Science.gov

Sample records for actores pro tabaco

  1. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  2. Actors: From Audience to Provider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes actors' experiences of distance learning systems in a wide variety of cultural and organizational contexts. In line with the project of this special series of issues, results of research, much of which is longitudinal, allow us to suggest answers to the following questions: Who are the actors of distance…

  3. Categorizing "Others": The Segmentation of Other Actors for "Faith in Others' Efficacy (FIO)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi Kwan; D'Souza, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper provides an innovative categorization of "others" for the variable of "faith in others (FIO)". Adopted by pro-environmental and sustainability literature, FIO refers to faith in the efficacy of other actors. Examination and integration of theories on sustainable pro-environmental behavior leads to the…

  4. Actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of sarcasm.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, P

    2000-10-01

    This study compared actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of the amount of sarcasm used by participants (n = 80) in videotaped conversations. Significant differences were found among perceptions of actors, partners, and observers. Of the three perspectives, actors perceived themselves as using the greatest amount of sarcasm, followed by partners' perceptions of actors. Observers perceived actors as using the least amount of sarcasm. Correlations conducted to assess whether partners and observers recognized actors' individual attempts at sarcasm during the conversations were generally low.

  5. You're a What? Voice Actor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  6. Multicultural Monologues for Young Actors. The Young Actors Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.; Sharrar, Jack, Ed.

    This book presents 62 monologue selections from diverse cultures for young actors to perform. The book's selections offer "quality literature by significant writers." Some of the writers represented in the book are George C. Wolfe, Miguel Pinero, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), John M. Synge, Yukio Mishima, Reynolds…

  7. Reading: Tales for Two Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Judith M.

    1979-01-01

    The author explains how she changes folk tales into simple two-actor plays geared to the oral reading ability of her remedial reading students. Two of her plays are included in this article: "A Halloween Tale" and "The Three Wishes." (SJL)

  8. The Actor and His Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lucille S., Ed.

    Fourteen brief articles deal with training actors to use their bodies effectively on stage. The articles discuss the following topics: the concept of succession-sequential movement (movement that passes through the body joint by joint); learning physical action through staged fight sequences; techniques of empty-handed combat; protecting students…

  9. Actor Interdependence in Collaborative Telelearning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Barbara; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    This paper presents a model of collaborative telelearning and describes how coordination theory has provided a framework for the analysis of actor (inter)dependencies in this scenario. The model is intended to inform the instructional design of learning scenarios, the technological design of the telelearning environment, and the design of…

  10. Privileged Emotion Managers: The Case of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzechowicz, David

    2008-01-01

    Theatre provides a unique set of conditions for the management of emotions. Drawing on participant observation from one repertory theater, three university productions, and interviews with stage actors, directors, and acting instructors, I conceptualize actors as privileged emotion managers. Actors access structural resources that enable their…

  11. Mobilizing Workplaces: Actors, Discipline and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Nicoll, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Foucault, and to a lesser extent actor-network theory, this article examines some of their methodological and theoretical implications for conceptions of workplace learning. We suggest that workplaces need to be examined for the spatio-temporal ordering of practices and the actors drawn into them in order to move beyond the…

  12. On the question of homosexuality in actors.

    PubMed

    Neuringer, C

    1989-12-01

    There is a belief that a high percentage of male actors are homosexual. The specific linking of actors and homosexuality seems to have first appeared in the Elizabethan Puritan condemnations of the theater. Psychoanalytic theory has tended to further promulgate the linkage between effeminacy, homosexuality, and acting. An analysis of the relevant existing empirical literature indicates that few studies have addressed themselves to evaluating this relationship. Those studies supporting the effeminacy-actor relationship were seriously flawed both in design (e.g., use of indirect measures to infer homosexuality) and interpretation of the data. Only one study used direct measures of sexual orientation. Even though that study had methodological problems, its results indicated that the percentage of homosexuality among actors was not verifiably greater than that found in the general population. It is felt that the current belief of greater homosexuality in actors, as compared to the general population, is a product of our Puritan heritage, the actor's unconventionality, and of public flaunting of the homoerotic behavior of that portion of actors that are homosexual.

  13. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  15. Appia, Craig and the Actor: A New Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Oliver F., Jr.

    Despite the amount of attention paid Adolphe Appia and Edward Gordon Craig, a misconception persists with regard to their ideas concerning the actor; namely, that Appia had the actor dominate all the elements of staging, and that Craig considered the actor less essential. However, to both, the actor was both essential and nonessential to the…

  16. Beyond the actor's traits: forming impressions of actors, targets, and relationships from social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Frey, K P; Smith, E R

    1993-09-01

    Perceivers who observe social behaviors may form impressions not only of actors' traits but also of people as targets and of interpersonal relationships. In Study 1, Ss read about 4 individuals' behaviors under instructions to form actor-, target-, and relationship-based impressions. Ss then read additional behavioral information that they later tried to recall. Ss accurately perceived actor, target, and relationship effects in the presented information, and they better recalled subsequent behaviors that were consistent with all 3 types of impressions. In Study 2, Ss thought of 4 people they knew and judged how much each liked the other 3. These ratings revealed actor, target, and relationship effects as well as individual and dyadic reciprocity. Perceivers can form relatively accurate impressions of people as actors and as targets and accurate impressions of relationships between people, and these impressions influence memory for further behaviors.

