and nonionic) enhance clathrin-mediated endocytosis simultaneously attenuating exocytosis, whereas hypoosmotic treatments have the opposite effects. In addition to clathrin recruitment to the plasma membrane, components of early endocytic trafficking are essential during hyperosmotic stress responses. Consequently, growth of seedlings defective in elements of clathrin or early endocytic machinery is more sensitive to hyperosmotic treatments. We also found that the endocytotic response to a change of osmotic status in the environment is dominant over the presumably evolutionary more recent regulatory effect of plant hormones, such as auxin. These results imply that osmotic perturbation influences the balance between endocytosis and exocytosis acting through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We propose that tension on the plasma membrane determines the addition or removal of membranes at the cell surface, thus preserving cell integrity.

  11. Live Cell Imaging of the Endocytosis and the Intracellular Trafficking of Multifunctional Lipid Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tieqiao; Danthi, S. N.; Xie, Jianwu; Hu, Dehong; Lu, H. Peter; Li, King H.

    2006-12-01

    Artificial lipid nanoparticles have drawn great attention due to their potential in medicine. Linked with targeting ligands, they can be used as probes and/or gene delivery vectors for specific types of target cells. Therefore, they are very promising agents in early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancers and other genetic diseases. However, there are several barriers blocking the applications. Controlling the cellular uptake of the lipid nanoparticles is an important technical challenge to overcome. Understanding the mechanism of the endocytosis and the following intracellular trafficking is very important for improving the design and therefore the efficiency as a drug delivery system. By using fluorescence microscopy methods, we studied the endocytosis of lipid nanoparticles by live M21 cells. The movements of the nanoparticles inside the cell were quantitatively characterized and classified based on the diffusion behavior. The trajectories of nanoparticles movement over the cell membrane revealed hop-diffusion behavior prior to the endocytosis. Fast movement in large steps is observed in intracellular trafficking and is attributed to active movement along microtubule. These observations help to understand the mechanism of the endocytosis and the pathway of the particles in cells.

  12. Endocytosis of Ubiquitylation-Deficient EGFR Mutants via Clathrin-Coated Pits is Mediated by Ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Fortian, Arola; Dionne, Lai K; Hong, Sun H; Kim, Woong; Gygi, Steven P; Watkins, Simon C; Sorkin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is controlled by endocytosis. However, mechanisms of EGFR endocytosis remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the EGFR mutant lacking known ubiquitylation, acetylation and clathrin adaptor AP-2-binding sites (21KRΔAP2) was internalized at relatively high rates via the clathrin-dependent pathway in human duodenal adenocarcinoma HuTu-80 cells. RNA interference analysis revealed that this residual internalization is strongly inhibited by depletion of Grb2 and the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5b/c, and partially affected by depletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ubiquitin-binding adaptors, indicating that an ubiquitylation process is involved. Several new ubiquitin conjugation sites were identified by mass spectrometry in the 21KRΔAP2 mutant, suggesting that cryptic ubiquitylation may mediate endocytosis of this mutant. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging of HuTu-80 cells transfected with labeled ubiquitin adaptor epsin1 demonstrated that the ubiquitylation-deficient EGFR mutant was endocytosed through a limited population of epsin-enriched clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), although with a prolonged CCP lifetime. Native EGFR was recruited with the same efficiency into CCPs containing either AP-2 or epsin1 that were tagged with fluorescent proteins by genome editing of MDA-MD-231 cells. We propose that two redundant mechanisms, ubiquitylation and interaction with AP-2, contribute to EGFR endocytosis via CCPs in a stochastic fashion.

  13. Polarized E-cadherin endocytosis directs actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Miranda V.; Lee, Donghoon M.; Harris, Tony J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic epithelia have a remarkable ability to rapidly repair wounds. A supracellular actomyosin cable around the wound coordinates cellular movements and promotes wound closure. Actomyosin cable formation is accompanied by junctional rearrangements at the wound margin. We used in vivo time-lapse quantitative microscopy to show that clathrin, dynamin, and the ADP-ribosylation factor 6, three components of the endocytic machinery, accumulate around wounds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos in a process that requires calcium signaling and actomyosin contractility. Blocking endocytosis with pharmacological or genetic approaches disrupted wound repair. The defect in wound closure was accompanied by impaired removal of E-cadherin from the wound edge and defective actomyosin cable assembly. E-cadherin overexpression also resulted in reduced actin accumulation around wounds and slower wound closure. Reducing E-cadherin levels in embryos in which endocytosis was blocked rescued actin localization to the wound margin. Our results demonstrate a central role for endocytosis in wound healing and indicate that polarized E-cadherin endocytosis is necessary for actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair. PMID:26304727

  14. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Masayuki; Yeong, Foong May

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS) formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR) constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p) neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit. PMID:27447488

  15. Polarized Exocytosis Induces Compensatory Endocytosis by Sec4p-Regulated Cortical Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jesper; Alfaro, Gabriel; Beh, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized growth is maintained by both polarized exocytosis, which transports membrane components to specific locations on the cell cortex, and endocytosis, which retrieves these components before they can diffuse away. Despite functional links between these two transport pathways, they are generally considered to be separate events. Using live cell imaging, in vivo and in vitro protein binding assays, and in vitro pyrene-actin polymerization assays, we show that the yeast Rab GTPase Sec4p couples polarized exocytosis with cortical actin polymerization, which induces endocytosis. After polarized exocytosis to the plasma membrane, Sec4p binds Las17/Bee1p (yeast Wiskott—Aldrich Syndrome protein [WASp]) in a complex with Sla1p and Sla2p during actin patch assembly. Mutations that inactivate Sec4p, or its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Sec2p, inhibit actin patch formation, whereas the activating sec4-Q79L mutation accelerates patch assembly. In vitro assays of Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization established that GTPγS-Sec4p overrides Sla1p inhibition of Las17p-dependent actin nucleation. These results support a model in which Sec4p relocates along the plasma membrane from polarized sites of exocytic vesicle fusion to nascent sites of endocytosis. Activated Sec4p then promotes actin polymerization and triggers compensatory endocytosis, which controls surface expansion and kinetically refines cell polarization. PMID:27526190

  16. Defective calmodulin-dependent rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish sensory hair cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Seiler, C; Nicolson, T

    1999-11-15

    Vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells contain a narrow "pericuticular" zone which is densely populated with small vesicles between the cuticular plate and cellular junctions near the apical surface. The presence of many cytoplasmic vesicles suggests that the apical surface of hair cells has a high turnover rate. The significance of intense membrane trafficking at the apical surface is not known. Using a marker of endocytosis, the styryl dye FM1-43, this report shows that rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells is calcium and calmodulin dependent and is partially blocked by the presence of amiloride and dihydrostreptomycin, known inhibitors of mechanotransduction channels. As seen in lateral line hair cells, sensory hair cells within the larval otic capsule also exhibit rapid apical endocytosis. Defects in internalization of the dye in both lateral line and inner ear hair cells were found in five zebrafish auditory/vestibular mutants: sputnik, mariner, orbiter, mercury, and skylab. In addition, lateral line hair cells in these mutants were not sensitive to prolonged exposure to streptomycin, which is toxic to hair cells. The presence of endocytic defects in the majority of zebrafish mechanosensory mutants points to a important role of apical endocytosis in hair cell function. PMID:10526320

  17. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis and physiology-based cell membrane traffic models of doxorubicin liposomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghuan; Gao, Lei; Tan, Xi; Li, Feiyang; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-08-01

    The clathrin-mediated endocytosis is likely a major mechanism of liposomes' internalization. A kinetic approach was used to assess the internalization mechanism of doxorubicin (Dox) loaded cationic liposomes and to establish physiology-based cell membrane traffic mathematic models. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis, including dynamin-dependent or -independent endocytosis of noncaveolar structure, was a dominant process. The mathematic models divided Dox loaded liposomes binding lipid rafts (B) into saturable binding (SB) and nonsaturable binding (NSB) followed by energy-driven endocytosis. The intracellular trafficking demonstrated early endosome-late endosome-lysosome or early/late endosome-cytoplasm-nucleus pathways. The three properties of liposome structures, i.e., cationic lipid, fusogenic lipid, and pegylation, were investigated to compare their contributions to cell membrane and intracellular traffic. The results revealed great contribution of cationic lipid DOTAP and fusogenic lipid DOPE to cell membrane binding and internalization. The valid Dox in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with cationic liposomes containing 40mol% of DOPE were 1.2-fold and 1.5-fold higher than that in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with liposomes containing 20mol% of DOPE, respectively, suggesting the dependence of cell type. This tendency was proportional to the increase of cell-associated total liposomal Dox. The mathematic models would be useful to predict intracellular trafficking of liposomal Dox.

  18. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking of DNA After Gene Electrotransfer In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rosazza, Christelle; Deschout, Hendrik; Buntz, Annette; Braeckmans, Kevin; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    DNA electrotransfer is a successful technique for gene delivery into cells and represents an attractive alternative to virus-based methods for clinical applications including gene therapy and DNA vaccination. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms governing DNA internalization and its fate inside cells. The objectives of this work were to investigate the role of endocytosis and to quantify the contribution of different routes of cellular trafficking during DNA electrotransfer. To pursue these objectives, we performed flow cytometry and single-particle fluorescence microscopy experiments using inhibitors of endocytosis and endosomal markers. Our results show that ~50% of DNA is internalized by caveolin/raft-mediated endocytosis, 25% by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and 25% by macropinocytosis. During active transport, DNA is routed through multiple endosomal compartments with, in the hour following electrotransfer, 70% found in Rab5 structures, 50% in Rab11-containing organelles and 30% in Rab9 compartments. Later, 60% of DNA colocalizes with Lamp1 vesicles. Because these molecular markers can overlap while following organelles through several steps of trafficking, the percentages do not sum up to 100%. We conclude that electrotransferred DNA uses the classical endosomal trafficking pathways. Our results are important for a generalized understanding of gene electrotransfer, which is crucial for its safe use in clinics. PMID:26859199

  19. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis and physiology-based cell membrane traffic models of doxorubicin liposomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghuan; Gao, Lei; Tan, Xi; Li, Feiyang; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-08-01

    The clathrin-mediated endocytosis is likely a major mechanism of liposomes' internalization. A kinetic approach was used to assess the internalization mechanism of doxorubicin (Dox) loaded cationic liposomes and to establish physiology-based cell membrane traffic mathematic models. Lipid rafts-mediated endocytosis, including dynamin-dependent or -independent endocytosis of noncaveolar structure, was a dominant process. The mathematic models divided Dox loaded liposomes binding lipid rafts (B) into saturable binding (SB) and nonsaturable binding (NSB) followed by energy-driven endocytosis. The intracellular trafficking demonstrated early endosome-late endosome-lysosome or early/late endosome-cytoplasm-nucleus pathways. The three properties of liposome structures, i.e., cationic lipid, fusogenic lipid, and pegylation, were investigated to compare their contributions to cell membrane and intracellular traffic. The results revealed great contribution of cationic lipid DOTAP and fusogenic lipid DOPE to cell membrane binding and internalization. The valid Dox in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with cationic liposomes containing 40mol% of DOPE were 1.2-fold and 1.5-fold higher than that in the nuclei of HepG2 and A375 cells treated with liposomes containing 20mol% of DOPE, respectively, suggesting the dependence of cell type. This tendency was proportional to the increase of cell-associated total liposomal Dox. The mathematic models would be useful to predict intracellular trafficking of liposomal Dox. PMID:27117641

  20. Molecular components required for resting and stimulated endocytosis of botulinum neurotoxins by glutamatergic and peptidergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianghui; Wang, Jiafu; Lawrence, Gary W; Dolly, J Oliver

    2013-08-01

    Proteins responsible for basal and stimulated endocytosis in nerves containing small clear synaptic vesicles (SCSVs) or large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are revealed herein, using probes that exploit surface-exposed vesicle proteins as acceptors for internalization. Basal uptake of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) by both SCSV-releasing cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and LDCV-enriched trigeminal ganglionic neurons (TGNs) was found to require protein acceptors and acidic compartments. In addition, dynamin, clathrin, adaptor protein complex-2 (AP2), and amphiphysin contribute to the depolarization-evoked entry. For fast recycling of SCSVs, knockdown and knockout strategies demonstrated that CGNs use predominantly dynamin 1, whereas isoform 2 and, to a smaller extent, isoform 3 support a less rapid mode of stimulated endocytosis. Accordingly, proximity ligation assay confirmed that dynamin 1 and 2 colocalize with amphiphysin 1 in CGNs, and the latter copurified with both dynamins from cell extracts. In contrast, LDCV-releasing TGNs preferentially employ dynamins 2 and 3 and amphiphysin 1 for evoked endocytosis and lack the fast phase. Hence, stimulation recruits dynamin, clathrin, AP2, and amphiphysin to augment BoNT internalization, and neurons match endocytosis mediators to the different demands for locally recycling SCSVs or replenishing distally synthesized LDCVs.

  1. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  2. Dual single-scission event analysis of constitutive transferrin receptor (TfR) endocytosis and ligand-triggered β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) or Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marko; Pierre, Fabienne; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Merrifield, Christien J

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic relationship between constitutive and ligand-triggered clathrin-mediated endocytosis is only poorly characterized, and it remains controversial whether clathrin-coated pits specialize to internalize particular receptor cargo. Here we analyzed the ligand-triggered endocytosis of the model G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) at the level of individual endocytic events using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)-based assay. Similar to the constitutive endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR), ligand- triggered endocytosis of β2AR occurs via quantized scission events hosted by clathrin spots and plaques of variable size and persistence. To address whether clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) specialize to internalize particular GPCRs, we adapted the TIRFM imaging assay to simultaneously quantify the internalization of TfR and the ligand- triggered endocytosis of the β2AR or MOR. Agonist-triggered β2AR or MOR endocytosis extended the maturation time of CCSs, as shown previously, but did not affect the rate of constitutive TfR endocytosis or loading of TfR into individual endocytic vesicles. Both the β2AR and the MOR receptors entered cells in the same vesicles as TfR, and the overall evidence for CCS specialization was weak. These data support a simple model in which different cargoes internalize through common CCSs.

  3. Dual single-scission event analysis of constitutive transferrin receptor (TfR) endocytosis and ligand-triggered β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) or Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Marko; Pierre, Fabienne; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Merrifield, Christien J.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic relationship between constitutive and ligand-triggered clathrin-mediated endocytosis is only poorly characterized, and it remains controversial whether clathrin-coated pits specialize to internalize particular receptor cargo. Here we analyzed the ligand-triggered endocytosis of the model G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) at the level of individual endocytic events using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)–based assay. Similar to the constitutive endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR), ligand- triggered endocytosis of β2AR occurs via quantized scission events hosted by clathrin spots and plaques of variable size and persistence. To address whether clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) specialize to internalize particular GPCRs, we adapted the TIRFM imaging assay to simultaneously quantify the internalization of TfR and the ligand- triggered endocytosis of the β2AR or MOR. Agonist-triggered β2AR or MOR endocytosis extended the maturation time of CCSs, as shown previously, but did not affect the rate of constitutive TfR endocytosis or loading of TfR into individual endocytic vesicles. Both the β2AR and the MOR receptors entered cells in the same vesicles as TfR, and the overall evidence for CCS specialization was weak. These data support a simple model in which different cargoes internalize through common CCSs. PMID:25079691

  4. Endocytosis and intracellular processing of platelet microparticles by brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Faille, Dorothée; El-Assaad, Fatima; Mitchell, Andrew J; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Chimini, Giovanna; Fusai, Thierry; Grau, Georges E; Combes, Valéry

    2012-08-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) bind and modify the phenotype of many cell types including endothelial cells. Recently, we showed that PMP were internalized by human brain endothelial cells (HBEC). Here we intend to better characterize the internalization mechanisms of PMP and their intracellular fate. Confocal microscopy analysis of PKH67-labelled PMP distribution in HBEC showed PMP in early endosome antigen 1 positive endosomes and in LysoTracker-labelled lysosomes, confirming a role for endocytosis in PMP internalization. No fusion of calcein-loaded PMP with HBEC membranes was observed. Quantification of PMP endocytosis using flow cytometry revealed that it was partially inhibited by trypsin digestion of PMP surface proteins and by extracellular Ca(2+) chelation by EDTA, suggesting a partial role for receptor-mediated endocytosis in PMP uptake. This endocytosis was independent of endothelial receptors such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and was not increased by tumour necrosis factor stimulation of HBEC. Platelet-derived microparticle internalization was dramatically increased in the presence of decomplemented serum, suggesting a role for PMP opsonin-dependent phagocytosis. Platelet-derived microparticle uptake was greatly diminished by treatment of HBEC with cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of microfilament formation required for both phagocytosis and macropinocytosis, with methyl-β-cyclodextrin that depletes membrane cholesterol needed for macropinocytosis and with amiloride that inhibits the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger involved in macropinocytosis. In conclusion, PMP are taken up by active endocytosis in HBEC, involving mechanisms consistent with both phagocytosis and macropinocytosis. These findings identify new processes by which PMP could modify endothelial cell phenotype and functions.

  5. IGF1R Signaling in Ewing Sarcoma Is Shaped by Clathrin-/Caveolin-Dependent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Sofia; Ordóñez, José Luis; Amaral, Ana Teresa; Prins, Frans; Floris, Giuseppe; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; de Alava, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Receptor endocytosis is critical for cell signaling. IGF1R mediates an autocrine loop that is de-regulated in Ewing Sarcoma (ES) cells. Here we study the impact of IGF1R internalization, mediated by clathrin and caveolin-1 (CAV1), in ES signaling. We used clathrin and CAV1-siRNA to interfere in clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis. Chlorpromazine (CPMZ) and methyl-beta-cyclo-dextrin (MCD) were also used in order to inhibit clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis, respectively. We analyzed IGF1R internalization and co-localization with clathrin and CAV1 upon ligand binding, as well as the status of the IGF1R pathway, cellular proliferation, and the apoptosis of interfered and inhibited ES cells. We performed a high-throughput tyrosine kinase phosphorylation assay to analyze the effects of combining the IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 (AEW) with CPMZ or MCD on the intracellular phospho-proteome. We observed that IGF1R is internalized upon ligand binding in ES cells and that this process is dependent on clathrin or CAV1. The blockage of receptor internalization inhibited AKT and MAPK phosphorylation, reducing the proliferative rate of ES cells and increasing the levels of apoptosis. Combination of AEW with CPMZ or MCD largely enhanced these effects. CAV1 and clathrin endocytosis controls IGF1R internalization and signaling and has a profound impact on ES IGF1R-promoted survival signaling. We propose the combination of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors with endocytosis inhibitors as a new therapeutic approach to achieve a stronger degree of receptor inhibition in this, or other neoplasms dependent on IGF1R signaling. PMID:21611203

  6. α-Synuclein Mutation Inhibits Endocytosis at Mammalian Central Nerve Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Sheng, Jiansong; Zhang, Zhen; Yue, Hai-Yuan; Sun, Lixin; Sgobio, Carmelo; Lin, Xian; Peng, Shiyong; Jin, Yinghui; Gan, Lin; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) missense and multiplication mutations have been suggested to cause neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Before causing the progressive neuronal loss, α-syn mutations impair exocytosis, which may contribute to eventual neurodegeneration. To understand how α-syn mutations impair exocytosis, we developed a mouse model that selectively expressed PD-related human α-syn A53T (h-α-synA53T) mutation at the calyx of Held terminals, where release mechanisms can be dissected with a patch-clamping technique. With capacitance measurement of endocytosis, we reported that h-α-synA53T, either expressed transgenically or dialyzed in the short term in calyces, inhibited two of the most common forms of endocytosis, the slow and rapid vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses. The expression of h-α-synA53T in calyces also inhibited vesicle replenishment to the readily releasable pool. These findings may help to understand how α-syn mutations impair neurotransmission before neurodegeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT α-Synuclein (α-syn) missense or multiplication mutations may cause neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The initial impact of α-syn mutations before neuronal loss is impairment of exocytosis, which may contribute to eventual neurodegeneration. The mechanism underlying impairment of exocytosis is poorly understood. Here we report that an α-syn mutant, the human α-syn A53T, inhibited two of the most commonly observed forms of endocytosis, slow and rapid endocytosis, at a mammalian central synapse. We also found that α-syn A53T inhibited vesicle replenishment to the readily releasable pool. These results may contribute to accounting for the widely observed early synaptic impairment caused by α-syn mutations in the progression toward neurodegeneration. PMID:27098685

  7. Clathrin- and Arp2/3-Independent Endocytosis in the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Elias; Nazarova, Elena; Regan, Hannah; Douglas, Lois M.; Konopka, James B.; Vogel, Jackie; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is conserved among eukaryotes and has been extensively analyzed at a molecular level. Here, we present an analysis of CME in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans that shows the same modular structure as those in other fungi and mammalian cells. Intriguingly, C. albicans is perfectly viable in the absence of Arp2/3, an essential component of CME in other systems. In C. albicans, Arp2/3 function remains essential for CME as all 15 proteins tested that participate in CME, including clathrin, lose their characteristic dynamics observed in wild-type (WT) cells. However, since arp2/3 cells are still able to endocytose lipids and fluid-phase markers, but not the Ste2 and Mup1 plasma membrane proteins, there must be an alternate clathrin-independent pathway we term Arp2/3-independent endocytosis (AIE). Characterization of AIE shows that endocytosis in arp2 mutants relies on actin cables and other Arp2/3-independent actin structures, as inhibition of actin functions prevented cargo uptake in arp2/3 mutants. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that arp2/3 mutants still formed invaginating tubules, cell structures whose proper functions are believed to heavily rely on Arp2/3. Finally, Prk1 and Sjl2, two proteins involved in patch disassembly during CME, were not correctly localized to sites of endocytosis in arp2 mutants, implying a role of Arp2/3 in CME patch disassembly. Overall, C. albicans contains an alternative endocytic pathway (AIE) that relies on actin cable function to permit clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) and provides a system to further explore alternate endocytic routes that likely exist in fungal species. PMID:23982070

  8. Real-time monitoring of NKCC2 endocytosis by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaykumar, Ankita Bachhawat; Caceres, Paulo S; Sablaban, Ibrahim; Tannous, Bakhos A; Ortiz, Pablo A

    2016-01-15

    The apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) mediates NaCl reabsorption by the thick ascending limb (TAL). The amount of NKCC2 at the apical membrane of TAL cells is determined by exocytic delivery, recycling, and endocytosis. Surface biotinylation allows measurement of NKCC2 endocytosis, but it has low time resolution and does not allow imaging of the dynamic process of endocytosis. We hypothesized that total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy imaging of labeled NKCC2 would allow monitoring of NKCC2 endocytosis in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and TAL cells. Thus we generated a NKCC2 construct containing a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) sequence between the transmembrane domains 5 and 6. Once expressed in polarized MDCK or TAL cells, surface NKCC2 was specifically biotinylated by exogenous biotin ligase (BirA). We also demonstrate that expression of a secretory form of BirA in TAL cells induces metabolic biotinylation of NKCC2. Labeling biotinylated surface NKCC2 with fluorescent streptavidin showed that most apical NKCC2 was located within small discrete domains or clusters referred to as "puncta" on the TIRF field. NKCC2 puncta were observed to disappear from the TIRF field, indicating an endocytic event which led to a decrease in the number of surface puncta at a rate of 1.18 ± 0.16%/min in MDCK cells, and a rate 1.09 ± 0.08%/min in TAL cells (n = 5). Treating cells with a cholesterol-chelating agent (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) completely blocked NKCC2 endocytosis. We conclude that TIRF microscopy of labeled NKCC2 allows the dynamic imaging of individual endocytic events at the apical membrane of TAL cells.

  9. Effect of sulfur dioxide on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Inhaled SO2 may cause damage by injuring upper airways. To what extent can SO2 also alter pulmonary macrophage function in the parenchyma and what is the impact of exercise We studied the effect of SO2 on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis in resting and in exercising animals by measuring the rates of macrophage endocytosis in situ for 1 h of a test particle of insoluble radioactive colloidal gold (198Au), 1, 24, or 48 h after inhalation exposure to SO2. Resting hamsters exposed for 4 h to 50 ppm SO2 had no significant reduction in macrophage endocytosis compared with air-breathing control hamsters. However, if hamsters were exposed to the same concentration of SO2 while continuously running (40 min at 0.9 km/h), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure even though the exposure time was only one-sixth as long. Twenty-four hours later, the percentage of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained significantly depressed. By 48 h, the rate had returned to control values. Exercise alone did not affect endocytosis. Hamsters exposed to 50 ppm SO2, with or without exercise, also showed significant reductions in the number of lavaged macrophages. This decrease was greatest and most persistent in the SO2 plus exercise group. These data indicate that even when animals are exposed to water-soluble gases, which are normally removed by the upper airways, exercise can potentiate damage to more peripheral components of the pulmonary defense system such as the macrophage.

  10. Phosphorylation decreases ubiquitylation of the thiazide-sensitive cotransporter NCC and subsequent clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Aroankins, Takwa S; Fenton, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, is the major NaCl transport protein in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). The transport activity of NCC can be regulated by phosphorylation, but knowledge of modulation of NCC trafficking by phosphorylation is limited. In this study, we generated novel tetracycline-inducible Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) cell lines expressing NCC to examine the role of NCC phosphorylation and ubiquitylation on NCC endocytosis. In MDCKI-NCC cells, NCC was highly glycosylated at molecular weights consistent with NCC monomers and dimers. NCC constitutively cycles to the apical plasma membrane of MDCKI-NCC cells, with 20-30% of the membrane pool of NCC internalized within 30 min. The use of dynasore, PitStop2, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, nystatin, and filipin (specific inhibitors of either clathrin-dependent or -independent endocytosis) demonstrated that NCC is internalized via a clathrin-mediated pathway. Reduction of endocytosis resulted in greater levels of NCC in the plasma membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the association of NCC with the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway in rat DCT cells. Compared with controls, inducing phosphorylation of NCC via low chloride treatment or mimicking phosphorylation by replacing Thr-53, Thr-58, and Ser-71 residues with Asp resulted in increased membrane abundance and reduced rates of NCC internalization. NCC ubiquitylation was lowest in the conditions with greatest NCC phosphorylation, thus providing a mechanism for the reduced endocytosis. In conclusion, our data support a model where NCC is constitutively cycled to the plasma membrane, and upon stimulation, it can be phosphorylated to both increase NCC activity and decrease NCC endocytosis, together increasing NaCl transport in the DCT.

  11. Mouse early extra-embryonic lineages activate compensatory endocytosis in response to poor maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congshan; Velazquez, Miguel A; Marfy-Smith, Stephanie; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Cox, Andy; Johnston, David A; Smyth, Neil; Fleming, Tom P

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian extra-embryonic lineages perform the crucial role of nutrient provision during gestation to support embryonic and fetal growth. These lineages derive from outer trophectoderm (TE) and internal primitive endoderm (PE) in the blastocyst and subsequently give rise to chorio-allantoic and visceral yolk sac placentae, respectively. We have shown maternal low protein diet exclusively during mouse preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to cause a compensatory increase in fetal and perinatal growth that correlates positively with increased adult-onset cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease. Here, to investigate early mechanisms of compensatory nutrient provision, we assessed the influence of maternal Emb-LPD on endocytosis within extra-embryonic lineages using quantitative imaging and expression of markers and proteins involved. Blastocysts collected from Emb-LPD mothers within standard culture medium displayed enhanced TE endocytosis compared with embryos from control mothers with respect to the number and collective volume per cell of vesicles with endocytosed ligand and fluid and lysosomes, plus protein expression of megalin (Lrp2) LDL-family receptor. Endocytosis was also stimulated using similar criteria in the outer PE-like lineage of embryoid bodies formed from embryonic stem cell lines generated from Emb-LPD blastocysts. Using an in vitro model replicating the depleted amino acid (AA) composition found within the Emb-LPD uterine luminal fluid, we show TE endocytosis response is activated through reduced branched-chain AAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine). Moreover, activation appears mediated through RhoA GTPase signalling. Our data indicate early embryos regulate and stabilise endocytosis as a mechanism to compensate for poor maternal nutrient provision.

  12. IGF1R signaling in Ewing sarcoma is shaped by clathrin-/caveolin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana Sofia; Ordóñez, José Luis; Amaral, Ana Teresa; Prins, Frans; Floris, Giuseppe; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; de Alava, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Receptor endocytosis is critical for cell signaling. IGF1R mediates an autocrine loop that is de-regulated in Ewing Sarcoma (ES) cells. Here we study the impact of IGF1R internalization, mediated by clathrin and caveolin-1 (CAV1), in ES signaling. We used clathrin and CAV1-siRNA to interfere in clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis. Chlorpromazine (CPMZ) and methyl-beta-cyclo-dextrin (MCD) were also used in order to inhibit clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis, respectively. We analyzed IGF1R internalization and co-localization with clathrin and CAV1 upon ligand binding, as well as the status of the IGF1R pathway, cellular proliferation, and the apoptosis of interfered and inhibited ES cells. We performed a high-throughput tyrosine kinase phosphorylation assay to analyze the effects of combining the IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 (AEW) with CPMZ or MCD on the intracellular phospho-proteome. We observed that IGF1R is internalized upon ligand binding in ES cells and that this process is dependent on clathrin or CAV1. The blockage of receptor internalization inhibited AKT and MAPK phosphorylation, reducing the proliferative rate of ES cells and increasing the levels of apoptosis. Combination of AEW with CPMZ or MCD largely enhanced these effects. CAV1 and clathrin endocytosis controls IGF1R internalization and signaling and has a profound impact on ES IGF1R-promoted survival signaling. We propose the combination of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors with endocytosis inhibitors as a new therapeutic approach to achieve a stronger degree of receptor inhibition in this, or other neoplasms dependent on IGF1R signaling.

  13. Activity-dependent fluorescent labeling of bacterial cells expressing the TOL pathway

    SciTech Connect

    William K. Keener; Mary E. Watwood

    2005-01-01

    3-Ethynylbenzoate functions as an activity-dependent, fluorogenic and chromogenic probe for Pseudomonas putida mt-2, which is known to degrade toluene via conversion to benzoate, followed by meta ring fission of the intermediate, catechol. This direct physiological analysis allows the fluorescent labeling of cells whose toluene-degrading enzymes have been induced by an aromatic substrate.

  14. Activity-dependent facilitation of Synaptojanin and synaptic vesicle recycling by the Minibrain kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Kan; Bregere, Catherine; Paluch, Jeremy; Lu, Jason F; Dickman, Dion K; Chang, Karen T

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation has emerged as a crucial regulatory mechanism in the nervous system to integrate the dynamic signalling required for proper synaptic development, function and plasticity, particularly during changes in neuronal activity. Here we present evidence that Minibrain (Mnb; also known as Dyrk1A), a serine/threonine kinase implicated in autism spectrum disorder and Down syndrome, is required presynaptically for normal synaptic growth and rapid synaptic vesicle endocytosis at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We find that Mnb-dependent phosphorylation of Synaptojanin (Synj) is required, in vivo, for complex endocytic protein interactions and to enhance Synj activity. Neuronal stimulation drives Mnb mobilization to endocytic zones and triggers Mnb-dependent phosphorylation of Synj. Our data identify Mnb as a synaptic kinase that promotes efficient synaptic vesicle recycling by dynamically calibrating Synj function at the Drosophila NMJ, and in turn endocytic capacity, to adapt to conditions of high synaptic activity. PMID:24977345

  15. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  16. Bulk Topological Proximity Effect.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Timothy H; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon; Hughes, Taylor L

    2016-02-26

    Existing proximity effects stem from systems with a local order parameter, such as a local magnetic moment or a local superconducting pairing amplitude. Here, we demonstrate that despite lacking a local order parameter, topological phases also may give rise to a proximity effect of a distinctively inverted nature. We focus on a general construction in which a topological phase is extensively coupled to a second system, and we argue that, in many cases, the inverse topological order will be induced on the second system. To support our arguments, we rigorously establish this "bulk topological proximity effect" for all gapped free-fermion topological phases and representative integrable models of interacting topological phases. We present a terrace construction which illustrates the phenomenological consequences of this proximity effect. Finally, we discuss generalizations beyond our framework, including how intrinsic topological order may also exhibit this effect.

  17. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  18. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  19. Bulk amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report for a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work was to develop the competency for the synthesis of novel bulk amorphous alloys. The authors researched their synthesis methods and alloy properties, including thermal stability, mechanical, and transport properties. The project also addressed the development of vanadium-spinel alloys for structural applications in hostile environments, the measurement of elastic constants and thermal expansion in single-crystal TiAl from 300 to 750 K, the measurement of elastic constants in gallium nitride, and a study of the shock-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi alloys.

  20. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  1. Activity-dependent signal changes in neurons by fiber-coupled microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Koida, Kowa

    2014-03-01

    To study neuronal functions in brain, we developed a higher resolution type fiber-coupled microscope (FCM), and measured the activity-dependent fluorescence intensity of the excitable cells over time. FCM was constructed by combining a fluorescence microscope with the high density type of fiber bundle, which consisted of 1.5 x 104 unit fiber in the assemble less than 0.5 mm tip. The spatial resolution was calculated to be 2.4 mm with the 5 mm focal depth. The activity-dependent Ca signals were detectable in each cell of either the pancreatic spheroids or the brain slices. The present FCM is very promising for detailed studies with the live imaging of signal molecules in the body at a single cell level.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of activity-dependent changes in dendritic morphology: role of RGK proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ghiretti, Amy E.; Paradis, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system has the amazing capacity to transform sensory experience from the environment into changes in neuronal activity that, in turn, cause long-lasting alterations in neuronal morphology. Recent findings illustrate a somewhat surprising result: sensory experience concurrently activates molecular signaling pathways that both promote and inhibit dendritic complexity. Historically, a number of positive regulators of activity-dependent dendritic complexity have been described, while the list of identified negative regulators of this process is much shorter. In recent years, there has been an emerging appreciation of the importance of the Rad/Rem/Rem2/Gem/Kir (RGK) GTPases as mediators of activity-dependent structural plasticity. In the following review, we discuss the traditional view of RGK proteins, as well as our evolving understanding of the role of these proteins in instructing structural plasticity. PMID:24910262

  3. Modeling activity-dependent changes of axonal spike conduction in primary afferent C-nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Tigerholm, Jenny; Petersson, Marcus E.; Obreja, Otilia; Lampert, Angelika; Carr, Richard; Schmelz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Action potential initiation and conduction along peripheral axons is a dynamic process that displays pronounced activity dependence. In patients with neuropathic pain, differences in the modulation of axonal conduction velocity by activity suggest that this property may provide insight into some of the pathomechanisms. To date, direct recordings of axonal membrane potential have been hampered by the small diameter of the fibers. We have therefore adopted an alternative approach to examine the basis of activity-dependent changes in axonal conduction by constructing a comprehensive mathematical model of human cutaneous C-fibers. Our model reproduced axonal spike propagation at a velocity of 0.69 m/s commensurate with recordings from human C-nociceptors. Activity-dependent slowing (ADS) of axonal propagation velocity was adequately simulated by the model. Interestingly, the property most readily associated with ADS was an increase in the concentration of intra-axonal sodium. This affected the driving potential of sodium currents, thereby producing latency changes comparable to those observed for experimental ADS. The model also adequately reproduced post-action potential excitability changes (i.e., recovery cycles) observed in vivo. We performed a series of control experiments replicating blockade of particular ion channels as well as changing temperature and extracellular ion concentrations. In the absence of direct experimental approaches, the model allows specific hypotheses to be formulated regarding the mechanisms underlying activity-dependent changes in C-fiber conduction. Because ADS might functionally act as a negative feedback to limit trains of nociceptor activity, we envisage that identifying its mechanisms may also direct efforts aimed at alleviating neuronal hyperexcitability in pain patients. PMID:24371290

  4. Evidence for evolutionary divergence of activity-dependent gene expression in developing neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jing; McQueen, Jamie; Bilican, Bilada; Dando, Owen; Magnani, Dario; Punovuori, Karolina; Selvaraj, Bhuvaneish T; Livesey, Matthew; Haghi, Ghazal; Heron, Samuel; Burr, Karen; Patani, Rickie; Rajan, Rinku; Sheppard, Olivia; Kind, Peter C; Simpson, T Ian; Tybulewicz, Victor LJ; Wyllie, David JA; Fisher, Elizabeth MC; Lowell, Sally; Chandran, Siddharthan; Hardingham, Giles E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary differences in gene regulation between humans and lower mammalian experimental systems are incompletely understood, a potential translational obstacle that is challenging to surmount in neurons, where primary tissue availability is poor. Rodent-based studies show that activity-dependent transcriptional programs mediate myriad functions in neuronal development, but the extent of their conservation in human neurons is unknown. We compared activity-dependent transcriptional responses in developing human stem cell-derived cortical neurons with those induced in developing primary- or stem cell-derived mouse cortical neurons. While activity-dependent gene-responsiveness showed little dependence on developmental stage or origin (primary tissue vs. stem cell), notable species-dependent differences were observed. Moreover, differential species-specific gene ortholog regulation was recapitulated in aneuploid mouse neurons carrying human chromosome-21, implicating promoter/enhancer sequence divergence as a factor, including human-specific activity-responsive AP-1 sites. These findings support the use of human neuronal systems for probing transcriptional responses to physiological stimuli or indeed pharmaceutical agents. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20337.001 PMID:27692071

  5. Histone methyltransferase Ash1L mediates activity-dependent repression of neurexin-1α.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Τao; Liang, Chen; Li, Dongdong; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Sanxiong; Gao, Guanjun; Guan, Ji-Song

    2016-05-27

    Activity-dependent transcription is critical for the regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity and plastic rewiring in the brain. Here, we report that the transcription of neurexin1α (nrxn1α), a presynaptic adhesion molecule for synaptic formation, is regulated by transient neuronal activation. We showed that 10 minutes of firing at 50 Hz in neurons repressed the expression of nrxn1α for 24 hours in a primary cortical neuron culture through a transcriptional repression mechanism. By performing a screening assay using a synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) to pull down the proteins enriched near the nrxn1α promoter region in vivo, we identified that Ash1L, a histone methyltransferase, is enriched in the nrxn1α promoter. Neuronal activity triggered binding of Ash1L to the promoter and enriched the histone marker H3K36me2 at the nrxn1α promoter region. Knockout of Ash1L in mice completely abolished the activity-dependent repression of nrxn1α. Taken together, our results reveal that a novel process of activity-dependent transcriptional repression exists in neurons and that Ash1L mediates the long-term repression of nrxn1α, thus implicating an important role for epigenetic modification in brain functioning.