  17. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  18. Constructing Careers: Actor, Agent, and Author

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    When individuals seek career counseling, they have stories to tell about their working lives. The aim of career construction theory is to be comprehensive in encouraging employment counselors to listen for a client's career story from the perspectives of actor, agent, and author. Taking multiple perspectives on career stories enables counselors to…

  19. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  20. Autoreporte de exposición a publicidad y promoción de tabaco en una cohorte de fumadores mexicanos: Antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del tabaco en 2008

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Rosaura Pérez; Thrasher, James F.; Bolaños, Rosibel Rodríguez; Gutiérrez, Inti Barrientos; Hernández, Norma A Ibañez

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Determinar en población fumadora el nivel de exposición a la mercadotecnia por parte de la Industria Tabacalera (IT), a través de diferentes métodos de promocionar sus productos de tabaco, antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco (LGCT) en 2008. Material y métodos Estudio de cohorte en fumadores adultos (n=941 pre-LGCT y n=1051 post-LGCT) de cuatro ciudades mexicanas. Se realizaron análisis multivariados mediante modelos de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada (GEE). Resultados Se incremento el autoreporte de recepción de muestras gratis de cigarros (3.7% a 8.1%), ropa o artículos con marcas o logos (3.6% a 6.4%), haber visto información sobre eventos especiales (1.9% a 4.7%), y bares, antros y discos para mayores de edad (21.4% a 28%). Se observaron decrementos de publicidad en exteriores (54.7% a 47.2%). Conclusión Es necesaria una política integral con prohibiciones totales de la publicidad y promoción de los productos de tabaco que integre mayor vigilancia y sanciones para lograr la disminución y prevención del consumo de tabaco. PMID:22689158

  1. The actor-observer effect in virtual reality presentations.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; Västfjäll, D; Kleiner, M

    2001-04-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) presentations are becoming a more and more frequent means of communicating information and displaying data to large groups of viewers. VR presentations put heavy demands on reproduction of visual, aural, and tactile information. A common situation in VR presentations is that one actor acts in the virtual environment (VE), while a group of people observes the actors actions in the VE, often from the perspective of the actor. The current paper aims to study actors' (participants actively interacting with the VE) and observers' (participants passively observing the actors' interaction with the VE) evaluations of the VR presentation. In an experiment, 16 actors and 16 observers either acted in or observed a VE and performed ratings of the quality of the presentation. The results showed that actors experienced higher presence and realism, and enjoyed the VR experience more than observers did. Observers, on the other hand, experienced that external events distracted their attention more than actors did. Finally, actors experienced more symptoms of simulation sickness. However, no differences between actors and observers were found for ratings of audio quality.

  2. [LEVELS OF OBESITY, METABOLIC PROFILE, CONSUMPTION OF TABACO AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN SEDENTARY YOUTHS].

    PubMed

    Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Delgado Floody, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Antecedentes: en Chile, la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS) realizada en 2009-2010 reportó una elevada prevalencia de exceso de peso, sedentarismo, colesterol elevado y síndrome metabólico en la población. Objetivo: determinar en jóvenes sedentarios la prevalencia de obesidad y consumo de tabaco, y analizar su asociación con el perfil metabólico, el porcentaje de masa grasa y la presión arterial. Pacientes y métodos: se evaluaron 125 jóvenes sedentarios, 26 hombres y 99 mujeres, entre 17 y 29 años de edad. Se realizaron mediciones de: índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG), contorno de cintura (CC), presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, colesterol total, colesterol HDL (cHDL), colesterol LDL (cLDL), triglicéridos, glicemia y consumo de tabaco. Resultados: el cHDL (p = 0,000) y el %MG (p = 0,043) fueron superiores en las mujeres. El 37,6% de los jóvenes resultó ser fumador. El 35, 2 % de la muestra presentó malnutrición por exceso. Los sujetos obesos presentaron mayores niveles en: contorno de cintura (p = 0,000) y %MG (p = 0,000). Al analizar la obesidad por CC, esta presentó diferencias significativas en el IMC, %MG presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. El IMC presentó asociación positiva con el CC, %MG, colesterol total, triglicéridos, cLDL y presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). El CC presentó asociación con el %MG, triglicéridos y presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). El %MG no presentó asociación con las demás variables. Conclusiones: existe una elevada prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso y consumo de tabaco en la muestra de estudio, si bien las demás variables no presentan categorías de alto riesgo, es un momento oportuno para intervenir y revertir estas tendencias negativas para la salud.

  3. Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II Marten Lohstroh Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...addresses the problem of handling dynamic data, in the statically typed, actor-oriented modeling environment called Ptolemy II. It explores the possibilities

  4. ProMat

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  5. Is It What You Do, or When You Do It? the Roles of Contingency and Similarity in Pro-Social Effects of Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Being imitated has a wide range of pro-social effects, but it is not clear how these effects are mediated. Naturalistic studies of the effects of being imitated have not established whether pro-social outcomes are due to the similarity and/or the contingency between the movements performed by the actor and those of the imitator. Similarity is…

  6. Understanding the Employment of Actors. Research Division Report #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    Focusing on actors' employment problems, part 1 of this report describes data collected by Actor's Equity primarily in terms of: (1) membership files; (2) the organization's contract department; (3) pension and welfare funds; and (4) employment statistics. Part 2 analyzes these data sets in relation to employment, unemployment, risk factors for…

  7. ACToR: Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR) is a set of databases compiling information on chemicals in the environment from a large number of public and in-house EPA sources. ACToR has 3 main goals: (1) The serve as a repository of public toxicology information ...

  8. Teaching, Learning, and Leading: Preparing Teachers as Educational Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, Amy J.; Ryan, Ann Marie; Tocci, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Within the current federal, state, and local contexts of educational reform, teachers must be recognized as central actors in policy work, but rarely do we explicitly consider preparing teachers to become policy actors. Understanding these implications for teacher education, we investigate teacher candidates' learning of the complexity and…

  9. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  10. Towards a computational model of actor-based language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Alday, Phillip M; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiological data from a range of typologically diverse languages provide evidence for a cross-linguistically valid, actor-based strategy of understanding sentence-level meaning. This strategy seeks to identify the participant primarily responsible for the state of affairs (the actor) as quickly and unambiguously as possible, thus resulting in competition for the actor role when there are multiple candidates. Due to its applicability across languages with vastly different characteristics, we have proposed that the actor strategy may derive from more basic cognitive or neurobiological organizational principles, though it is also shaped by distributional properties of the linguistic input (e.g. the morphosyntactic coding strategies for actors in a given language). Here, we describe an initial computational model of the actor strategy and how it interacts with language-specific properties. Specifically, we contrast two distance metrics derived from the output of the computational model (one weighted and one unweighted) as potential measures of the degree of competition for actorhood by testing how well they predict modulations of electrophysiological activity engendered by language processing. To this end, we present an EEG study on word order processing in German and use linear mixed-effects models to assess the effect of the various distance metrics. Our results show that a weighted metric, which takes into account the weighting of an actor-identifying feature in the language under consideration outperforms an unweighted distance measure. We conclude that actor competition effects cannot be reduced to feature overlap between multiple sentence participants and thereby to the notion of similarity-based interference, which is prominent in current memory-based models of language processing. Finally, we argue that, in addition to illuminating the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of actor competition, the present model can form the basis for a more comprehensive

  11. Fibrinopeptide A binds Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, R S; Westall, F C

    1984-01-01

    The tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro inhibits fibrinogen aggregation, probably by binding to the same sites used during initiation of fibrin formation. The Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binding sites have not yet been identified. However, their possible sequence and locations have been predicted on the basis of the amino acid pairing hypothesis. One of these predicted sites is on fibrinopeptide A. We report here that nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicate that Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binds to fibrinopeptide A with a binding constant, K, of ca. 10(4) per mol. We also report results of 19 related peptide combinations used as controls. PMID:6589598

  12. TOXIRAE PRO PID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxiRAE Pro PID measures total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a photoionization detector (PID). This sensor can be programmed to measure concentrations of a specified compound automatically and has a real time reading of VOC concentrations in parts per million (ppm) ...

  13. 29 CFR 570.125 - Actors and performers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an actor or performer in motion pictures or theatrical productions, or in radio or television... definition will be helpful in determining whether a child qualifies as a “* * * performer in motion...

  14. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  15. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    PubMed

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm.

  16. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (S) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology. We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  17. Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RD-A157 917 ACTORS: A MODEL OF CONCURRENT COMPUTATION IN 1/3- DISTRIBUTED SY𔃿TEMS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CRMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...EmmmmmmEmmmmmE mmmmmmmmmmmmmmlfllfllf EEEEEEEmmmmmEE Sa~WNVS AO nflWl ,VNOIJVN 27 n- -o :1 ~ili0 Technical Report 844 Actors: A Model Of Concurrent...Computation In Distributed Systems Gui A. Aghai MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Thsdocument ha. been cipp -oved I= pblicrelease and sale; itsI

  18. Understanding actors and object-goals in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Richard; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2010-04-15

    When another person takes 10 pounds from your hand, it matters if they are a shopkeeper or a robber. That is, the meaning of a simple, goal-directed action can vary depending on the identity of the actors involved. Research examining action understanding has identified an action observation network (AON) that encodes action features such as goals and kinematics. However, it is not yet known how or where the brain links actor identity to action goal. In the present paper, we used a repetition suppression paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural representation of actor identity within the context of object-directed actions. Participants watched video clips of two different actors with two different object-goals. Repeated presentation of the same actor suppressed the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in fusiform gyrus and occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, repeated presentation of an action with the same object-goal suppressed the BOLD response throughout the AON. Our data reveal an extended brain network for understanding other people and their everyday actions that go beyond the traditional action observation network.

  19. Body height and occupational success for actors and actresses.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph

    2010-08-01

    The association of body height with occupational success has been frequently studied, with previous research mainly finding a positive effect among men and positive or null effects among women. Occupational success has almost exclusively been measured so far by short-term success variables (e.g., annual income). In the present study, the relationship of success and height was examined in a group of actors and actresses using a large online database about movies (Internet Movie Database) where heights of actors and actresses are stated. The number of roles played in movies and television series during each actor's lifetime was used as a measure of long-term occupational success. No height effect was found for male actors but a significant negative effect was found for actresses, even after controlling for possible confounding influences (age and birth year). Compared to the general population, actors and actresses were significantly taller; however, actresses who were shorter than average were more likely to achieve greater occupational success, in terms of being featured in more movies.

  20. Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2012-11-01

    Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.