  6. Histone methyltransferase Ash1L mediates activity-dependent repression of neurexin-1α

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Τao; Liang, Chen; Li, Dongdong; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Sanxiong; Gao, Guanjun; Guan, Ji-Song

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent transcription is critical for the regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity and plastic rewiring in the brain. Here, we report that the transcription of neurexin1α (nrxn1α), a presynaptic adhesion molecule for synaptic formation, is regulated by transient neuronal activation. We showed that 10 minutes of firing at 50 Hz in neurons repressed the expression of nrxn1α for 24 hours in a primary cortical neuron culture through a transcriptional repression mechanism. By performing a screening assay using a synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) to pull down the proteins enriched near the nrxn1α promoter region in vivo, we identified that Ash1L, a histone methyltransferase, is enriched in the nrxn1α promoter. Neuronal activity triggered binding of Ash1L to the promoter and enriched the histone marker H3K36me2 at the nrxn1α promoter region. Knockout of Ash1L in mice completely abolished the activity-dependent repression of nrxn1α. Taken together, our results reveal that a novel process of activity-dependent transcriptional repression exists in neurons and that Ash1L mediates the long-term repression of nrxn1α, thus implicating an important role for epigenetic modification in brain functioning. PMID:27229316

  7. Activity-dependent plasticity of spinal circuits in the developing and mature spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tahayori, Behdad; Koceja, David M

    2012-01-01

    Part of the development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) occurs through interactions with the environment. Through physical activities and interactions with the world, an animal receives considerable sensory information from various sources. These sources can be internally (proprioceptive) or externally (such as touch and pressure) generated senses. Ample evidence exists to demonstrate that the sensory information originating from large diameter afferents (Ia fibers) have an important role in inducing essential functional and morphological changes for the maturation of both the brain and the spinal cord. The Ia fibers transmit sensory information generated by muscle activity and movement. Such use or activity-dependent plastic changes occur throughout life and are one reason for the ability to acquire new skills and learn new movements. However, the extent and particularly the mechanisms of activity-dependent changes are markedly different between a developing nervous system and a mature nervous system. Understanding these mechanisms is an important step to develop strategies for regaining motor function after different injuries to the CNS. Plastic changes induced by activity occur both in the brain and spinal cord. This paper reviews the activity-dependent changes in the spinal cord neural circuits during both the developmental stages of the CNS and in adulthood. PMID:22900208

  8. The juxtamembrane region of synaptotagmin 1 interacts with dynamin 1 and regulates vesicle fission during compensatory endocytosis in endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Robyn L; Varga, Kelly T; Jiang, Zhongjiao; Young, Fiona B; Blandford, Vanessa; McPherson, Peter S; Gong, Liang-Wei; Sossin, Wayne S

    2015-06-15

    Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is a synaptic vesicle protein that is important for the kinetics of both exocytosis and endocytosis, and is thus a candidate molecule to link these two processes. Although the tandem Ca(2+)-binding C2 domains of Syt1 have important roles in exocytosis and endocytosis, the function of the conserved juxtamembrane (jxm) linker region has yet to be determined. We now demonstrate that the jxm region of Syt1 interacts directly with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the endocytic protein dynamin 1. By using cell-attached capacitance recordings with millisecond time resolution to monitor clathrin-mediated endocytosis of single vesicles in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells, we find that loss of this interaction prolongs the lifetime of the fission pore leading to defects in the dynamics of vesicle fission. These results indicate a previously undescribed interaction between two major regulatory proteins in the secretory vesicle cycle and that this interaction regulates endocytosis.

  9. Cell surface localised Hsp70 is a cancer specific regulator of clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, Benedikt; Chtcheglova, Lilia A; Juhasz, Kata; Cremades, Nunilo; Aprile, Francesco A; Sonnleitner, Alois; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Vigh, Laszlo; Preiner, Johannes; Balogi, Zsolt

    2015-09-14

    The stress inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is present specifically on the tumour cell surface yet without a pro-tumour function revealed. We show here that cell surface localised Hsp70 (sHsp70) supports clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) in melanoma models. Remarkably, ability of Hsp70 to cluster on lipid rafts in vitro correlated with larger nano-domain sizes of sHsp70 in high sHsp70 expressing cell membranes. Interfering with Hsp70 oligomerisation impaired sHsp70-mediated facilitation of endocytosis. Altogether our findings suggest that a sub-fraction of sHsp70 co-localising with lipid rafts enhances CIE through oligomerisation and clustering. Targeting or utilising this tumour specific mechanism may represent an additional benefit for anti-cancer therapy.

  10. Endocytosis of Cytotoxic Granules Is Essential for Multiple Killing of Target Cells by T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Fang; Bzeih, Hawraa; Schirra, Claudia; Chitirala, Praneeth; Halimani, Mahantappa; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Krause, Elmar; Rettig, Jens; Pattu, Varsha

    2016-09-15

    CTLs are serial killers that kill multiple target cells via exocytosis of cytotoxic granules (CGs). CG exocytosis is tightly regulated and has been investigated in great detail; however, whether CG proteins are endocytosed following exocytosis and contribute to serial killing remains unknown. By using primary CTLs derived from a knock-in mouse of the CG membrane protein Synaptobrevin2, we show that CGs are endocytosed in a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent manner. Following acidification, endocytosed CGs are recycled through early and late, but not recycling endosomes. CGs are refilled with granzyme B at the late endosome stage and polarize to subsequent synapses formed between the CTL and new target cells. Importantly, inhibiting CG endocytosis in CTLs results in a significant reduction of their cytotoxic activity. Thus, our data demonstrate that continuous endocytosis of CG membrane proteins is a prerequisite for efficient serial killing of CTLs and identify key events in this process.

  11. Pharmacological inhibitors of exocytosis and endocytosis: novel bullets for old targets.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Andrei I

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibitors of vesicle trafficking possess great promise as valuable analytical tools for the study of a variety of biological processes and as potential therapeutic agents to fight microbial infections and cancer. However, many commonly used trafficking inhibitors are characterized by poor selectivity that diminishes their use in solving basic problems of cell biology or drug development. Recent high-throughput chemical screens intensified the search for novel modulators of vesicle trafficking, and successfully identified a number of small molecules that inhibit exocytosis and endocytosis in different types of mammalian cells. This chapter provides a systematic overview of recently discovered inhibitors of vesicle trafficking. It describes cellular effects and mechanisms of action of novel inhibitors of exocytosis and endocytosis. Furthermore, it pays special attention to the selectivity and possible off-target effects of these inhibitors. PMID:24947371

  12. Endocytosis Regulates Cell Soma Translocation and the Distribution of Adhesion Proteins in Migrating Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Jennifer C.; Schaar, Bruce T.; Srinivasan, Karpagam; Brodsky, Frances M.; McConnell, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Newborn neurons migrate from their birthplace to their final location to form a properly functioning nervous system. During these movements, young neurons must attach and subsequently detach from their substrate to facilitate migration, but little is known about the mechanisms cells use to release their attachments. We show that the machinery for clathrin-mediated endocytosis is positioned to regulate the distribution of adhesion proteins in a subcellular region just proximal to the neuronal cell body. Inhibiting clathrin or dynamin function impedes the movement of migrating neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibiting dynamin function in vitro shifts the distribution of adhesion proteins to the rear of the cell. These results suggest that endocytosis may play a critical role in regulating substrate detachment to enable cell body translocation in migrating neurons. PMID:21445347

  13. Endocytosis-dependent coordination of multiple actin regulators is required for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Yutaka; Coulson-Gilmer, Camilla; Millard, Tom H

    2015-08-01

    The ability to heal wounds efficiently is essential for life. After wounding of an epithelium, the cells bordering the wound form dynamic actin protrusions and/or a contractile actomyosin cable, and these actin structures drive wound closure. Despite their importance in wound healing, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the assembly of these actin structures at wound edges are not well understood. In this paper, using Drosophila melanogaster embryos, we demonstrate that Diaphanous, SCAR, and WASp play distinct but overlapping roles in regulating actin assembly during wound healing. Moreover, we show that endocytosis is essential for wound edge actin assembly and wound closure. We identify adherens junctions (AJs) as a key target of endocytosis during wound healing and propose that endocytic remodeling of AJs is required to form "signaling centers" along the wound edge that control actin assembly. We conclude that coordination of actin assembly, AJ remodeling, and membrane traffic is required for the construction of a motile leading edge during wound healing.

  14. Microtubule Motors Power Plasma Membrane Tubulation in Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Day, Charles A; Baetz, Nicholas W; Copeland, Courtney A; Kraft, Lewis J; Han, Bing; Tiwari, Ajit; Drake, Kimberly R; De Luca, Heidi; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Davidson, Michael W; Holmes, Randall K; Jobling, Michael G; Schroer, Trina A; Lencer, Wayne I; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    How the plasma membrane is bent to accommodate clathrin-independent endocytosis remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest Shiga and cholera toxin induce membrane curvature required for their uptake into clathrin-independent carriers by binding and cross-linking multiple copies of their glycosphingolipid receptors on the plasma membrane. But it remains unclear if toxin-induced sphingolipid crosslinking provides sufficient mechanical force for deforming the plasma membrane, or if host cell factors also contribute to this process. To test this, we imaged the uptake of cholera toxin B-subunit into surface-derived tubular invaginations. We found that cholera toxin mutants that bind to only one glycosphingolipid receptor accumulated in tubules, and that toxin binding was entirely dispensable for membrane tubulations to form. Unexpectedly, the driving force for tubule extension was supplied by the combination of microtubules, dynein and dynactin, thus defining a novel mechanism for generating membrane curvature during clathrin-independent endocytosis. PMID:25690058

  15. Flotillins regulate membrane mobility of the dopamine transporter but are not required for its protein kinase C dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sorkina, Tatiana; Caltagarone, John; Sorkin, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Flotillins were proposed to mediate clathrin-independent endocytosis, and recently, flotillin-1 was implicated in the protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered endocytosis of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Since endocytosis of DAT was previously shown to be clathrin-mediated, we re-examined the role of clathrin coat proteins and flotillin in DAT endocytosis using DAT tagged with the hemagglutinin epitope (HA) in the extracellular loop and a quantitative HA antibody uptake assay. Depletion of flotillin-1, flotillin-2 or both flotillins together by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not inhibit PKC-dependent internalization and degradation of HA-DAT. In contrast, siRNAs to clathrin heavy chain and μ2 subunit of clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 as well as a dynamin inhibitor Dyngo-4A significantly decreased PKC-dependent endocytosis of HA-DAT. Similarly, endocytosis and degradation of DAT that is not epitope-tagged were highly sensitive to the clathrin siRNAs and dynamin inhibition but were not affected by flotillin knockdown. Very little co-localization of DAT with flotillins was observed in cells ectopically expressing DAT and in cultured mouse dopaminergic neurons. Depletion of flotillins increased diffusion rates of HA-DAT in the plasma membrane, suggesting that flotillin-organized microdomains may regulate the lateral mobility of DAT. We propose that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major pathway of PKC-dependent internalization of DAT, and that flotillins may modulate functional association of DAT with plasma membrane rafts rather than mediate DAT endocytosis.

  16. The endocytosis and signaling of the γδ T cell coreceptor WC1 are regulated by a dileucine motif.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Haoting; Baldwin, Cynthia L; Telfer, Janice C

    2015-03-01

    WC1 proteins, which are specifically expressed by bovine γδ T cells from a gene array containing 13 members, are part of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family. WC1 cytoplasmic domains contains multiple tyrosines, one of which is required to be phosphorylated for TCR coreceptor activity, and a dileucine endocytosis motif. Like the TCR coreceptor CD4, WC1 is endocytosed in response to PMA. Because WC1 endocytosis may play a role in the activation of γδ T cells, we examined WC1 endocytosis in the adherent cell 293T and Jurkat T cell lines using a fusion protein of extracellular CD4 and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain of WC1. Individual mutation of the two leucine residues of the endocytic dileucine motif in the WC1 cytoplasmic domain significantly reduced PMA-induced endocytosis in both cell types and enhanced IL-2 production stimulated by cocross-linking of CD3/TCR and CD4/WC1 in Jurkat cells, suggesting that the sustained membrane coligation of CD3/TCR with WC1 caused by a decrease in endocytosis increases T cell activation. Mutation of two serines upstream of the endocytic dileucine motif affected endocytosis only in adherent 293T cells. Although the two upstream serines were not required for WC1 endocytosis in Jurkat cells, the pan-protein kinase C inhibitor Gö6983 blocked endocytosis of CD4/WC1, and mutation of the upstream serines in WC1 inhibited IL-2 production stimulated by cocross-linking of CD3/TCR and CD4/WC1. These studies provide insights into the signaling of WC1 gene arrays that are present in most mammals and play critical roles in γδ T cell responses to bacterial pathogens.

  17. Aspergillus nidulans Ambient pH Signaling Does Not Require Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Agell, Daniel; Galindo, Antonio; Arst, Herbert N; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Aspergillus nidulans (Pal) ambient pH signaling takes place in cortical structures containing components of the ESCRT pathway, which are hijacked by the alkaline pH-activated, ubiquitin-modified version of the arrestin-like protein PalF and taken to the plasma membrane. There, ESCRTs scaffold the assembly of dedicated Pal proteins acting downstream. The molecular details of this pathway, which results in the two-step proteolytic processing of the transcription factor PacC, have received considerable attention due to the key role that it plays in fungal pathogenicity. While current evidence strongly indicates that the pH signaling role of ESCRT complexes is limited to plasma membrane-associated structures where PacC proteolysis would take place, the localization of the PalB protease, which almost certainly catalyzes the first and only pH-regulated proteolytic step, had not been investigated. In view of ESCRT participation, this formally leaves open the possibility that PalB activation requires endocytic internalization. As endocytosis is essential for hyphal growth, nonlethal endocytic mutations are predicted to cause an incomplete block. We used a SynA internalization assay to measure the extent to which any given mutation prevents endocytosis. We show that none of the tested mutations impairing endocytosis to different degrees, including slaB1, conditionally causing a complete block, have any effect on the activation of the pathway. We further show that PalB, like PalA and PalC, localizes to cortical structures in an alkaline pH-dependent manner. Therefore, signaling through the Pal pathway does not involve endocytosis.

  18. Cholesterol Is Required for Endocytosis and Endosomal Escape of Adenovirus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Imelli, Nicola; Meier, Oliver; Boucke, Karin; Hemmi, Silvio; Greber, Urs F.

    2004-01-01

    The species C adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) and Ad5 bind the coxsackievirus B Ad receptor and αv integrin coreceptors and enter epithelial cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This pathway is rapid and efficient. It leads to cell activation and the cholesterol-dependent formation of macropinosomes. Macropinosomes are triggered to release their contents when incoming Ad2 escapes from endosomes. Here, we show that cholesterol extraction of epithelial cells by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) treatment reduced Ad5-mediated luciferase expression ∼4-fold. The addition of cholesterol to normal cells increased gene expression in a dose-dependent manner up to threefold, but it did not restore gene expression in mβCD-treated cells. mβCD had no effect in the presence of excess cholesterol, indicating that the inhibition of gene expression was due specifically to cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion inhibited rapid Ad2 endocytosis, endosomal escape, and nuclear targeting, consistent with the notion that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of Ad2 is cholesterol dependent. In cholesterol-reduced cells, Ad2 internalized at a low rate, suggestive of an alternative, clathrin-independent, low-capacity entry pathway. While exogenous cholesterol completely restored rapid Ad2 endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and macropinosome disruption, it did not, surprisingly, restore viral escape from endosomes. Our results indicate that macropinosome disruption and endosomal escape of Ad2 are independent events in cells depleted of and then refilled with cholesterol, suggesting that viral escape from endosomes requires lipid-controlled membrane homeostasis, trafficking, or signaling. PMID:14990728

  19. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  20. Stimulation of albumin endocytosis by cationized ferritin in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, E.A.; Kelley, J.L.; Suenram, C.A.; Valente, A.J.; Abreu-Macomber, M.; Schwartz, C.J.

    1985-12-01

    Anionic microdomains within the aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) surface glycocalyx represent a potential barrier to the endocytosis of anionic plasma proteins. Cultured SMCs exposed briefly to cationized ferritin (CF) exhibit ultrastructural aggregations of surface anionic sites resulting in intervening areas essentially devoid of anionic charge. Preincubation of cultured aortic medial SMCs with 0.2 mg/ml CF for 1 minute at 37 C resulted in a 4-fold increase in binding and a 13-fold increase in internalization of /sup 125/I-human serum albumin (/sup 125/I-HSA) relative to cells pretreated with native ferritin. When both the CF preincubation and the endocytosis were performed at 4 C, the influence of CF was abolished. Studies at 4 C indicated that CF pretreatment of SMC at 37 C induced high affinity (Kd = 1.5 nM) saturable /sup 125/I-HSA binding, in addition to low-affinity nonsaturable binding. These results were further confirmed by binding competition studies using increasing concentrations of unlabeled HSA. In contrast, low-density lipoprotein, a large anionic molecule, failed to compete with /sup 125/I-HSA for binding sites on CF-pretreated SMCs at either 4 or 37 C. Pulse-chase studies at 37 C indicated that 20-30% of internalized /sup 125/I-HSA was degraded, and 40-50% exocytosed within 24 hours in CF-treated cells. CF pretreatment of the SMCs did not significantly enhance the uptake of /sup 14/C-sucrose as a measure of fluid-phase endocytosis at 30 and 60 minutes. The results of these studies emphasize the potentially important regulatory roles of cell-surface anionic charge distribution and cationic molecules in cellular endocytosis.

  1. Oligophrenin-1 Connects Exocytotic Fusion to Compensatory Endocytosis in Neuroendocrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Houy, Sébastien; Estay-Ahumada, Catherine; Croisé, Pauline; Calco, Valérie; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Bailly, Yannick; Billuart, Pierre; Vitale, Nicolas; Bader, Marie-France; Ory, Stéphane; Gasman, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a protein with multiple domains including a Rho family GTPase-activating (Rho-GAP) domain, and a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Involved in X-linked intellectual disability, OPHN1 has been reported to control several synaptic functions, including synaptic plasticity, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and endocytosis. In neuroendocrine cells, hormones and neuropeptides stored in large dense core vesicles (secretory granules) are released through calcium-regulated exocytosis, a process that is tightly coupled to compensatory endocytosis, allowing secretory granule recycling. We show here that OPHN1 is expressed and mainly localized at the plasma membrane and in the cytosol in chromaffin cells from adrenal medulla. Using carbon fiber amperometry, we found that exocytosis is impaired at the late stage of membrane fusion in Ophn1 knock-out mice and OPHN1-silenced bovine chromaffin cells. Experiments performed with ectopically expressed OPHN1 mutants indicate that OPHN1 requires its Rho-GAP domain to control fusion pore dynamics. On the other hand, compensatory endocytosis assessed by measuring dopamine-β-hydroxylase (secretory granule membrane) internalization is severely inhibited in Ophn1 knock-out chromaffin cells. This inhibitory effect is mimicked by the expression of a truncated OPHN1 mutant lacking the BAR domain, demonstrating that the BAR domain implicates OPHN1 in granule membrane recapture after exocytosis. These findings reveal for the first time that OPHN1 is a bifunctional protein that is able, through distinct mechanisms, to regulate and most likely link exocytosis to compensatory endocytosis in chromaffin cells.

  2. Analysis of Occludin Trafficking, Demonstrating Continuous Endocytosis, Degradation, Recycling and Biosynthetic Secretory Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Sarah J.; Iqbal, Mudassar; Jabbari, Sara; Stekel, Dov; Rappoport, Joshua Z.

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes). By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes. PMID:25422932

  3. Endocytosis of albumin and thyroglobulin at the basolateral membrane of thyrocytes organized in follicles.

    PubMed

    Gire, V; Kostrouch, Z; Bernier-Valentin, F; Rabilloud, R; Munari-Silem, Y; Rousset, B

    1996-02-01

    Serum proteins such as albumin are present inside thyroid follicles in both normal and pathological situations. To analyze the mechanism of entry of these proteins, we investigated the ability of polarized thyrocytes to internalize soluble molecules at their basolateral pole. Experiments were conducted on in vitro reconstituted thyroid follicles using BSA and pig thyroglobulin (Tg) coupled to gold particles for electron microscopy, conjugated to fluorescein for conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, or radioiodinated for biochemical measurements. Incubations were carried out at 37 C. BSA and Tg coupled to gold particles were rapidly internalized from the culture medium and sequentially found in small vesicles and early endosomes and in late endosomes and lysosomes. Fluorescence microscope analyses revealed that the majority of cells forming reconstituted thyroid follicles are capable of internalizing BSA and Tg, but that Tg was more efficiently endocytosed than BSA. Using radioiodinated ligands, it was observed that the endocytosis of Tg was 10 times higher than that of BSA. The internalization of [125I]Tg was inhibited by increasing concentrations of unlabeled Tg. In contrast, endocytosis of 125I-labeled BSA was independent of the unlabeled BSA concentration. Experiments performed at 4 C indicated the presence of a basolateral membrane binding activity for [125I]Tg; the Tg concentration that reduced the binding of labeled Tg by 50% ranged from 4-6 microM. These data are evidence of a process of internalization of soluble molecules at the basolateral pole of thyrocytes, with BSA being internalized by fluid phase endocytosis and Tg by selective endocytosis. Our findings explain how serum albumin can enter thyroid follicles and disclose a new cellular handling and transport pathway of Tg. We propose that selective uptake of Tg operating on molecules secreted at the basolateral surface of thyrocytes could control the amount of Tg released in the

  4. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  5. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts. PMID:25236598

  6. Tyrosine-based signal mediates LRP6 receptor endocytosis and desensitization of Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Roth, Barbara; Bu, Guojun

    2014-10-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling orchestrates a number of critical events including cell growth, differentiation, and cell survival during development. Misregulation of this pathway leads to various human diseases, specifically cancers. Endocytosis and phosphorylation of the LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), an essential co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, play a vital role in mediating Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction. However, its regulatory mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we define the mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytic trafficking regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. We show that LRP6 mutant with defective tyrosine-based signal in its cytoplasmic tail has an increased cell surface distribution and decreased endocytosis rate. These changes in LRP6 endocytosis coincide with an increased distribution to caveolae, increased phosphorylation, and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We further demonstrate that treatment of Wnt3a ligands or blocking the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of LRP6 leads to a redistribution of wild-type receptor to lipid rafts. The LRP6 tyrosine mutant also exhibited an increase in signaling activation in response to Wnt3a stimulation when compared with wild-type LRP6, and this activation is suppressed when caveolae-mediated endocytosis is blocked. Our results reveal molecular mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytosis routes regulate its phosphorylation and the strength of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and have implications on how this pathway can be modulated in human diseases.

  7. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts.

  8. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Semaphorin Induce Neuropilin-1 Endocytosis via Separate Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Salikhova, Anna; Wang, Ling; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Liu, Miaoliang; Simons, Michael; Leenders, William P. J.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Horowitz, Arie

    2009-01-01

    The neuropilin (Nrp)1 receptor is essential for both nervous and vascular system development. Nrp1 is unusually versatile, because it transmits both chemoattractive and repulsive signals in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and class 3 semaphorins, respectively. Both Nrp1 and VEGF receptor 2 undergo ligand-dependent endocytosis. We sought to establish the endocytic pathway of Nrp1 and to determine whether uptake is required for its signaling. Whereas Nrp1 underwent clathrin-dependent endocytosis in response to VEGFA165 treatment, semaphorin 3C (sema3C) induced lipid raft–dependent endocytosis. The myosin VI PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, Disk large, Zona occludens-1) adaptor protein synectin was essential for Nrp1 trafficking. Sema3C failed to inhibit migration of synectin−/− endothelial cells, mirroring the lower migratory response of these cells to VEGFA165. These results show that the endocytic pathway of Nrp1 is determined by its ligand and that the trafficking of Nrp1 is essential for its signaling. PMID:18723443

  9. ENTH and ANTH domain proteins participate in AP2-independent clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Manna, Paul T; Gadelha, Catarina; Puttick, Amy E; Field, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a major route of entry into eukaryotic cells. A core of evolutionarily ancient genes encodes many components of this system but much of our mechanistic understanding of CME is derived from a phylogenetically narrow sampling of a few model organisms. In the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which is distantly related to the better characterised animals and fungi, exceptionally fast endocytic turnover aids its evasion of the host immune system. Although clathrin is absolutely essential for this process, the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) has been secondarily lost, suggesting mechanistic divergence. Here, we characterise two phosphoinositide-binding monomeric clathrin adaptors, T. brucei (Tb)EpsinR and TbCALM, which in trypanosomes are represented by single genes, unlike the expansions present in animals and fungi. Depletion of these gene products reveals essential, but partially redundant, activities in CME. Ultrastructural analysis of TbCALM and TbEpsinR double-knockdown cells demonstrated severe defects to clathrin-coated pit formation and morphology associated with a dramatic inhibition of endocytosis. Depletion of TbCALM alone, however, produced a distinct lysosomal segregation phenotype, indicating an additional non-redundant role for this protein. Therefore, TbEpsinR and TbCALM represent ancient phosphoinositide-binding proteins with distinct and vital roles in AP2-independent endocytosis.

  10. Essential role of endocytosis for interleukin-4-receptor-mediated JAK/STAT signalling.

    PubMed

    Kurgonaite, Kristina; Gandhi, Hetvi; Kurth, Thomas; Pautot, Sophie; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Bökel, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Many important signalling cascades operate through specialized signalling endosomes, but a corresponding mechanism has as yet not been described for hematopoietic cytokine receptors. Based on live-cell affinity measurements, we recently proposed that ligand-induced interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) complex formation and thus JAK/STAT pathway activation requires a local subcellular increase in receptor density. Here, we show that this concentration step is provided by the internalization of IL-4R subunits through a constitutive, Rac1-, Pak- and actin-mediated endocytosis route that causes IL-4R subunits to become enriched by about two orders of magnitude within a population of cortical endosomes. Consistently, ligand-induced receptor dimers are preferentially detected within these endosomes. IL-4 signalling can be blocked by pharmacological inhibitors targeting the actin polymerization machinery driving receptor internalization, placing endocytosis unambigously upstream of receptor activation. Taken together, these observations demonstrate a role for endocytosis that is mechanistically distinct from the scaffolding function of signalling endosomes in other pathways.

  11. Hypoxia regulates global membrane protein endocytosis through caveolin-1 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bourseau-Guilmain, E; Menard, J A; Lindqvist, E; Indira Chandran, V; Christianson, H C; Cerezo Magaña, M; Lidfeldt, J; Marko-Varga, G; Welinder, C; Belting, M

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes tumour aggressiveness and resistance of cancers to oncological treatment. The identification of cancer cell internalizing antigens for drug targeting to the hypoxic tumour niche remains a challenge of high clinical relevance. Here we show that hypoxia down-regulates the surface proteome at the global level and, more specifically, membrane proteome internalization. We find that hypoxic down-regulation of constitutive endocytosis is HIF-independent, and involves caveolin-1-mediated inhibition of dynamin-dependent, membrane raft endocytosis. Caveolin-1 overexpression inhibits protein internalization, suggesting a general negative regulatory role of caveolin-1 in endocytosis. In contrast to this global inhibitory effect, we identify several proteins that can override caveolin-1 negative regulation, exhibiting increased internalization at hypoxia. We demonstrate antibody-mediated cytotoxin delivery and killing specifically of hypoxic cells through one of these proteins, carbonic anhydrase IX. Our data reveal that caveolin-1 modulates cell-surface proteome turnover at hypoxia with potential implications for specific targeting of the hypoxic tumour microenvironment. PMID:27094744

  12. LMTK2-mediated phosphorylation regulates CFTR endocytosis in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luz, Simão; Cihil, Kristine M; Brautigan, David L; Amaral, Margarida D; Farinha, Carlos M; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka

    2014-05-23

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-)-selective ion channel expressed in fluid-transporting epithelia. Lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2) is a transmembrane protein with serine and threonine but not tyrosine kinase activity. Previous work identified CFTR as an in vitro substrate of LMTK2, suggesting a functional link. Here we demonstrate that LMTK2 co-immunoprecipitates with CFTR and phosphorylates CFTR-Ser(737) in human airway epithelial cells. LMTK2 knockdown or expression of inactive LMTK2 kinase domain increases cell surface density of CFTR by attenuating its endocytosis in human airway epithelial cells. Moreover, LMTK2 knockdown increases Cl(-) secretion mediated by the wild-type and rescued ΔF508-CFTR. Compared with the wild-type CFTR, the phosphorylation-deficient mutant CFTR-S737A shows increased cell surface density and decreased endocytosis. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism of the phospho-dependent inhibitory effect of CFTR-Ser(737) mediated by LMTK2 via endocytosis and inhibition of the cell surface density of CFTR Cl(-) channels. These data indicate that targeting LMTK2 may increase the cell surface density of CFTR Cl(-) channels and improve stability of pharmacologically rescued ΔF508-CFTR in patients with cystic fibrosis.

  13. Target shape dependence in a simple model of receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis are vitally important particle uptake mechanisms in many cell types, ranging from single-cell organisms to immune cells. In both processes, engulfment by the cell depends critically on both particle shape and orientation. However, most previous theoretical work has focused only on spherical particles and hence disregards the wide-ranging particle shapes occurring in nature, such as those of bacteria. Here, by implementing a simple model in one and two dimensions, we compare and contrast receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis for a range of biologically relevant shapes, including spheres, ellipsoids, capped cylinders, and hourglasses. We find a whole range of different engulfment behaviors with some ellipsoids engulfing faster than spheres, and that phagocytosis is able to engulf a greater range of target shapes than other types of endocytosis. Further, the 2D model can explain why some nonspherical particles engulf fastest (not at all) when presented to the membrane tip-first (lying flat). Our work reveals how some bacteria may avoid being internalized simply because of their shape, and suggests shapes for optimal drug delivery. PMID:27185939

  14. DSL ligand endocytosis physically dissociates Notch1 heterodimers before activating proteolysis can occur.

    PubMed

    Nichols, James T; Miyamoto, Alison; Olsen, Samantha L; D'Souza, Brendan; Yao, Christine; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2007-02-12

    Cleavage of Notch by furin is required to generate a mature, cell surface heterodimeric receptor that can be proteolytically activated to release its intracellular domain, which functions in signal transduction. Current models propose that ligand binding to heterodimeric Notch (hNotch) induces a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) proteolytic release of the Notch extracellular domain (NECD), which is subsequently shed and/or endocytosed by DSL ligand cells. We provide evidence for NECD release and internalization by DSL ligand cells, which, surprisingly, did not require ADAM activity. However, losses in either hNotch formation or ligand endocytosis significantly decreased NECD transfer to DSL ligand cells, as well as signaling in Notch cells. Because endocytosis-defective ligands bind hNotch, but do not dissociate it, additional forces beyond those produced through ligand binding must function to disrupt the intramolecular interactions that keep hNotch intact and inactive. Based on our findings, we propose that mechanical forces generated during DSL ligand endocytosis function to physically dissociate hNotch, and that dissociation is a necessary step in Notch activation.

  15. A dynamin-actin interaction is required for vesicle scission during endocytosis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sarah E; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I; Marklew, Christopher J; Allwood, Ellen G; Mishra, Ritu; Johnson, Simeon; Goldberg, Martin W; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2015-03-30

    Actin is critical for endocytosis in yeast cells, and also in mammalian cells under tension. However, questions remain as to how force generated through actin polymerization is transmitted to the plasma membrane to drive invagination and scission. Here, we reveal that the yeast dynamin Vps1 binds and bundles filamentous actin. Mutational analysis of Vps1 in a helix of the stalk domain identifies a mutant RR457-458EE that binds actin more weakly. In vivo analysis of Vps1 function demonstrates that the mutation disrupts endocytosis but not other functions of Vps1 such as vacuolar trafficking or peroxisome fission. The mutant Vps1 is stably expressed in cells and co-localizes with the endocytic reporters Abp1 and the amphiphysin Rvs167. Detailed analysis of individual endocytic patch behavior indicates that the mutation causes aberrant movements in later stages of endocytosis, consistent with a scission defect. Ultrastructural analysis of yeast cells using electron microscopy reveals a significant increase in invagination depth, further supporting a role for the Vps1-actin interaction during scission. In vitro analysis of the mutant protein demonstrates that--like wild-type Vps1--it is able to form oligomeric rings, but, critically, it has lost its ability to bundle actin filaments into higher-order structures. A model is proposed in which actin filaments bind Vps1 during invagination, and this interaction is important to transduce the force of actin polymerization to the membrane to drive successful scission.

  16. Substrate-induced ubiquitylation and endocytosis of yeast amino acid permeases.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Kassem; Merhi, Ahmad; Saliba, Elie; Krammer, Eva-Maria; Prévost, Martine; André, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Many plasma membrane transporters are downregulated by ubiquitylation, endocytosis, and delivery to the lysosome in response to various stimuli. We report here that two amino acid transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the general amino acid permease (Gap1) and the arginine-specific permease (Can1), undergo ubiquitin-dependent downregulation in response to their substrates and that this downregulation is not due to intracellular accumulation of the transported amino acids but to transport catalysis itself. Following an approach based on permease structural modeling, mutagenesis, and kinetic parameter analysis, we obtained evidence that substrate-induced endocytosis requires transition of the permease to a conformational state preceding substrate release into the cell. Furthermore, this transient conformation must be stable enough, and thus sufficiently populated, for the permease to undergo efficient downregulation. Additional observations, including the constitutive downregulation of two active Gap1 mutants altered in cytosolic regions, support the model that the substrate-induced conformational transition inducing endocytosis involves remodeling of cytosolic regions of the permeases, thereby promoting their recognition by arrestin-like adaptors of the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase. Similar mechanisms might control many other plasma membrane transporters according to the external concentrations of their substrates.

  17. Endocytosis of fluorescent cyclodextrins by intestinal Caco-2 cells and its role in paclitaxel drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Réti-Nagy, Katalin; Malanga, Milo; Fenyvesi, Éva; Szente, Lajos; Vámosi, György; Váradi, Judit; Bácskay, Ildikó; Fehér, Pálma; Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Róka, Eszter; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Balogh, György; Vasvári, Gábor; Fenyvesi, Ferenc

    2015-12-30

    Cyclodextrins are widely used excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. They are mainly utilized as solubilizers and absorption enhancers, but recent results revealed their effects on cell membranes and pharmacological barriers. In addition to the growing knowledge on their interaction with plasma membranes, it was confirmed that cyclodextrins are able to enter cells by endocytosis. The number of the tested cyclodextrins was limited, and the role of this mechanism in drug absorption and delivery is not known. Our aim was to examine the endocytosis of fluorescently labeled hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, random methyl-β-cyclodextrin and soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer, and the cellular uptake of the fluorescent paclitaxel derivative-random methyl-β-cyclodextrin complex. The studied cyclodextrin derivatives were able to enter Caco-2 intestinal cells and localized in vesicles in the cytoplasm, while their permeability was very limited through Caco-2 monolayers. We demonstrated for the first time that the fluorescent paclitaxel derivative and rhodamine-labeled random methyl-β-cyclodextrin were detected in the same intracellular vesicles after treating cells with their inclusion complex. These results indicate that the endocytosis of cyclodextrin complexes can contribute to drug absorption processes.

  18. Unconventional EGF-induced ERK1/2-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Comes, Núria; Styrczewska, Katarzyna; Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Vicente, Rubén; Pujadas, Lluís; Soriano, Eduardo; Sorkin, Alexander; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.3 plays roles in immunity, neuronal development and sensory discrimination. Regulation of Kv1.3 by kinase signaling has been studied. In this context, EGF binds to specific receptors (EGFR) and triggers tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling, which down-regulates Kv1.3 currents. We show that Kv1.3 undergoes EGF-dependent endocytosis. This EGF-mediated mechanism is relevant because is involved in adult neural stem cell fate determination. We demonstrated that changes in Kv1.3 subcellular distribution upon EGFR activation were due to Kv1.3 clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which targets the Kv1.3 channels to the lysosomal degradative pathway. Interestingly, our results further revealed that relevant tyrosines and other interacting motifs, such as PDZ and SH3 domains, were not involved in the EGF-dependent Kv1.3 internalization. However, a new, and yet undescribed mechanism, of ERK1/2-mediated threonine phosphorylation is crucial for the EGF-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis. Our results demonstrate that EGF triggers the down-regulation of Kv1.3 activity and its expression at the cell surface, which is important for the development and migration of adult neural progenitors.