  1. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  2. Private actors, global health and learning the lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Youde, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance.

  3. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  4. U.S. Strategy, African Key Actors, and China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    national security interests and offer a strategy to counter China’s neocolonial encroachment on the continent. 15. SUBJECT TERMS African Political Elites...offer a strategy to counter China’s neocolonial encroachment on the continent. U.S. STRATEGY, AFRICAN KEY ACTORS, AND CHINA China-Africa trade will

  5. Researching the Habitus of Global Policy Actors in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reprises the argument for the emergence of a global education policy field and then focuses on the shared habitus of global and national policy actors and technicians. It is argued that this shared habitus is constituted as a reflection of and a contribution to the creation of the global education policy field. Bourdieu's approach to…

  6. Children's Recognition of Plans in the Behavior of Other Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Marsha D.; Sedlak, Andrea J.

    An investigation of children's tendencies to infer planfulness from the behavior of other actors revealed systematic differences in the responses of kindergarten and second-grade children to questions about the motives, goals, and knowledge of story characters. Participating in the study were 13 boys and 13 girls attending public school (15…

  7. Can Humans Fly Action Understanding with Multiple Classes of Actors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-08

    bird climbing bird ...none dog none ball rolling ball jumping baby running bird flying car flying bird rolling adult none car none car jumpingadult none bird rolling car...undergoing multiple different classes of actions. To be exact, we consider seven actor classes (adult, baby, ball, bird , car, cat, and dog) and

  8. Lifelong Learning in the EU: Changing Conceptualisations, Actors, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volles, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changing conceptualisations, actors, and policies of lifelong learning (LLL) in the European Union (EU) from the time the topic first emerged and was promoted by international organisations in the 1960s. The author uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework to analyse how the LLL discourse became an important part of the EU…

  9. Student Actor Ailments: Ten Ills and How To Cure Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Barbara Long

    2000-01-01

    Lists the top ten acting ailments often encountered in student actors, and offers advice to cure these ailments: the split personality, the beauty queen and the leading man, the comedian, the director in training, the moody one, the character-clueless, the loner, the mimic, the stage-frightened, and the opening night artist. (SR)

  10. Spatial boundary choice and the views of different actors

    SciTech Connect

    Karstens, Sonja A.M. . E-mail: s.a.m.karstens@geodelft.nl; Bots, Pieter W.G.; Slinger, Jill H.

    2007-07-15

    The selection of spatial and temporal scales of analysis is an important and challenging activity at the start of any Policy Analysis or Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The scale sets bounds on the types of problems to be addressed, the solutions to be found and the impacts to be evaluated. Particular scale choices may be more or less beneficial to different actors and are therefore politically loaded. Despite its importance, this topic has rarely been specifically addressed through empirical research. This paper presents an assessment of the impacts of scale choice from varying points of view - those of political actors, commissioners, analysts and scientists - focusing on one type of scale choice: the spatial boundary of the study. An examination of the completed transboundary Long Term Vision Study (LTV) of the Scheldt Estuary, commissioned by the Flemish and Dutch governments, is used to illustrate how actors vary both in the boundaries they choose and the assessment they make of the implications of that boundary choice. Consequently, no perfect spatial scale choice appears to exist. The paper recommends ways to structure the problem of scale selection to facilitate rational deliberation. It is suggested that the methods used to analyse different actors perspectives for the completed LVT study, in future could be employed up-front at the start of other projects. Scale-dependent decision trade-offs could then be made more transparent.

  11. VR/IS Lab Virtual Actor research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shawver, D.M.; Stansfield, S.

    1995-06-22

    This overview presents current research at Sandia National Laboratories in the Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation Lab. Into an existing distributed VR environment which we have been developing, and which provides shared immersion for multiple users, we are adding virtual actor support. The virtual actor support we are adding to this environment is intended to provide semi-autonomous actors, with oversight and high-level guiding control by a director/user, and to allow the overall action to be driven by a scenario. We present an overview of the environment into which our virtual actors will be added in Section 3, and discuss the direction of the Virtual Actor research itself in Section 4. We will briefly review related work in Section 2. First however we need to place the research in the context of what motivates it. The motivation for our construction of this environment, and the line of research associated with it, is based on a long-term program of providing support, through simulation, for situational training, by which we mean a type of training in which students learn to handle multiple situations or scenarios. In these situations, the student may encounter events ranging from the routine occurance to the rare emergency. Indeed, the appeal of such training systems is that they could allow the student to experience and develop effective responses for situations they would otherwise have no opportunity to practice, until they happened to encounter an actual occurance. Examples of the type of students for this kind of training would be security forces or emergency response forces. An example of the type of training scenario we would like to support is given in Section 4.2.

  12. Pro-Active Behavior Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E., Jr.

    The paper outlines the basic tactics in pro-active behavior management, a behavior modification approach for use with severely handicapped students which reorders the staff/student relationship by focusing on positive interaction. Pro-active behavior management is noted to involve interruption of established behavior chains, environmental…

  13. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc.) motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include improved transparency of

  14. Actor and analyst: a response to Coopmans and Button.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We question the logic of Coopmans and Button's critique of our analysis of expertise on three grounds. First, their critique depends on a clear distinction between actor and analysts that we show cannot be maintained. Second, we question their reticence to allow the use of taxonomies in the analysis of expertise, suggesting that it is contradicted by their own descriptions of expert work, and we accuse them of making a mistake in the way they relate commonsense to specialist skills. Finally, we express our puzzlement at the antiseptic-like precautions that some ethnomethodologists apply to analysts' categories, especially given that--as we show--analysts' categories sometimes provide a superior resource for understanding and can change the actors' world as well as describing it.

  15. Teachers as Actors: The Implications of Acting on Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2007-10-01

    In the spring of 2006, a rather unusual advertisement by the Centre of Teaching and Academic Growth at UBC (http://www.tag.ubc.ca) came to my attention. Faculty members were invited to take part in a workshop entitled "All the World's a Stage: Teachers as Actors," offered by a zoology instructor and an amateur actor, Greg Bole: Teaching can be seen as creating an interpersonal relationship and hence uses many of the same skills as acting. The investigation and use of acting skills in teacher preparation can allow a greater facility with diverse methods, increase skill at adapting to change in the classroom or lecture hall, and an increased ability to quickly form positive relationships with students. (Greg Bole: http://www.tag.ubc.ca/programs/series-detail.php?series_id=249 )

  16. Performance Analysis of an Actor-Based Distributed Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Object-oriented design of simulation programs appears to be very attractive because of the natural association of components in the simulated system with objects. There is great potential in distributing the simulation across several computers for the purpose of parallel computation and its consequent handling of larger problems in less elapsed time. One approach to such a design is to use "actors", that is, active objects with their own thread of control. Because these objects execute concurrently, communication is via messages. This is in contrast to an object-oriented design using passive objects where communication between objects is via method calls (direct calls when they are in the same address space and remote procedure calls when they are in different address spaces or different machines). This paper describes a performance analysis program for the evaluation of a design for distributed simulations based upon actors.

  17. Towards Feature Selection in Actor-Critic Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    initially proposed by Barto et al. (1983), aim at combining the strong elements of the two major classes of reinforcement learning algorithms...analysis of actor/critic algorithms using eligibility traces: Reinforcement learning with imperfect value functions. In Proceedings of the International... reinforcement learning . In Kearns, M. S., Solla, S. A., and Cohn, D. A., editors, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, volume 11, pages 1024

  18. The Psychological Self as Actor, Agent, and Author.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Dan P

    2013-05-01

    The psychological self may be construed as a reflexive arrangement of the subjective "I" and the constructed "Me," evolving and expanding over the human life course. The psychological self begins life as a social actor, construed in terms of performance traits and social roles. By the end of childhood, the self has become a motivated agent, too, as personal goals, motives, values, and envisioned projects for the future become central features of how the I conceives of the Me. A third layer of selfhood begins to form in the adolescent and emerging adulthood years, when the self as autobiographical author aims to construct a story of the Me, to provide adult life with broad purpose and a dynamic sense of temporal continuity. An integrative theory that envisions the psychological self as a developing I-Me configuration of actor, agent, and author helps to synthesize a wide range of conceptions and findings on the self from social, personality, cognitive, cultural, and developmental psychology and from sociology and other social sciences. The actor-agent-author framework also sheds new light on studies of self-regulation, self-esteem, self-continuity, and the relationship between self and culture.

  19. A Low-cost System for Generating Near-realistic Virtual Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Mahmoud; Hussain, Khaled F.; Ibrahim, Hosny M.; Omar, Nagwa M.

    2015-06-01

    Generating virtual actors is one of the most challenging fields in computer graphics. The reconstruction of a realistic virtual actor has been paid attention by the academic research and the film industry to generate human-like virtual actors. Many movies were acted by human-like virtual actors, where the audience cannot distinguish between real and virtual actors. The synthesis of realistic virtual actors is considered a complex process. Many techniques are used to generate a realistic virtual actor; however they usually require expensive hardware equipment. In this paper, a low-cost system that generates near-realistic virtual actors is presented. The facial features of the real actor are blended with a virtual head that is attached to the actor's body. Comparing with other techniques that generate virtual actors, the proposed system is considered a low-cost system that requires only one camera that records the scene without using any expensive hardware equipment. The results of our system show that the system generates good near-realistic virtual actors that can be used on many applications.

  20. Breaking into the Business: Experiences of Actors with Disabilities in the Entertainment Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Olivia; Hayward, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    The pursuit of an acting career is a difficult one for anybody. However, studies have yet to factor how disability affects casting opportunities. This study describes the employment of actors with disabilities, along with the unique barriers they encounter in the audition and casting process. Actors with disabilities from the Screen Actors Guild…

  1. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  2. When More Power Makes Actors Worse off: Turning a Profit in the American Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskorski, Mikolaj Jan; Casciaro, Tiziana

    2006-01-01

    We propose a theory which predicts that an increase in an actor's relative power reduces the actor's rewards in high mutual dependence dyads. Our argument is based on the premise that higher relative power gives the more powerful actor a greater share of surplus, but it also reduces dyadic exchange frequency, which lowers the expected magnitude of…

  3. Tempus Pro Patient Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-03

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2015-0006 Tempus Pro Patient Monitoring System Nigel D. Pritchard 3 April 2015 Final Report... System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Nigel D. Pritchard 5e. TASK NUMBER...subsequent demonstration of the Tempus Pro patient monitoring system to include the AF3899L critical care patient movement record. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  4. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.