  19. SCAMP5 plays a critical role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis during high neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyan; Kim, Yoonju; Park, Joohyun; Park, Daehun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Iree; Chang, Sunghoe

    2014-07-23

    Secretory carrier membrane protein 5 (SCAMP5), a recently identified candidate gene for autism, is brain specific and highly abundant in synaptic vesicles (SVs), but its function is currently unknown. Here, we found that knockdown (KD) of endogenous SCAMP5 by SCAMP5-specific shRNAs in cultured rat hippocampal neurons resulted in a reduction in total vesicle pool size as well as in recycling pool size, but the recycling/resting pool ratio was significantly increased. SCAMP5 KD slowed endocytosis after stimulation, but impaired it severely during strong stimulation. We also found that KD dramatically lowered the threshold of activity at which SV endocytosis became unable to compensate for the ongoing exocytosis occurring during a stimulus. Reintroducing shRNA-resistant SCAMP5 reversed these endocytic defects. Therefore, our results suggest that SCAMP5 functions during high neuronal activity when a heavy load is imposed on endocytosis. Our data also raise the possibility that the reduction in expression of SCAMP5 in autistic patients may be related to the synaptic dysfunction observed in autism.

  20. Cadherin-11 endocytosis through binding to clathrin promotes cadherin-11-mediated migration in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Satcher, Robert L; Pan, Tianhong; Bilen, Mehmet A; Li, Xiaoxia; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ortiz, Angelica; Kowalczyk, Andrew P; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2015-12-15

    Cadherin-11 (Cad11) cell adhesion molecule plays a role in prostate cancer cell migration. Because disassembly of adhesion complexes through endocytosis of adhesion proteins has been shown to play a role in cell migration, we examined whether Cad11 endocytosis plays a role in Cad11-mediated migration. The mechanism by which Cad11 is internalized is unknown. Using a GST pulldown assay, we found that clathrin binds to the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain but not to that of E-cadherin. Using deletion analysis, we identified a unique sequence motif, VFEEE, in the Cad11 membrane proximal region (amino acid residues 11-15) that binds to clathrin. Endocytosis assays using K(+)-depletion buffer showed that Cad11 internalization is clathrin dependent. Proximity ligation assays showed that Cad11 colocalizes with clathrin, and immunofluorescence assays showed that Cad11 localizes in vesicles that stain for the early endosomal marker Rab5. Deletion of the VFEEE sequence from the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain (Cad11-cla-Δ5) leads to inhibition of Cad11 internalization and reduces Cad11-mediated cell migration in C4-2B and PC3-mm2 prostate cancer cells. These observations suggest that clathrin-mediated internalization of Cad11 regulates surface trafficking of Cad11 and that dynamic turnover of Cad11 regulates the migratory function of Cad11 in prostate cancer cells.

  1. Hyaluronic acid binding, endocytosis and degradation by sinusoidal liver endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    McGary, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The binding, endocytosis, and degradation of {sup 125}I-hyaluronic acid ({sup 125}I-HA) by liver endothelial cells (LEC) was studied under several conditions. The dissociation of receptor-bound {sup 125}I-HA was rapid, with a half time of {approx}31 min and a K{sub off} of 6.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}/sec. A large reversible increase in {sup 125}I-HA binding to LEC at pH 5.0 was due to an increase in the observed affinity of the binding interaction. Pronase digestion suggested the protein nature of the receptor and the intracellular location of the digitonin exposed binding activity. Binding and endocytosis occur in the presence of 10 mM EGTA indicating that divalent cations are not required for receptor function. To study the degradation of {sup 125}I-HA by LEC, a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation assay was characterized. The minimum HA length required for precipitation was elucidated. The fate of the LEC HA receptor after endocytosis was examined.

  2. AP-2-complex-mediated endocytosis of Drosophila Crumbs regulates polarity by antagonizing Stardust.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Huei; Currinn, Heather; Pocha, Shirin Meher; Rothnie, Alice; Wassmer, Thomas; Knust, Elisabeth

    2015-12-15

    Maintenance of epithelial polarity depends on the correct localization and levels of polarity determinants. The evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein Crumbs is crucial for the size and identity of the apical membrane, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the amount of Crumbs at the surface. Here, we show that Crumbs levels on the apical membrane depend on a well-balanced state of endocytosis and stabilization. The adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex binds to a motif in the cytoplasmic tail of Crumbs that overlaps with the binding site of Stardust, a protein known to stabilize Crumbs on the surface. Preventing endocytosis by mutation of AP-2 causes expansion of the Crumbs-positive plasma membrane domain and polarity defects, which can be partially rescued by removing one copy of crumbs. Strikingly, knocking down both AP-2 and Stardust leads to the retention of Crumbs on the membrane. This study provides evidence for a molecular mechanism, based on stabilization and endocytosis, to adjust surface levels of Crumbs, which are essential for maintaining epithelial polarity.

  3. Regulation of cargo-selective endocytosis by dynamin 2 GTPase-activating protein girdin.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liang; Enomoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Asai, Naoya; Morone, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Ping; An, Jian; Kato, Takuya; Kuroda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Masato; Ishida-Takagishi, Maki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hideki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-09-17

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), specificity and selectivity for cargoes are thought to be tightly regulated by cargo-specific adaptors for distinct cellular functions. Here, we show that the actin-binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo-selective CME. Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase-activating protein. Interestingly, girdin depletion leads to the defect in clathrin-coated pit formation in the center of cells. Also, we find that girdin differentially interacts with some cargoes, which competitively prevents girdin from interacting with dynamin 2 and confers the cargo selectivity for CME. Therefore, girdin regulates transferrin and E-cadherin endocytosis in the center of cells and their subsequent polarized intracellular localization, but has no effect on integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis that occurs at the cell periphery. Our results reveal that girdin regulates selective CME via a mechanism involving dynamin 2, but not by operating as a cargo-specific adaptor.

  4. ENTH and ANTH domain proteins participate in AP2-independent clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Paul T.; Gadelha, Catarina; Puttick, Amy E.; Field, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a major route of entry into eukaryotic cells. A core of evolutionarily ancient genes encodes many components of this system but much of our mechanistic understanding of CME is derived from a phylogenetically narrow sampling of a few model organisms. In the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which is distantly related to the better characterised animals and fungi, exceptionally fast endocytic turnover aids its evasion of the host immune system. Although clathrin is absolutely essential for this process, the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) has been secondarily lost, suggesting mechanistic divergence. Here, we characterise two phosphoinositide-binding monomeric clathrin adaptors, T. brucei (Tb)EpsinR and TbCALM, which in trypanosomes are represented by single genes, unlike the expansions present in animals and fungi. Depletion of these gene products reveals essential, but partially redundant, activities in CME. Ultrastructural analysis of TbCALM and TbEpsinR double-knockdown cells demonstrated severe defects to clathrin-coated pit formation and morphology associated with a dramatic inhibition of endocytosis. Depletion of TbCALM alone, however, produced a distinct lysosomal segregation phenotype, indicating an additional non-redundant role for this protein. Therefore, TbEpsinR and TbCALM represent ancient phosphoinositide-binding proteins with distinct and vital roles in AP2-independent endocytosis. PMID:25908855

  5. LRP1 mediates Hedgehog-induced endocytosis of the GPC3–Hedgehog complex

    PubMed Central

    Capurro, Mariana I.; Shi, Wen; Filmus, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Summary Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan that is bound to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol link. This glypican regulates embryonic growth by inhibiting the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. GPC3 binds Hh and competes with Patched (Ptc), the Hh receptor, for Hh binding. The interaction of Hh with GPC3 triggers the endocytosis and degradation of the GPC3–Hh complex with the consequent reduction of Hh available for binding to Ptc. Currently, the molecular mechanisms by which the GPC3–Hh complex is internalized remains unknown. Here we show that the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) mediates the Hh-induced endocytosis of the GPC3–Hh complex, and that this endocytosis is necessary for the Hh-inhibitory activity of GPC3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GPC3 binds through its HS chains to LRP1, and that this interaction causes the removal of GPC3 from the lipid rafts domains. PMID:22467855

  6. Clathrin light chains' role in selective endocytosis influences antibody isotype switching.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Majeed, Sophia R; Evans, Timothy M; Camus, Marine D; Wong, Nicole M L; Schollmeier, Yvette; Park, Minjong; Muppidi, Jagan R; Reboldi, Andrea; Parham, Peter; Cyster, Jason G; Brodsky, Frances M

    2016-08-30

    Clathrin, a cytosolic protein composed of heavy and light chain subunits, assembles into a vesicle coat, controlling receptor-mediated endocytosis. To establish clathrin light chain (CLC) function in vivo, we engineered mice lacking CLCa, the major CLC isoform in B lymphocytes, generating animals with CLC-deficient B cells. In CLCa-null mice, the germinal centers have fewer B cells, and they are enriched for IgA-producing cells. This enhanced switch to IgA production in the absence of CLCa was attributable to increased transforming growth factor β receptor 2 (TGFβR2) signaling resulting from defective endocytosis. Internalization of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), but not CXCR5, was affected in CLCa-null B cells, and CLC depletion from cell lines affected endocytosis of the δ-opioid receptor, but not the β2-adrenergic receptor, defining a role for CLCs in the uptake of a subset of signaling receptors. This instance of clathrin subunit deletion in vertebrates demonstrates that CLCs contribute to clathrin's role in vivo by influencing cargo selectivity, a function previously assigned exclusively to adaptor molecules. PMID:27540116

  7. Discovery of new cargo proteins that enter cells through clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Eyster, Craig A; Higginson, Jason D; Huebner, Robert; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Weigert, Roberto; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Donaldson, Julie G

    2009-05-01

    Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) allows internalization of plasma membrane proteins lacking clathrin-targeting sequences, such as the major histocompatibility complex class I protein (MHCI), into cells. After internalization, vesicles containing MHCI fuse with transferrin-containing endosomes generated from clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In HeLa cells, MHCI is subsequently routed to late endosomes or recycled back out to the plasma membrane (PM) in distinctive tubular carriers. Arf6 is associated with endosomal membranes carrying CIE cargo and expression of an active form of Arf6 leads to the generation of vacuolar structures that trap CIE cargo immediately after endocytosis, blocking the convergence with transferrin-containing endosomes. We isolated these trapped vacuolar structures and analyzed their protein composition by mass spectrometry. Here we identify and validate six new endogenous cargo proteins (CD44, CD55, CD98, CD147, Glut1, and ICAM1) that use CIE to enter cells. CD55 and Glut1 appear to closely parallel the trafficking of MHCI, merging with transferrin endosomes before entering the recycling tubules. In contrast, CD44, CD98, and CD147 appear to directly enter the recycling tubules and by-pass the merge with EEA1-positive, transferrin-containing endosomes. This divergent itinerary suggests that sorting may occur along this CIE pathway. Furthermore, the identification of new cargo proteins will assist others studying CIE in different cell types and tissues.

  8. Endocytosis of heat-denatured albumin by cultured rat Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, A.; Knook, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Purified Kupffer cells were obtained by centrifugal elutriation of sinusoidal cells isolated by pronase treatment of the rat liver. The endocytosis of radioactively labeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin (CA /sup 125/I) was investigated in maintenance cultures of the purified Kupffer cells. The endocytic capacity of the cells was studied during 4 days of culture. Maximum uptake was observed after 24 hr of culture, with a gradual decline during the following days. When the uptake was measured after incubation with increasing concentrations of CA /sup 125/I, a saturation effect was observed. This finding and the observed high rate of uptake are strong indications that receptor sites on the cell membrane are involved in the mechanism of endocytosis. The uptake of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was inhibited by the metabolic inhibitors fluoride and antimycin A, indicating that endocytosis of CA /sup 125/I is dependent on energy derived from both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. The mechanism of internalization may also require the action of microfilaments as well as intact microtubules, since both cytochalasin B and colchicine inhibited the uptake of CA /sup 125/I. The intracellular degradation of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was strongly inhibited by chloroquine but not by colchicine. The degradation of ingested CA /sup 125/I occurred within the Kupffer cell lysosomes.

  9. Responses of plant calmodulin to endocytosis induced by rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Cheng, Mengzhu; Chu, Yunxia; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, David D Y; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2016-07-01

    The wide application of rare earth elements (REEs) have led to their diffusion and accumulation in the environment. The activation of endocytosis is the primary response of plant cells to REEs. Calmodulin (CaM), as an important substance in calcium (Ca) signaling systems, regulating almost all of the physiological activities in plants, such as cellular metabolism, cell growth and division. However, the response of CaM to endocytosis activated by REEs remains unknown. By using immunofluorescence labeling and a confocal laser scanning microscope, we found that trivalent lanthanum [La(III)], an REE ion, affected the expression of CaM in endocytosis. Using circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and computer simulations, we demonstrated that a low concentration of La(III) could interact with extracellular CaM by electrostatic attraction and was then bound to two Ca-binding sites of CaM, making the molecular structure more compact and orderly, whereas a high concentration of La(III) could be coordinated with cytoplasmic CaM or bound to other Ca-binding sites, making the molecular structure more loose and disorderly. Our results provide a reference for revealing the action mechanisms of REEs in plant cells.

  10. Internalisation of the bleomycin molecules responsible for bleomycin toxicity: a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pron, G; Mahrour, N; Orlowski, S; Tounekti, O; Poddevin, B; Belehradek, J; Mir, L M

    1999-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) does not diffuse through the plasma membrane but nevertheless displays cytotoxic activity due to DNA break generation. The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of BLM internalisation. We previously provided evidence for the existence of BLM-binding sites at the surface of DC-3F Chinese hamster fibroblasts, as well as of their involvement in BLM cytotoxicity on DC-3F cells and related BLM-resistant sublines. Here we report that A253 human cells and their BLM-resistant subline C-10E also possessed a membrane protein of ca. 250 kDa specifically binding BLM. Part of this C-10E cell resistance could be explained by a decrease in the number of BLM-binding sites exposed at the cell surface with respect to A253 cells. The comparison between A253 and DC-3F cells exposing a similar number of BLM-binding sites revealed that the faster the fluid phase endocytosis, the greater the cell sensitivity to BLM. Moreover, the experimental modification of endocytotic vesicle size showed that BLM cytotoxicity was directly correlated with the flux of plasma membrane area engulfed during endocytosis rather than with the fluid phase volume incorporated. Thus, BLM would be internalised by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism which would first require BLM binding to its membrane receptor and then the transfer of the complex into intracellular endocytotic vesicles, followed by BLM entry into the cytosol, probably from a nonacidic compartment.

  11. Quantification of nanoparticle endocytosis based on double fluorescent pH-sensitive nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kurtz-Chalot, Andréa; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Bin, Valérie; Sabido, Odile; Marmuse, Laurence; Cottier, Michèle; Forest, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Amorphous silica is a particularly interesting material because of its inertness and chemical stability. Silica nanoparticles have been recently developed for biomedical purposes but their innocuousness must be carefully investigated before clinical use. The relationship between nanoparticles physicochemical features, their uptake by cells and their biological activity represents a crucial issue, especially for the development of nanomedicine. This work aimed at adapting a method for the quantification of nanoparticle endocytosis based on pH-sensitive and double fluorescent particles. For that purpose, silica nanoparticles containing two fluorophores: FITC and pHrodo(TM) were developed, their respective fluorescence emission depends on the external pH. Indeed, FITC emits a green fluorescence at physiological pH and pHrodo(TM) emits a red fluorescence which intensity increased with acidification. Therefore, nanoparticles remained outside the cells could be clearly distinguished from nanoparticles uptaken by cells as these latter could be spotted inside cellular acidic compartments (such as phagolysosomes, micropinosomes…). Using this model, the endocytosis of 60 nm nanoparticles incubated with the RAW 264.7 macrophages was quantified using time-lapse microscopy and compared to that of 130 nm submicronic particles. The amount of internalized particles was also evaluated by fluorimetry. The biological impact of the particles was also investigated in terms of cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Results clearly demonstrated that nanoparticles were more uptaken and more reactive than submicronic particles. Moreover, we validated a method of endocytosis quantification.

  12. Endocytosis and intracellular processing of BODIPY-sphingomyelin by murine CATH.a neurons☆

    PubMed Central

    Nusshold, Christoph; Uellen, Andreas; Bernhart, Eva; Hammer, Astrid; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea; Reicher, Helga; Hermetter, Albin; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal sphingolipids (SL) play important roles during axonal extension, neurotrophic receptor signaling and neurotransmitter release. Many of these signaling pathways depend on the presence of specialized membrane microdomains termed lipid rafts. Sphingomyelin (SM), one of the main raft constituents, can be formed de novo or supplied from exogenous sources. The present study aimed to characterize fluorescently-labeled SL turnover in a murine neuronal cell line (CATH.a). Our results demonstrate that at 4 °C exogenously added BODIPY-SM accumulates exclusively at the plasma membrane. Treatment of cells with bacterial sphingomyelinase (SMase) and back-exchange experiments revealed that 55–67% of BODIPY-SM resides in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis of BODIPY-SM occurs via caveolae with part of internalized BODIPY-fluorescence ending up in the Golgi and the ER. Following endocytosis BODIPY-SM undergoes hydrolysis, a reaction substantially faster than BODIPY-SM synthesis from BODIPY-ceramide. RNAi demonstrated that both, acid (a)SMase and neutral (n)SMases contribute to BODIPY-SM hydrolysis. Finally, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated BODIPY-SM was efficiently taken up by CATH.a cells. Our findings indicate that endocytosis of exogenous SM occurs almost exclusively via caveolin-dependent pathways, that both, a- and nSMases equally contribute to neuronal SM turnover and that HDL-like particles might represent physiological SM carriers/donors in the brain. PMID:23973266

  13. Biocompatibility, uptake and endocytosis pathways of polystyrene nanoparticles in primary human renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daria Maria; Guarnieri, Daniela; Napolitano, Giuliana; Piccoli, Renata; Netti, Paolo; Fusco, Sabato; Arciello, Angela

    2015-01-10

    Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the number of applications—such as drug delivery, nutraceuticals and production of improved biocompatible materials—in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are an important tool for the development of quite a few of these applications. Despite intense research activity, mechanisms regulating the uptake of NPs into cells are not completely defined, being the phenomenon dramatically influenced by physico-chemical properties of NPs and cell-specific differences. Since the cellular uptake of NPs is a prerequisite for their use in nanomedicine, the definition of their internalization pathway is crucial. For this reason, we used 44 nm polystyrene NPs as a model to analyze the uptake and endocytosis pathways in primary human renal cortical epithelial (HRCE) cells, which play a key role in the clearance of drugs. NPs were found not to affect the viability and cell cycle progression of HRCE cells. Distinct internalization pathways were analyzed by the use of drugs known to inhibit specific endocytosis routes. Analyses, performed by confocal microscopy in combination with quantitative spectrofluorimetric assays, indicated that NPs enter HRCE cells through multiple mechanisms, either energy-dependent (endocytosis) or energy-independent. PMID:25444875

  14. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is required for immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptor kinases.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Malick; Bourdais, Gildas; Gervasi, Fabio; Beck, Martina; Zhou, Ji; Spallek, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian; Boller, Thomas; Ueda, Takashi; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-09-27

    Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner. In all cases, endocytosis requires the coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), and thus depends on receptor activation status. We also show the internalization of liganded FLS2, suggesting the transport of signaling competent receptors. Trafficking of activated PRRs requires clathrin and converges onto the same endosomal vesicles that are also shared with the hormone receptor BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). Importantly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis participates in plant defense against bacterial infection involving FLS2-mediated stomatal closure and callose deposition, but is uncoupled from activation of the flagellin-induced oxidative burst and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptors depends on clathrin, a critical component for the endocytosis of signaling competent receptors into a common endosomal pathway. PMID:27651493

  15. Discovery of New Cargo Proteins that enter Cells through Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Eyster, Craig A.; Higginson, Jason D.; Huebner, Robert; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Weigert, Roberto; Wu, Wells W.; Shen, Rong-Fong; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2010-01-01

    Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) allows internalization of plasma membrane proteins lacking clathrin-targeting sequences, such as the major histocompatibility complex Class I protein (MHCI), into cells. After internalization, vesicles containing MHCI fuse with transferrin-containing endosomes generated from clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In HeLa cells, MHCI is subsequently routed to late endosomes or recycled back out to the plasma membrane (PM) in distinctive tubular carriers. Arf6 is associated with endosomal membranes carrying CIE cargo and expression of an active form of Arf6 leads to the generation of vacuolar structures that trap CIE cargo immediately after endocytosis, blocking the convergence with transferrin-containing endosomes. We isolated these trapped vacuolar structures and analyzed their protein composition by mass spectrometry. Here we identify and validate six new endogenous cargo proteins (CD44, CD55, CD98, CD147, Glut1 and ICAM1) that use CIE to enter cells. CD55 and Glut1 appear to closely parallel the trafficking of MHCI, merging with transferrin endosomes before entering the recycling tubules. In contrast, CD44, CD98 and CD147 appear to directly enter the recycling tubules and by-pass the merge with EEA1-positive, transferrin-containing endosomes. This divergent itinerary suggests that sorting may occur along this CIE pathway. Furthermore, the identification of new cargo proteins will assist others studying CIE in different cell types and tissues. PMID:19302270

  16. Hypoxia regulates global membrane protein endocytosis through caveolin-1 in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bourseau-Guilmain, E.; Menard, J. A.; Lindqvist, E.; Indira Chandran, V.; Christianson, H. C.; Cerezo Magaña, M.; Lidfeldt, J.; Marko-Varga, G.; Welinder, C.; Belting, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes tumour aggressiveness and resistance of cancers to oncological treatment. The identification of cancer cell internalizing antigens for drug targeting to the hypoxic tumour niche remains a challenge of high clinical relevance. Here we show that hypoxia down-regulates the surface proteome at the global level and, more specifically, membrane proteome internalization. We find that hypoxic down-regulation of constitutive endocytosis is HIF-independent, and involves caveolin-1-mediated inhibition of dynamin-dependent, membrane raft endocytosis. Caveolin-1 overexpression inhibits protein internalization, suggesting a general negative regulatory role of caveolin-1 in endocytosis. In contrast to this global inhibitory effect, we identify several proteins that can override caveolin-1 negative regulation, exhibiting increased internalization at hypoxia. We demonstrate antibody-mediated cytotoxin delivery and killing specifically of hypoxic cells through one of these proteins, carbonic anhydrase IX. Our data reveal that caveolin-1 modulates cell-surface proteome turnover at hypoxia with potential implications for specific targeting of the hypoxic tumour microenvironment. PMID:27094744

  17. Dynamin2, Clathrin, and Lipid Rafts Mediate Endocytosis of the Apical Na/K/2Cl Cotransporter NKCC2 in Thick Ascending Limbs*

    PubMed Central

    Ares, Gustavo R.; Ortiz, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Steady-state surface levels of the apical Na/K/2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 regulate NaCl reabsorption by epithelial cells of the renal thick ascending limb (THAL). We reported that constitutive endocytosis of NKCC2 controls NaCl absorption in native THALs; however, the pathways involved in NKCC2 endocytosis are unknown. We hypothesized that NKCC2 endocytosis at the apical surface depends on dynamin-2 and clathrin. Measurements of steady-state surface NKCC2 and the rate of NKCC2 endocytosis in freshly isolated rat THALs showed that inhibition of endogenous dynamin-2 with dynasore blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 56 ± 11% and increased steady-state surface NKCC2 by 67 ± 27% (p < 0.05). Expression of the dominant negative Dyn2K44A in THALs slowed the rate of NKCC2 endocytosis by 38 ± 8% and increased steady-state surface NKCC2 by 37 ± 8%, without changing total NKCC2 expression. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis with chlorpromazine blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 54 ± 6%, while preventing clathrin from interacting with synaptojanin also blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 52 ± 5%. Disruption of lipid rafts blunted NKCC2 endocytosis by 39 ± 4% and silencing caveolin-1 by 29 ± 4%. Simultaneous inhibition of clathrin- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis completely blocked NKCC2 internalization. We concluded that dynamin-2, clathrin, and lipid rafts mediate NKCC2 endocytosis and maintain steady-state apical surface NKCC2 in native THALs. These are the first data identifying the endocytic pathway for apical NKCC2 endocytosis. PMID:22977238

  18. Bulk Data Mover

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-03

    Bulk Data Mover (BDM) is a high-level data transfer management tool. BDM handles the issue of large variance in file sizes and a big portion of small files by managing the file transfers with optimized transfer queue and concurrency management algorithms. For example, climate simulation data sets are characterized by large volume of files with extreme variance in file sizes. The BDN achieves high performance using a variety of techniques, including multi-thraded concurrent transfer connections, data channel caching, load balancing over multiple transfer servers, and storage i/o pre-fetching. Logging information from the BDM is collected and analyzed to study the effectiveness of the transfer management algorithms. The BDM can accept a request composed of multiple files or an entire directory. The request also contains the target site and directory where the replicated files will reside. If a directory is provided at the source, then the BDM will replicate the structure of the source directory at the target site. The BDM is capable of transferring multiple files concurrently as well as using parallel TCP streams. The optimal level of concurrency or parallel streams depends on the bandwidth capacity of the storage systems at both ends of the transfer as well as achievable bandwidth of the wide-area network. Hardware req.-PC, MAC, Multi-platform & Workstation; Software req.: Compile/version-Java 1.50_x or ablove; Type of files: source code, executable modules, installation instructions other, user guide; URL: http://sdm.lbl.gov/bdm/

  19. Phobos: Observed bulk properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Martin; Andert, Tom; Jacobson, Robert; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Dehant, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    This work is a review of the mass determinations of the Mars moon Phobos by spacecraft close flybys, by solving for the Martian gravity field and by the analysis of secular orbit perturbations. The absolute value and accuracy is sensitive on the knowledge and accuracy of the Phobos ephemeris, of the spacecraft orbit, other perturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the resolution of the Martian gravity field besides the measurement accuracy of the radio tracking data. The mass value and its error improved from spacecraft mission to mission or from the modern analysis of “old” tracking data but these solutions depend on the accuracy of the ephemeris at the time of observation. The mass value seems to settle within the range of GMPh=(7.11±0.09)×10-4 km3 s-2 which covers almost all mass values from close flybys and “distant” encounters within its 3-σ error (1.5%). Using the volume value determined from MEX HRSC imaging, the bulk density is (1873±31) kg m-3 (3-σ error or 1.7%), a low value which suggests that Phobos is either highly porous, is composed partially of light material or both. The determination of the gravity coefficients C20 and C22 from the Mars Express 2010 close flyby does not allow to draw conclusion on the internal structure. The large errors do not distinguish whether Phobos is homogeneous or not. In view of theories of the Phobos' origin, one possibility is that Phobos is not a captured asteroid but accreted from a debris disk in Mars orbit as a second generation solar system object.

  20. Bulk Data Mover

    2011-01-03

    Bulk Data Mover (BDM) is a high-level data transfer management tool. BDM handles the issue of large variance in file sizes and a big portion of small files by managing the file transfers with optimized transfer queue and concurrency management algorithms. For example, climate simulation data sets are characterized by large volume of files with extreme variance in file sizes. The BDN achieves high performance using a variety of techniques, including multi-thraded concurrent transfer connections,more » data channel caching, load balancing over multiple transfer servers, and storage i/o pre-fetching. Logging information from the BDM is collected and analyzed to study the effectiveness of the transfer management algorithms. The BDM can accept a request composed of multiple files or an entire directory. The request also contains the target site and directory where the replicated files will reside. If a directory is provided at the source, then the BDM will replicate the structure of the source directory at the target site. The BDM is capable of transferring multiple files concurrently as well as using parallel TCP streams. The optimal level of concurrency or parallel streams depends on the bandwidth capacity of the storage systems at both ends of the transfer as well as achievable bandwidth of the wide-area network. Hardware req.-PC, MAC, Multi-platform & Workstation; Software req.: Compile/version-Java 1.50_x or ablove; Type of files: source code, executable modules, installation instructions other, user guide; URL: http://sdm.lbl.gov/bdm/« less

  1. Activity-dependent release of transforming growth factor-beta in a neuronal network in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lacmann, A; Hess, D; Gohla, G; Roussa, E; Krieglstein, K

    2007-12-12

    For neurotrophins and also for members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family an activity-dependent regulation of synthesis and release has been proposed. Together with the observation that the secretion of neurotransmitters is initiated by neurotrophic factors, it is reasonable to assume that they might act as retrograde modulators enhancing the efficacy and stabilization of synapses. In the present study, we have tested this hypothesis and studied the release and regulation of TGF-beta in vitro using mouse primary hippocampal neurons at embryonic day E16.5 as model. We show that neuronal activity regulates TGF-beta release and TGF-beta expression in vitro. Treatment of the cultures with KCl, 3-veratroylveracevine (veratridine), glutamate or carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol) increased the levels of secreted TGF-beta, as assessed by the MLEC/plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-luciferase-assay, whereas TGF-beta release stimulated by KCl or veratridine was reduced in the presence of tetrodotoxin or 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). In addition, application of glutamate significantly upregulated expression of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 in the culture. Notably, KCl stimulation caused Smad (composite term from SMA (C. elegans) and MAD=mothers against dpp (Drosophila)) translocation into the nucleus and upregulated TGF-beta inducible early gene (Tieg1) expression, demonstrating that activity-dependent released TGF-beta may exert autocrine actions and thereby activate the TGF-beta-dependent signaling pathway. Together, these results suggest an activity-dependent release and gene transcription of TGF-beta from mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro as well as subsequent autocrine functions of the released TGF-beta within the hippocampal network.

  2. Mechanisms of Toll-like Receptor 4 Endocytosis Reveal a Common Immune-Evasion Strategy Used by Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yunhao; Zanoni, Ivan; Cullen, Thomas W; Goodman, Andrew L; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2015-11-17

    Microbe-induced receptor trafficking has emerged as an essential means to promote innate immune signal transduction. Upon detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), CD14 induces an inflammatory endocytosis pathway that delivers Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to endosomes. Although several regulators of CD14-dependent TLR4 endocytosis have been identified, the cargo-selection mechanism during this process remains unknown. We reveal that, in contrast to classic cytosolic interactions that promoted the endocytosis of transmembrane receptors, TLR4 was selected as cargo for inflammatory endocytosis entirely through extracellular interactions. Mechanistically, the extracellular protein MD-2 bound to and dimerized TLR4 in order to promote this endocytic event. Our analysis of LPS variants from human pathogens and gut commensals revealed a common mechanism by which bacteria prevent inflammatory endocytosis. We suggest that evasion of CD14-dependent endocytosis is an attribute that transcends the concept of pathogenesis and might be a fundamental feature of bacteria that inhabit eukaryotic hosts.

  3. The role played by endocytosis in albumin-induced secretion of TGF-beta1 by proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ramaswamy; Pearson, Alex L; Colville-Nash, Paul; Brunskill, Nigel J; Dockrell, Mark E C

    2007-05-01

    Proteinuria predicts the decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease. Reducing albuminuria has been shown to be associated with a reduction in this rate of decline. Proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), when exposed to albumin produce matrix proteins, proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines like TGF-beta(1). Some of these effects are dependent on endocytosis of albumin by PTECs. However, conditions like diabetic nephropathy, believed to be associated with reduced albumin endocytosis, are associated with interstitial fibrosis. Moreover, megalin, the putative albumin binding receptor in PTECs, has potential signaling motifs in its cytoplasmic domain, suggesting its ability to signal in response to ligand binding from the apical surface of PTECs. Hence, we looked to see whether albumin-induced secretion of TGF-beta(1) by PTECs is dependent on albumin endocytosis or whether it could occur in the absence of albumin endocytosis. We studied the production of TGF-beta(1) in two accepted models of PTECs, opossum kidney cells and human kidney cell clone-8 cells, with widely varying degrees of endocytosis. We then studied the effect of inhibiting albumin endocytosis with various inhibitors on albumin-induced TGF-beta(1) secretion. Our results indicate that albumin-induced TGF-beta(1) secretion by PTECs does not require albumin endocytosis and therefore the mechanism for the induction of some profibrotic responses by albumin may differ from those required for some of the inflammatory responses. Moreover, we found that albumin-induced TGF-beta(1) secretion by PTECs is not dependent on its interaction with megalin. PMID:17213467

  4. Role of endocytosis in localization and maintenance of the spatial markers for bud-site selection in yeast.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Shanshan; Nakashima, Kenichi; Pringle, John R

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally selects bud sites (and hence axes of cell polarization) in one of two distinct patterns, the axial pattern of haploid cells and the bipolar pattern of diploid cells. These patterns depend on distinct sets of cortical-marker proteins that transmit positional information through a common signaling pathway based on a Ras-type GTPase. It has been reported previously that various proteins of the endocytic pathway may be involved in determining the bipolar pattern but not the axial pattern. To explore this question systematically, we constructed and analyzed congenic haploid and diploid deletion mutants for 14 genes encoding proteins that are involved in endocytosis. The mutants displayed a wide range of severities in their overall endocytosis defects, as judged by their growth rates and abilities to take up the lipophilic dye FM 4-64. Consistent with the previous reports, none of the mutants displayed a significant defect in axial budding, but they displayed defects in bipolar budding that were roughly correlated with the severities of their overall endocytosis defects. Both the details of the mutant budding patterns and direct examination of GFP-tagged marker proteins suggested that both initial formation and maintenance of the normally persistent bipolar marks depend on endocytosis, as well as polarized exocytosis, in actively growing cells. Interestingly, maintenance of the bipolar marks in non-growing cells did not appear to require normal levels of endocytosis. In some cases, there was a striking lack of correlation between the overall severities of the general-endocytosis defect and the bud-site selection defect, suggesting that various endocytosis proteins may differ in their importance for the uptake of various plasma-membrane targets.

  5. Prevention of export of anoxia/reoxygenation injury from ischemic to nonischemic cardiomyocytes via inhibition of endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Mercanti, Federico; Wang, Xianwei; Ding, Zufeng; Dai, Yao; Romeo, Francesco; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2014-06-15

    Myocardial infarct size is determined by the death of nonischemic border zone cardiomyocytes caused by export of injury signals from the infarct zone. The countermeasures to limit infarct size, therefore, should be aimed at nonselective blockade of most, if not all, injury signals from entering nonischemic cells. To test whether inhibition of endocytosis might limit infarct size, HL-1 cardiomyocytes were subjected to anoxia (6 h) and reoxygenation (1 h). Anoxic and reoxygenated cells showed a multifold increase in mitochondrial ROS production accompanied with upregulation of scavenger receptors lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 and CD36 and stimulation of stress signals, including NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox), SOD2, and beclin-1. Incubation of healthy cardiomyocytes in media from anoxic and reoxygenated cells (conditioned media) resulted in qualitatively similar responses, including increase in the generation of mitochondrial ROS, p22(phox), SOD2, and beclin-1. Anoxia and reoxygenation caused collapse of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and stimulation of macropinocytosis, whereas in cultures exposed to conditioned media, the activity of endocytosis was uniformly higher. Conditioned media also significantly aggravated cytotoxic effects of TNF-α and angiotensin II, and suppression of endocytosis reversed these trends, resulting in an overall increase of metabolic activity. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis prevented binding of oxidized cellular fragments with greater efficiency than targeted neutralization of the scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1. Many of the observations in HL-1 cardiomyocytes were confirmed in primary cardiomyocyte cultures. Our data suggest that endocytosis is upregulated in border zone cardiomyocytes, and inhibition of endocytosis may be an effective approach to prevent export of injury signals from the infarct zone.

  6. MeCP2 regulates activity-dependent transcriptional responses in olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wooje; Yun, Jung-Mi; Woods, Rima; Dunaway, Keith; Yasui, Dag H; Lasalle, Janine M; Gong, Qizhi

    2014-12-01

    During postnatal development, neuronal activity controls the remodeling of initially imprecise neuronal connections through the regulation of gene expression. MeCP2 binds to methylated DNA and modulates gene expression during neuronal development and MECP2 mutation causes the autistic disorder Rett syndrome. To investigate a role for MeCP2 in neuronal circuit refinement and to identify activity-dependent MeCP2 transcription regulations, we leveraged the precise organization and accessibility of olfactory sensory axons to manipulation of neuronal activity through odorant exposure in vivo. We demonstrate that olfactory sensory axons failed to develop complete convergence when Mecp2 is deficient in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in an otherwise wild-type animal. Furthermore, we demonstrate that expression of selected adhesion genes was elevated in Mecp2-deficient glomeruli, while acute odor stimulation in control mice resulted in significantly reduced MeCP2 binding to these gene loci, correlating with increased expression. Thus, MeCP2 is required for both circuitry refinement and activity-dependent transcriptional responses in OSNs.

  7. NRC-interacting factor directs neurite outgrowth in an activity-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X-S; Fu, W-Y; Hung, K-W; Chien, W W Y; Li, Z; Fu, A K; Ip, N Y

    2015-03-19

    Nuclear hormone receptor coregulator-interacting factor 1 (NIF-1) is a zinc finger nuclear protein that was initially identified to enhance nuclear hormone receptor transcription via its interaction with nuclear hormone receptor coregulator (NRC). NIF-1 may regulate gene transcription either by modulating general transcriptional machinery or remodeling chromatin structure through interactions with specific protein partners. We previously reported that the cytoplasmic/nuclear localization of NIF-1 is regulated by the neuronal Cdk5 activator p35, suggesting potential neuronal functions for NIF-1. The present study reveals that NIF-1 plays critical roles in regulating neuronal morphogenesis at early stages. NIF-1 was prominently expressed in the nuclei of developing rat cortical neurons. Knockdown of NIF-1 expression attenuated both neurite outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons and retinoic acid (RA)-treated Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, activity-induced Ca(2+) influx, which is critical for neuronal morphogenesis, stimulated the nuclear localization of NIF-1 in cortical neurons. Suppression of NIF-1 expression reduced the up-regulation of neuronal activity-dependent gene transcription. These findings collectively suggest that NIF-1 directs neuronal morphogenesis during early developmental stages through modulating activity-dependent gene transcription.

  8. Dense small molecule labeling enables activator-dependent STORM by proximity mapping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Gu, Min; Gunning, Peter W; Russell, Sarah M

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) enables high-resolution imaging, but multi-channel 3D imaging is problematic because of chromatic aberrations and alignment errors. The use of activator-dependent STORM in which spectrally distinct activators can be coupled with a single reporter can circumvent such issues. However, the standard approach of linking activators and reporters to a single antibody molecule is hampered by low labeling density and the large size of the antibody. We proposed that small molecule labels might enable activator-dependent STORM if the reporter or activator were linked to separate small molecules that bound within 3.5 nm of each other. This would greatly increase the labeling density and therefore improve resolution. We tested various mixtures of phalloidin- or mCling-conjugated fluorophore to demonstrate this feasibility. The specific activation was dependent on the choice of activator, its density, a matching activating laser and its power. In addition to providing an effective means of multi-channel 3D STORM imaging, this method also provides information about the local proximity between labels, potentially enabling super-resolved mapping of the conformation of the labeled structures. PMID:27246003

  9. Trim9 regulates activity-dependent fine-scale topography in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limin; Li, Ruonan; Kaneko, Takuya; Takle, Kendra; Morikawa, Rei K; Essex, Laura; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Jie; Emoto, Kazuo; Xiang, Yang; Ye, Bing

    2014-05-01

    Topographic projection of afferent terminals into 2D maps in the CNS is a general strategy used by the nervous system to encode the locations of sensory stimuli. In vertebrates, it is known that although guidance cues are critical for establishing a coarse topographic map, neural activity directs fine-scale topography between adjacent afferent terminals [1-4]. However, the molecular mechanism underlying activity-dependent regulation of fine-scale topography is poorly understood. Molecular analysis of the spatial relationship between adjacent afferent terminals requires reliable localization of the presynaptic terminals of single neurons as well as genetic manipulations with single-cell resolution in vivo. Although both requirements can potentially be met in Drosophila melanogaster [5, 6], no activity-dependent topographic system has been identified in flies [7]. Here we report a topographic system that is shaped by neuronal activity in Drosophila. With this system, we found that topographic separation of the presynaptic terminals of adjacent nociceptive neurons requires different levels of Trim9, an evolutionarily conserved signaling molecule [8-11]. Neural activity regulates Trim9 protein levels to direct fine-scale topography of sensory afferents. This study offers both a novel mechanism by which neural activity directs fine-scale topography of axon terminals and a new system to study this process at single-neuron resolution.

  10. Dense small molecule labeling enables activator-dependent STORM by proximity mapping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Gu, Min; Gunning, Peter W; Russell, Sarah M

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) enables high-resolution imaging, but multi-channel 3D imaging is problematic because of chromatic aberrations and alignment errors. The use of activator-dependent STORM in which spectrally distinct activators can be coupled with a single reporter can circumvent such issues. However, the standard approach of linking activators and reporters to a single antibody molecule is hampered by low labeling density and the large size of the antibody. We proposed that small molecule labels might enable activator-dependent STORM if the reporter or activator were linked to separate small molecules that bound within 3.5 nm of each other. This would greatly increase the labeling density and therefore improve resolution. We tested various mixtures of phalloidin- or mCling-conjugated fluorophore to demonstrate this feasibility. The specific activation was dependent on the choice of activator, its density, a matching activating laser and its power. In addition to providing an effective means of multi-channel 3D STORM imaging, this method also provides information about the local proximity between labels, potentially enabling super-resolved mapping of the conformation of the labeled structures.

  11. Trim9 regulates activity-dependent fine-scale topography in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limin; Li, Ruonan; Kaneko, Takuya; Takle, Kendra; Morikawa, Rei K; Essex, Laura; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Jie; Emoto, Kazuo; Xiang, Yang; Ye, Bing

    2014-05-01

    Topographic projection of afferent terminals into 2D maps in the CNS is a general strategy used by the nervous system to encode the locations of sensory stimuli. In vertebrates, it is known that although guidance cues are critical for establishing a coarse topographic map, neural activity directs fine-scale topography between adjacent afferent terminals [1-4]. However, the molecular mechanism underlying activity-dependent regulation of fine-scale topography is poorly understood. Molecular analysis of the spatial relationship between adjacent afferent terminals requires reliable localization of the presynaptic terminals of single neurons as well as genetic manipulations with single-cell resolution in vivo. Although both requirements can potentially be met in Drosophila melanogaster [5, 6], no activity-dependent topographic system has been identified in flies [7]. Here we report a topographic system that is shaped by neuronal activity in Drosophila. With this system, we found that topographic separation of the presynaptic terminals of adjacent nociceptive neurons requires different levels of Trim9, an evolutionarily conserved signaling molecule [8-11]. Neural activity regulates Trim9 protein levels to direct fine-scale topography of sensory afferents. This study offers both a novel mechanism by which neural activity directs fine-scale topography of axon terminals and a new system to study this process at single-neuron resolution. PMID:24746793

  12. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubule cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J; Stuart, J; Tobin, A B; Walls, J; Nahorski, S

    1998-05-15

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin is an important function of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium. We have measured endocytosis of [125I]-albumin in opossum kidney cells and examined the regulation of this process by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Albumin endocytosis was inhibited by both wortmannin (IC50 6.9 nM) and LY294002 (IC50 6.5 microM) at concentrations that suggested the involvement of PI 3-kinase in its regulation. Recycling rates were unaffected. We transfected OK cells with either a wild-type p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, or a dominant negative form of the p85 subunit (Deltap85) using the LacSwitch expression system. Transfects were screened by immunoblotting with anti-PI 3-kinase antibodies. Under basal conditions, transfects demonstrated no expression of p85 or Deltap85, but expression was briskly induced by treatment of the cells with IPTG (EC50 13.7 microM). Inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity by Deltap85 was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay of anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from transfected cells stimulated with insulin. Expression of Deltap85 resulted in marked inhibition of albumin endocytosis, predominantly as a result of reduction of the Vmax of the transport process. Expression of p85 had no significant effect on albumin uptake. The results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates an early step in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubular cells. PMID:9593770

  13. Adaptor Protein Complex 2–Mediated Endocytosis Is Crucial for Male Reproductive Organ Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Youn; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Song, Kyungyoung; Kim, Dae Heon; Kang, Hyangju; Reichardt, Ilka; Sohn, Eun Ju; Friml, Jiří; Juergens, Gerd; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization in flowering plants requires the temporal and spatial coordination of many developmental processes, including pollen production, anther dehiscence, ovule production, and pollen tube elongation. However, it remains elusive as to how this coordination occurs during reproduction. Here, we present evidence that endocytosis, involving heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), plays a crucial role in fertilization. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ap2m displays multiple defects in pollen production and viability, as well as elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes, all of which are pivotal processes needed for fertilization. Of these abnormalities, the defects in elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes were partially rescued by exogenous auxin. Moreover, DR5rev:GFP (for green fluorescent protein) expression was greatly reduced in filaments and anthers in ap2m mutant plants. At the cellular level, ap2m mutants displayed defects in both endocytosis of N-(3-triethylammonium-propyl)-4-(4-diethylaminophenylhexatrienyl) pyridinium dibromide, a lypophilic dye used as an endocytosis marker, and polar localization of auxin-efflux carrier PIN FORMED2 (PIN2) in the stamen filaments. Moreover, these defects were phenocopied by treatment with Tyrphostin A23, an inhibitor of endocytosis. Based on these results, we propose that AP-2–dependent endocytosis plays a crucial role in coordinating the multiple developmental aspects of male reproductive organs by modulating cellular auxin level through the regulation of the amount and polarity of PINs. PMID:23975898

  14. Selectivity of commonly used inhibitors of clathrin-mediated and caveolae-dependent endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuohan; Zhang, Xiaohan; Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiaowei; Min, Chengchun; Wang, Zengtao; Cheon, Seung Hoon; Oak, Min-Ho; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2015-10-01

    Among the multiple G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) endocytic pathways, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and caveolar endocytosis are more extensively characterized than other endocytic pathways. A number of endocytic inhibitors have been used to block CME; however, systemic studies to determine the selectivity of these inhibitors are needed. Clathrin heavy chain or caveolin1-knockdown cells have been employed to determine the specificity of various chemical and molecular biological tools for CME and caveolar endocytosis. Sucrose, concanavalin A, and dominant negative mutants of dynamin blocked other endocytic pathways, in addition to CME. In particular, concanavalin A nonspecifically interfered with the signaling of several GPCRs tested in the study. Decreased pH, monodansylcadaverine, and dominant negative mutants of epsin were more specific for CME than other treatments were. A recently introduced CME inhibitor, Pitstop2™, showed only marginal selectivity for CME and interfered with receptor expression on the cell surface. Blockade of receptor endocytosis by epsin mutants and knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain enhanced the β2AR-mediated ERK activation. Overall, our studies show that previous experimental results should be interpreted with discretion if they included the use of endocytic inhibitors that were previously thought to be CME-selective. In addition, our study shows that endocytosis of β2 adrenoceptor through clathrin-mediated pathway has negative effects on ERK activation.

  15. A dileucine motif is involved in plasma membrane expression and endocytosis of rat sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp).

    PubMed

    Stross, Claudia; Kluge, Stefanie; Weissenberger, Katrin; Winands, Elisabeth; Häussinger, Dieter; Kubitz, Ralf

    2013-11-15

    The sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) is the major uptake transporter for bile salts into liver parenchymal cells, and PKC-mediated endocytosis was shown to regulate the number of Ntcp molecules at the plasma membrane. In this study, mechanisms of Ntcp internalization were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses in HepG2 cells. PKC activation induced endocytosis of Ntcp from the plasma membrane by ~30%. Endocytosis of Ntcp was clathrin dependent and was followed by lysosomal degradation. A dileucine motif located in the third intracellular loop of Ntcp was essential for endocytosis but also for processing and plasma membrane targeting, suggesting a dual function of this motif for intracellular trafficking of Ntcp. Mutation of two of five potential phosphorylation sites surrounding the dileucine motif (Thr225 and Ser226) inhibited PKC-mediated endocytosis. In conclusion, we could identify a motif, which is critical for Ntcp plasma membrane localization. Endocytic retrieval protects hepatocytes from elevated bile salt concentrations and is of special interest, because NTCP has been identified as a receptor for the hepatitis B and D virus.

  16. DJ-1 associates with lipid rafts by palmitoylation and regulates lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Kim, Jin Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Suh, Young Ho; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-Hye; Park, Sang Myun

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disease. Several genes have been associated with familial type PD, providing tremendous insights into the pathogenesis of PD. Gathering evidence supports the view that these gene products may operate through common molecular pathways. Recent reports suggest that many PD-associated gene products, such as α-synuclein, LRRK2, parkin and PINK1, associate with lipid rafts and lipid rafts may be associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we observed that DJ-1 protein also associated with lipid rafts. Palmitoylation of three cysteine residues (C46/53/106) and C-terminal region of DJ-1 were required for this association. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the localization of DJ-1 into lipid rafts in astrocytes. The LPS-TLR4 signaling was more augmented in DJ-1 knock-out astrocytes by the impairment of TLR4 endocytosis. Furthermore, lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis including the endocytosis of CD14, which play a major role in regulating TLR4 endocytosis was also impaired, but clathrin-dependent endocytosis was not. This study provides a novel function of DJ-1 in lipid rafts, which may contribute the pathogenesis of PD. Moreover, it also provides the possibility that many PD-related proteins may operate through common molecular pathways in lipid rafts.

  17. Homeostatic Activity-Dependent Tuning of Recurrent Networks for Robust Propagation of Activity

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Jan Felix; Eglen, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Developing neuronal networks display spontaneous bursts of action potentials that are necessary for circuit organization and tuning. While spontaneous activity has been shown to instruct map formation in sensory circuits, it is unknown whether it plays a role in the organization of motor networks that produce rhythmic output. Using computational modeling, we investigate how recurrent networks of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations assemble to produce robust patterns of unidirectional and precisely timed propagating activity during organism locomotion. One example is provided by the motor network in Drosophila larvae, which generates propagating peristaltic waves of muscle contractions during crawling. We examine two activity-dependent models, which tune weak network connectivity based on spontaneous activity patterns: a Hebbian model, where coincident activity in neighboring populations strengthens connections between them; and a homeostatic model, where connections are homeostatically regulated to maintain a constant level of excitatory activity based on spontaneous input. The homeostatic model successfully tunes network connectivity to generate robust activity patterns with appropriate timing relationships between neighboring populations. These timing relationships can be modulated by the properties of spontaneous activity, suggesting its instructive role for generating functional variability in network output. In contrast, the Hebbian model fails to produce the tight timing relationships between neighboring populations required for unidirectional activity propagation, even when additional assumptions are imposed to constrain synaptic growth. These results argue that homeostatic mechanisms are more likely than Hebbian mechanisms to tune weak connectivity based on spontaneous input in a recurrent network for rhythm generation and robust activity propagation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How are neural circuits organized and tuned to maintain stable function

  18. Activity-dependent regulation of calcium and ribosomes in the chick cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Call, C L; Hyson, R L

    2016-03-01

    Cochlea removal results in the death of 20-30% of neurons in the chick cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM). Two potentially cytotoxic events, a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and a decline in the integrity of ribosomes are observed within 1h of deafferentation. Glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve has been shown to preserve NM neuron health by activating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), maintaining both normal [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomal integrity. One interpretation of these results is that a common mGluR-activated signaling cascade is required for the maintenance of both [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomal integrity. This could happen if both responses are influenced directly by a common messenger, or if the loss of mGluR activation causes changes in one component that secondarily causes changes in the other. The present studies tested this common-mediator hypothesis in slice preparations by examining activity-dependent regulation of [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomes in the same tissue after selectively blocking group I mGluRs (1-Aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA)) or group II mGluRs (LY 341495) during unilateral auditory nerve stimulation. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i of NM neurons were measured using fura-2 ratiometric calcium imaging and the tissue was subsequently processed for Y10B immunoreactivity (Y10B-ir), an antibody that recognizes a ribosomal epitope. The group I mGluR antagonist blocked the activity-dependent regulation of both [Ca(2+)]i and Y10B-ir, but the group II antagonist blocked only the activity-dependent regulation of Y10B-ir. That is, even when group II receptors were blocked, stimulation continued to maintain low [Ca(2+)]i, but it did not maintain Y10B-ir. These results suggest a dissociation in how calcium and ribosomes are regulated in NM neurons and that ribosomes can be regulated through a mechanism that is independent of calcium regulation. PMID:26739326

  19. Activity-dependent regulation of calcium and ribosomes in the chick cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Call, C L; Hyson, R L

    2016-03-01

    Cochlea removal results in the death of 20-30% of neurons in the chick cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM). Two potentially cytotoxic events, a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and a decline in the integrity of ribosomes are observed within 1h of deafferentation. Glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve has been shown to preserve NM neuron health by activating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), maintaining both normal [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomal integrity. One interpretation of these results is that a common mGluR-activated signaling cascade is required for the maintenance of both [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomal integrity. This could happen if both responses are influenced directly by a common messenger, or if the loss of mGluR activation causes changes in one component that secondarily causes changes in the other. The present studies tested this common-mediator hypothesis in slice preparations by examining activity-dependent regulation of [Ca(2+)]i and ribosomes in the same tissue after selectively blocking group I mGluRs (1-Aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA)) or group II mGluRs (LY 341495) during unilateral auditory nerve stimulation. Changes in [Ca(2+)]i of NM neurons were measured using fura-2 ratiometric calcium imaging and the tissue was subsequently processed for Y10B immunoreactivity (Y10B-ir), an antibody that recognizes a ribosomal epitope. The group I mGluR antagonist blocked the activity-dependent regulation of both [Ca(2+)]i and Y10B-ir, but the group II antagonist blocked only the activity-dependent regulation of Y10B-ir. That is, even when group II receptors were blocked, stimulation continued to maintain low [Ca(2+)]i, but it did not maintain Y10B-ir. These results suggest a dissociation in how calcium and ribosomes are regulated in NM neurons and that ribosomes can be regulated through a mechanism that is independent of calcium regulation.

  20. Physiological stimuli evoke two forms of endocytosis in bovine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shyue-An; Smith, Corey

    2001-01-01

    Exocytosis and endocytosis were measured following single, or trains of, simulated action potentials (sAP) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Catecholamine secretion was measured by oxidative amperometry and cell membrane turnover was measured by voltage clamp cell capacitance measurements. The sAPs evoked inward Na+ and Ca2+ currents that were statistically identical to those evoked by native action potential waveforms. On average, a single secretory granule underwent fusion following sAP stimulation. An equivalent amount of membrane was then quickly internalised (τ = 560 ms). Stimulation with sAP trains revealed a biphasic relationship between cell firing rate and endocytic activity. At basal stimulus frequencies (single to 0.5 Hz) cells exhibited a robust membrane internalisation that then diminished as firing increased to intermediate levels (1.9 and 6 Hz). However at the higher stimulation rates (10 and 16 Hz) endocytic activity rebounded and was again able to effectively maintain cell surface near pre-stimulus levels. Treatment with cyclosporin A and FK506, inhibitors of the phosphatase calcineurin, left endocytosis characteristics unaltered at the lower basal stimulus levels, but blocked the resurgence in endocytosis seen in control cells at higher sAP frequencies. Based on these findings we propose that, under physiological electrical stimulation, chromaffin cells internalise membrane via two distinct pathways that are separable. One is prevalent at basal stimulus frequencies, is lessened with increased firing, and is insensitive to cyclosporin A and FK506. A second endocytic form is activated by increased firing frequencies, and is selectively blocked by cyclosporin A and FK506. PMID:11744761

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    At 4 degrees C transferrin bound to receptors on the reticulocyte plasma membrane, and at 37 degrees C receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin occurred. Uptake at 37 degrees C exceeded binding at 4 degrees C by 2.5-fold and saturated after 20-30 min. During uptake at 37 degrees C, bound transferrin was internalized into a trypsin- resistant space. Trypsinization at 4 degrees C destroyed surface receptors, but with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C, surface receptors rapidly appeared (albeit in reduced numbers), and uptake occurred at a decreased level. After endocytosis, transferrin was released, apparently intact, into the extracellular space. At 37 degrees C colloidal gold-transferrin (AuTf) clustered in coated pits and then appeared inside various intracellular membrane-bounded compartments. Small vesicles and tubules were labeled after short (5-10 min) incubations at 37 degrees C. Larger multivesicular endosomes became heavily labeled after longer (20-35 min) incubations. Multivesicular endosomes apparently fused with the plasma membrane and released their contents by exocytosis. None of these organelles appeared to be lysosomal in nature, and 98% of intracellular AuTf was localized in acid phosphatase-negative compartments. AuTf, like transferrin, was released with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C. Freeze-dried and freeze-fractured reticulocytes confirmed the distribution of AuTf in reticulocytes and revealed the presence of clathrin-coated patches amidst the spectrin coating the inner surface of the plasma membrane. These data suggest that transferrin is internalized via coated pits and vesicles and demonstrate that transferrin and its receptor are recycled back to the plasma membrane after endocytosis. PMID:6309857

  2. Endocytosis of a maltose permease is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Mizuki; Ichikawa, Takanori; Matsuura, Yuka; Hasegawa-Shiro, Sachiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, amylolytic enzyme production is induced by the presence of maltose. Previously, we identified a putative maltose permease (MalP) gene in the maltose-utilizing cluster of A. oryzae. malP disruption causes a significant decrease in α-amylase activity and maltose consumption, indicating that MalP is a maltose transporter required for amylolytic enzyme production in A. oryzae. Although the expression of amylase genes and malP is repressed by the presence of glucose, the effect of glucose on the abundance of functional MalP is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of glucose and other carbon sources on the subcellular localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged MalP. After glucose addition, GFP-MalP at the plasma membrane was internalized and delivered to the vacuole. This glucose-induced internalization of GFP-MalP was inhibited by treatment with latrunculin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Furthermore, GFP-MalP internalization was inhibited by repressing the HECT ubiquitin ligase HulA (ortholog of yeast Rsp5). These results suggest that MalP is transported to the vacuole by endocytosis in the presence of glucose. Besides glucose, mannose and 2-deoxyglucose also induced the endocytosis of GFP-MalP and amylolytic enzyme production was inhibited by the addition of these sugars. However, neither the subcellular localization of GFP-MalP nor amylolytic enzyme production was influenced by the addition of xylose or 3-O-methylglucose. These results imply that MalP endocytosis is induced when amylolytic enzyme production is repressed.

  3. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage. PMID:26465605

  4. Endocytosis-dependent desensitization and protein synthesis-dependent resensitization in retinal growth cone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Piper, Michael; Salih, Saif; Weinl, Christine; Holt, Christine E; Harris, William A

    2005-02-01

    It has been proposed that growth cones navigating through gradients adapt to baseline concentrations of guidance cues. This adaptation process is poorly understood. Using the collapse assay, we show that adaptation in Xenopus laevis retinal growth cones to the guidance cues Sema3A or netrin-1 involves two processes: a fast, ligand-specific desensitization that occurs within 2 min of exposure and is dependent on endocytosis, and a slower, ligand-specific resensitization, which occurs within 5 min and is dependent upon protein synthesis. These two phases of adaptation allow retinal axons to adjust their range of sensitivity to specific guidance cues.

  5. Endocytosis-dependent desensitization and protein synthesis–dependent resensitization in retinal growth cone adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Michael; Salih, Saif; Weinl, Christine; Holt, Christine E; Harris, William A

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that growth cones navigating through gradients adapt to baseline concentrations of guidance cues. This adaptation process is poorly understood. Using the collapse assay, we show that adaptation in Xenopus laevis retinal growth cones to the guidance cues Sema3A or netrin-1 involves two processes: a fast, ligand-specific desensitization that occurs within 2 min of exposure and is dependent on endocytosis, and a slower, ligand-specific resensitization, which occurs within 5 min and is dependent upon protein synthesis. These two phases of adaptation allow retinal axons to adjust their range of sensitivity to specific guidance cues. PMID:15643427

  6. Role of endocytosis and cathepsin-mediated activation in Nipah virus entry

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, Sandra; Thiel, Lena; Maisner, Andrea

    2008-06-05

    The recent discovery that the Nipah virus (NiV) fusion protein (F) is activated by endosomal cathepsin L raised the question if NiV utilize pH- and protease-dependent mechanisms of entry. We show here that the NiV receptor ephrin B2, virus-like particles and infectious NiV are internalized from the cell surface. However, endocytosis, acidic pH and cathepsin-mediated cleavage are not necessary for the initiation of infection of new host cells. Our data clearly demonstrate that proteolytic activation of the NiV F protein is required before incorporation into budding virions but not after virus entry.

  7. Rapid and continuous activity-dependent plasticity of olfactory sensory input

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Claire E. J.; Park, Una; Belluscio, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of new neurons enables plasticity and repair of circuits in the adult brain. Adult neurogenesis is a key feature of the mammalian olfactory system, with new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) wiring into highly organized olfactory bulb (OB) circuits throughout life. However, neither when new postnatally generated OSNs first form synapses nor whether OSNs retain the capacity for synaptogenesis once mature, is known. Therefore, how integration of adult-born OSNs may contribute to lifelong OB plasticity is unclear. Here, we use a combination of electron microscopy, optogenetic activation and in vivo time-lapse imaging to show that newly generated OSNs form highly dynamic synapses and are capable of eliciting robust stimulus-locked firing of neurons in the mouse OB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mature OSN axons undergo continuous activity-dependent synaptic remodelling that persists into adulthood. OSN synaptogenesis, therefore, provides a sustained potential for OB plasticity and repair that is much faster than OSN replacement alone. PMID:26898529

  8. Developmental and activity-dependent plasticity of filiform hair receptors in the locust

    PubMed Central

    Pflüger, Hans-Joachim; Wolf, Harald

    2013-01-01

    A group of wind sensitive filiform hair receptors on the locust thorax and head makes contact onto a pair of identified interneuron, A4I1. The hair receptors' central nervous projections exhibit pronounced structural dynamics during nymphal development, for example, by gradually eliminating their ipsilateral dendritic field while maintaining the contralateral one. These changes are dependent not only on hormones controlling development but on neuronal activity as well. The hair-to-interneuron system has remarkably high gain (close to 1) and makes contact to flight steering muscles. During stationary flight in front of a wind tunnel, interneuron A4I1 is active in the wing beat rhythm, and in addition it responds strongly to stimulation of sensory hairs in its receptive field. A role of the hair-to-interneuron in flight steering is thus suggested. This system appears suitable for further study of developmental and activity-dependent plasticity in a sensorimotor context with known connectivity patterns. PMID:23986712

  9. Molecular Remodeling of the Presynaptic Active Zone of Drosophila Photoreceptors via Activity-Dependent Feedback.

    PubMed

    Sugie, Atsushi; Hakeda-Suzuki, Satoko; Suzuki, Emiko; Silies, Marion; Shimozono, Mai; Möhl, Christoph; Suzuki, Takashi; Tavosanis, Gaia

    2015-05-01

    Neural activity contributes to the regulation of the properties of synapses in sensory systems, allowing for adjustment to a changing environment. Little is known about how synaptic molecular components are regulated to achieve activity-dependent plasticity at central synapses. Here, we found that after prolonged exposure to natural ambient light the presynaptic active zone in Drosophila photoreceptors undergoes reversible remodeling, including loss of Bruchpilot, DLiprin-α, and DRBP, but not of DSyd-1 or Cacophony. The level of depolarization of the postsynaptic neurons is critical for the light-induced changes in active zone composition in the photoreceptors, indicating the existence of a feedback signal. In search of this signal, we have identified a crucial role of microtubule meshwork organization downstream of the divergent canonical Wnt pathway, potentially via Kinesin-3 Imac. These data reveal that active zone composition can be regulated in vivo and identify the underlying molecular machinery.

  10. Mapping neural circuits with activity-dependent nuclear import of a transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Kaoru; Zhang, Yi; Rao, Yi; Wang, Jing W

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is a calcium-responsive transcription factor. We describe here an NFAT-based neural tracing method-CaLexA (calcium-dependent nuclear import of LexA)-for labeling active neurons in behaving animals. In this system, sustained neural activity induces nuclear import of the chimeric transcription factor LexA-VP16-NFAT, which in turn drives green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter expression only in active neurons. We tested this system in Drosophila and found that volatile sex pheromones excite specific neurons in the olfactory circuit. Furthermore, complex courtship behavior associated with multi-modal sensory inputs activated neurons in the ventral nerve cord. This method harnessing the mechanism of activity-dependent nuclear import of a transcription factor can be used to identify active neurons in specific neuronal population in behaving animals. PMID:22236090

  11. Calcineurin signaling mediates activity-dependent relocation of the axon initial segment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark D; Sammons, Rosanna P; Lebron, Sabrina; Dumitrescu, Adna S; Watkins, Thomas B K; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Grubb, Matthew S

    2013-04-17

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized neuronal subcompartment located at the beginning of the axon that is crucially involved in both the generation of action potentials and the regulation of neuronal polarity. We recently showed that prolonged neuronal depolarization produces a distal shift of the entire AIS structure away from the cell body, a change associated with a decrease in neuronal excitability. Here, we used dissociated rat hippocampal cultures, with a major focus on the dentate granule cell (DGC) population, to explore the signaling pathways underlying activity-dependent relocation of the AIS. First, a pharmacological screen of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) showed that AIS relocation is triggered by activation of L-type Cav1 VGCCs with negligible contribution from any other VGCC subtypes. Additional pharmacological analysis revealed that downstream signaling events are mediated by the calcium-sensitive phosphatase calcineurin; inhibition of calcineurin with either FK506 or cyclosporin A totally abolished both depolarization- and optogenetically-induced activity-dependent AIS relocation. Furthermore, calcineurin activation is sufficient for AIS plasticity, because expression of a constitutively active form of the phosphatase resulted in relocation of the AIS of DGCs without a depolarizing stimulus. Finally, we assessed the role of calcineurin in other forms of depolarization-induced plasticity. Neither membrane resistance changes nor spine density changes were affected by FK506 treatment, suggesting that calcineurin acts via a separate pathway to modulate AIS plasticity. Together, these results emphasize calcineurin as a vital player in the regulation of intrinsic plasticity as governed by the AIS. PMID:23595753

  12. Synapsin Regulates Activity-Dependent Outgrowth of Synaptic Boutons at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, Alexander; Zueva, Lidia; Torrez, Carol; Volfson, Dina; Littleton, J. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Patterned depolarization of Drosophila motor neurons can rapidly induce the outgrowth of new synaptic boutons at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), providing a model system to investigate mechanisms underlying acute structural plasticity. Correlative light and electron microscopy analysis revealed that new boutons typically form near the edge of postsynaptic reticulums of presynaptic boutons. Unlike mature boutons, new varicosities have synaptic vesicles which are distributed uniformly throughout the bouton and undeveloped postsynaptic specializations. To characterize the presynaptic mechanisms mediating new synaptic growth induced by patterned activity, we investigated the formation of new boutons in NMJs lacking synapsin [Syn(−)], a synaptic protein important for vesicle clustering, neurodevelopment, and plasticity. We found that budding of new boutons at Syn(−) NMJs was significantly diminished, and that new boutons in Syn(−) preparations were smaller and had reduced synaptic vesicle density. Since synapsin is a target of protein kinase A (PKA), we assayed whether activity-dependent synaptic growth is regulated via a cAMP/PKA/synapsin pathway. We pretreated preparations with forskolin to raise cAMP levels and found this manipulation significantly enhanced activity-dependent synaptic growth in control but not Syn(−) preparations. To examine the trafficking of synapsin during synaptic growth, we generated transgenic animals expressing fluorescently tagged synapsin. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed that patterned depolarization promoted synapsin movement between boutons. During new synaptic bouton formation, synapsin redistributed upon stimulation toward the sites of varicosity outgrowth. These findings support a model whereby synapsin accumulates at sites of synaptic growth and facilitates budding of new boutons via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. PMID:25100589

  13. Piccolo Directs Activity Dependent F-Actin Assembly from Presynaptic Active Zones via Daam1

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan; Waites, Clarissa L.; Leal-Ortiz, Sergio A.; Maas, Christoph; Reimer, Richard J.; Garner, Craig C.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic assembly of filamentous (F) actin plays essential roles in the assembly of presynaptic boutons, the fusion, mobilization and recycling of synaptic vesicles (SVs), and presynaptic forms of plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the temporal and spatial assembly of presynaptic F-actin remain largely unknown. Similar to other F-actin rich membrane specializations, presynaptic boutons contain a set of molecules that respond to cellular cues and trans-synaptic signals to facilitate activity-dependent assembly of F-actin. The presynaptic active zone (AZ) protein Piccolo has recently been identified as a key regulator of neurotransmitter release during SV cycling. It does so by coordinating the activity-dependent assembly of F-Actin and the dynamics of key plasticity molecules including Synapsin1, Profilin and CaMKII. The multidomain structure of Piccolo, its exquisite association with the AZ, and its ability to interact with a number of actin-associated proteins suggest that Piccolo may function as a platform to coordinate the spatial assembly of F-actin. Here we have identified Daam1, a Formin that functions with Profilin to drive F-actin assembly, as a novel Piccolo binding partner. We also found that within cells Daam1 activation promotes Piccolo binding, an interaction that can spatially direct the polymerization of F-Actin. Moreover, similar to Piccolo and Profilin, Daam1 loss of function impairs presynaptic-F-actin assembly in neurons. These data suggest a model in which Piccolo directs the assembly of presynaptic F-Actin from the AZ by scaffolding key actin regulatory proteins including Daam1. PMID:25897839

  14. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  15. Bulk pesticide storage - state perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Buzicky, G.

    1994-12-31

    State bulk pesticide storage regulations continue to evolve differentially due, in large part, to the absence of federal regulations. This is about to change because of the pending promulgation of 40 CFR Part 165, as amended in 1988 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules regarding storage, handling and disposal. Until final adoption of the rules by EPA, states continue to address bulk pesticide storage and handling according to individual state statute, rules and guidelines.

  16. Dynamin 2-dependent endocytosis sustains T-cell receptor signaling and drives metabolic reprogramming in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Willinger, Tim; Staron, Matthew; Ferguson, Shawn M; De Camilli, Pietro; Flavell, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Prolonged T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling is required for the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Ligation of the TCR activates signaling, but also causes internalization of the TCR from the cell surface. How TCR signaling is sustained for many hours despite lower surface expression is unknown. Using genetic inhibition of endocytosis, we show here that TCR internalization promotes continued TCR signaling and T-lymphocyte proliferation. T-cell-specific deletion of dynamin 2, an essential component of endocytosis, resulted in reduced TCR signaling strength, impaired homeostatic proliferation, and the inability to undergo clonal expansion in vivo. Blocking endocytosis resulted in a failure to maintain mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and to stably induce the transcription factor myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc), which led to metabolic stress and a defect in cell growth. Our results support the concept that the TCR can continue to signal after it is internalized from the cell surface, thereby enabling sustained signaling and cell proliferation.

  17. Equine arteritis virus is delivered to an acidic compartment of host cells via clathrin-dependent endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, Matthias; Korte, Thomas; Ter-Avetisyan, Gohar; Tuennemann, Gisela; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Veit, Michael Herrmann, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Arteriviridae. Infection by EAV requires the release of the viral genome by fusion with the respective target membrane of the host cell. We have investigated the entry pathway of EAV into Baby Hamster Kindey cells (BHK). Infection of cells assessed by the plaque reduction assay was strongly inhibited by substances which interfere with clathrin-dependent endocytosis and by lysosomotropic compounds. Furthermore, infection of BHK cells was suppressed when clathrin-dependent endocytosis was inhibited by expression of antisense RNA of the clathrin-heavy chain before infection. These results strongly suggest that EAV is taken up via clathrin-dependent endocytosis and is delivered to acidic endosomal compartments.

  18. Caveolin-1–dependent occludin endocytosis is required for TNF-induced tight junction regulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marchiando, Amanda M.; Shen, Le; Graham, W. Vallen; Weber, Christopher R.; Schwarz, Brad T.; Austin, Jotham R.; Raleigh, David R.; Guan, Yanfang; Watson, Alastair J.M.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial paracellular barrier function, determined primarily by tight junction permeability, is frequently disrupted in disease. In the intestine, barrier loss can be mediated by tumor necrosis factor (α) (TNF) signaling and epithelial myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activation. However, TNF induces only limited alteration of tight junction morphology, and the events that couple structural reorganization to barrier regulation have not been defined. We have used in vivo imaging and transgenic mice expressing fluorescent-tagged occludin and ZO-1 fusion proteins to link occludin endocytosis to TNF-induced tight junction regulation. This endocytosis requires caveolin-1 and is essential for structural and functional tight junction regulation. These data demonstrate that MLCK activation triggers caveolin-1–dependent endocytosis of occludin to effect structural and functional tight junction regulation. PMID:20351069

  19. Role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ost in negative regulation of receptor endocytosis by the small GTPase Rac1.

    PubMed

    Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Ueda, Shuji; Kataoka, Tohru; Satoh, Takaya

    2007-08-10

    The Rho family of GTPases has been implicated in the regulation of intracellular vesicle trafficking. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cell surface receptors mediated by the Rho family protein Rac1. Contrary to previous reports, only the activated mutant of Rac1, but not other Rho family members including RhoA and Cdc42, suppressed internalization of the transferrin receptor. On the other hand, down-regulation of Rac1 expression by RNA interference resulted in enhanced receptor internalization, suggesting that endogenous Rac1 in fact functions as a negative regulator. We identified a guanine nucleotide exchange factor splice variant designated Ost-III, which contains a unique C-terminal region including an Src homology 3 domain, as a regulator of Rac1 involved in the inhibition of receptor endocytosis. In contrast, other splice variants Ost-I and Ost-II exerted virtually no effect on receptor endocytosis. We also examined subcellular localization of synaptojanin 2, a putative Rac1 effector implicated in negative regulation of receptor endocytosis. Each Ost splice variant induced distinct subcellular localization of synaptojanin 2, depending on Rac1 activation. Furthermore, we isolated gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) as a protein that binds to the C-terminal region of Ost-III. When ectopically expressed, GABARAP was co-localized with Ost-III and potently suppressed the Ost-III-dependent Rac1 activation and the inhibition of receptor endocytosis. Lipid modification of GABARAP was necessary for the suppression of Ost-III. These results are discussed in terms of subcellular region-specific regulation of the Rac1-dependent signaling pathway that negatively regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  20. Balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required to assemble functional epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Lissette A; Vedula, Pavan; Gutierrez, Natasha; Shah, Neel; Rodriguez, Steven; Ayee, Brian; Davis, Justin; Rodriguez, Alexis J

    2015-12-01

    Regulating adherens junction complex assembly/disassembly is critical to maintaining epithelial homeostasis in healthy epithelial tissues. Consequently, adherens junction structure and function is often perturbed in clinically advanced tumors of epithelial origin. Some of the most studied factors driving adherens junction complex perturbation in epithelial cancers are transcriptional and epigenetic down-regulation of E-cadherin expression. However, numerous reports demonstrate that post-translational regulatory mechanisms such as endocytosis also regulate early phases of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic progression. In already assembled healthy epithelia, E-cadherin endocytosis recycles cadherin-catenin complexes to regulate the number of mature adherens junctions found at cell-cell contact sites. However, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, endocytosis negatively regulates adherens junction assembly by removing E-cadherin from the cell surface. By contrast, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, spatially localized β-actin translation drives cytoskeletal remodeling and consequently E-cadherin clustering at cell-cell contact sites and therefore positively regulates adherens junction assembly. In this report we demonstrate that dynamin-mediated endocytosis and β-actin translation-dependent cadherin-catenin complex anchoring oppose each other following epithelial cell-cell contact. Consequently, the final extent of adherens junction assembly depends on which of these processes is dominant following epithelial cell-cell contact. We expressed β-actin transcripts impaired in their ability to properly localize monomer synthesis (Δ3'UTR) in MDCK cells to perturb actin filament remodeling and anchoring, and demonstrate the resulting defect in adherens junction structure and function is rescued by inhibiting dynamin mediated endocytosis. Therefore, we demonstrate balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin

  1. Ca²⁺ signals promote GLUT4 exocytosis and reduce its endocytosis in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Zhu, X; Ishikura, S; Zhang, D; Gao, J; Sun, Y; Contreras-Ferrat, A; Foley, K P; Lavandero, S; Yao, Z; Bilan, P J; Klip, A; Niu, W

    2014-07-15

    Elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but how Ca(2+) affects intracellular traffic of GLUT4 is unknown. In tissue, changes in Ca(2+) leading to contraction preclude analysis of the impact of individual, Ca(2+)-derived signals. In L6 muscle cells stably expressing GLUT4myc, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin raised cytosolic Ca(2+) and caused a gain in cell surface GLUT4myc. Extra- and intracellular Ca(2+) chelators (EGTA, BAPTA-AM) reversed this response. Ionomycin activated calcium calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), AMPK, and PKCs, but not Akt. Silencing CaMKIIδ or AMPKα1/α2 partly reduced the ionomycin-induced gain in surface GLUT4myc, as did peptidic or small molecule inhibitors of CaMKII (CN21) and AMPK (Compound C). Compared with the conventional isoenzyme PKC inhibitor Gö6976, the conventional plus novel PKC inhibitor Gö6983 lowered the ionomycin-induced gain in cell surface GLUT4myc. Ionomycin stimulated GLUT4myc exocytosis and inhibited its endocytosis in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of CaMKIIδ or AMPKα1/α2 partly reversed ionomycin-induced GLUT4myc exocytosis but did not prevent its reduced endocytosis. Compared with Gö6976, Gö6983 markedly reversed the slowing of GLUT4myc endocytosis triggered by ionomycin. In summary, rapid Ca(2+) influx into muscle cells accelerates GLUT4myc exocytosis while slowing GLUT4myc endocytosis. CaMKIIδ and AMPK stimulate GLUT4myc exocytosis, whereas novel PKCs reduce endocytosis. These results identify how Ca(2+)-activated signals selectively regulate GLUT4 exocytosis and endocytosis in muscle cells.