  5. The effects of mood on spontaneous trait inferences about the actor: Evidence from Chinese undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Zhao, Yaolong; Li, Qianqian; Yang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Prior research has indicated that positive moods increase but negative moods decrease the trait activation of spontaneous trait inferences (STIs). However, it is unknown whether this difference is also present in STIs about the actor. In Study 1, using a false recognition paradigm, we found that Chinese undergraduates made STIs about the actor. In Study 2, we found that the happy Chinese undergraduates were more likely to make STIs about the actor than the sad Chinese undergraduates. These findings showed that Chinese people made STIs about the actor and moods had an influence on their STIs about the actor.

  6. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made.

  7. The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    113 THE SOVIET POPULATION POLICY DEOTE: ACTOS AD I SSUES 1/2 (U) RAND CORP SATA MONICA CR N FESHBACH DEC 86 RN/ N -2472-RF F49620-86-C-BNS UN CLSIFIED...Corporation 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138 0 I1 ~I A RAND NOTE N -2472-AF The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues...8 5 t I 4 61 - PP ~ V’V ~V /./( N % 4 wW f VW ... .. in,1 ix - TABLES 1. Benchmark Dates

  8. Construal level and free will beliefs shape perceptions of actors' proximal and distal intent

    PubMed Central

    Plaks, Jason E.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Two components of lay observers' calculus of moral judgment are proximal intent (the actor's mind is focused on performing the action) and distal intent (the actor's mind is focused on the broader goal). What causes observers to prioritize one form of intent over the other? The authors observed whether construal level (Studies 1–2) and beliefs about free will (Studies 3–4) would influence participants' sensitivity to the actor's proximal vs. distal intent. In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's proximal and distal intent were independently manipulated. In Study 1, when only distal intent was present in the actor's mind, participants rated the psychologically distant actor more responsible than the psychologically near actor. In Study 2, when only distal intent was in the actor's mind, participants with a chronic high level of action identification rated the actor more responsible than did those with a low level of action identification. In both studies, when only proximal intent was in the actor's mind, construal level did not predict judgments of responsibility. In Study 3, when only proximal intent was present in the actor's mind, the more participants believed in free will, the more they rated the actor responsible. When only distal intent was in the actor's mind, free will belief did not influence ratings of responsibility. In Study 4, the same pattern emerged when free will/determinism beliefs were manipulated and the actor performed a positive (life-saving) act. The authors discuss how these results shed new light on the literatures on moral reasoning and psycho-legal theory. PMID:26106352

  9. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  10. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study.

    PubMed

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences.

  11. Analysis of stress, musculoskeletal disorders, and fatigue among broadcasting actors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon-Hee; Kim, Ham-Gyum; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to assess the health effects of broadcasting actors through a comprehensive research on their job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue and to investigate those factors having an impact on their health condition to present a basis for comparative studies and effective human resource management in the future. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was performed to analyze the relevance of the general features, job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue. [Results] Analysis of job stress, one of the characteristics of individuals, revealed that 32.4% of the subjects with less than 5 years of service, 55.5% of those with 6 to 10 years of service, and 52.4% of those with more than 10 years of service showed a high level of stress. Analysis of psychosocial stress, another characteristic of individuals, revealed that 13.4% of the nonsmokers had a high level of psychosocial stress, while 37.7% of smokers had a high level of psychosocial stress based on analysis of chronic disease and psychosocial health. [Conclusion] Based on this study of the stress and fatigue of broadcasting actors, it is expected that improvements can be made to promote their mental health conditions and, organizational safety and to promote effective human resource management. PMID:27942117

  12. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Uz Zaman Khan, Nazib; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a “health knowledge economy”, organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term “health knowledge economy” draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  13. Analysis of stress, musculoskeletal disorders, and fatigue among broadcasting actors.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon-Hee; Kim, Ham-Gyum; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to assess the health effects of broadcasting actors through a comprehensive research on their job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue and to investigate those factors having an impact on their health condition to present a basis for comparative studies and effective human resource management in the future. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was performed to analyze the relevance of the general features, job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue. [Results] Analysis of job stress, one of the characteristics of individuals, revealed that 32.4% of the subjects with less than 5 years of service, 55.5% of those with 6 to 10 years of service, and 52.4% of those with more than 10 years of service showed a high level of stress. Analysis of psychosocial stress, another characteristic of individuals, revealed that 13.4% of the nonsmokers had a high level of psychosocial stress, while 37.7% of smokers had a high level of psychosocial stress based on analysis of chronic disease and psychosocial health. [Conclusion] Based on this study of the stress and fatigue of broadcasting actors, it is expected that improvements can be made to promote their mental health conditions and, organizational safety and to promote effective human resource management.