  2. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Kosheverova, Vera V; Kamentseva, Rimma S; Gonchar, Ilya V; Kharchenko, Marianna V; Kornilova, Elena S

    2016-04-22

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time of slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering.

  3. Unconventional myosins, actin dynamics and endocytosis: a ménage à trois?

    PubMed

    Soldati, Thierry

    2003-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of class I myosins, the first nonmuscle myosins, about 30 years ago, the history of unconventional myosins has been linked to the organization and working of actin filaments. It slowly emerged from studies of class I myosins in lower eukaryotes that they are involved in mechanisms of endocytosis. Most interestingly, a flurry of recent findings assign a more active role to class I myosins in regulating the spatial and temporal organization of actin filament nucleation and elongation. The results highlight the multiple links between class I myosins and the major actin nucleator, the Arp2/3 complex, and its newly described activators. Two additional types of unconventional myosins, myosinIX, and Dictyostelium discoideum MyoM, have recently been tied to the signaling pathways controlling actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The present review surveys the links between these three classes of molecular motors and the complex cellular processes of endocytosis and actin dynamics, and concentrates on a working model accounting for the function of class I myosins via recruitment of the machinery responsible for actin nucleation and elongation. PMID:12753645

  4. New Regulators of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Systematic Quantitative Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Kristen B; Grossman, Caitlin; Di Pietro, Santiago M

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for cell biology, it is unclear if all components of the machinery have been discovered and many regulatory aspects remain poorly understood. Here, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a fluorescence microscopy screening approach we identify previously unknown regulatory factors of the endocytic machinery. We further studied the top scoring protein identified in the screen, Ubx3, a member of the conserved ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX) protein family. In vivo and in vitro approaches demonstrate that Ubx3 is a new coat component. Ubx3-GFP has typical endocytic coat protein dynamics with a patch lifetime of 45 ± 3 sec. Ubx3 contains a W-box that mediates physical interaction with clathrin and Ubx3-GFP patch lifetime depends on clathrin. Deletion of the UBX3 gene caused defects in the uptake of Lucifer Yellow and the methionine transporter Mup1 demonstrating that Ubx3 is needed for efficient endocytosis. Further, the UBX domain is required both for localization and function of Ubx3 at endocytic sites. Mechanistically, Ubx3 regulates dynamics and patch lifetime of the early arriving protein Ede1 but not later arriving coat proteins or actin assembly. Conversely, Ede1 regulates the patch lifetime of Ubx3. Ubx3 likely regulates CME via the AAA-ATPase Cdc48, a ubiquitin-editing complex. Our results uncovered new components of the CME machinery that regulate this fundamental process.

  5. Endocytosis of Ligand-Activated Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Mediated by the Clathrin-Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patrick M; Kang, Yuan-Lin; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is one of five G protein-coupled receptors activated by the lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Stimulation of S1PR1 by binding S1P or the synthetic agonist FTY720P results in rapid desensitization, associated in part with depletion of receptor from the cell surface. We report here combining spinning disc confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to show that rapid internalization of activated S1PR1 relies on a functional clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Uptake of activated S1PR1 was strongly inhibited in cells disrupted in their clathrin-mediated endocytosis by depleting clathrin or AP-2 or by treating cells with dynasore-OH. The uptake of activated S1P1R was strongly inhibited in cells lacking both β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2, indicating that activated S1PR1 follows the canonical route of endocytosis for G-protein coupled receptor's (GPCR)'s.

  6. Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO) Is Processed by either Macropinocytosis or Endocytosis-Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kanno, Sanae

    2015-01-01

    The Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO) protein is a plasma membrane receptor for un-opsonized or environmental particles on phagocytic cells. Here, we show that MARCO was internalized either by ruffling of plasma membrane followed by macropinocytosis or by endocytosis followed by fusion with autophagosome in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with GFP-MARCO. The macropinocytic process generated large vesicles when the plasma membrane subsided. The endocytosis/autophagosome (amphisome) generated small fluorescent puncta which were visible in the presence of glutamine, chloroquine, bafilomycin, ammonia, and other amines. The small puncta, but not the large vesicles, co-localized with LC3B and lysosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased in the presence of glutamine, ammonia, and chloroquine in various cells. The small puncta trafficked between the peri-nuclear region and the distal ends of cells back and forth at rates of up to 2–3 μm/sec; tubulin, but not actin, regulated the trafficking of the small puncta. Besides phagocytosis MARCO, an adhesive plasma membrane receptor, may play a role in incorporation of various extracellular materials into the cell via both macropinocytic and endocytic pathways. PMID:26545255

  7. CD4- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis of HIV-1 into plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pritschet, Kathrin; Donhauser, Norbert; Schuster, Philipp; Ries, Moritz; Haupt, Sabrina; Kittan, Nicolai A.; Korn, Klaus; Poehlmann, Stefan; Holland, Gudrun; Bannert, Norbert; Bogner, Elke; Schmidt, Barbara

    2012-02-20

    Chronic immune activation, triggered by plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) interferon (IFN)-alpha production, plays an important role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. As the entry of HIV-1 seems to be important for the activation of PDC, we directly characterized the viral entry into these cells using immuno-electron microscopy, cellular fractionation, confocal imaging, and functional experiments. After attachment to PDC, viruses were taken up in an energy-dependent manner. The virions were located in compartments positive for caveolin; early endosomal antigen 1; Rab GTPases 5, 7 and 9; lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1. PDC harbored more virus in endocytic vesicles than CD4+ T cells (p < 0.05). Blocking CD4 inhibited the uptake of virions into cytosolic and endosomal compartments. Dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin-dependent endocytosis, not the fusion inhibitor T-20, reduced the HIV-1 induced IFN-alpha production. Altogether, our morphological and functional data support the role of endocytosis for the entry and IFN-alpha induction of HIV-1 in PDC.

  8. The iTRAPs: Guardians of Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Retrieval During Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah L; Cousin, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The reformation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed SVs must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional "fail-safe" mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II (sybII) and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that sybII and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other SV cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for sybII) and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1). In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both sybII and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of SV molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs) and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease.

  9. CIN85 regulates dopamine receptor endocytosis and governs behaviour in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Noriaki; Haglund, Kaisa; Hölter, Sabine M; Grabbe, Caroline; Kirkin, Vladimir; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Schultz, Christian; Rozman, Jan; Hoeller, Daniela; Qiu, Chun-Hong; Londoño, Marina B; Ikezawa, Jun; Jedlicka, Peter; Stein, Birgit; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Wolfer, David P; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Heuchel, Rainer; Nezis, Ioannis; Brech, Andreas; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Klingenspor, Martin; Bogler, Oliver; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deller, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Dikic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive investigations of Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa (CIN85) in receptor trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about its functions in vivo. Here, we report the study of a mouse deficient of the two CIN85 isoforms expressed in the central nervous system, exposing a function of CIN85 in dopamine receptor endocytosis. Mice lacking CIN85 exon 2 (CIN85Δex2) show hyperactivity phenotypes, characterized by increased physical activity and exploratory behaviour. Interestingly, CIN85Δex2 animals display abnormally high levels of dopamine and D2 dopamine receptors (D2DRs) in the striatum, an important centre for the coordination of animal behaviour. Importantly, CIN85 localizes to the post-synaptic compartment of striatal neurons in which it co-clusters with D2DRs. Moreover, it interacts with endocytic regulators such as dynamin and endophilins in the striatum. Absence of striatal CIN85 causes insufficient complex formation of endophilins with D2DRs in the striatum and ultimately decreased D2DR endocytosis in striatal neurons in response to dopamine stimulation. These findings indicate an important function of CIN85 in the regulation of dopamine receptor functions and provide a molecular explanation for the hyperactive behaviour of CIN85Δex2 mice. PMID:20551902

  10. Single wall carbon nanotubes enter cells by endocytosis and not membrane penetration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes are increasingly being tested for use in cellular applications. Determining the mode of entry is essential to control and regulate specific interactions with cells, to understand toxicological effects of nanotubes, and to develop nanotube-based cellular technologies. We investigated cellular uptake of Pluronic copolymer-stabilized, purified ~145 nm long single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through a series of complementary cellular, cell-mimetic, and in vitro model membrane experiments. Results SWCNTs localized within fluorescently labeled endosomes, and confocal Raman spectroscopy showed a dramatic reduction in SWCNT uptake into cells at 4°C compared with 37°C. These data suggest energy-dependent endocytosis, as shown previously. We also examined the possibility for non-specific physical penetration of SWCNTs through the plasma membrane. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Langmuir monolayer film balance measurements showed that Pluronic-stabilized SWCNTs associated with membranes but did not possess sufficient insertion energy to penetrate through the membrane. SWCNTs associated with vesicles made from plasma membranes but did not rupture the vesicles. Conclusions These measurements, combined, demonstrate that Pluronic-stabilized SWCNTs only enter cells via energy-dependent endocytosis, and association of SWCNTs to membrane likely increases uptake. PMID:21961562

  11. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of 18 possible α-chains and one of eight possible β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalization by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with the AP2 C-μ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions.

  12. Myosin 1E coordinates actin assembly and cargo trafficking during clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jackie; Grassart, Alexandre; Drubin, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Myosin 1E (Myo1E) is recruited to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis coincident with a burst of actin assembly. The recruitment dynamics and lifetime of Myo1E are similar to those of tagged actin polymerization regulatory proteins. Like inhibition of actin assembly, depletion of Myo1E causes reduced transferrin endocytosis and a significant delay in transferrin trafficking to perinuclear compartments, demonstrating an integral role for Myo1E in these actin-mediated steps. Mistargeting of GFP-Myo1E or its src-homology 3 domain to mitochondria results in appearance of WIP, WIRE, N-WASP, and actin filaments at the mitochondria, providing evidence for Myo1E's role in actin assembly regulation. These results suggest for mammalian cells, similar to budding yeast, interdependence in the recruitment of type I myosins, WIP/WIRE, and N-WASP to endocytic sites for Arp2/3 complex activation to assemble F-actin as endocytic vesicles are being formed. PMID:22675027

  13. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics. PMID:26871680

  14. Axonal amyloid precursor protein and its fragments undergo somatodendritic endocytosis and processing

    PubMed Central

    Niederst, Emily D.; Reyna, Sol M.; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of potentially neurotoxic Aβ fragments derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) at synapses may be a key contributor to Alzheimer's disease. However, the location(s) of proteolytic processing and subsequent secretion of APP fragments from highly compartmentalized, euploid neurons that express APP and processing enzymes at normal levels is not well understood. To probe the behavior of endogenous APP, particularly in human neurons, we developed a system using neurons differentiated from human embryonic stem cells, cultured in microfluidic devices, to enable direct biochemical measurements from axons. Using human or mouse neurons in these devices, we measured levels of Aβ, sAPPα, and sAPPβ secreted solely from axons. We found that a majority of the fragments secreted from axons were processed in the soma, and many were dependent on somatic endocytosis for axonal secretion. We also observed that APP and the β-site APP cleaving enzyme were, for the most part, not dependent on endocytosis for axonal entry. These data establish that axonal entry and secretion of APP and its proteolytic processing products traverse different pathways in the somatodendritic compartment before axonal entry. PMID:25392299

  15. Rapid and efficient clathrin-mediated endocytosis revealed in genome-edited mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Jeffrey B; Zeitler, Bryan; Cheng, Jackie; Cheng, Aaron T; Cherone, Jennifer M; Santiago, Yolanda; Lee, Andrew H; Vo, Thuy D; Doyon, Yannick; Miller, Jeffrey C; Paschon, David E; Zhang, Lei; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Drubin, David G

    2011-03-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the best-studied pathway by which cells selectively internalize molecules from the plasma membrane and surrounding environment. Previous live-cell imaging studies using ectopically overexpressed fluorescent fusions of endocytic proteins indicated that mammalian CME is a highly dynamic but inefficient and heterogeneous process. In contrast, studies of endocytosis in budding yeast using fluorescent protein fusions expressed at physiological levels from native genomic loci have revealed a process that is very regular and efficient. To analyse endocytic dynamics in mammalian cells in which endogenous protein stoichiometry is preserved, we targeted zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to the clathrin light chain A and dynamin-2 genomic loci and generated cell lines expressing fluorescent protein fusions from each locus. The genome-edited cells exhibited enhanced endocytic function, dynamics and efficiency when compared with previously studied cells, indicating that CME is highly sensitive to the levels of its protein components. Our study establishes that ZFN-mediated genome editing is a robust tool for expressing protein fusions at endogenous levels to faithfully report subcellular localization and dynamics.

  16. Quantification of cytosolic interactions identifies Ede1 oligomers as key organizers of endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Dominik; Trautmann, Susanne; Meurer, Matthias; Wachsmuth, Malte; Godlee, Camilla; Knop, Michael; Kaksonen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a highly conserved intracellular trafficking pathway that depends on dynamic protein–protein interactions between up to 60 different proteins. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal regulation of these interactions. Using fluorescence (cross)-correlation spectroscopy in yeast, we tested 41 previously reported interactions in vivo and found 16 to exist in the cytoplasm. These detected cytoplasmic interactions included the self-interaction of Ede1, homolog of mammalian Eps15. Ede1 is the crucial scaffold for the organization of the early stages of endocytosis. We show that oligomerization of Ede1 through its central coiled coil domain is necessary for its localization to the endocytic site and we link the oligomerization of Ede1 to its function in locally concentrating endocytic adaptors and organizing the endocytic machinery. Our study sheds light on the importance of the regulation of protein–protein interactions in the cytoplasm for the assembly of the endocytic machinery in vivo. PMID:25366307

  17. Mitochondrial uncouplers inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis largely through cytoplasmic acidification

    PubMed Central

    Dejonghe, Wim; Kuenen, Sabine; Mylle, Evelien; Vasileva, Mina; Keech, Olivier; Viotti, Corrado; Swerts, Jef; Fendrych, Matyáš; Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Mishev, Kiril; Delang, Simon; Scholl, Stefan; Zarza, Xavier; Heilmann, Mareike; Kourelis, Jiorgos; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Nguyen, Le Son Long; Drozdzecki, Andrzej; Van Houtte, Isabelle; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Majda, Mateusz; Baisa, Gary; Bednarek, Sebastian York; Robert, Stéphanie; Audenaert, Dominique; Testerink, Christa; Munnik, Teun; Van Damme, Daniël; Heilmann, Ingo; Schumacher, Karin; Winne, Johan; Friml, Jiří; Verstreken, Patrik; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    ATP production requires the establishment of an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial uncouplers dissipate this proton gradient and disrupt numerous cellular processes, including vesicular trafficking, mainly through energy depletion. Here we show that Endosidin9 (ES9), a novel mitochondrial uncoupler, is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in different systems and that ES9 induces inhibition of CME not because of its effect on cellular ATP, but rather due to its protonophore activity that leads to cytoplasm acidification. We show that the known tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostinA23, which is routinely used to block CME, displays similar properties, thus questioning its use as a specific inhibitor of cargo recognition by the AP-2 adaptor complex via tyrosine motif-based endocytosis signals. Furthermore, we show that cytoplasm acidification dramatically affects the dynamics and recruitment of clathrin and associated adaptors, and leads to reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate from the plasma membrane. PMID:27271794

  18. Endocytosis and the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, James; Caplan, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The regulated intracellular transport of nutrient, adhesion, and growth factor receptors is crucial for maintaining cell and tissue homeostasis. Endocytosis, or endocytic membrane trafficking, involves the steps of intracellular transport that include, but are not limited to, internalization from the plasma membrane, sorting in early endosomes, transport to late endosomes/lysosomes followed by degradation, and/or recycling back to the plasma membrane through tubular recycling endosomes. In addition to regulating the localization of transmembrane receptor proteins, the endocytic pathway also controls the localization of non-receptor molecules. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src (Src) and its closely related family members Yes and Fyn represent three proteins whose localization and signaling activities are tightly regulated by endocytic trafficking. Here, we provide a brief overview of endocytosis, Src function and its biochemical regulation. We will then concentrate on recent advances in understanding how Src intracellular localization is regulated and how its subcellular localization ultimately dictates downstream functioning. As Src kinases are hyperactive in many cancers, it is essential to decipher the spatiotemporal regulation of this important family of tyrosine kinases. PMID:25372749

  19. Endophilin-A2 functions in membrane scission in clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Renard, Henri-François; Simunovic, Mijo; Lemière, Joël; Boucrot, Emmanuel; Garcia-Castillo, Maria Daniela; Arumugam, Senthil; Chambon, Valérie; Lamaze, Christophe; Wunder, Christian; Kenworthy, Anne K; Schmidt, Anne A; McMahon, Harvey T; Sykes, Cécile; Bassereau, Patricia; Johannes, Ludger

    2015-01-22

    During endocytosis, energy is invested to narrow the necks of cargo-containing plasma membrane invaginations to radii at which the opposing segments spontaneously coalesce, thereby leading to the detachment by scission of endocytic uptake carriers. In the clathrin pathway, dynamin uses mechanical energy from GTP hydrolysis to this effect, assisted by the BIN/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain-containing protein endophilin. Clathrin-independent endocytic events are often less reliant on dynamin, and whether in these cases BAR domain proteins such as endophilin contribute to scission has remained unexplored. Here we show, in human and other mammalian cell lines, that endophilin-A2 (endoA2) specifically and functionally associates with very early uptake structures that are induced by the bacterial Shiga and cholera toxins, which are both clathrin-independent endocytic cargoes. In controlled in vitro systems, endoA2 reshapes membranes before scission. Furthermore, we demonstrate that endoA2, dynamin and actin contribute in parallel to the scission of Shiga-toxin-induced tubules. Our results establish a novel function of endoA2 in clathrin-independent endocytosis. They document that distinct scission factors operate in an additive manner, and predict that specificity within a given uptake process arises from defined combinations of universal modules. Our findings highlight a previously unnoticed link between membrane scaffolding by endoA2 and pulling-force-driven dynamic scission.

  20. ENDOPHILIN-A2 FUNCTIONS IN MEMBRANE SCISSION IN CLATHRIN-INDEPENDENT ENDOCYTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Henri-François; Simunovic, Mijo; Lemière, Joël; Boucrot, Emmanuel; Garcia-Castillo, Maria-Daniela; Arumugam, Senthil; Chambon, Valérie; Lamaze, Christophe; Wunder, Christian; Kenworthy, Anne K.; Schmidt, Anne A.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Sykes, Cécile; Bassereau, Patricia; Johannes, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    During endocytosis, energy is invested to narrow the necks of cargo-containing plasma membrane invaginations to radii at which the opposing segments spontaneously coalesce, thereby leading to the detachment by scission of endocytic uptake carriers1. In the clathrin pathway, dynamin uses mechanical energy from GTP hydrolysis to this effect2–4, assisted by the BIN/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain-containing protein endophilin5,6. Clathrin-independent endocytic events are often less reliant on dynamin7, and whether in these cases BAR domain proteins such as endophilin contribute to scission has remained unexplored. Here we found that endophilin-A2 (endoA2) specifically and functionally associates with very early uptake structures that are induced by the bacterial Shiga and cholera toxins, which both are clathrin-independent endocytic cargoes8. In controlled in vitro systems, endoA2 reshapes membranes prior to scission. Furthermore, we demonstrate that endoA2, dynamin, and actin contribute in parallel to the scission of Shiga toxin-induced tubules. Our results establish a novel function of endoA2 in clathrin-independent endocytosis. They document that distinct scission factors operate in an additive manner, and predict that specificity within a given uptake process arises from defined combinations of universal modules. Our findings finally highlight a previously unnoticed link between membrane scaffolding by endoA2 and pulling force-driven dynamic scission. PMID:25517096

  1. The iTRAPs: Guardians of Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Retrieval During Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sarah L.; Cousin, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The reformation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of neurotransmission in central nerve terminals. Newly formed SVs must be generated with the correct protein cargo in the correct stoichiometry to be functional for exocytosis. Classical clathrin adaptor protein complexes play a key role in sorting and clustering synaptic vesicle cargo in this regard. However it is becoming increasingly apparent that additional “fail-safe” mechanisms exist to ensure the accurate retrieval of essential cargo molecules. For example, the monomeric adaptor proteins AP180/CALM and stonin-2 are required for the efficient retrieval of synaptobrevin II (sybII) and synaptotagmin-1 respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that sybII and synaptotagmin-1 interact with other SV cargoes to ensure a high fidelity of retrieval. These cargoes are synaptophysin (for sybII) and SV2A (for synaptotagmin-1). In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the retrieval mechanisms for both sybII and synaptotagmin-1 during endocytosis. We also define and set criteria for a new functional group of SV molecules that facilitate the retrieval of their interaction partners. We have termed these molecules intrinsic trafficking partners (iTRAPs) and we discuss how the function of this group impacts on presynaptic performance in both health and disease. PMID:26903854

  2. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics.

  3. Drosophila cyfip regulates synaptic development and endocytosis by suppressing filamentous actin assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Dan; Wang, Qifu; Rodal, Avital A; Zhang, Yong Q

    2013-04-01

    The formation of synapses and the proper construction of neural circuits depend on signaling pathways that regulate cytoskeletal structure and dynamics. After the mutual recognition of a growing axon and its target, multiple signaling pathways are activated that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics to determine the morphology and strength of the connection. By analyzing Drosophila mutations in the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein Cyfip, we demonstrate that this component of the WAVE complex inhibits the assembly of filamentous actin (F-actin) and thereby regulates key aspects of synaptogenesis. Cyfip regulates the distribution of F-actin filaments in presynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) terminals. At cyfip mutant NMJs, F-actin assembly was accelerated, resulting in shorter NMJs, more numerous satellite boutons, and reduced quantal content. Increased synaptic vesicle size and failure to maintain excitatory junctional potential amplitudes under high-frequency stimulation in cyfip mutants indicated an endocytic defect. cyfip mutants exhibited upregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, a major growth-promoting pathway known to be attenuated by endocytosis at the Drosophila NMJ. We propose that Cyfip regulates synapse development and endocytosis by inhibiting actin assembly.

  4. The Molecular Basis for the Endocytosis of Small R-SNAREs by the Clathrin Adaptor CALM

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sharon E.; Sahlender, Daniela A.; Graham, Stephen C.; Höning, Stefan; Robinson, Margaret S.; Peden, Andrew A.; Owen, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary SNAREs provide a large part of the specificity and energy needed for membrane fusion and, to do so, must be localized to their correct membranes. Here, we show that the R-SNAREs VAMP8, VAMP3, and VAMP2, which cycle between the plasma membrane and endosomes, bind directly to the ubiquitously expressed, PtdIns4,5P2-binding, endocytic clathrin adaptor CALM/PICALM. X-ray crystallography shows that the N-terminal halves of their SNARE motifs bind the CALMANTH domain as helices in a manner that mimics SNARE complex formation. Mutation of residues in the CALM:SNARE interface inhibits binding in vitro and prevents R-SNARE endocytosis in vivo. Thus, CALM:R-SNARE interactions ensure that R-SNAREs, required for the fusion of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles with endosomes and also for subsequent postendosomal trafficking, are sorted into endocytic vesicles. CALM's role in directing the endocytosis of small R-SNAREs may provide insight into the association of CALM/PICALM mutations with growth retardation, cognitive defects, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22118466

  5. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis.

  6. Dynamin- and Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis in African Swine Fever Virus Entry▿

    PubMed Central

    Hernaez, Bruno; Alonso, Covadonga

    2010-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that enters host cells after receptor-mediated endocytosis and depends on acidic cellular compartments for productive infection. The exact cellular mechanism, however, is largely unknown. In order to dissect ASFV entry, we have analyzed the major endocytic routes using specific inhibitors and dominant negative mutants and analyzed the consequences for ASFV entry into host cells. Our results indicate that ASFV entry into host cells takes place by clathrin-mediated endocytosis which requires dynamin GTPase activity. Also, the clathrin-coated pit component Eps15 was identified as a relevant cellular factor during infection. The presence of cholesterol in cellular membranes, but not lipid rafts or caveolae, was found to be essential for a productive ASFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of the Na+/H+ ion channels and actin polymerization inhibition did not significantly modify ASFV infection, suggesting that macropinocytosis does not represent the main entry route for ASFV. These results suggest a dynamin-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway of ASFV entry for the cell types and viral strains analyzed. PMID:19939916

  7. Dynamin- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis in African swine fever virus entry.

    PubMed

    Hernaez, Bruno; Alonso, Covadonga

    2010-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that enters host cells after receptor-mediated endocytosis and depends on acidic cellular compartments for productive infection. The exact cellular mechanism, however, is largely unknown. In order to dissect ASFV entry, we have analyzed the major endocytic routes using specific inhibitors and dominant negative mutants and analyzed the consequences for ASFV entry into host cells. Our results indicate that ASFV entry into host cells takes place by clathrin-mediated endocytosis which requires dynamin GTPase activity. Also, the clathrin-coated pit component Eps15 was identified as a relevant cellular factor during infection. The presence of cholesterol in cellular membranes, but not lipid rafts or caveolae, was found to be essential for a productive ASFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of the Na(+)/H(+) ion channels and actin polymerization inhibition did not significantly modify ASFV infection, suggesting that macropinocytosis does not represent the main entry route for ASFV. These results suggest a dynamin-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway of ASFV entry for the cell types and viral strains analyzed.

  8. Brain tumor regulates neuromuscular synapse growth and endocytosis in Drosophila by suppressing mad expression.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenwen; Chen, Yan; Gan, Guangming; Wang, Dan; Ren, Jinqi; Wang, Qifu; Xu, Zhiheng; Xie, Wei; Zhang, Yong Q

    2013-07-24

    The precise regulation of synaptic growth is critical for the proper formation and plasticity of functional neural circuits. Identification and characterization of factors that regulate synaptic growth and function have been under intensive investigation. Here we report that brain tumor (brat), which was identified as a translational repressor in multiple biological processes, plays a crucial role at Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that brat mutants exhibited synaptic overgrowth characterized by excess satellite boutons at NMJ terminals, whereas electron microscopy revealed increased synaptic vesicle size but reduced density at active zones compared with wild-types. Spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential amplitudes were larger and evoked quantal content was lower at brat mutant NMJs. In agreement with the morphological and physiological phenotypes, loss of Brat resulted in reduced FM1-43 uptake at the NMJ terminals, indicating that brat regulates synaptic endocytosis. Genetic analysis revealed that the actions of Brat at synapses are mediated through mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad), the signal transduction effector of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway. Furthermore, biochemical analyses showed upregulated levels of Mad protein but normal mRNA levels in the larval brains of brat mutants, suggesting that Brat suppresses Mad translation. Consistently, knockdown of brat by RNA interference in Drosophila S2 cells also increased Mad protein level. These results together reveal an important and previously unidentified role for Brat in synaptic development and endocytosis mediated by suppression of BMP signaling. PMID:23884941

  9. Clathrin-independent endocytosis: from nonexisting to an extreme degree of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Torgersen, Maria Lyngaas; Raa, Hilde Andersen; van Deurs, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Today it is generally accepted that there are several endocytic mechanisms, both the clathrin-dependent one and mechanisms which operate without clathrin and with different requirements when it comes to dynamin, small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family and specific lipids. It should be noted that clathrin-independent endocytosis can occur even when the cholesterol level in the membrane has been reduced to so low levels that caveolae are gone and clathrin-coated membrane areas are flat. Although new investigators in the field take it for granted that there is a multitude of entry mechanisms, it has taken a long time for this to become accepted. However, more work needs to be done, because one can still ask the question: How many endocytic mechanisms does a cell have, what are their function, and how are they regulated? This article describes some of the history of endocytosis research and attempts to give an overview of the complexity of the mechanisms and their regulation. PMID:18193449

  10. Dynamin- and Rab5-dependent endocytosis is required to prevent Drosophila photoreceptor degeneration.

    PubMed

    Pinal, Noelia; Pichaud, Franck

    2011-05-01

    In Drosophila photoreceptors, Rhodopsin 1 (ninaE, Rh1) is required for proper morphogenesis and maintenance of the apical light-gathering organelle, the rhabdomere. It has been proposed that Rh1, coupled to the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, promotes the morphogenesis of a sub-rhabdomeric F-actin meshwork or rhabdomere terminal web (RTW). The RTW provides mechanical support to the apical microvilli and is likely to guide Rab11-dependent delivery of Rh1-rich membrane to the rhabdomere from the trans Golgi network. However, the nature and function of the molecular pathway involved in RTW morphogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we show that Rh1 function in promoting RTW morphogenesis is light-independent and is conserved throughout evolution. This Rh1 function does not require G(q)α(e), which is required for phototransduction. Finally, we show that interfering with Dynamin- and Rab5-dependent endocytosis leads to a phenotype that is undistinguishable from that of the ninaE-null mutant. Importantly, the corresponding endocytic activity is essential to prevent early onset of rhabdomere degeneration. In conclusion, we propose that Rh1 function in promoting RTW morphogenesis is not only needed to sustain apical membrane delivery but is also required for proper rhabdomeric membrane endocytosis and turnover.

  11. Vps34 Deficiency Reveals the Importance of Endocytosis for Podocyte Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Wibke; Helmstädter, Martin; Balica, Jan; Hartleben, Björn; Kiefer, Betina; Hrnjic, Fatima; Schell, Christoph; Kretz, Oliver; Liu, Shuya; Geist, Felix; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Walz, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain podocytes and consequently, the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) plays a central role in modulating endocytic pathways, maintaining podocyte homeostasis. In mice, podocyte-specific conditional knockout of Vps34 led to early proteinuria, glomerular scarring, and death within 3–9 weeks of age. Vps34-deficient podocytes exhibited substantial vacuolization and foot process effacement. Although the formation of autophagosomes and autophagic flux were impaired, comparisons between podocyte-specific Vps34-deficient mice, autophagy-deficient mice, and doubly deficient mice suggested that defective autophagy was not primarily responsible for the severe phenotype caused by the loss of Vps34. In fact, Rab5-positive endosomal compartments, endocytosis, and fluid-phase uptake were severely disrupted in Vps34-deficient podocytes. Vps34 deficiency in nephrocytes, the podocyte-like cells of Drosophila melanogaster, resulted in a block between Rab5- and Rab7-positive endosomal compartments. In summary, these data identify Vps34 as a major regulator of endolysosomal pathways in podocytes and underline the fundamental roles of endocytosis and fluid-phase uptake for the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. PMID:23492732

  12. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  13. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated f

  14. Activity-dependent development of cortical axon terminations in the spinal cord and brain stem.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Kably, B; Hacking, A

    1999-03-01

    corticocuneate terminations also is activity-dependent but that development of corticorubral terminations is not. Activity-dependent CS development is a plausible mechanism by which early motor experiences could shape the anatomical and functional organization of the motor systems during a critical postnatal period. PMID:10204771

  15. SCN10A Mutation in a Patient with Erythromelalgia Enhances C-Fiber Activity Dependent Slowing.

    PubMed

    Kist, Andreas M; Sagafos, Dagrun; Rush, Anthony M; Neacsu, Cristian; Eberhardt, Esther; Schmidt, Roland; Lunden, Lars Kristian; Ørstavik, Kristin; Kaluza, Luisa; Meents, Jannis; Zhang, Zhiping; Carr, Thomas Hedley; Salter, Hugh; Malinowsky, David; Wollberg, Patrik; Krupp, Johannes; Kleggetveit, Inge Petter; Schmelz, Martin; Jørum, Ellen; Lampert, Angelika; Namer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) Nav1.7 have been identified as a key mechanism underlying chronic pain in inherited erythromelalgia. Mutations in TTX resistant channels, such as Nav1.8 or Nav1.9, were recently connected with inherited chronic pain syndromes. Here, we investigated the effects of the p.M650K mutation in Nav1.8 in a 53 year old patient with erythromelalgia by microneurography and patch-clamp techniques. Recordings of the patient's peripheral nerve fibers showed increased activity dependent slowing (ADS) in CMi and less spontaneous firing compared to a control group of erythromelalgia patients without Nav mutations. To evaluate the impact of the p.M650K mutation on neuronal firing and channel gating, we performed current and voltage-clamp recordings on transfected sensory neurons (DRGs) and neuroblastoma cells. The p.M650K mutation shifted steady-state fast inactivation of Nav1.8 to more hyperpolarized potentials and did not significantly alter any other tested gating behaviors. The AP half-width was significantly broader and the stimulated action potential firing rate was reduced for M650K transfected DRGs compared to WT. We discuss the potential link between enhanced steady state fast inactivation, broader action potential width and the potential physiological consequences.

  16. Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of a Chalcogenide Electronic Synapse for Neuromorphic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Yingpeng; Zhang, Jinjian; Xu, Lei; Wang, Qing; Sun, Huajun; Tong, Hao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Miao, Xiangshui

    2014-05-01

    Nanoscale inorganic electronic synapses or synaptic devices, which are capable of emulating the functions of biological synapses of brain neuronal systems, are regarded as the basic building blocks for beyond-Von Neumann computing architecture, combining information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate a Ag/AgInSbTe/Ag structure for chalcogenide memristor-based electronic synapses. The memristive characteristics with reproducible gradual resistance tuning are utilised to mimic the activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that serves as the basis of memory and learning. Bidirectional long-term Hebbian plasticity modulation is implemented by the coactivity of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, and the sign and degree are affected by assorted factors including the temporal difference, spike rate and voltage. Moreover, synaptic saturation is observed to be an adjustment of Hebbian rules to stabilise the growth of synaptic weights. Our results may contribute to the development of highly functional plastic electronic synapses and the further construction of next-generation parallel neuromorphic computing architecture.

  17. Tracking the activity-dependent diffusion of synaptic proteins using restricted photoconversion of Dendra2

    PubMed Central

    Cassé, Frédéric; Martin, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Spines are small protrusions on dendritic membranes receiving inputs from axonal termini. They consist in a head connected to the dendritic shaft by a narrow neck and contain multiple synaptic proteins that interact in a coordinated manner to allow for synaptic communication. This process involves many proteins that are moving in and out spines. However, comparing this synaptodendritic movement in basal and stimulated conditions is very challenging. Here we describe an elegant method to measure the activity-dependent diffusion of synaptic proteins using Dendra2 photoconversion. We provide a successful method to obtain Dendra2-photoconverted images and a step-by-step procedure to analyze the data. This live-imaging approach may also apply to investigate the diffusion of proteins across other subcellular compartments or organelles including but not restricted to, nucleus, nucleolus, ER, or vesicular structures. Once the imaging system is set up, data can be acquired in 1–30 min and analyzed in approximately 1–4 h. PMID:26441538

  18. Activity-dependent, homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release from auditory nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Ngodup, Tenzin; Goetz, Jack A.; McGuire, Brian C.; Sun, Wei; Lauer, Amanda M.; Xu-Friedman, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Information processing in the brain requires reliable synaptic transmission. High reliability at specialized auditory nerve synapses in the cochlear nucleus results from many release sites (N), high probability of neurotransmitter release (Pr), and large quantal size (Q). However, high Pr also causes auditory nerve synapses to depress strongly when activated at normal rates for a prolonged period, which reduces fidelity. We studied how synapses are influenced by prolonged activity by exposing mice to constant, nondamaging noise and found that auditory nerve synapses changed to facilitating, reflecting low Pr. For mice returned to quiet, synapses recovered to normal depression, suggesting that these changes are a homeostatic response to activity. Two additional properties, Q and average excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitude, were unaffected by noise rearing, suggesting that the number of release sites (N) must increase to compensate for decreased Pr. These changes in N and Pr were confirmed physiologically using the integration method. Furthermore, consistent with increased N, endbulbs in noise-reared animals had larger VGlut1-positive puncta, larger profiles in electron micrographs, and more release sites per profile. In current-clamp recordings, noise-reared BCs had greater spike fidelity even during high rates of synaptic activity. Thus, auditory nerve synapses regulate excitability through an activity-dependent, homeostatic mechanism, which could have major effects on all downstream processing. Our results also suggest that noise-exposed bushy cells would remain hyperexcitable for a period after returning to normal quiet conditions, which could have perceptual consequences. PMID:25944933

  19. An Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanism for Activity-Dependent Visual Circuit Development

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Kara G.; Hiramoto, Masaki; Cline, Hollis T.