  14. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  15. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Polytrauma: Actor and Target

    PubMed Central

    Wiegner, Rebecca; Lampl, Lorenz; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are considered indispensable in regeneration processes after tissue trauma. MSCs are recruited to damaged areas via several chemoattractant pathways where they function as “actors” in the healing process by the secretion of manifold pro- and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pro- and anticoagulatory, and trophic/angiogenic factors, but also by proliferation and differentiation into the required cells. On the other hand, MSCs represent “targets” during the pathophysiological conditions after severe trauma, when excessively generated inflammatory mediators, complement activation factors, and damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns challenge MSCs and alter their functionality. This in turn leads to complement opsonization, lysis, clearance by macrophages, and reduced migratory and regenerative abilities which culminate in impaired tissue repair. We summarize relevant cellular and signaling mechanisms and provide an up-to-date overview about promising future therapeutic MSC strategies in the context of severe tissue trauma. PMID:27340408

  17. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  18. Ship Finds and Their Management as Actor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2012-12-01

    Ship finds in Norwegian waters that are more than 100 years old came under the jurisdiction of the Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) in 1963, when section 12a of the Norwegian Cultural Heritage Act was implemented. As a consequence, a functional division between land and sea was created where management objects receive different values depending on whether or not they belong to a ship. The objective of this paper is to review Norwegian CHM underwater policy, and discuss the creation of a new management object and its borders with the introduction of a section on ship finds specifically focusing on Actor Network Theory. It is argued that the understanding of the ship find and its belongings can not be understood as something based on inherent qualities to the management object. Instead this paper proposes to comprehend the ship find as a phenomenon held together within a heterogeneous network.

  19. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  20. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  1. [Pro Familia statistics for 1974].

    PubMed

    1975-09-01

    Statistics for 1974 for the West German family planning organization Pro Familia are reported. 56 offices are now operating, and 23,726 clients were seen. Men were seen more frequently than previously. 10,000 telephone calls were also handled. 16-25 year olds were increasingly represented in the clientele, as were unmarried persons of all ages. 1,242 patients were referred to physicians or clinics for clinical diagnosis.

  2. ["Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa].

    PubMed

    Siefert, Linda

    2017-02-01

    "Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa The internet-based phenomenon "Pro Ana" refers to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa in a positive way. To understand what the phenomenon "Pro Ana" represents, the websites are used as a starting point of the current analysis. Based on these results, similarities and differences between "Pro Ana" and the eating disorder anorexia nervosa are discussed. Furthermore psychodynamic references for anorexia nervosa are derived and finally their importance for treatment motivation will be considered.

  3. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  4. BNP and NT-proBNP Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peptides Formal name: B-type Natriuretic Peptide; N-terminal pro b-type Natriuretic Peptide Related tests: Cardiac ... for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is ...

  5. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  6. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  7. Nonhumans Unbound: Actor-Network Theory and the Reconsideration of "Things" in Educational Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to call attention to the missing discourse of non-humans as social actors in the Social Foundations of Education. The paper outlines three common figuring metaphors that impede the adoption of such a theoretical discourse and shows how Actor-Network Theory (ANT), more recently developed in the nascent field of Science and…

  8. Non-State Actors, and the Advance of Frontier Higher Education Markets in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Komljenovic, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the growth of global non-state and multilateral actors in the "global south" and the creation of frontier markets in the higher education sector. These developments are part of market-making changes in higher education as the sector is opened to new actors, logics, and innovative services, aimed at "the global…

  9. Commercial Actors and the Governing of Education: The Case of Academy School Sponsors in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which commercial actors are operating in state education by focusing on the case study of England's academies policy. First of all the discussion outlines the development of academies over time and the way in which the policy has provided opportunities for private actors to become involved in the state schooling…

  10. Explaining How Political Actors Gain Strategic Positions: Predictors of Centrality in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamara V.; Wang, Yuling; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from interviews with 111 reading policy actors from California, Connecticut, Michigan, and Utah, this study explains how individuals acquire central positions in issue networks. Regression analyses showed that the greater a policy actor's reputed influence was and the more similar their preferences were to other members in the network,…

  11. Asian American Actors in Film, Television and Theater, An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Examined how Asian American actors coped with the constraints of being minorities in an industry where physical appearance is crucial to success. Respondents' narratives reflected such coping strategies as not confronting issues of race, rationalizing that things are much better now for Asian American actors than in previous years, and believing…

  12. Reading Educational Reform with Actor Network Theory: Fluid Spaces, Otherings, and Ambivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2011-01-01

    In considering two extended examples of educational reform efforts, this discussion traces relations that become visible through analytic approaches associated with actor-network theory (ANT). The strategy here is to present multiple readings of the two examples. The first reading adopts an ANT approach to follow ways that all actors--human and…

  13. Does Dance Matter? The Relevance of Dance Technique in Professional Actor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savrami, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Since the establishment of Acting Studies, movement has always been a part of actor training. In the current vocational training institutions in the UK, movement for actors covers a wide range of subjects, including dance, somatics and movement practices. The aim of this research was to collect information about the dance techniques considered…

  14. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  15. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  16. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  17. A decoupled graph/computation data-driven architecture with variable-resolution actors

    SciTech Connect

    Evripidou, P.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents a hybrid multiprocessor architecture that combines the advantages of the dynamic data-flow principles of execution with those of the control-flow model of execution. Two major design ideas are utilized by the proposed model: asynchronous execution of graph and computation operations, and variable- resolution actors. The independence of the two main unites of the machine allows an efficient implementation of functional/data-flow principles with conventional, mature technology. The compiler generates graphs with variable-sized actors in order to match the characteristics of the application to the target machine. For instance, vector actors are proposed for many aspects of scientific computing, while lower resolution (Compound Macro Actors) or conversely higher resolution (atomic instruction actors) is used for unvectorizable programs.