    2016-01-01

    Neural circuit development is an activity-dependent process. This activity can be spontaneous, such as the retinal waves that course across the mammalian embryonic retina, or it can be sensory-driven, such as the activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by visual stimuli. Whichever the source, neural activity provides essential instruction to the developing circuit. Indeed, experimentally altering activity has been shown to impact circuit development and function in many different ways and in many different model systems. In this review, we contemplate the idea that retinal waves in amniotes, the animals that develop either in ovo or utero (namely reptiles, birds and mammals) could be an evolutionary adaptation to life on land, and that the anamniotes, animals whose development is entirely external (namely the aquatic amphibians and fish), do not display retinal waves, most likely because they simply don’t need them. We then review what is known about the function of both retinal waves and visual stimuli on their respective downstream targets, and predict that the experience-dependent development of the tadpole visual system is a blueprint of what will be found in future studies of the effects of spontaneous retinal waves on instructing development of retinorecipient targets such as the superior colliculus (SC) and the lateral geniculate nucleus.

  20. SCN10A Mutation in a Patient with Erythromelalgia Enhances C-Fiber Activity Dependent Slowing

    PubMed Central

    Neacsu, Cristian; Eberhardt, Esther; Schmidt, Roland; Lunden, Lars Kristian; Ørstavik, Kristin; Kaluza, Luisa; Meents, Jannis; Zhang, Zhiping; Carr, Thomas Hedley; Salter, Hugh; Malinowsky, David; Wollberg, Patrik; Krupp, Johannes; Kleggetveit, Inge Petter; Schmelz, Martin; Jørum, Ellen; Namer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) Nav1.7 have been identified as a key mechanism underlying chronic pain in inherited erythromelalgia. Mutations in TTX resistant channels, such as Nav1.8 or Nav1.9, were recently connected with inherited chronic pain syndromes. Here, we investigated the effects of the p.M650K mutation in Nav1.8 in a 53 year old patient with erythromelalgia by microneurography and patch-clamp techniques. Recordings of the patient’s peripheral nerve fibers showed increased activity dependent slowing (ADS) in CMi and less spontaneous firing compared to a control group of erythromelalgia patients without Nav mutations. To evaluate the impact of the p.M650K mutation on neuronal firing and channel gating, we performed current and voltage-clamp recordings on transfected sensory neurons (DRGs) and neuroblastoma cells. The p.M650K mutation shifted steady-state fast inactivation of Nav1.8 to more hyperpolarized potentials and did not significantly alter any other tested gating behaviors. The AP half-width was significantly broader and the stimulated action potential firing rate was reduced for M650K transfected DRGs compared to WT. We discuss the potential link between enhanced steady state fast inactivation, broader action potential width and the potential physiological consequences. PMID:27598514

  1. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system.

  2. Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of a Chalcogenide Electronic Synapse for Neuromorphic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zhong, Yingpeng; Zhang, Jinjian; Xu, Lei; Wang, Qing; Sun, Huajun; Tong, Hao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Miao, Xiangshui

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale inorganic electronic synapses or synaptic devices, which are capable of emulating the functions of biological synapses of brain neuronal systems, are regarded as the basic building blocks for beyond-Von Neumann computing architecture, combining information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate a Ag/AgInSbTe/Ag structure for chalcogenide memristor-based electronic synapses. The memristive characteristics with reproducible gradual resistance tuning are utilised to mimic the activity-dependent synaptic plasticity that serves as the basis of memory and learning. Bidirectional long-term Hebbian plasticity modulation is implemented by the coactivity of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, and the sign and degree are affected by assorted factors including the temporal difference, spike rate and voltage. Moreover, synaptic saturation is observed to be an adjustment of Hebbian rules to stabilise the growth of synaptic weights. Our results may contribute to the development of highly functional plastic electronic synapses and the further construction of next-generation parallel neuromorphic computing architecture. PMID:24809396

  3. The calcineurin-NFAT pathway controls activity-dependent circadian gene expression in slow skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dyar, Kenneth A.; Ciciliot, Stefano; Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio Malagoli; Pallafacchina, Giorgia; Tothova, Jana; Argentini, Carla; Agatea, Lisa; Abraham, Reimar; Ahdesmäki, Miika; Forcato, Mattia; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Blaauw, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity and circadian rhythms are well-established determinants of human health and disease, but the relationship between muscle activity and the circadian regulation of muscle genes is a relatively new area of research. It is unknown whether muscle activity and muscle clock rhythms are coupled together, nor whether activity rhythms can drive circadian gene expression in skeletal muscle. Methods We compared the circadian transcriptomes of two mouse hindlimb muscles with vastly different circadian activity patterns, the continuously active slow soleus and the sporadically active fast tibialis anterior, in the presence or absence of a functional skeletal muscle clock (skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 KO). In addition, we compared the effect of denervation on muscle circadian gene expression. Results We found that different skeletal muscles exhibit major differences in their circadian transcriptomes, yet core clock gene oscillations were essentially identical in fast and slow muscles. Furthermore, denervation caused relatively minor changes in circadian expression of most core clock genes, yet major differences in expression level, phase and amplitude of many muscle circadian genes. Conclusions We report that activity controls the oscillation of around 15% of skeletal muscle circadian genes independently of the core muscle clock, and we have identified the Ca2+-dependent calcineurin-NFAT pathway as an important mediator of activity-dependent circadian gene expression, showing that circadian locomotor activity rhythms drive circadian rhythms of NFAT nuclear translocation and target gene expression. PMID:26629406

  4. Activity-dependent plasticity of spike pauses in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    PubMed Central

    Grasselli, Giorgio; He, Qionger; Wan, Vivian; Adelman, John P.; Ohtsuki, Gen; Hansel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst–pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice) and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning. PMID:26972012

  5. Three-dimensional EM Structure of an Intact Activator-dependent Transcription Initiation Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B.; Quispe, J; Lara-González, S; Kim, Y; Berman, H; Arnold, E; Ebright, R; Lawson, C

    2009-01-01

    We present the experimentally determined 3D structure of an intact activator-dependent transcription initiation complex comprising the Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP), RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and a DNA fragment containing positions -78 to +20 of a Class I CAP-dependent promoter with a CAP site at position -61.5 and a premelted transcription bubble. A 20-{angstrom} electron microscopy reconstruction was obtained by iterative projection-based matching of single particles visualized in carbon-sandwich negative stain and was fitted using atomic coordinate sets for CAP, RNAP, and DNA. The structure defines the organization of a Class I CAP-RNAP-promoter complex and supports previously proposed interactions of CAP with RNAP {alpha} subunit C-terminal domain ({alpha}CTD), interactions of {alpha}CTD with {sigma}70 region 4, interactions of CAP and RNAP with promoter DNA, and phased-DNA-bend-dependent partial wrapping of DNA around the complex. The structure also reveals the positions and shapes of species-specific domains within the RNAP {beta}{prime}, {beta}, and {sigma}70 subunits.

  6. Long Lasting Protein Synthesis- and Activity-Dependent Spine Shrinkage and Elimination after Synaptic Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro-Cortés, Yazmín; Israely, Inbal

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal circuits modify their response to synaptic inputs in an experience-dependent fashion. Increases in synaptic weights are accompanied by structural modifications, and activity dependent, long lasting growth of dendritic spines requires new protein synthesis. When multiple spines are potentiated within a dendritic domain, they show dynamic structural plasticity changes, indicating that spines can undergo bidirectional physical modifications. However, it is unclear whether protein synthesis dependent synaptic depression leads to long lasting structural changes. Here, we investigate the structural correlates of protein synthesis dependent long-term depression (LTD) mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) through two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We find that induction of mGluR-LTD leads to robust and long lasting spine shrinkage and elimination that lasts for up to 24 hours. These effects depend on signaling through group I mGluRs, require protein synthesis, and activity. These data reveal a mechanism for long lasting remodeling of synaptic inputs, and offer potential insights into mental retardation. PMID:23951097

  7. SCN10A Mutation in a Patient with Erythromelalgia Enhances C-Fiber Activity Dependent Slowing.

    PubMed

    Kist, Andreas M; Sagafos, Dagrun; Rush, Anthony M; Neacsu, Cristian; Eberhardt, Esther; Schmidt, Roland; Lunden, Lars Kristian; Ørstavik, Kristin; Kaluza, Luisa; Meents, Jannis; Zhang, Zhiping; Carr, Thomas Hedley; Salter, Hugh; Malinowsky, David; Wollberg, Patrik; Krupp, Johannes; Kleggetveit, Inge Petter; Schmelz, Martin; Jørum, Ellen; Lampert, Angelika; Namer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) Nav1.7 have been identified as a key mechanism underlying chronic pain in inherited erythromelalgia. Mutations in TTX resistant channels, such as Nav1.8 or Nav1.9, were recently connected with inherited chronic pain syndromes. Here, we investigated the effects of the p.M650K mutation in Nav1.8 in a 53 year old patient with erythromelalgia by microneurography and patch-clamp techniques. Recordings of the patient's peripheral nerve fibers showed increased activity dependent slowing (ADS) in CMi and less spontaneous firing compared to a control group of erythromelalgia patients without Nav mutations. To evaluate the impact of the p.M650K mutation on neuronal firing and channel gating, we performed current and voltage-clamp recordings on transfected sensory neurons (DRGs) and neuroblastoma cells. The p.M650K mutation shifted steady-state fast inactivation of Nav1.8 to more hyperpolarized potentials and did not significantly alter any other tested gating behaviors. The AP half-width was significantly broader and the stimulated action potential firing rate was reduced for M650K transfected DRGs compared to WT. We discuss the potential link between enhanced steady state fast inactivation, broader action potential width and the potential physiological consequences. PMID:27598514

  8. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bloodgood, Brenda L.; Sharma, Nikhil; Browne, Heidi Adlman; Trepman, Alissa Z.; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    A heterogeneous population of inhibitory neurons controls the flow of information through a neural circuit1–3. Inhibitory synapses that form on pyramidal neuron dendrites modulate the summation of excitatory synaptic potentials4–6 and prevent the generation of dendritic calcium spikes7,8. Precisely timed somatic inhibition limits both the number of action potentials and the time window during which firing can occur8,9. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates inhibitory synapse number and function in cell culture10, but how this transcription factor affects the inhibitory inputs that form on distinct domains of a neuron in vivo was unclear. Here we show that in the mouse hippocampus behaviourally driven expression of NPAS4 coordinates the redistribution of inhibitory synapses made onto a CA1 pyramidal neuron, simultaneously increasing inhibitory synapse number on the cell body while decreasing the number of inhibitory synapses on the apical dendrites. This rearrangement of inhibition is mediated in part by the NPAS4 target gene brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), which specifically regulates somatic, and not dendritic, inhibition. These findings indicate that sensory stimuli, by inducing NPAS4 and its target genes, differentially control spatial features of neuronal inhibition in a way that restricts the output of the neuron while creating a dendritic environment that is permissive for plasticity. PMID:24201284

  9. Nigrostriatal proteomics of cypermethrin-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration: microglial activation-dependent and -independent regulations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand Kumar; Tiwari, Manindra Nath; Dixit, Anubhuti; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Prakash, Om; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2011-08-01

    The study aimed to identify the differentially expressed nigrostriatal proteins in cypermethrin-induced neurodegeneration and to investigate the role of microglial activation therein. Proteomic approaches were used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Microglial activation, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-IR), dopamine content, and neurobehavioral changes were measured according to the standard procedures. The expressions of α-internexin intermediate filament (α-IIF), ATP synthase D chain (ATP-SD), heat shock protein (Hsp)-70, truncated connexin-47, Hsp-60, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated kinase-5, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 24k chain precursor, platelet-activating factor acetyl hydrolase 1b-α2 (PAF-AH 1b-α2), and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) were altered in the substantia nigra and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- specific isocitrate dehydrogenase, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein-1, prohibitin, protein disulfide isomerase-endoplasmic reticulum 60 protease, stathmin, and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the striatum along with motor impairment, decreased dopamine and TH-IR, and increased microglial activation after cypermethrin exposure. Minocycline restored α-IIF, ATP-SD chain, truncated connexin-47, Hsp-60, PAF-AH 1b-α2, stathmin and SNAP-25 expressions, motor impairment, dopamine, TH-IR, and microglial activation. The results suggest that cypermethrin produces microglial activation-dependent and -independent changes in the expression patterns of the nigrostriatal proteins leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  10. Investigation of a MMP-2 Activity-Dependent Anchoring Probe for Nuclear Imaging of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Temma, Takashi; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Aki; Kondo, Naoya; Sano, Kohei; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Seiki, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Since matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an important marker of tumor malignancy, we developed an original drug design strategy, MMP-2 activity dependent anchoring probes (MDAP), for use in MMP-2 activity imaging, and evaluated the usefulness of this probe in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We designed and synthesized MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000, which consist of 4 independent moieties: RI unit (111In hydrophilic chelate), MMP-2 substrate unit (short peptide), anchoring unit (alkyl chain), and anchoring inhibition unit (polyethylene glycol (PEGn; where n represents the approximate molecular weight, n = 1000, 3000, and 5000). Probe cleavage was evaluated by chromatography after MMP-2 treatment. Cellular uptake of the probes was then measured. Radioactivity accumulation in tumor xenografts was evaluated after intravenous injection of the probes, and probe cleavage was evaluated in tumor homogenates. Results MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000 were cleaved by MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. MDAP3000 pretreated with MMP-2 showed higher accumulation in tumor cells, and was completely blocked by additional treatment with an MMP inhibitor. MDAP3000 exhibited rapid blood clearance and a high tumor accumulation after intravenous injection in a rodent model. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that MDAP3000 exhibited a considerably slow washout rate from tumors to blood. A certain fraction of cleaved MDAP3000 existed in tumor xenografts in vivo. Conclusions The results indicate the possible usefulness of our MDAP strategy for tumor imaging. PMID:25010662

  11. Cell biological mechanisms of activity-dependent synapse to nucleus translocation of CRTC1 in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Toh Hean; DeSalvo, Martina; Lin, Peter; Vashisht, Ajay; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Martin, Kelsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed a critical role for CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC1) in regulating neuronal gene expression during learning and memory. CRTC1 localizes to synapses but undergoes activity-dependent nuclear translocation to regulate the transcription of CREB target genes. Here we investigate the long-distance retrograde transport of CRTC1 in hippocampal neurons. We show that local elevations in calcium, triggered by activation of glutamate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, initiate active, dynein-mediated retrograde transport of CRTC1 along microtubules. We identify a nuclear localization signal within CRTC1, and characterize three conserved serine residues whose dephosphorylation is required for nuclear import. Domain analysis reveals that the amino-terminal third of CRTC1 contains all of the signals required for regulated nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. We fuse this region to Dendra2 to generate a reporter construct and perform live-cell imaging coupled with local uncaging of glutamate and photoconversion to characterize the dynamics of stimulus-induced retrograde transport and nuclear accumulation. PMID:26388727

  12. Activity-dependent transport of the transcriptional coactivator CRTC1 from synapse to nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Toh Hean; Uzgil, Besim; Lin, Peter; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K; O'Dell, Thomas J; Martin, Kelsey C

    2012-07-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy, such as those underlying long-term memory, require transcription. Activity-dependent transport of synaptically localized transcriptional regulators provides a direct means of coupling synaptic stimulation with changes in transcription. The CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC1), which is required for long-term hippocampal plasticity, binds CREB to potently promote transcription. We show that CRTC1 localizes to synapses in silenced hippocampal neurons but translocates to the nucleus in response to localized synaptic stimulation. Regulated nuclear translocation occurs only in excitatory neurons and requires calcium influx and calcineurin activation. CRTC1 is controlled in a dual fashion with activity regulating CRTC1 nuclear translocation and cAMP modulating its persistence in the nucleus. Neuronal activity triggers a complex change in CRTC1 phosphorylation, suggesting that CRTC1 may link specific types of stimuli to specific changes in gene expression. Together, our results indicate that synapse-to-nuclear transport of CRTC1 dynamically informs the nucleus about synaptic activity.

  13. Activity-Dependent Neurorehabilitation Beyond Physical Trainings: "Mental Exercise" Through Mirror Neuron Activation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chen, Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Rocha, Nuno; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flávia; de Sá, Alberto Souza; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The activity dependent brain repair mechanism has been widely adopted in many types of neurorehabilitation. The activity leads to target specific and non-specific beneficial effects in different brain regions, such as the releasing of neurotrophic factors, modulation of the cytokines and generation of new neurons in adult hood. However physical exercise program clinically are limited to some of the patients with preserved motor functions; while many patients suffered from paralysis cannot make such efforts. Here the authors proposed the employment of mirror neurons system in promoting brain rehabilitation by "observation based stimulation". Mirror neuron system has been considered as an important basis for action understanding and learning by mimicking others. During the action observation, mirror neuron system mediated the direct activation of the same group of motor neurons that are responsible for the observed action. The effect is clear, direct, specific and evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, recent evidences hinted for the beneficial effects on stroke patients after mirror neuron system activation therapy. Finally some music-relevant therapies were proposed to be related with mirror neuron system. PMID:26556068

  14. Activity-dependent BDNF release via endocytic pathways is regulated by synaptotagmin-6 and complexin

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu-Hui; Lee, Chia-Ming; Xie, Wenjun; Cui, Bianxiao; Poo, Mu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to modulate synapse development and plasticity, but the source of synaptic BDNF and molecular mechanisms regulating BDNF release remain unclear. Using exogenous BDNF tagged with quantum dots (BDNF-QDs), we found that endocytosed BDNF-QDs were preferentially localized to postsynaptic sites in the dendrite of cultured hippocampal neurons. Repetitive neuronal spiking induced the release of BDNF-QDs at these sites, and this process required activation of glutamate receptors. Down-regulating complexin 1/2 (Cpx1/2) expression eliminated activity-induced BDNF-QD secretion, although the overall activity-independent secretion was elevated. Among eight synaptotagmin (Syt) isoforms examined, down-regulation of only Syt6 impaired activity-induced BDNF-QD secretion. In contrast, activity-induced release of endogenously synthesized BDNF did not depend on Syt6. Thus, neuronal activity could trigger the release of endosomal BDNF from postsynaptic dendrites in a Cpx- and Syt6-dependent manner, and endosomes containing BDNF may serve as a source of BDNF for activity-dependent synaptic modulation. PMID:26216953

  15. Ral mediates activity-dependent growth of postsynaptic membranes via recruitment of the exocyst

    PubMed Central

    Teodoro, Rita O; Pekkurnaz, Gulçin; Nasser, Abdullah; Higashi-Kovtun, Misao E; Balakireva, Maria; McLachlan, Ian G; Camonis, Jacques; Schwarz, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    Remodelling neuronal connections by synaptic activity requires membrane trafficking. We present evidence for a signalling pathway by which synaptic activity and its consequent Ca2+ influx activate the small GTPase Ral and thereby recruit exocyst proteins to postsynaptic zones. In accord with the ability of the exocyst to direct delivery of post-Golgi vesicles, constitutively active Ral expressed in Drosophila muscle causes the exocyst to be concentrated in the region surrounding synaptic boutons and consequently enlarges the membrane folds of the postsynaptic plasma membrane (the subsynaptic reticulum, SSR). SSR growth requires Ral and the exocyst component Sec5 and Ral-induced enlargement of these membrane folds does not occur in sec5−/− muscles. Chronic changes in synaptic activity influence the plastic growth of this membrane in a manner consistent with activity-dependent activation of Ral. Thus, Ral regulation of the exocyst represents a control point for postsynaptic plasticity. This pathway may also function in mammals as expression of activated RalA in hippocampal neurons increases dendritic spine density in an exocyst-dependent manner and increases Sec5 in spines. PMID:23812009

  16. Role of coated vesicles, microfilaments, and calmodulin in receptor- mediated endocytosis by cultured B lymphoblastoid cells

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Cell surface receptor IgM molecules of cultured human lymlphoblastoid cells (WiL2) patch and redistribute into a cap over the Golgi region of the cell after treatment with multivalent anti-IgM antibodies. During and after the redistribution, ligand-receptor clusters are endocytosed into coated pits and coated vesicles. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of ferritin-labeled ligand at EM resolution reveals the following sequence of events in the endocytosis of cell surface IgM: (a) binding of the multivalent ligand in a diffuse cell surface distribution, (b) clustering of the ligand-receptor complexes, (c) recruitment of clathrin coats to the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane opposite ligand-receptor clusters, (d) assembly and (e) internalization of coated vesicles, and (f) delivery of label into a large vesicular compartment, presumably partly lysosomal. Most of the labeled ligand enters this pathway. The recruitment of clathrin coats to the membrane opposite ligand-receptor clusters is sensitive to the calmodulin-directed drug Stelazine (trifluoperazine dihydrochloride). In addition, Stelazine inhibits an alternate pathway of endocytosis that does not involve coated vesicle formation. The actin-directed drug dihydrocytochalasin B has no effect on the recruitment of clathrin to the ligand-receptor clusters and the formation of coated pits and little effect on the alternate pathway, but this drug does interfere with subsequent coated vesicle formation and it inhibits capping. Cortical microfilaments that decorate with heavy meromyosin with constant polarity are observed in association with the coated regions of the plasma membrane and with coated vesicles. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of a coated vesicle preparation isolated from WiL2 cells demonstrates that the major polypeptides in the fraction are a 175-kdalton component that comigrates with calf brain clathrin, a 42- kdalton component that comigrates with rabbit muscle actin and a

  17. Semaphorin3a Enhances Endocytosis at Sites of Receptor–F-Actin Colocalization during Growth Cone Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Alyson E.; Nakamura, Fumio; Kawamoto, Susumu; Goshima, Yoshio; Kalb, Robert G.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    Axonal growth cone collapse is accompanied by a reduction in filopodial F-actin. We demonstrate here that semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) induces a coordinated rearrangement of Sema3A receptors and F-actin during growth cone collapse. Differential interference contrast microscopy reveals that some sites of Sema3A-induced F-actin reorganization correlate with discrete vacuoles, structures involved in endocytosis. Endocytosis of FITC-dextran by the growth cone is enhanced during Sema3A treatment, and sites of dextran accumulation colocalize with actin-rich vacuoles and ridges of membrane. Furthermore, the Sema3A receptor proteins, neuropilin-1 and plexin, and the Sema3A signaling molecule, rac1, also reorganize to vacuoles and membrane ridges after Sema3A treatment. These data support a model whereby Sema3A stimulates endocytosis by focal and coordinated rearrangement of receptor and cytoskeletal elements. Dextran accumulation is also increased in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) growth cones, in response to ephrin A5, and in RGC and DRG growth cones, in response to myelin and phorbol-ester. Therefore, enhanced endocytosis may be a general principle of physiologic growth cone collapse. We suggest that growth cone collapse is mediated by both actin filament rearrangements and alterations in membrane dynamics. PMID:10769032

  18. Probing endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border using fluorescent lipophilic dyes: lipid sorting at the apical cell surface.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-05-01

    The small intestinal brush border is a specialized cell membrane that needs to withstand the solubilizing effect of bile salts during assimilation of dietary nutrients and to achieve detergent resistance; it is highly enriched in glycolipids organized in lipid raft microdomains. In the present work, the fluorescent lipophilic probes FM 1-43 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl)pyridinium dibromide), FM 4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(6-(4-(diethylamino) phenyl)hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide), TMA-DPH (1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene p-toluenesulfonate), and CellMask Orange plasma membrane stain were used to study endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border of organ-cultured porcine mucosal explants. All the dyes readily incorporated into the brush border but were not detectably endocytosed by 5 min, indicating a slow uptake compared with other cell types. At later time points, FM 1-43 clearly appeared in distinct punctae in the terminal web region, previously shown to represent early endosomes (TWEEs). In contrast, the other dyes were relatively "endocytosis resistant" to varying degrees for periods up to 2 h, indicating an active sorting of lipids in the brush border prior to internalization. For some of the dyes, a diphenylhexatriene motif in the lipophilic tail seemed to confer the relative endocytosis resistance. Lipid sorting by selective endocytosis therefore may be a process in the enterocytes aimed to generate and maintain a unique lipid composition in the brush border.

  19. Clathrin is Important for Normal Actin Dynamics and Progression of Sla2p-Containing Patches During Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Newpher, Thomas M.; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Clathrin is a major vesicle coat protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. In yeast and higher eukaryotes, clathrin is recruited to the plasma membrane during the early stage of endocytosis along with clathrin-associated adaptors. As coated pits undergo maturation, a burst of actin polymerization accompanies and helps drive vesicle internalization. Here, we investigate the dynamics of clathrin relative to the early endocytic patch protein Sla2p. We find that clathrin is recruited to the cortex prior to Sla2p. In the absence of clathrin, normal numbers of Sla2p patches form, but many do not internalize or are dramatically delayed in completion of endocytosis. Patches that do internalize receive Sla1p late, which is followed by Abp1, which appears near the end of Sla2p lifetime. In addition, clathrin mutants develop actin comet tails, suggesting an important function in actin patch organization/dynamics. Similar to its mammalian counterparts, the light chain (LC) subunit of yeast clathrin interacts directly with the coiled-coil domain of Sla2p. A mutant of Sla2p that no longer interacts with LC (sla2Δ376-573) results in delayed progression of endocytic patches and aberrant actin dynamics. These data demonstrate an important role for clathrin in organization and progression of early endocytic patches to the late stages of endocytosis. PMID:16643280

  20. Ablation of the single dynamin of T. brucei blocks mitochondrial fission and endocytosis and leads to a precise cytokinesis arrest.

    PubMed

    Chanez, Anne-Laure; Hehl, Adrian B; Engstler, Markus; Schneider, André

    2006-07-15

    Mitochondrial fission is mediated by dynamin-like proteins (DLPs). Trypanosoma brucei contains a single DLP, which is the only member of the dynamin superfamily. We have previously shown that expression of the human proapoptotic Bax in T. brucei induces extensive mitochondrial fragmentation. Here we report that Baxinduced mitochondrial fission is abolished in cell lines lacking functional DLP suggesting that the protein is also required for mitochondrial division during the cell cycle. Furthermore, DLP-ablated cells are deficient for endocytosis and as a consequence accumulate enlarged flagellar pockets. Thus, besides its expected role in mitochondrial fission the trypanosomal DLP is required for endocytosis, a function thought to be restricted to classical dynamins. In agreement with its dual function, the DLP localizes to both the mitochondrion and the flagellar pocket, the site where endocytosis occurs. Unexpectedly, ablation of DLP also causes an arrest of cytokinesis. The fact that no multinucleation is observed in the arrested cells argues for a precise cell-cycle block. Furthermore, analysis of a clathrin-knockdown cell line suggests that the cytokinesis arrest is not due to the endocytosis defect. Thus, our results support a working model in which mitochondrial fission triggers a checkpoint for cytokinesis. PMID:16787942

  1. Sorting of Clathrin-Independent Cargo Proteins Depends on Rab35 Delivered by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dipannita; Donaldson, Julie G

    2015-09-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) co-exist in most cells but little is known about their communication and coordination. Here we show that when CME was inhibited, endocytosis by CIE continued but endosomal trafficking of CIE cargo proteins was altered. CIE cargo proteins that normally traffic directly into Arf6-associated tubules after internalization and avoid degradation (CD44, CD98 and CD147) now trafficked to lysosomes and were degraded. The endosomal tubules were also absent and Arf6-GTP levels were elevated. The altered trafficking, loss of the tubular endosomal network and elevated Arf6-GTP levels caused by inhibition of CME were rescued by expression of Rab35, a Rab associated with clathrin-coated vesicles, or its effector ACAPs, Arf6 GTPase activating proteins (GAP) that inactivate Arf6. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of Rab35 recreated the phenotype of CME ablation on CIE cargo trafficking without altering endocytosis of transferrin. These observations suggest that Rab35 serves as a CME detector and that loss of CME, or Rab35 input, leads to elevated Arf6-GTP and shifts the sorting of CIE cargo proteins to lysosomes and degradation.

  2. SAMP8 mice have altered hippocampal gene expression in long term potentiation, phosphatidylinositol signaling, and endocytosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Armbrecht, Harvey J; Siddiqui, Akbar M; Green, Michael; Farr, Susan A; Kumar, Vijaya B; Banks, William A; Patrick, Ping; Shah, Gul N; Morley, John E

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) strain exhibits decreased learning and memory and increased amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation at 12 months. To detect differences in gene expression in SAMP8 mice, we used a control mouse that was a 50% cross between SAMP8 and CD-1 mice and which showed no memory deficits (50% SAMs). We then compared gene expression in the hippocampus of 4- and 12-month-old SAMP8 and control mice using Affymetrix gene arrays. At 12 months, but not at 4 months, pathway analysis revealed significant differences in the long term potentiation (6 genes), phosphatidylinositol signaling (6 genes), and endocytosis (10 genes) pathways. The changes in long term potentiation included mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (N-ras, cAMP responsive element binding protein [CREB], protein phosphatase inhibitor 1) and Ca-dependent signaling (inositol triphosphate [ITP] receptors 1 and 2 and phospholipase C). Changes in phosphatidylinositol signaling genes suggested altered signaling through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and Western blotting revealed phosphorylation changes in serine/threonine protein kinase AKT and 70S6K. Changes in the endocytosis pathway involved genes related to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (dynamin and clathrin). Endocytosis is required for receptor recycling, is involved in Aβ metabolism, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol signaling. In summary, these studies demonstrate altered gene expression in 3 SAMP8 hippocampal pathways associated with memory formation and consolidation. These pathways might provide new therapeutic targets in addition to targeting Aβ metabolism itself.

  3. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements.

  4. Activity-dependent survival of developing neocortical neurons depends on PI3K signalling.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Golbs, Antje; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous electrical network activity plays a major role in the control of cell survival in the developing brain. Several intracellular pathways are implicated in transducing electrical activity into gene expression dependent and independent survival signals. These include activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector Akt, activation of Ras and subsequently MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signalling via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). In the present study, we analyzed the role of these pathways for the control of neuronal survival in different extracellular potassium concentrations ([K(+) ](ex) ). Organotypic neocortical slice cultures prepared from newborn mice were kept in 5.3, 8.0 and 25.0mM [K(+) ](ex) and treated with specific inhibitors of PI3K, MEK1, CaMKK and a broad spectrum CaMK inhibitor. After 6h of incubation, slices were immunostained for activated caspase 3 (a-caspase 3) and the number of apoptotic cells was quantified by computer based analysis. We found that in 5.3 and 8.0mM [K(+) ](ex) only PI3K was important for neuronal survival. When [K(+) ](ex) was raised to 25.0mM, a concentration above the depolarization block, we found no influence of PI3K on neuronal survival. Our data demonstrate that only the PI3K pathway, and not the MEK1, CaMKK or CaMKs pathway, plays a central role in the regulation of activity-dependent neuronal survival in the developing cerebral cortex.

  5. Facilitation of cortico-amygdala synapses by nicotine: activity-dependent modulation of glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Role, Lorna W

    2008-04-01

    The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) receives cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain and nicotine, via activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), can improve performance in amygdala-based learning tasks. We tested the hypothesis that acute and prenatal nicotine exposure modulates cortico-amygdala synaptic transmission. We found that low-dose, single-trial exposures to nicotine can elicit lasting facilitation, the extent of which is dependent on the level of stimulation of the cortical inputs to the BLA. In addition, sustained facilitation is ablated by prenatal exposure to nicotine. This study examined synaptic transmission in 238 patch-clamp recordings from BLA neurons in acute slice from mouse brain. Pharmacological studies in wild-type and nAChR subunit knock-out mice reveal that activation of presynaptic alpha 7, containing (alpha 7*) and non-alpha 7* nAChRs, facilitates glutamatergic transmission in an activity-dependent manner. Without prior stimulation, application of nicotine elicits modest and transient facilitation of glutamatergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs) in about 40% of BLA neurons. With low-frequency stimulation of cortical inputs nicotine elicits robust facilitation of transmission at about 60% of cortico-BLA synapses and synaptic strength remains elevated at about 40% of these connections for >15 min after nicotine washout. Following paired-pulse stimulation nicotine elicits long-lasting facilitation of glutamatergic transmission at about 70% of cortico-BLA connections. Nicotine reduces the threshold for activation of long-term potentiation of cortico-BLA synapses evoked by patterned stimulation. Prenatal exposure to nicotine reduced subsequent modulatory responses to acute nicotine application.

  6. Activity-dependent regulation of prestin expression in mouse outer hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yohan; Xia, Anping; Lee, Hee Yoon; Wang, Rosalie; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Prestin is a membrane protein necessary for outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility and normal hearing. Its regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Several mouse models of hearing loss demonstrate increased prestin, inspiring us to investigate how hearing loss might feedback onto OHCs. To test whether centrally mediated feedback regulates prestin, we developed a novel model of inner hair cell loss. Injection of diphtheria toxin (DT) into adult CBA mice produced significant loss of inner hair cells without affecting OHCs. Thus, DT-injected mice were deaf because they had no afferent auditory input despite OHCs continuing to receive normal auditory mechanical stimulation and having normal function. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated no change in OHC prestin, indicating that loss of information transfer centrally did not alter prestin expression. To test whether local mechanical feedback regulates prestin, we used TectaC1509G mice, where the tectorial membrane is malformed and only some OHCs are stimulated. OHCs connected to the tectorial membrane had normal prestin levels, whereas OHCs not connected to the tectorial membrane had elevated prestin levels, supporting an activity-dependent model. To test whether the endocochlear potential was necessary for prestin regulation, we studied TectaC1509G mice at different developmental ages. OHCs not connected to the tectorial membrane had lower than normal prestin levels before the onset of the endocochlear potential and higher than normal prestin levels after the onset of the endocochlear potential. Taken together, these data indicate that OHC prestin levels are regulated through local feedback that requires mechanoelectrical transduction currents. This adaptation may serve to compensate for variations in the local mechanical environment. PMID:25810486

  7. Activity-dependent alternative splicing increases persistent sodium current and promotes seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Günay, Cengiz; Marley, Richard; Prinz, Astrid A.; Baines, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Activity of voltage-gated Na channels (Nav) is modified by alternative splicing. However, whether altered splicing of human Nav’s contributes to epilepsy remains to be conclusively shown. We show here that altered splicing of the Drosophila Nav (paralytic, DmNav) contributes to seizure-like behaviour in identified seizure-mutants. We focus attention on a pair of mutually-exclusive alternate exons (termed K and L), which form part of the voltage sensor (S4) in domain III of the expressed channel. The presence of exon L results in a large, non-inactivating, persistent INap. Many forms of human epilepsy are associated with an increase in this current. In wildtype (WT) Drosophila larvae ~70-80% of DmNav transcripts contain exon L, the remainder contain exon K. Splicing of DmNav to include exon L is increased to ~100% in both the slamdance and easily-shocked seizure-mutants. This change to splicing is prevented by reducing synaptic activity levels through exposure to the antiepileptic phenytoin or the inhibitory transmitter GABA. Conversely, enhancing synaptic activity in WT, by feeding of picrotoxin, is sufficient to increase INap and promote seizure through increased inclusion of exon L to 100%. We also show that the underlying activity-dependent mechanism requires the presence of Pasilla, an RNA-binding protein. Finally, we use computational modelling to show that increasing INap is sufficient to potentiate membrane excitability consistent with a seizure phenotype. Thus, increased synaptic excitation favors inclusion of exon L which, in turn, further increases neuronal excitability. Thus, at least in Drosophila, this self-reinforcing cycle may promote the incidence of seizure. PMID:22623672

  8. Differential activity-dependent, homeostatic plasticity of two neocortical inhibitory circuits.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Aundrea F; Huang, Z Josh; Huber, Kimberly M; Gibson, Jay R

    2008-10-01

    Chronic changes in neuronal activity homeostatically regulate excitatory circuitry. However, little is known about how activity regulates inhibitory circuits or specific inhibitory neuron types. Here, we examined the activity-dependent regulation of two neocortical inhibitory circuits--parvalbumin-positive (Parv+) and somatostatin-positive (Som+)--using paired recordings of synaptically coupled neurons. Action potentials were blocked for 5 days in slice culture, and unitary synaptic connections among inhibitory/excitatory neuron pairs were examined. Chronic activity blockade caused similar and distinct changes between the two inhibitory circuits. First, increases in intrinsic membrane excitability and excitatory synaptic drive in both inhibitory subtypes were consistent with the homeostatic regulation of firing rate of these neurons. On the other hand, inhibitory synapses originating from these two subtypes were differentially regulated by activity blockade. Parv+ unitary inhibitory postsynaptic current (uIPSC) strength was decreased while Som+ uIPSC strength was unchanged. Using short-duration stimulus trains, short-term plasticity for both unitary excitatory postsynaptic current (uEPSCs) and uIPSCs was unchanged in Parv+ circuitry while distinctively altered in Som+ circuitry--uEPSCs became less facilitating and uIPSCs became more depressing. In the context of recurrent inhibition, these changes would result in a frequency-dependent shift in the relative influence of each circuit. The functional changes at both types of inhibitory connections appear to be mediated by increases in presynaptic release probability and decreases in synapse number. Interestingly, these opposing changes result in decreased Parv+-mediated uIPSCs but balance out to maintain normal Som+-mediated uIPSCs. In summary, these results reveal that inhibitory circuitry is not uniformly regulated by activity levels and may provide insight into the mechanisms of both normal and pathological

  9. The solar activity dependence of wave dynamical vertical coupling of atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, F. I.; Duggirala, P. R.; Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.; Veenadhari, B.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of oxygen dayglow emissions at OI 557.7, OI 630.0, and OI 777.4 nm showed that the wave dynamical vertical coupling of atmospheres is solar activity dependent. These emission intensities are obtained during January-March in the years 2011 and 2012 from Hyderabad (17.5oN, 78.5oE), India, using a high-spectral resolution multi-wavelength imaging echelle spectrograph (MISE). Spectral analysis of the variations revealed that oscillation periods near the atmospheric free-normal modes of 5, 10, 16, and 25 days (that are produced mainly in the troposphere) are found to register their presence in the upper atmospheric emission intensities. In an earlier study during high solar activity period (2001), the sunspot numbers (SSN) and the daily averaged OI 630.0 nm dayglow intensities were seen to be co-varying. In contrast, the variability in the dayglow emission intensities during relatively low solar activity period (2011) shows no or weaker correlation with that of the SSN but a greater similarity with that of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) strength. Whereas, oscillations of both lower atmospheric normal modes and those related to sunspot are found during moderate solar activity (2012). These results suggest that the upper atmosphere responds mainly to lower atmospheric forcing during low solar activity, to solar forcing during high solar activity, and to both lower atmosphere and solar forcings during moderate solar activity level. A statistical study of the shorter period variations in the gravity wave regime showed they are present in greater numbers in the thermosphere during higher solar activity, which is ascribed to be due to decreasing wave dissipation with increasing solar activity. These results will be presented in the context of short- and long-period wave dynamics in the whole atmosphere.

  10. Activity-Dependent Regulation of Substance P Expression and Topographic Map Maintenance by a Cholinergic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shichun; Butt, Christopher M.; Pauly, James R.; Debski, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    We have assessed the role of activity in the adult frog visual system in modulating two aspects of neuronal plasticity: neurotransmitter expression and topographic map maintenance. Chronic treatment of one tectal lobe with the non-NMDA receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione decreased the percentage of substance P-like immunoreactive (SP-IR) tectal cells in the untreated lobe while disrupting topographic map formation in the treated one. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist d-(−)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d-AP-5) disrupted the topographic map but had no affect on SP-IR cells. These results indicate that maintenance of the topographic map is dependent on direct input from the glutamatergic retinal ganglion cells, whereas substance P (SP) expression is being regulated by a pathway that relays activity from one tectal lobe to the other. Such a pathway is provided by the cholinergic nucleus isthmi, which is reciprocally connected to the ipsilateral tectum and sends a projection to the contralateral one. Mecamylamine and atropine, antagonists of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, respectively, were used together to block all cholinergic activity or alone to block receptor subclass activity. All three treatments decreased SP expression and disrupted the topographic map in the treated tectal lobe. We conclude that both SP expression and topographic map maintenance in the adult optic tectum are activity-dependent processes. Although our results are consistent with the maintenance of the topographic map through an NMDA receptor-based mechanism, they suggest that SP expression is regulated by a cholinergic interaction that depends on retinal ganglion cell input only for its activation. PMID:10884319

  11. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) exhibits striking sexual dichotomy impacting on autistic and Alzheimer's pathologies.

    PubMed

    Malishkevich, A; Amram, N; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Magen, I; Giladi, E; Gozes, I

    2015-02-03

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-associated gene and the only protein significantly decreasing in the serum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Is ADNP associated with ASD being more prevalent in boys and AD more prevalent in women? Our results revealed sex-related learning/memory differences in mice, reflecting hippocampal expression changes in ADNP and ADNP-controlled AD/ASD risk genes. Hippocampal ADNP transcript content was doubled in male vs female mice, with females showing equal expression to ADNP haploinsufficient (ADNP(+/)(-)) males and no significant genotype-associated reduction. Increased male ADNP expression was replicated in human postmortem hippocampal samples. The hippocampal transcript for apolipoprotein E (the major risk gene for AD) was doubled in female mice compared with males, and further doubled in the ADNP(+/-) females, contrasting a decrease in ADNP(+/-) males. Previously, overexpression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) led to ASD-like phenotype in mice. Here, we identified binding sites on ADNP for eIF4E and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, hippocampal eIF4E expression was specifically increased in young ADNP(+/-) male mice. Behaviorally, ADNP(+/-) male mice exhibited deficiencies in object recognition and social memory compared with ADNP(+/+) mice, while ADNP(+/-) females were partially spared. Contrasting males, which preferred novel over familiar mice, ADNP(+/+) females showed no preference to novel mice and ADNP(+/-) females did not prefer mice over object. ADNP expression, positioned as a master regulator of key ASD and AD risk genes, introduces a novel concept of hippocampal gene-regulated sexual dimorphism and an ADNP(+/-) animal model for translational psychiatry.

  12. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) exhibits striking sexual dichotomy impacting on autistic and Alzheimer's pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Malishkevich, A; Amram, N; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Magen, I; Giladi, E; Gozes, I

    2015-01-01

    Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-associated gene and the only protein significantly decreasing in the serum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Is ADNP associated with ASD being more prevalent in boys and AD more prevalent in women? Our results revealed sex-related learning/memory differences in mice, reflecting hippocampal expression changes in ADNP and ADNP-controlled AD/ASD risk genes. Hippocampal ADNP transcript content was doubled in male vs female mice, with females showing equal expression to ADNP haploinsufficient (ADNP+/−) males and no significant genotype-associated reduction. Increased male ADNP expression was replicated in human postmortem hippocampal samples. The hippocampal transcript for apolipoprotein E (the major risk gene for AD) was doubled in female mice compared with males, and further doubled in the ADNP+/− females, contrasting a decrease in ADNP+/− males. Previously, overexpression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) led to ASD-like phenotype in mice. Here, we identified binding sites on ADNP for eIF4E and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, hippocampal eIF4E expression was specifically increased in young ADNP+/− male mice. Behaviorally, ADNP+/− male mice exhibited deficiencies in object recognition and social memory compared with ADNP+/+ mice, while ADNP+/− females were partially spared. Contrasting males, which preferred novel over familiar mice, ADNP+/+ females showed no preference to novel mice and ADNP+/− females did not prefer mice over object. ADNP expression, positioned as a master regulator of key ASD and AD risk genes, introduces a novel concept of hippocampal gene-regulated sexual dimorphism and an ADNP+/− animal model for translational psychiatry. PMID:25646590

  13. Impaired activity-dependent neural circuit assembly and refinement in autism spectrum disorder genetic models

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Caleb A.; Broadie, Kendal

    2014-01-01

    Early-use activity during circuit-specific critical periods refines brain circuitry by the coupled processes of eliminating inappropriate synapses and strengthening maintained synapses. We theorize these activity-dependent (A-D) developmental processes are specifically impaired in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ASD genetic models in both mouse and Drosophila have pioneered our insights into normal A-D neural circuit assembly and consolidation, and how these developmental mechanisms go awry in specific genetic conditions. The monogenic fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common cause of heritable ASD and intellectual disability, has been particularly well linked to defects in A-D critical period processes. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is positively activity-regulated in expression and function, in turn regulates excitability and activity in a negative feedback loop, and appears to be required for the A-D remodeling of synaptic connectivity during early-use critical periods. The Drosophila FXS model has been shown to functionally conserve the roles of human FMRP in synaptogenesis, and has been centrally important in generating our current mechanistic understanding of the FXS disease state. Recent advances in Drosophila optogenetics, transgenic calcium reporters, highly-targeted transgenic drivers for individually-identified neurons, and a vastly improved connectome of the brain are now being combined to provide unparalleled opportunities to both manipulate and monitor A-D processes during critical period brain development in defined neural circuits. The field is now poised to exploit this new Drosophila transgenic toolbox for the systematic dissection of A-D mechanisms in normal versus ASD brain development, particularly utilizing the well-established Drosophila FXS disease model. PMID:24570656

  14. Activation dependent expression of MMPs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells involves protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Saja, K; Chatterjee, Urmimala; Chatterjee, B P; Sudhakaran, P R

    2007-02-01

    Monocyte/Macrophages are integral cellular components of inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by these cells play a crucial role in every aspect of inflammation. Results of the investigations on activation dependent upregulation of MMPs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture using different lectins as an in vitro model system to mimic inflammatory monocytes are presented. Under normal physiological conditions the monocytes produced only very low amount of MMPs in an indomethacin insensitive PG/cAMP independent manner. Zymographic analysis and ELISA showed that treatment of monocyte with lectins like concanavalin A (ConA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA) caused upregulation of MMPs and the maximum effect was produced by ALA. ALA significantly upregulated MMP-9 in a concentration and time dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis and RT-PCR confirmed ALA mediated upregulation of MMP-9 production. Inhibition of ALA effect by indomethacin and reversal of the indomethacin effect by Bt(2)cAMP indicated involvement of cAMP dependent signaling pathway. Further support for the prostaglandin mediated effect was obtained by the upregulation of cyclooxygenase by ALA. H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), inhibited the expression of MMP-9 indicating that ALA mediated upregulation of MMP-9 is mediated through PKA pathway. Increase in MMP production and increase in cyclooxygenase activity and inhibition of the effect of ALA on MMP production by indomethacin suggested that the ALA activated monocytes in culture can be used as an in vitro model system to study the intracellular signaling process involved in the mediation of inflammatory response.

  15. An efficient method for in vitro gene delivery via regulation of cellular endocytosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Li, Caixia; Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Gang; Gao, Rong; Gu, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Transfection efficiency was the primary goal for in vitro gene delivery mediated by nonviral gene carriers. Here, we report a modified gene transfection method that could greatly increase the efficiency of, and accelerate the process mediated by, 25 kDa branched polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in a broad range of cell strains, including tumor, normal, primary, and embryonic stem cells. In this method, the combination of transfection procedure with optimized complexation volume had a determinant effect on gene delivery result. The superiorities of the method were found to be related to the change of cellular endocytosis pathway and decrease of particle size. The efficient and simple method established in this study can be widely used for in vitro gene delivery into cultured cells. We think it may also be applicable for many more nonviral gene delivery materials than polyethyleneimine and liposome. PMID:25767387

  16. White spot syndrome virus enters crayfish hematopoietic tissue cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiajun; Li, Fang; Wu, Junjun; Yang, Feng

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen of aquacultured shrimp. However, the mechanism of its entry remains poorly understood. In this study, by analyzing the internalization of WSSV using crayfish hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells, we showed that WSSV virions were engulfed by cell membrane invaginations sharing the features of clathrin-coated pits and then internalized into coated cytoplasmic vesicles. Further investigation indicated that WSSV internalization was significantly inhibited by chlorpromazine (CPZ) but not genistein. The internalized virions were colocalized with endogenous clathrin as well as transferrin which undergoes clathrin-dependent uptake. Preventing endosome acidification by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) or chloroquine (CQ) dramatically reduced WSSV entry as well. Moreover, disturbance of dynamin activity or depletion of membrane cholesterol also blocked WSSV uptake. These data indicate that WSSV enters crayfish HPT cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a pH-dependent manner, and membrane cholesterol as well as dynamin is critical for efficient viral entry.

  17. Calmodulin Promotes N-BAR Domain-Mediated Membrane Constriction and Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Myers, Margaret D; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Hicke, Linda; Payne, Gregory S

    2016-04-18

    Membrane remodeling by BAR (Bin, Amphiphysin, RVS) domain-containing proteins, such as endophilins and amphiphysins, is integral to the process of endocytosis. However, little is known about the regulation of endocytic BAR domain activity. We have identified an interaction between the yeast Rvs167 N-BAR domain and calmodulin. Calmodulin-binding mutants of Rvs167 exhibited defects in endocytic vesicle release. In vitro, calmodulin enhanced membrane tubulation and constriction by wild-type Rvs167 but not calmodulin-binding-defective mutants. A subset of mammalian N-BAR domains bound calmodulin, and co-expression of calmodulin with endophilin A2 potentiated tubulation in vivo. These studies reveal a conserved role for calmodulin in regulating the intrinsic membrane-sculpting activity of endocytic N-BAR domains.

  18. Endocytosis of cell surface material mediates cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Baluska, Frantisek; Schlicht, Markus; Hlavacka, Andrej; Samaj, Jozef; Friml, Jirí; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2006-01-01

    Dividing plant cells perform a remarkable task of building a new cell wall within the cytoplasm in a few minutes. A long-standing paradigm claims that this primordial cell wall, known as the cell plate, is generated by delivery of newly synthesized material from Golgi apparatus-originated secretory vesicles. Here, we show that, in diverse plant species, cell surface material, including plasma membrane proteins, cell wall components, and exogenously applied endocytic tracers, is rapidly delivered to the forming cell plate. Importantly, this occurs even when de novo protein synthesis is blocked. In addition, cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE as well as plasma membrane (PM) resident proteins localize to endosomes that fuse to initiate the cell plate. The rate of endocytosis is strongly enhanced during cell plate formation, and its genetic or pharmacological inhibition leads to cytokinesis defects. Our results reveal that endocytic delivery of cell surface material significantly contributes to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

  19. Versatile cellular uptake mediated by catanionic vesicles: simultaneous spontaneous membrane fusion and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Mauroy, Chloé; Castagnos, Pauline; Orio, Julie; Blache, Marie-Claire; Rico-Lattes, Isabelle; Teissié, Justin; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Blanzat, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    Lactose-derived catanionic vesicles offer unique opportunities to overcome cellular barriers. These potential nanovectors, very easy to formulate as drug delivery systems, are able to encapsulate drugs of various hydrophilicity. This article highlights versatile interaction mechanisms between these catanionic vesicles, labeled with hydrophilic and amphiphilic fluorescent probes, and a mammalian cell line, Chinese Hamster Ovary. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry techniques show that these vesicles are internalized by cells through cellular energy dependent processes, as endocytosis, but are simultaneously able to spontaneously fuse with cell plasma membranes and release their hydrophilic content directly inside the cytosol. Such innovative and polyvalent nanovectors, able to deliver their content via different internalization pathways, would positively be a great progress for the coadministration of drugs of complementary efficiency. PMID:25310849

  20. Regulation of Notch signaling and endocytosis by the Lgl neoplastic tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Marta; Parsons, Linda M; Grzeschik, Nicola A; Richardson, Helena E

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved neoplastic tumor suppressor protein, Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl), plays roles in cell polarity and tissue growth via regulation of the Hippo pathway. In our recent study, we showed that in the developing Drosophila eye epithelium, depletion of Lgl leads to increased ligand-dependent Notch signaling. lgl mutant tissue also exhibits an accumulation of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, early-multivesicular body markers and acidic vesicles. We showed that elevated Notch signaling in lgl− tissue can be rescued by feeding larvae the vesicle de-acidifying drug chloroquine, revealing that Lgl attenuates Notch signaling by limiting vesicle acidification. Strikingly, chloroquine also rescued the lgl− overgrowth phenotype, suggesting that the Hippo pathway defects were also rescued. In this extraview, we provide additional data on the regulation of Notch signaling and endocytosis by Lgl, and discuss possible mechanisms by which Lgl depletion contributes to signaling pathway defects and tumorigenesis. PMID:25789785

  1. Deciphering dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a living organism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Joshua P; Willy, Nathan M; Heidotting, Spencer P; Huber, Scott D; Webber, Matthew J; Kural, Comert

    2016-08-01

    Current understanding of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) dynamics is based on detection and tracking of fluorescently tagged clathrin coat components within cultured cells. Because of technical limitations inherent to detection and tracking of single fluorescent particles, CME dynamics is not characterized in vivo, so the effects of mechanical cues generated during development of multicellular organisms on formation and dissolution of clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) have not been directly observed. Here, we use growth rates of fluorescence signals obtained from short CCS intensity trace fragments to assess CME dynamics. This methodology does not rely on determining the complete lifespan of individual endocytic assemblies. Therefore, it allows for real-time monitoring of spatiotemporal changes in CME dynamics and is less prone to errors associated with particle detection and tracking. We validate the applicability of this approach to in vivo systems by demonstrating the reduction of CME dynamics during dorsal closure of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. PMID:27458134

  2. ADP1 affects abundance and endocytosis of PIN-FORMED proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieru; Li, Ruixi; Jiang, Zhaoyun; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Auxin, as a vital plant hormone, regulates almost every aspect of plant growth and development. We previously identified a dominant mutant, adp1-D, displaying loss of apical dominance. We also demonstrated that down-regulation of local auxin biosynthesis in adp1-D was responsible for the bushy phenotype of this mutant. Consistent with the reduction of local auxin biosynthesis, we recently discovered that protein abundance of PIN1, PIN3, and PIN7 was reduced in adp1-D without accompanying transcription level changes. Additionally, subcellular analysis revealed that over-expression of ADP1 inhibited endocytosis of PIN proteins. Taken together, we conclude that ADP1 regulates plant architecture through the fine-tuning of local auxin biosynthesis and through post-transcriptional regulation of auxin transporters. PMID:25482774

  3. Endocytosis of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors and its relevance for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Heike M; Wohlfahrt, Julia; Mais, Christine; Hergovits, Sabine; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are key players of the innate and adaptive immunity. Their activity needs to be tightly controlled to allow the initiation of an appropriate immune response as defense mechanism against pathogens or tissue injury. Excessive or sustained signaling of either of these cytokines leads to severe diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), steatohepatitis, periodic fevers and even cancer. Studies carried out in the last 30 years have emphasized that an elaborate control system for each of these cytokines exists. Here, we summarize what is currently known about the involvement of receptor endocytosis in the regulation of these pro-inflammatory cytokines' signaling cascades. Particularly in the last few years it was shown that this cellular process is far more than a mere feedback mechanism to clear cytokines from the circulation and to shut off their signal transduction.

  4. Administration of pyrene lipids by receptor-mediated endocytosis and their degradation in skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Agmon, V.; Dinur, T.; Cherbu, S.; Dagan, A.; Gatt, S. )

    1991-10-01

    Sphingomyelin and seven glycosphingolipids were labeled with the fluorescent probe pyrene and administered into cultured fibroblasts by receptor-mediated endocytosis. For this purpose pyrene sphingomyelin or mixtures of pyrene glycolipid and unlabeled sphingomyelin were dispersed as small, unilamellar liposomes. Apolipoprotein E was then added and the receptor for this ligand on the cell surface was utilized for uptake of the liposomes and their transport to the lysosomes, where the respective pyrene lipids were degraded. Following incubation with each of the respective pyrene lipids, only the administered compound and the pyrene ceramide were present; intermediate hydrolysis products were not detected. This indicated that, in skin fibroblasts, the lysosomal ceramidase was limiting and controlled the rate of total degradation of the pyrene sphingolipids.

  5. The Biochemical Properties and Functions of CALM and AP180 in Clathrin Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Moshkanbaryans, Lia; Chan, Ling-Shan; Graham, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a fundamental process for the regulated internalization of transmembrane cargo and ligands via the formation of vesicles using a clathrin coat. A vesicle coat is initially created at the plasma membrane by clathrin assembly into a lattice, while a specific cargo sorting process selects and concentrates proteins for inclusion in the new vesicle. Vesicles formed via CME traffic to different parts of the cell and fuse with target membranes to deliver cargo. Both clathrin assembly and cargo sorting functions are features of the two gene family consisting of assembly protein 180 kDa (AP180) and clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein (CALM). In this review, we compare the primary structure and domain organization of CALM and AP180 and relate these properties to known functions and roles in CME and disease. PMID:25090048

  6. Fluorescent dye conjugates of rabbit arylsulfatase A as a biological tracer for protein endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Waheed, Abdul; Ahmad, Faizan; Van Etten, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescent dye conjugates of arylsulfatase A (ASA) from rabbit liver were prepared at pH 9.0 in 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate buffer. The modification of amino or sulphadryl groups by dichlorotriazinylamino-fluorescein or Lucifer yellow fluorescent dyes did not alter the characteristic features of the enzyme molecule such as enzyme activity, dimerization of the protein molecule at pH 4.5 and anomalous kinetics of the native enzyme. The fluorescence intensity of the Lucifer yellow enzyme conjugates were quenched when the pH of the protein solution was changed from pH 7.5 to 4.5. Therefore, the Lucifer yellow enzyme conjugate can be used to study the kinetics of pH-dependent association and dissociation of the ASA. Availability of such fluorescent dyes conjugates of ASA or other lysosomal enzyme may be used as a biological tracer to study the receptor dependent endocytosis of enzyme molecules. PMID:23636651

  7. Disruption of Endocytosis with the Dynamin Mutant shibirets1 Suppresses Seizures in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Jason R.; Wong, Karen G.; Siddiqui, Faria M.; Tanouye, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in modern medicine is to control epilepsies that do not respond to currently available medications. Since seizures consist of coordinated and high-frequency neural activity, our goal was to disrupt neurotransmission with a synaptic transmission mutant and evaluate its ability to suppress seizures. We found that the mutant shibire, encoding dynamin, suppresses seizure-like activity in multiple seizure–sensitive Drosophila genotypes, one of which resembles human intractable epilepsy in several aspects. Because of the requirement of dynamin in endocytosis, increased temperature in the shits1 mutant causes impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling and is associated with suppression of the seizure-like activity. Additionally, we identified the giant fiber neuron as critical in the seizure circuit and sufficient to suppress seizures. Overall, our results implicate mutant dynamin as an effective seizure suppressor, suggesting that targeting or limiting the availability of synaptic vesicles could be an effective and general method of controlling epilepsy disorders. PMID:26341658

  8. Flotillin-1 is essential for PKC-triggered endocytosis and membrane microdomain localization of DAT.

    PubMed

    Cremona, M Laura; Matthies, Heinrich J G; Pau, Kelvin; Bowton, Erica; Speed, Nicole; Lute, Brandon J; Anderson, Monique; Sen, Namita; Robertson, Sabrina D; Vaughan, Roxanne A; Rothman, James E; Galli, Aurelio; Javitch, Jonathan A; Yamamoto, Ai

    2011-04-01

    Plasmalemmal neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) regulate the level of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine (DA) and glutamate, after their release at brain synapses. Stimuli including protein kinase C (PKC) activation can lead to the internalization of some NTTs and a reduction in neurotransmitter clearance capacity. We found that the protein Flotillin-1 (Flot1), also known as Reggie-2, was required for PKC-regulated internalization of members of two different NTT families, the DA transporter (DAT) and the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2, and we identified a conserved serine residue in Flot1 that is essential for transporter internalization. Further analysis revealed that Flot1 was also required to localize DAT within plasma membrane microdomains in stable cell lines, and was essential for amphetamine-induced reverse transport of DA in neurons but not for DA uptake. In sum, our findings provide evidence for a critical role of Flot1-enriched membrane microdomains in PKC-triggered DAT endocytosis and the actions of amphetamine.

  9. Exocyst Sec10 protects renal tubule cells from injury by EGFR/MAPK activation and effects on endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Buonato, Janine M; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Palmyre, Aurélien; Polgar, Noemi; Drummond, Iain; Park, Kwon Moo; Lazzara, Matthew J; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-12-15

    Acute kidney injury is common and has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment exists other than supportive care. Using cell culture models, we previously demonstrated that exocyst Sec10 overexpression reduced damage to renal tubule cells and speeded recovery and that the protective effect was mediated by higher basal levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex, is known for regulating protein trafficking. Here we show that the exocyst biochemically interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of MAPK, and Sec10-overexpressing cells express greater levels of phosphorylated (active) ERK, the final step in the MAPK pathway, in response to EGF stimulation. EGFR endocytosis, which has been linked to activation of the MAPK pathway, increases in Sec10-overexpressing cells, and gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, and Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, both reduce EGFR endocytosis. In turn, inhibition of the MAPK pathway reduces ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis, suggesting a potential feedback of elevated ERK activity on EGFR endocytosis. Gefitinib also decreases MAPK signaling in Sec10-overexpressing cells to levels seen in control cells and, demonstrating a causal role for EGFR, reverses the protective effect of Sec10 overexpression following cell injury in vitro. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model of acute kidney injury, morpholino-induced knockdown of sec10 increases renal tubule cell susceptibility to injury. Taken together, these results suggest that the exocyst, acting through EGFR, endocytosis, and the MAPK pathway is a candidate therapeutic target for acute kidney injury.

  10. Exocyst Sec10 protects renal tubule cells from injury by EGFR/MAPK activation and effects on endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Buonato, Janine M.; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Palmyre, Aurélien; Polgar, Noemi; Drummond, Iain; Park, Kwon Moo; Lazzara, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is common and has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment exists other than supportive care. Using cell culture models, we previously demonstrated that exocyst Sec10 overexpression reduced damage to renal tubule cells and speeded recovery and that the protective effect was mediated by higher basal levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex, is known for regulating protein trafficking. Here we show that the exocyst biochemically interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of MAPK, and Sec10-overexpressing cells express greater levels of phosphorylated (active) ERK, the final step in the MAPK pathway, in response to EGF stimulation. EGFR endocytosis, which has been linked to activation of the MAPK pathway, increases in Sec10-overexpressing cells, and gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, and Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, both reduce EGFR endocytosis. In turn, inhibition of the MAPK pathway reduces ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis, suggesting a potential feedback of elevated ERK activity on EGFR endocytosis. Gefitinib also decreases MAPK signaling in Sec10-overexpressing cells to levels seen in control cells and, demonstrating a causal role for EGFR, reverses the protective effect of Sec10 overexpression following cell injury in vitro. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model of acute kidney injury, morpholino-induced knockdown of sec10 increases renal tubule cell susceptibility to injury. Taken together, these results suggest that the exocyst, acting through EGFR, endocytosis, and the MAPK pathway is a candidate therapeutic target for acute kidney injury. PMID:25298525

  11. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase reduce receptor-mediated endocytosis in opossum kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Sidaway, James E; Davidson, Robert G; McTaggart, Fergus; Orton, Terry C; Scott, Robert C; Smith, Graham J; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2004-09-01

    Renal proximal tubule cells are responsible for the reabsorption of proteins that are present in the tubular lumen. This occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process that has a requirement for some GTP-binding proteins. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase used for the therapeutic reduction of cholesterol-containing plasma lipoproteins. However, they can also reduce intracellular levels of isoprenoid pyrophosphates that are derived from the product of the enzyme, mevalonate, and are required for the prenylation and normal function of GTP-binding proteins. The hypothesis that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase in renal proximal tubule cells could reduce receptor mediated-endocytosis was therefore tested. Five different statins inhibited the uptake of FITC-labeled albumin by the proximal tubule-derived opossum kidney cell line in a dose-dependent manner and in the absence of cytotoxicity. The reduction in albumin uptake was related to the degree of inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Simvastatin (e.g., statin) inhibited receptor-mediated endocytosis of both FITC-albumin and FITC-beta(2)-microglobulin to similar extents but without altering the binding of albumin to the cell surface. The effect on albumin endocytosis was prevented by mevalonate and by the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not by cholesterol. Finally, evidence that the inhibitory effect of statins on endocytosis of proteins may be caused by reduced prenylation and thereby decreased function of one or more GTP-binding proteins is provided. These data establish the possibility in principle that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by statins in proximal tubule cells may reduce tubular protein reabsorption. PMID:15339975

  12. Phosphoinositides Regulate Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis at the Tip of Pollen Tubes in Arabidopsis and Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Yan, An; Feijó, José A.; Furutani, Masahiro; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Hwang, Inhwan; Fu, Ying; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2010-01-01

    Using the tip-growing pollen tube of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum as a model to investigate endocytosis mechanisms, we show that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 6 (PIP5K6) regulates clathrin-dependent endocytosis in pollen tubes. Green fluorescent protein–tagged PIP5K6 was preferentially localized to the subapical plasma membrane (PM) in pollen tubes where it apparently converts phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. RNA interference–induced suppression of PIP5K6 expression impaired tip growth and inhibited clathrin-dependent endocytosis in pollen tubes. By contrast, PIP5K6 overexpression induced massive aggregation of the PM in pollen tube tips. This PM abnormality was apparently due to excessive clathrin-dependent membrane invagination because this defect was suppressed by the expression of a dominant-negative mutant of clathrin heavy chain. These results support a role for PI(4,5)P2 in promoting early stages of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (i.e., membrane invagination). Interestingly, the PIP5K6 overexpression-induced PM abnormality was partially suppressed not only by the overexpression of PLC2, which breaks down PI(4,5)P2, but also by that of PI4Kβ1, which increases the pool of PI4P. Based on these observations, we propose that a proper balance between PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 is required for clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the tip of pollen tubes. PMID:21189293

  13. Inhibition of endocytosis exacerbates TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction via enhanced JNK and p38 activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyehun; Nguyen, Hong N; Lamb, Fred S

    2014-04-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that causes endothelial dysfunction. Endocytosis of TNF-α receptors (TNFR) precedes endosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which is required for NF-κB activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is unknown how endocytosis of TNFRs impacts signaling in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction is induced by both endosomal and cell surface events, including NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, and endocytosis of the TNFR modifies signaling. Mesenteric artery segments from C57BL/6 mice were treated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 22 h in tissue culture, with or without signaling inhibitors (dynasore for endocytosis, SP600125 for JNK, SB203580 for p38, U0126 for ERK), and vascular function was assessed. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired by TNF-α, and dynasore exacerbated this, whereas JNK or p38 inhibition prevented these effects. In cultured endothelial cells from murine mesenteric arteries, dynasore potentiated JNK and p38 but not ERK phosphorylation and promoted cell death. NF-κB activation by TNF-α was decreased by dynasore. JNK inhibition dramatically increased both the magnitude and duration of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and potentiated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) activation. Dynasore still inhibited NF-κB activation in the presence of SP600125. Thus TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction is both JNK and p38 dependent. Endocytosis modulates the balance of NF-κB and MAPK signaling, and inhibition of NF-κB activation by JNK limits this pro-proliferative signal, which may contribute to endothelial cell death in response to TNF-α.

  14. Endocytosis of Chikungunya Virus into Mammalian Cells: Role of Clathrin and Early Endosomal Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Bernard; Chazal, Nathalie; Higgs, Stephen; Devaux, Christian; Briant, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Background The replicative cycle of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus that recently re-emerged in India and in Indian Ocean area, remains mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intracellular trafficking pathway(s) hijacked by CHIKV to enter mammalian cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Entry pathways were investigated using a variety of pharmacological inhibitors or overexpression of dominant negative forms of proteins perturbating cellular endocytosis. We found that CHIKV infection of HEK293T mammalian cells is independent of clathrin heavy chain and- dependent of functional Eps15, and requires integrity of Rab5-, but not Rab7-positive endosomal compartment. Cytoskeleton integrity is crucial as cytochalasin D and nocodazole significantly reduced infection of the cells. Finally, both methyl β-cyclodextrin and lysomotropic agents impaired CHIKV infection, supporting that a cholesterol-, pH-dependent step is required to achieve productive infection. Interestingly, differential sensitivity to lysomotropic agents was observed between the prototypal 37997 African strain of CHIKV and the LR-OPY1 virus isolated from the recent outbreak in Reunion Island. Conclusions Together our data indicate that CHIKV entry in its target cells is essentially mediated by clathrin-independent, Eps15-dependent endocytosis. Despite that this property is shared by the prototypal 37997 African strain of CHIKV and the LR-OPY1 virus isolated from the recent outbreak in La Réunion Island, differential sensitivity to lysomotropic agents may support that the LR-OPY1 strain has acquired specific entry mechanisms. PMID:20628602

  15. Mutations in palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 alter exocytosis and endocytosis at synapses in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Aby, Elizabeth; Gumps, Katherine; Roth, Amalia; Sigmon, Stacey; Jenkins, Sarah E; Kim, Joyce J; Kramer, Nicholas J; Parfitt, Karen D; Korey, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Infantile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a severe pediatric neurodegenerative disorder produced by mutations in the gene encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1). This enzyme is responsible for the removal of a palmitate group from its substrate proteins, which may include presynaptic proteins like SNAP-25, cysteine string protein (CSP), dynamin, and synaptotagmin. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been a powerful model system for studying the functions of these proteins and the molecular basis of neurological disorders like the NCLs. Genetic modifier screens and tracer uptake studies in Ppt1 mutant larval garland cells have suggested that Ppt1 plays a role in endocytic trafficking. We have extended this analysis to examine the involvement of Ppt1 in synaptic function at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Mutations in Ppt1 genetically interact with temperature sensitive mutations in the Drosophila dynamin gene shibire, accelerating the paralytic behavior of shibire mutants at 27 °C. Electrophysiological work in NMJs of Ppt1-deficient larvae has revealed an increase in miniature excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) and a significant depression of evoked EJPs in response to repetitive (10 hz) stimulation. Endocytosis was further examined in Ppt1-mutant larvae using FM1–43 uptake assays, demonstrating a significant decrease in FM1–43 uptake at the mutant NMJs. Finally, Ppt1-deficient and Ppt1 point mutant larvae display defects in locomotion that are consistent with alterations in synaptic function. Taken together, our genetic, cellular, and electrophysiological analyses suggest a direct role for Ppt1 in synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis at motor nerve terminals of the Drosophila NMJ. PMID:24091420

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency disrupts endocytosis, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial protein pathways in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    English, Jane A.; Harauma, Akiko; Föcking, Melanie; Wynne, Kieran; Scaife, Caitriona; Cagney, Gerard; Moriguchi, Toru; Cotter, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) deficiency is an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, yet characterization of the consequences of deficiency at the protein level in the brain is limited. We aimed to identify the protein pathways disrupted as a consequence of chronic n-3 deficiency in the hippocampus of mice. Fatty acid analysis of the hippocampus following chronic dietary deficiency revealed a 3-fold decrease (p < 0.001) in n-3 FA levels. Label free LC-MS/MS analysis identified and profiled 1008 proteins, of which 114 were observed to be differentially expressed between n-3 deficient and control groups (n = 8 per group). The cellular processes that were most implicated were neuritogenesis, endocytosis, and exocytosis, while specific protein pathways that were most significantly dysregulated were mitochondrial dysfunction and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). In order to characterize whether these processes and pathways are ones influenced by antipsychotic medication, we used LC-MS/MS to test the differential expression of these 114 proteins in the hippocampus of mice chronically treated with the antipsychotic agent haloperidol. We observed 23 of the 114 proteins to be differentially expressed, 17 of which were altered in the opposite direction to that observed following n-3 deficiency. Overall, our findings point to disturbed synaptic function, neuritogenesis, and mitochondrial function as a consequence of dietary deficiency in n-3 FA. This study greatly aids our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which n-3 deficiency impairs normal brain function, and provides clues as to how n-3 FA exert their therapeutic effect in early psychosis. PMID:24194745

  17. Cyclic AMP-mediated endocytosis of intestinal epithelial NHE3 requires binding to synaptotagmin 1

    PubMed Central

    Musch, Mark W.; Arvans, Donna L.; Wang, Yunwei; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Solomaha, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The apical membrane Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE)3 is regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, which inhibits its activity through membrane endocytosis. The clathrin complex adaptor protein synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) appears to be essential to this process, but little is known about its expression in intestinal epithelial cells or interaction with NHE3. The intestinal epithelial expression and apical location of Syt 1 were determined by Syt 1 mRNA profiling and immunolocalization. Tandem mass spectrometry was used for protein identification. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) cross linking suggested that NHE3 and Syt 1 were in a membrane complex following cAMP stimulation of Caco2BBE (Brush Border Expressions) cells. To investigate the regulation of NHE3 appearance in a Syt 1-containing membrane compartment, doxycycline-inducible hemaglutinin (HA)-tagged NHE3 was expressed in Caco2BBE cells. HA-NHE3 correctly targeted to the apical membrane, where, upon cAMP stimulation, it was internalized with a Syt 1-containing compartment. Site-directed mutagenesis of NHE3 showed that serine 605 (S605) was pivotal to NHE3 and Syt 1 association and internalization. Direct Syt 1 interaction with NHE3 was suggested by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The physiological role of S552 was less clear. By FRET, this serine residue appeared to be involved in cAMP-induced Syt 1 binding of NHE3. However, when HA-tagged NHE3 S552A was expressed in Caco2 cells, the mutated construct was not inserted into the apical membrane. We conclude that intestinal epithelial Syt 1 plays an important role in cAMP-stimulated endocytosis of apical NHE3 through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of S605 that is required for NHE3 and Syt 1 association. PMID:19926819

  18. Rab GTPases regulate endothelial cell protein C receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ramesh C; Keshava, Shiva; Esmon, Charles T; Pendurthi, Usha R; Rao, L Vijaya Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). FVIIa binding to EPCR may promote the endocytosis of this receptor/ligand complex. Rab GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the endocytic and exocytic pathways of receptors or receptor/ligand complexes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of EPCR and FVIIa. CHO-EPCR cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transduced with recombinant adenoviral vectors to express wild-type, constitutively active, or dominant negative mutant of various Rab GTPases. Cells were exposed to FVIIa conjugated with AF488 fluorescent probe (AF488-FVIIa), and intracellular trafficking of FVIIa, EPCR, and Rab proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In cells expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab4A, internalized AF488-FVIIa accumulated in early/sorting endosomes and its entry into the recycling endosomal compartment (REC) was inhibited. Expression of constitutively active Rab5A induced large endosomal structures beneath the plasma membrane where EPCR and FVIIa accumulated. Dominant negative Rab5A inhibited the endocytosis of EPCR-FVIIa. Expression of constitutively active Rab11 resulted in retention of accumulated AF488-FVIIa in the REC, whereas expression of a dominant negative form of Rab11 led to accumulation of internalized FVIIa in the cytoplasm and prevented entry of internalized FVIIa into the REC. Expression of dominant negative Rab11 also inhibited the transport of FVIIa across the endothelium. Overall our data show that Rab GTPases regulate the internalization and intracellular trafficking of EPCR-FVIIa.

  19. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells.

    PubMed

    Charest-Morin, Xavier; Pépin, Rémy; Gagné-Henley, Angélique; Morissette, Guillaume; Lodge, Robert; Marceau, François

    2013-01-01

    The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503) labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination). CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry). The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, co-localized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked) inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  20. The pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase D1 accelerates EGFR endocytosis by increasing the expression of the Rab5 effector, rabaptin-5.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Choi, Kang-Yell; Min, Do Sik

    2015-12-18

    Endocytosis is differentially regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and phospholipase D (PLD). However, the relationship between HIF-1α and PLD in endocytosis is unknown. HIF-1α is degraded through the prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)/von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitination pathway in an oxygen-dependent manner. Here, we show that PLD1 recovers the decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis induced by HIF-1α independent of lipase activity via the Rab5-mediated endosome fusion pathway. EGF-induced interaction of PLD1 with HIF-1α, PHD and VHL may contribute to EGFR endocytosis. The pleckstrin homology domain (PH) of PLD1 itself promotes degradation of HIF-1α, then accelerates EGFR endocytosis via upregulation of rabaptin-5 and suppresses tumor progression. These findings reveal a novel role of the PLD1-PH domain as a positive regulator of endocytosis and provide a link between PLD1 and HIF-1α in the EGFR endocytosis pathway.

  1. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons in the mouse prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Emily K.; Avesar, Daniel; Gulledge, Allan T.

    2014-01-01

    Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) in the mouse prefrontal cortex respond to serotonin (5-HT) according to their long-distance axonal projections; 5-HT1A (1A) receptors mediate inhibitory responses in corticopontine (CPn) L5PNs, while 5-HT2A (2A) receptors can enhance action potential (AP) output in callosal/commissural (COM) L5PNs, either directly (in “COM-excited” neurons), or following brief 1A-mediated inhibition (in “COM-biphasic” neurons). Here we compare the impact of 5-HT on the excitability of CPn and COM L5PNs experiencing variable excitatory drive produced by current injection (DC current or simulated synaptic current) or with exogenous glutamate. 5-HT delivered at resting membrane potentials, or paired with subthreshold depolarizing input, hyperpolarized CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs and failed to promote AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs. Conversely, when paired with suprathreshold excitatory drive generating multiple APs, 5-HT suppressed AP output in CPn L5PNs, enhanced AP generation in COM-excited L5PNs, and generated variable responses in COM-biphasic L5PNs. While COM-excited neurons failed to respond to 5-HT in the presence of a 2A receptor antagonist, 32% of CPn neurons exhibited 2A-dependent excitation following blockade of 1A receptors. The presence of pharmacologically revealed 2A receptors in CPn L5PNs was correlated with the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition, yet biphasic excitatory responses to 5-HT were never observed, even when 5-HT was paired with strong excitatory drive. Our results suggest that 2A receptors selectively amplify the output of COM L5PNs experiencing suprathreshold excitatory drive, while shaping the duration of 1A-mediated inhibition in a subset of CPn L5PNs. Activity-dependent serotonergic excitation of COM L5PNs, combined with 1A-mediated inhibition of CPn and COM-biphasic L5PNs, may facilitate executive function by focusing network activity within cortical circuits subserving the most appropriate behavioral output

  2. MeCP2 is required for activity-dependent refinement of olfactory circuits

    PubMed Central

    Degano, Alicia L.; Park, Min Jung; Penati, Judy; Li, Qun; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2014-01-01

    MeCP2 in activity-dependent maturation of olfactory circuitry, with implications for understanding the mechanism of MeCP2 mutations in the development of neural connectivity. PMID:24472844

  3. Geomagnetic and solar activity dependence of ionospheric upflowing O+: FAST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, K.; Jiang, Y.; Chen, K. W.; Huang, L. F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the dependence of the occurrence frequency of ionospheric upflowing oxygen (O+) ions on the sunspot cycle and geomagnetic activity. We examine the upflows response to the geomagnetic disturbances as well as the influence of the ion energy factor in controlling the magnitude of the occurrence frequency and the net energy flux. We discuss the spatial distribution of the upflow occurrence frequency and construct a regression model as a function of the magnetic latitude. The results show an overall enhancement of the upflow occurrence frequency during magnetically disturbed periods and indicate that the high-occurrence area spreads out from the source regions during magnetically quiet periods. The high-occurrence areas are located at 70° magnetic latitude (mLat) in the dayside auroral oval zone and between 76-80° mLat in the dayside polar cusp region. In the nightside auroral oval zone, these areas are near 60° mLat, penetrating further equatorward to 55° mLat during magnetically disturbed periods. High energy (≥1 keV) upflowing ions are common in the nightside auroral oval zone while low energy (<1 keV) upflowing ions are found escaping from the high latitude dayside cusp region. A Gaussian function is shown to be a good fit to the occurrence frequency over the magnetic latitude. For high energy upflowing O+ ions, the occurrence frequency exhibits a single peak located at about 60° mLat in the nightside auroral oval zone while for low energy upflowing O+ ions, it exhibits two peaks, one near 60° mLat in the auroral oval zone and the other near 78° mLat in the cusp region. We study the solar activity dependence by analyzing the relationship between the upflow occurrence frequency and the sunspot number (RZ). The statistical result shows that the frequency decreases with declining solar activity level, from ˜30 % at solar maximum to ˜5 % at solar minimum. In addition, the correlation coefficient between the occurrence frequency and RZ

  4. Fracture in Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.A.; Wright, J.L.

    1998-11-30

    The fracture behavior of a Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy, Zr-10 AI-5 Ti-17.9 Cu-14.6 Ni, was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction for any evidence of crystallization preceding crack propagation. No evidence for crystallization was found in shear bands in compression specimens or at the fracture surface in tensile specimens. In- situ TEM deformation experiments were performed to more closely examine actual crack tip regions. During the in-situ deformation experiment controlled crack growth occurred to the point where the specimen was approximately 20 {micro}m thick at which point uncontrolled crack growth occurred. No evidence of any crystallization was found at the crack tips or the crack flanks. Subsequent scanning microscope examination showed that the uncontrolled crack growth region exhibited ridges and veins that appeared to have resulted from melting. Performing the deformations, both bulk and in-situ TEM, at liquid nitrogen temperatures (LN{sub 2}) resulted in an increase in the amount of controlled crack growth. The surface roughness of the bulk regions fractured at LN{sub 2} temperatures corresponded with the roughness of the crack propagation observed during the in-situ TEM experiment, suggesting that the smooth-appearing room temperature fracture sur-faces may also be a result of localized melting.

  5. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  6. Visualization of the binding, endocytosis, and transcytosis of low- density lipoprotein in the arterial endothelium in situ

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the interaction and transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through the arterial endothelium in rat aorta and coronary artery, by perfusing in situ native, untagged human, and rat LDL. The latter was rendered electron-opaque after it interacted with the endothelial cell and was subsequently fixed within tissue. We achieved LDL electron-opacity by an improved fixation procedure using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine, and mordanting with tannic acid. The unequivocal identification of LDL was implemented by reacting immunocytochemically the perfused LDL with anti LDL-horseradish peroxidase conjugate. Results indicate that LDL is taken up and internalized through two parallel compartmented routes. (a) A relatively small amount of LDL is taken up by endocytosis via: (i) a receptor-mediated process (adsorptive endocytosis) that involved coated pits/vesicles, and endosomes, and, probably, (ii) a receptor-independent process (fluid endocytosis) carried out by a fraction of plasmalemmal vesicles. Both mechanisms bringing LDL to lysosomes supply cholesterol to the endothelial cell itself. (b) Most circulating LDL is transported across the endothelial cell by transcytosis via plasmalemmal vesicles which deliver LDL to the other cells of the vessel wall. Endocytosis is not enhanced by increasing LDL concentration, but the receptor-mediated internalization decreases at low temperature. Transcytosis is less modified by low temperature but is remarkably augmented at high concentration of LDL. While the endocytosis of homologous (rat) LDL is markedly more pronounced than that of heterologous (human) LDL, both types of LDL are similarly transported by transcytosis. These results indicate that the arterial endothelium possesses a dual mechanism for handling circulating LDL: by a high affinity process, endocytosis secures the endothelial cells' need for cholesterol; by a low-affinity nonsaturable uptake process, transcytosis supplies cholesterol to the other cells of the

  7. A domain of the insulin receptor required for endocytosis in rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Thies, R S; Webster, N J; McClain, D A

    1990-06-15

    To study the mechanism and role of ligand-dependent endocytosis, we have engineered a mutant insulin receptor that retains its insulin binding and insulin-stimulated tyrosine kinase activities but does not exhibit ligand-induced internalization. The mutant has a deletion of the 16th exon which encodes 22 amino acids (residues 944-965) on the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane region of the receptor beta-subunit. When the cDNA is transfected in Rat 1 cells, the mutant receptor (HIR delta ex16) is processed to a glycosylated alpha 2 beta 2 heterotetramer and expressed at the cell surface. HIR delta ex16 receptors bind insulin with lower affinity than normal receptors (ED50 for insulin competition = 1.1 nM compared with 0.2 nM for normal receptors), but binding is normal in detergent solution. The mutant HIR delta ex16 receptor undergoes insulin-dependent autophosphorylation and activation as a tyrosine kinase toward exogenous substrates in vitro. In vivo, the receptor is also enzymatically active, as assessed 1) by the ability of antiphosphotyrosine antibodies to precipitate equivalent proportions (58-60%) of occupied wild type or mutant receptors and 2) by immunoblotting extracts of insulin-stimulated cells using antiphosphotyrosine antibodies. In the latter experiment, cells expressing HIR delta ex16 receptors exhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta-subunits as well as of pp 185, a putative substrate of the receptor. Despite the ability to bind insulin and activate as a tyrosine kinase, HIR delta ex16 receptors do not internalize in Rat 1 cells. Whereas normal surface receptors covalently labeled with the photoaffinity reagent 125I-NAPA-DP insulin are 36% intracellular after 1 h at 37 degrees C, only background levels of internalization are seen when HIR delta ex16 receptors are labeled. The HIR delta ex16 receptors mediate no internalization or degradation of 125I-insulin compared with control untransfected Rat 1 cells, and they do not down

  8. Modulation of iridovirus-induced apoptosis by endocytosis, early expression, JNK, and apical caspase

    SciTech Connect

    Chitnis, Nilesh S.; D'Costa, Susan M.; Paul, Eric R.; Bilimoria, Shaen L.

    2008-01-20

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is the type species for the family Iridoviridae, which are large, isometric, cytoplasmic dsDNA viruses. We examined the mechanism of apoptosis induction by CIV. High CIV doses (CIV{sub XS}; 400 {mu}g/ml), UV-irradiated virus (CIV{sub UV}; 10 {mu}g/ml) and CVPE (CIV protein extract; 10 {mu}g/ml) induced apoptosis in 60% of treated Choristoneura fumiferana (IPRI-CF-124T) cells. Normal doses of infectious CIV (10 {mu}g/ml) induced apoptosis in only 10% of C. fumiferana (CF) cells. Apoptosis was inhibited by Z-IETD-FMK, an apical caspase inhibitor, indicating that CIV-induced apoptosis requires caspase activity. The putative caspase in CF cells was designated Cf-caspase-i. CIV{sub UV} or CVPE enhanced Cf-caspase-i activity by 80% at 24 h relative to mock-treated cells. Since the MAP kinase pathway induces or inhibits apoptosis depending on the context, we used JNK inhibitor SP600125 and demonstrated drastic suppression of CVPE-induced apoptosis. Thus, the JNK signaling pathway is significant for apoptosis in this system. Virus interaction with the cell surface was not sufficient for apoptosis since CIV{sub UV} particles bound to polysterene beads failed to induce apoptosis. Endocytosis inhibitors (bafilomycin or ammonium chloride) negated apoptosis induction by CIV{sub UV}, CIV{sub XS} or CVPE indicating that entry through this mode is required. Given the weak apoptotic response to infectious CIV, we postulated that viral gene expression inhibited apoptosis. CIV infection of cells pretreated with cycloheximide induced apoptosis in 69% of the cells compared to 10% in normal infections. Furthermore, blocking viral DNA replication with aphidicolin or phosphonoacetic acid suppressed apoptosis and Cf-caspase-i activity, indicating that early viral expression is necessary for inhibition of apoptosis, and de novo synthesis of viral proteins is not required for induction. We show for the first time that, in a member of the family Iridoviridae

  9. Parameter estimation with bio-inspired meta-heuristic optimization: modeling the dynamics of endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We address the task of parameter estimation in models of the dynamics of biological systems based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from measured data, where the models are typically non-linear and have many parameters, the measurements are imperfect due to noise, and the studied system can often be only partially observed. A representative task is to estimate the parameters in a model of the dynamics of endocytosis, i.e., endosome maturation, reflected in a cut-out switch transition between the Rab5 and Rab7 domain protein concentrations, from experimental measurements of these concentrations. The general parameter estimation task and the specific instance considered here are challenging optimization problems, calling for the use of advanced meta-heuristic optimization methods, such as evolutionary or swarm-based methods. Results We apply three global-search meta-heuristic algorithms for numerical optimization, i.e., differential ant-stigmergy algorithm (DASA), particle-swarm optimization (PSO), and differential evolution (DE), as well as a local-search derivative-based algorithm 717 (A717) to the task of estimating parameters in ODEs. We evaluate their performance on the considered representative task along a number of metrics, including the quality of reconstructing the system output and the complete dynamics, as well as the speed of convergence, both on real-experimental data and on artificial pseudo-experimental data with varying amounts of noise. We compare the four optimization methods under a range of observation scenarios, where data of different completeness and accuracy of interpretation are given as input. Conclusions Overall, the global meta-heuristic methods (DASA, PSO, and DE) clearly and significantly outperform the local derivative-based method (A717). Among the three meta-heuristics, differential evolution (DE) performs best in terms of the objective function, i.e., reconstructing the output, and in terms of convergence. These

  10. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits calcium channel activation, exocytosis, and endocytosis at a central nerve terminal.

    PubMed

    Baydyuk, Maryna; Wu, Xin-Sheng; He, Liming; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2015-03-18

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic function and plasticity and plays important roles in neuronal development, survival, and brain disorders. Despite such diverse and important roles, how BDNF, or more generally speaking, neurotrophins affect synapses, particularly nerve terminals, remains unclear. By measuring calcium currents and membrane capacitance during depolarization at a large mammalian central nerve terminal, the rat calyx of Held, we report for the first time that BDNF slows down calcium channel activation, including P/Q-type channels, and inhibits exocytosis induced by brief depolarization or single action potentials, inhibits slow and rapid endocytosis, and inhibits vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool. These presynaptic mechanisms may contribute to the important roles of BDNF in regulating synapses and neuronal circuits and suggest that regulation of presynaptic calcium channels, exocytosis, and endocytosis are potential mechanisms by which neurotrophins achieve diverse neuronal functions.

  12. Rspo3 binds syndecan 4 and induces Wnt/PCP signaling via clathrin-mediated endocytosis to promote morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Bisei; Glinka, Andrei; Niehrs, Christof

    2011-03-15

    The R-Spondin (Rspo) family of secreted Wnt modulators is involved in development and disease and holds therapeutic promise as stem cell growth factors. Despite growing biological importance, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here, we show that Rspo3 binds syndecan 4 (Sdc4) and that together they activate Wnt/PCP signaling. In Xenopus embryos, Sdc4 and Rspo3 are essential for two Wnt/PCP-driven processes-gastrulation movements and head cartilage morphogenesis. Rspo3/PCP signaling during gastrulation requires Wnt5a and is transduced via Fz7, Dvl, and JNK. Rspo3 functions by inducing Sdc4-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We show that this internalization is essential for PCP signal transduction, suggesting that endocytosis of Wnt-receptor complexes is a key mechanism by which R-spondins promote Wnt signaling.

  13. DLK-1/p38 MAP Kinase Signaling Controls Cilium Length by Regulating RAB-5 Mediated Endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    van der Vaart, Aniek; Rademakers, Suzanne; Jansen, Gert

    2015-12-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles present on almost all vertebrate cells. Cilium length is constant, but varies between cell types, indicating that cilium length is regulated. How this is achieved is unclear, but protein transport in cilia (intraflagellar transport, IFT) plays an important role. Several studies indicate that cilium length and function can be modulated by environmental cues. As a model, we study a C. elegans mutant that carries a dominant active G protein α subunit (gpa-3QL), resulting in altered IFT and short cilia. In a screen for suppressors of the gpa-3QL short cilium phenotype, we identified uev-3, which encodes an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant that acts in a MAP kinase pathway. Mutation of two other components of this pathway, dual leucine zipper-bearing MAPKKK DLK-1 and p38 MAPK PMK-3, also suppress the gpa-3QL short cilium phenotype. However, this suppression seems not to be caused by changes in IFT. The DLK-1/p38 pathway regulates several processes, including microtubule stability and endocytosis. We found that reducing endocytosis by mutating rabx-5 or rme-6, RAB-5 GEFs, or the clathrin heavy chain, suppresses gpa-3QL. In addition, gpa-3QL animals showed reduced levels of two GFP-tagged proteins involved in endocytosis, RAB-5 and DPY-23, whereas pmk-3 mutant animals showed accumulation of GFP-tagged RAB-5. Together our results reveal a new role for the DLK-1/p38 MAPK pathway in control of cilium length by regulating RAB-5 mediated endocytosis.

  14. CD14 dependence of TLR4 endocytosis and TRIF signaling displays ligand specificity and is dissociable in endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rajaiah, Rajesh; Perkins, Darren J; Ireland, Derek D C; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2015-07-01

    Dimerization of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) heterodimers is critical for both MyD88- and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-mediated signaling pathways. Recently, Zanoni et al. [(2011) Cell 147(4):868-880] reported that cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is required for LPS-/Escherichia coli- induced TLR4 internalization into endosomes and activation of TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophages. We confirmed their findings with LPS but report here that CD14 is not required for receptor endocytosis and downstream signaling mediated by TLR4/MD2 agonistic antibody (UT12) and synthetic small-molecule TLR4 ligands (1Z105) in murine macrophages. CD14 deficiency completely ablated the LPS-induced TBK1/IRF3 signaling axis that mediates production of IFN-β in murine macrophages without affecting MyD88-mediated signaling, including NF-κB, MAPK activation, and TNF-α and IL-6 production. However, neither the MyD88- nor TRIF-signaling pathways and their associated cytokine profiles were altered in the absence of CD14 in UT12- or 1Z105-treated murine macrophages. Eritoran (E5564), a lipid A antagonist that binds the MD2 "pocket," completely blocked LPS- and 1Z105-driven, but not UT12-induced, TLR4 dimerization and endocytosis. Furthermore, TLR4 endocytosis is induced in macrophages tolerized by exposure to either LPS or UT12 and is independent of CD14. These data indicate that TLR4 receptor endocytosis and the TRIF-signaling pathway are dissociable and that TLR4 internalization in macrophages can be induced by UT12, 1Z105, and during endotoxin tolerance in the absence of CD14.

  15. Hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and blockage of transporter endocytosis in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bitsikas, Vassilis; Karachaliou, Mayia; Gournas, Christos; Diallinas, George

    2011-01-01

    By using Aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional GFP-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). These patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and the SsoA t-Snare, or the lipophilic markers FM4-64 and filipin. In addition, they do not show characteristics of lipid rafts, MCCs or other membrane microdomains. Deconvoluted microscopic images showed that fluorescent patches correspond to plasma membrane invaginations. Transporters remain fully active during this phenomenon of localized plasmolysis. Plasmolysis was however associated with reduced growth rate and a dramatic blockage in transporter and FM4-64 endocytosis. These phenomena are transient and rapidly reversible upon wash-out of hypertonic media. Based on the observation that block in endocytosis by hypertonic treatment altered dramatically the cellular localization of tropomyosin (GFP-TpmA), although it did not affect the cortical appearance of upstream (SlaB-GFP) or downstream (AbpA-mRFP) endocytic components, we conclude that hypertonicity modifies actin dynamics and thus acts indirectly on endocytosis. This was further supported by the effect of latrunculin B, an actin depolymerization agent, on endocytosis. We show that the phenomena observed in A. nidulans also occur in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that they constitute basic homeostatic responses of ascomycetes to hypertonic shock. Finally, our work shows that hypertonic treatments can be used as physiological tools to study the endocytic down-regulation of transporters in A. nidulans, as non-conditional genetic blocks affecting endocytic internalization are lethal or severely debilitating.

  16. Raft endocytosis of AMF regulates mitochondrial dynamics through Rac1 signaling and the Gp78 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jay; Kojic, Liliana D; St-Pierre, Pascal; Wang, Peter T C; Fu, Min; Joshi, Bharat; Nabi, Ivan R

    2013-08-01

    Gp78 is a cell surface receptor that also functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The Gp78 ligand, the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI; also called autocrine motility factor, AMF), functions as a cytokine upon secretion by tumor cells. AMF is internalized through a PI3K- and dynamin-dependent raft endocytic pathway to the smooth ER; however, the relationship between AMF and Gp78 ubiquitin ligase activity remains unclear. AMF uptake to the smooth ER is inhibited by the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, is reduced in Gp78 knockdown cells and induces the dynamin-dependent downregulation of its cell surface receptor. AMF uptake is Rac1-dependent and is inhibited by expression of dominant-negative Rac1 and the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, and is therefore distinct from Cdc42- and RhoA-dependent raft endocytic pathways. AMF stimulates Rac1 activation, but this is reduced by dynasore treatment and is absent in Gp78-knockdown cells; therefore, AMF activities require Gp78-mediated endocytosis. AMF also prevents Gp78-induced degradation of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusin 1 and 2 in a dynamin-, Rac1- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Gp78 induces mitochondrial clustering and fission in a manner dependent on GP78 ubiquitin ligase activity, and this is also reversed by uptake of AMF. The raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF, therefore, promotes Rac1-PI3K signaling that feeds back to promote AMF endocytosis and also inhibits the ability of Gp78 to target the mitofusins for degradation, thereby preventing Gp78-dependent mitochondrial fission. Through regulation of an ER-localized ubiquitin ligase, the raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF represents an extracellular regulator of mitochondrial fusion and dynamics.

  17. Hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and blockage of transporter endocytosis in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bitsikas, Vassilis; Karachaliou, Mayia; Gournas, Christos; Diallinas, George

    2011-01-01

    By using Aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional GFP-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). These patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and the SsoA t-Snare, or the lipophilic markers FM4-64 and filipin. In addition, they do not show characteristics of lipid rafts, MCCs or other membrane microdomains. Deconvoluted microscopic images showed that fluorescent patches correspond to plasma membrane invaginations. Transporters remain fully active during this phenomenon of localized plasmolysis. Plasmolysis was however associated with reduced growth rate and a dramatic blockage in transporter and FM4-64 endocytosis. These phenomena are transient and rapidly reversible upon wash-out of hypertonic media. Based on the observation that block in endocytosis by hypertonic treatment altered dramatically the cellular localization of tropomyosin (GFP-TpmA), although it did not affect the cortical appearance of upstream (SlaB-GFP) or downstream (AbpA-mRFP) endocytic components, we conclude that hypertonicity modifies actin dynamics and thus acts indirectly on endocytosis. This was further supported by the effect of latrunculin B, an actin depolymerization agent, on endocytosis. We show that the phenomena observed in A. nidulans also occur in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that they constitute basic homeostatic responses of ascomycetes to hypertonic shock. Finally, our work shows that hypertonic treatments can be used as physiological tools to study the endocytic down-regulation of transporters in A. nidulans, as non-conditional genetic blocks affecting endocytic internalization are lethal or severely debilitating. PMID:20919858

  18. Activation of PI3-kinase stimulates endocytosis of ROMK via Akt1/SGK1-dependent phosphorylation of WNK1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Huang, Chou-Long

    2011-03-01

    WNK kinases stimulate endocytosis of ROMK channels to regulate renal K+ handling. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-activating hormones, such as insulin and IGF 1, phosphorylate WNK1, but how this affects the regulation of ROMK abundance is unknown. Here, serum starvation of ROMK-transfected HEK cells led to an increase of ROMK current density; subsequent addition of insulin or IGF1 inhibited ROMK currents in a PI3K-dependent manner. Serum and insulin also increased phosphorylation of the downstream kinases Akt1 and SGK1 as well as WNK1. A biotinylation assay suggested that insulin and IGF1 inhibit ROMK by enhancing its endocytosis, a process that WNK1 may mediate. Knockdown of WNK1 with siRNA or expression of a phospho-deficient WNK1 mutant (T58A) both prevented insulin-induced inhibition of ROMK currents, suggesting that phosphorylation at Threonine-58 of WNK1 is important to mediate the inhibition of ROMK by PI3K-activating hormones or growth factors. In vitro and in vivo kinase assays supported the notion that Akt1 and SGK1 can phosphorylate WNK1 at this site, and we established that Akt1 and SGK1 synergistically inhibit ROMK through WNK1. We used dominant-negative intersectin and dynamin constructs to show that SGK1-mediated phosphorylation of WNK1 inhibits ROMK by promoting its endocytosis. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K-activating hormones inhibit ROMK by enhancing its endocytosis via a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of WNK1 by Akt1 and SGK1. PMID:21355052

  19. DLK-1/p38 MAP Kinase Signaling Controls Cilium Length by Regulating RAB-5 Mediated Endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    van der Vaart, Aniek; Rademakers, Suzanne; Jansen, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles present on almost all vertebrate cells. Cilium length is constant, but varies between cell types, indicating that cilium length is regulated. How this is achieved is unclear, but protein transport in cilia (intraflagellar transport, IFT) plays an important role. Several studies indicate that cilium length and function can be modulated by environmental cues. As a model, we study a C. elegans mutant that carries a dominant active G protein α subunit (gpa-3QL), resulting in altered IFT and short cilia. In a screen for suppressors of the gpa-3QL short cilium phenotype, we identified uev-3, which encodes an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant that acts in a MAP kinase pathway. Mutation of two other components of this pathway, dual leucine zipper-bearing MAPKKK DLK-1 and p38 MAPK PMK-3, also suppress the gpa-3QL short cilium phenotype. However, this suppression seems not to be caused by changes in IFT. The DLK-1/p38 pathway regulates several processes, including microtubule stability and endocytosis. We found that reducing endocytosis by mutating rabx-5 or rme-6, RAB-5 GEFs, or the clathrin heavy chain, suppresses gpa-3QL. In addition, gpa-3QL animals showed reduced levels of two GFP-tagged proteins involved in endocytosis, RAB-5 and DPY-23, whereas pmk-3 mutant animals showed accumulation of GFP-tagged RAB-5. Together our results reveal a new role for the DLK-1/p38 MAPK pathway in control of cilium length by regulating RAB-5 mediated endocytosis. PMID:26657059

  20. Wnt5a promotes cancer cell invasion and proliferation by receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Kensaku; Sato, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Hattori, Kazunari; Sato, Yuji; Dohi, Keiji; Hirata, Michinari; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Wnt5a activates the Wnt/β-catenin-independent pathway and its overexpression is associated with tumor aggressiveness enhancing invasive activity. For this action, Wnt5a-induced receptor endocytosis with clathrin is required. Wnt5a expression was previously believed to be associated with cancer cell motility but not proliferation. Recently, it was reported that Wnt5a is also implicated in cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we generated a neutralizing anti-Wnt5a monoclonal antibody (mAb5A16) to investigate the mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates cancer cell proliferation. Wnt5a stimulated both invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, including HeLaS3 cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells although Wnt5a promoted invasion but not proliferation in other cancer cells such as KKLS gastric cancer cells. mAb5A16 did not affect the binding of Wnt5a to its receptor, but it suppressed Wnt5a-induced receptor-mediated endocytosis. mAb5A16 inhibited invasion but not proliferation of HeLaS3 and A549 cells. Wnt5a activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and Wnt5a-dependent cancer cell proliferation was dependent on SFKs, yet blockade of receptor-mediated endocytosis did not affect cancer cell proliferation and SFK activity. These results suggest that Wnt5a promotes invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:25622531

  1. Dynasore enhances the formation of mitochondrial antiviral signalling aggregates and endocytosis-independent NF-ĸB activation

    PubMed Central

    Ailenberg, M; Di Ciano-Oliveira, C; Szaszi, K; Dan, Q; Rozycki, M; Kapus, A; Rotstein, O D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dynasore has been used extensively as an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. While studying the role of endocytosis in LPS-induced signalling events, we discovered that dynasore itself induced activation of NF-κB, independently of its effects on endocytosis and without involving the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathways. The purpose of this study was to characterize this novel effect and to explore the underlying mechanism of action. Experimental Approach We utilized gel electrophoresis, microscopy, gene knockdown and luciferase-based promoter activity to evaluate the effect of dynasore on cell signalling pathways and to delineate the mechanisms involved in its effects, Key Results Dynasore activated the NF-κB and IFN-β pathways by activating mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS). We showed that MAVS is activated by NOX/Rac and forms high molecular weight aggregates, similar to that observed in response to viral infection. We also demonstrated that dynasore-induced activation of JNK occurs downstream of MAVS and is required for activation of NF-κB and IFN-β. Conclusion and Implications These findings demonstrate a novel effect of dynasore on cell signalling. We describe a novel Rac1-, ROS- and MAVS-mediated signalling cascade through which dynasore dramatically activates NF-κB, mimicking the viral induction of this key inflammatory signalling pathway. Our results call attention to the need for a broader interpretation of results when dynasore is used in its traditional fashion as an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results suggest the intriguing possibility that dynasore or one of its analogues might be of value as an antiviral therapeutic strategy or vaccine adjuvant. PMID:25850711

  2. Fast Subplasma Membrane Ca2+ Transients Control Exo-Endocytosis of Synaptic-Like Microvesicles in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marchaland, Julie; Calì, Corrado; Voglmaier, Susan M.; Li, Haiyan; Regazzi, Romano; Edwards, Robert H.; Bezzi, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in the brain. Although not apposite for long-range rapid electrical communication, astrocytes share with neurons the capacity of chemical signaling via Ca2+-dependent transmitter exocytosis. Despite this recent finding, little is known about the specific properties of regulated secretion and vesicle recycling in astrocytes. Important differences may exist with the neuronal exocytosis, starting from the fact that stimulus-secretion coupling in astrocytes is voltage independent, mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors and the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Elucidating the spatiotemporal properties of astrocytic exo-endocytosis is, therefore, of primary importance for understanding the mode of communication of these cells and their role in brain signaling. We here take advantage of fluorescent tools recently developed for studying recycling of glutamatergic vesicles at synapses (Voglmaier et al., 2006; Balaji and Ryan, 2007); we combine epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to investigate with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution, the stimulus-secretion coupling underlying exo-endocytosis of glutamatergic synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) in astrocytes. Our main findings indicate that (1) exo-endocytosis in astrocytes proceeds with a time course on the millisecond time scale (τexocytosis = 0.24 ± 0.017 s; τendocytosis = 0.26 ± 0.03 s) and (2) exocytosis is controlled by local Ca2+ microdomains. We identified submicrometer cytosolic compartments delimited by endoplasmic reticulum tubuli reaching beneath the plasma membrane and containing SLMVs at which fast (time-to-peak, ∼50 ms) Ca2+ events occurred in precise spatial-temporal correlation with exocytic fusion events. Overall, the above characteristics of transmitter exocytosis from astrocytes support a role of this process in fast synaptic modulation. PMID:18784293

  3. Biomarkers of morphine tolerance and dependence are prevented by morphine-induced endocytosis of a mutant mu-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Kim, Joseph A; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2009-12-01

    Growing evidence shows that trafficking of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) is a critical process in functional recovery from desensitization following activation and plays important roles in morphine tolerance and dependence largely because of the failure of morphine to promote such trafficking. However, morphine tolerance and dependence are believed to be mediated by multiple mechanisms, including well-documented biochemical changes in cAMP activity, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and c-fos. Here, we assess the consequences of promoting morphine-induced endocytosis on these biochemical changes utilizing a knock-in mouse model, RMOR, in which MORs undergo morphine-induced endocytosis. Chronic morphine treatment of wild-type (WT) mice promoted superactivation of adenylyl cyclase, alterations in NMDARs, and up-regulation of GR and c-fos in distinct brain regions. Notably, none of these biochemical changes occurred in the RMOR-knock-in mice. Together, these data demonstrate that morphine tolerance and dependence are mediated by multiple biochemical mechanisms and that MOR endocytosis plays a critical role in each of these mechanisms.

  4. Role of endocytosis in sonoporation-mediated membrane permeabilization and uptake of small molecules: a electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Zeghimi, A; Escoffre, J M; Bouakaz, A

    2015-11-24

    Sonoporation is a physical method that has been successfully used to deliver drugs into living cells both in vitro and in vivo for experimental and therapeutic purposes. Despite numerous studies on this topic, often reporting successful outcomes, very little is known about the mechanisms involved in the hypothesized membrane permeabilization processes. In this study, electron microscopy was used to investigate the ultra-structural modifications of cell membranes, induced by sonoporation. Here, we demonstrate that sonoporation in the presence of microbubbles induces the formation of a significant number of transient and permeant structures at the membrane level. These structures were transient with a half-life of 10 min and had a heterogeneous size distribution ranging from a few nanometers to 150 nm. We demonstrated that the number and the size of these structures were positively correlated with the enhanced intracellular uptake of small molecules. In addition, we showed that these structures were associated with caveolae-dependent endocytosis for two thirds of the recorded events, with the remaining one third related to non-specific routes such as membrane disruptions as well as caveolae-independent endocytosis. In conclusion, our observations provide direct evidences of the involvement of caveolae-endocytosis in cell membrane permeabilization to small molecules after sonoporation.

  5. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.

  6. Evidence for Immune Response, Axonal Dysfunction and Reduced Endocytosis in the Substantia Nigra in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Anke A.; Ingrassia, Angela; de Menezes, Renee X.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Rozemuller, Annemieke J. M.; Heutink, Peter; van de Berg, Wilma D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Subjects with incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD) may represent the premotor stage of Parkinson’s disease (PD). To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal dysfunction and alpha-synuclein pathology in the premotor phase of PD, we investigated the transcriptome of the substantia nigra (SN) of well-characterized iLBD, PD donors and age-matched controls with Braak alpha-synuclein stage ranging from 0–6. In Braak alpha-synuclein stages 1 and 2, we observed deregulation of pathways linked to axonal degeneration, immune response and endocytosis, including axonal guidance signaling, mTOR signaling, EIF2 signaling and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the SN. In Braak stages 3 and 4, we observed deregulation of pathways involved in protein translation and cell survival, including mTOR and EIF2 signaling. In Braak stages 5 and 6, we observed deregulation of dopaminergic signaling, axonal guidance signaling and thrombin signaling. Throughout the progression of PD pathology, we observed a deregulation of mTOR, EIF2 and regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling in the SN. Our results indicate that molecular mechanisms related to axonal dysfunction, endocytosis and immune response are an early event in PD pathology, whereas mTOR and EIF2 signaling are impaired throughout disease progression. These pathways may hold the key to altering the disease progression in PD. PMID:26087293

  7. Shiga toxin stimulates clathrin-independent endocytosis of the VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8 SNARE proteins.

    PubMed

    Renard, Henri-François; Garcia-Castillo, Maria Daniela; Chambon, Valérie; Lamaze, Christophe; Johannes, Ludger

    2015-08-01

    Endocytosis is an essential cellular process that is often hijacked by pathogens and pathogenic products. Endocytic processes can be classified into two broad categories, those that are dependent on clathrin and those that are not. The SNARE proteins VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8 are internalized in a clathrin-dependent manner. However, the full scope of their endocytic behavior has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8 are localized on plasma membrane invaginations and very early uptake structures that are induced by the bacterial Shiga toxin, which enters cells by clathrin-independent endocytosis. We show that toxin trafficking into cells and cell intoxication rely on these SNARE proteins. Of note, the cellular uptake of VAMP3 is increased in the presence of Shiga toxin, even when clathrin-dependent endocytosis is blocked. We therefore conclude that VAMP2, VAMP3 and VAMP8 are removed from the plasma membrane by non-clathrin-mediated pathways, in addition to by clathrin-dependent uptake. Moreover, our study identifies these SNARE proteins as the first transmembrane trafficking factors that functionally associate at the plasma membrane with the toxin-driven clathrin-independent invaginations during the uptake process.

  8. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

  9. Role of endocytosis in sonoporation-mediated membrane permeabilization and uptake of small molecules: a electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeghimi, A.; Escoffre, J. M.; Bouakaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sonoporation is a physical method that has been successfully used to deliver drugs into living cells both in vitro and in vivo for experimental and therapeutic purposes. Despite numerous studies on this topic, often reporting successful outcomes, very little is known about the mechanisms involved in the hypothesized membrane permeabilization processes. In this study, electron microscopy was used to investigate the ultra-structural modifications of cell membranes, induced by sonoporation. Here, we demonstrate that sonoporation in the presence of microbubbles induces the formation of a significant number of transient and permeant structures at the membrane level. These structures were transient with a half-life of 10 min and had a heterogeneous size distribution ranging from a few nanometers to 150 nm. We demonstrated that the number and the size of these structures were positively correlated with the enhanced intracellular uptake of small molecules. In addition, we showed that these structures were associated with caveolae-dependent endocytosis for two thirds of the recorded events, with the remaining one third related to non-specific routes such as membrane disruptions as well as caveolae-independent endocytosis. In conclusion, our observations provide direct evidences of the involvement of caveolae-endocytosis in cell membrane permeabilization to small molecules after sonoporation.

  10. A quantitative imaging-based screen reveals the exocyst as a network hub connecting endocytosis and exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Mini; Tollis, Sylvain; Nair, Deepak; Mitteau, Romain; Velours, Christophe; Massoni-Laporte, Aurelie; Royou, Anne; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; McCu