  18. Detecting, measuring, and testing dyadic patterns in the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David A; Ledermann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Family researchers have used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to study romantic couples, parent-child dyads, and siblings. We discuss a new method to detect, measure, and test different theoretically important patterns in the APIM: equal actor and partner effect (couple pattern); same size, but different signs of actor and partner effects (contrast pattern); and zero partner effects (actor-only pattern). To measure these different patterns, as well as others, we propose the estimation of the parameter k, which equals the partner effect divided by the actor effect. For both indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., twins) and distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples), we propose strategies for estimating and testing different models. We illustrate our new approach with four data sets.

  19. Representing Micro-Macro Linkages by Actor-Based Dynamic Network Models.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian E G

    2015-05-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many other agent-based models, by including elements of generalized linear statistical models they aim to be realistic detailed representations of network dynamics in empirical data sets. Statistical parallels to micro-macro considerations can be found in the estimation of parameters determining local actor behavior from empirical data, and the assessment of goodness of fit from the correspondence with network-level descriptives. This article studies several network-level consequences of dynamic actor-based models applied to represent cross-sectional network data. Two examples illustrate how network-level characteristics can be obtained as emergent features implied by micro-specifications of actor-based models.

  20. CREMA-D: Crowd-sourced Emotional Multimodal Actors Dataset.

    PubMed

    Cao, Houwei; Cooper, David G; Keutmann, Michael K; Gur, Ruben C; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    People convey their emotional state in their face and voice. We present an audio-visual data set uniquely suited for the study of multi-modal emotion expression and perception. The data set consists of facial and vocal emotional expressions in sentences spoken in a range of basic emotional states (happy, sad, anger, fear, disgust, and neutral). 7,442 clips of 91 actors with diverse ethnic backgrounds were rated by multiple raters in three modalities: audio, visual, and audio-visual. Categorical emotion labels and real-value intensity values for the perceived emotion were collected using crowd-sourcing from 2,443 raters. The human recognition of intended emotion for the audio-only, visual-only, and audio-visual data are 40.9%, 58.2% and 63.6% respectively. Recognition rates are highest for neutral, followed by happy, anger, disgust, fear, and sad. Average intensity levels of emotion are rated highest for visual-only perception. The accurate recognition of disgust and fear requires simultaneous audio-visual cues, while anger and happiness can be well recognized based on evidence from a single modality. The large dataset we introduce can be used to probe other questions concerning the audio-visual perception of emotion.

  1. CREMA-D: Crowd-sourced Emotional Multimodal Actors Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Houwei; Cooper, David G.; Keutmann, Michael K.; Gur, Ruben C.; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    People convey their emotional state in their face and voice. We present an audio-visual data set uniquely suited for the study of multi-modal emotion expression and perception. The data set consists of facial and vocal emotional expressions in sentences spoken in a range of basic emotional states (happy, sad, anger, fear, disgust, and neutral). 7,442 clips of 91 actors with diverse ethnic backgrounds were rated by multiple raters in three modalities: audio, visual, and audio-visual. Categorical emotion labels and real-value intensity values for the perceived emotion were collected using crowd-sourcing from 2,443 raters. The human recognition of intended emotion for the audio-only, visual-only, and audio-visual data are 40.9%, 58.2% and 63.6% respectively. Recognition rates are highest for neutral, followed by happy, anger, disgust, fear, and sad. Average intensity levels of emotion are rated highest for visual-only perception. The accurate recognition of disgust and fear requires simultaneous audio-visual cues, while anger and happiness can be well recognized based on evidence from a single modality. The large dataset we introduce can be used to probe other questions concerning the audio-visual perception of emotion. PMID:25653738

  2. Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts to identify the primary causer of the state of affairs described (the "actor") quickly and unambiguously (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky and Schlesewsky, 2009). This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy). Here, we present two experiments demonstrating that actor potential is also encoded at the level of individual nouns (a king is a better actor than a beggar). Experiment 1 collected ratings for 180 German nouns on 12 scales defined by adjective oppositions and deemed relevant for actorhood potential. By means of structural equation modeling, an actor potential (ACT) value was calculated for each noun. Experiment 2, an event-related potential study, embedded nouns from Experiment 1 in verb-final sentences, in which they were either actors or non-actors. N400 amplitude increased with decreasing ACT values and this modulation was larger for highly frequent nouns and for actor versus non-actor nouns. We argue that potency to act is lexically encoded for individual nouns and, since it modulates the N400 even for non-actor participants, it should be viewed as a property that modulates ease of lexical access (akin, for example, to lexical frequency). We conclude that two separate dimensions of actorhood computation are crucial to language comprehension: an experience-based, lexically encoded (bottom-up) representation of actorhood potential, and a prominence-based, computational mechanism for calculating goodness-of-fit to the actor role in a particular (top-down) sentence context.

  3. Deterring Asymmetric Threats from Sub-State Actors

    SciTech Connect

    Homsy, R V

    2002-01-31

    Deterrence means preventing another's actions by influencing their decisionmaking process. Nuclear deterrence was successfully accomplished during the Cold War by holding the adversary's valuable assets at risk by targeting them with nuclear weapons, a policy known as mutually assured destruction (MAD). In this case neither player attacks the other, because the ultimate outcome is self-destruction. Deterrence based upon MAD is largely ineffective against sub-state actors who may have few if any assets, the location of which may be unknown. Furthermore, the threat of destroying their assets may only serve to strengthen their motivation to do more stealthy violence, the threat being interpreted as a taunt. The key to establishing deterrence is understanding the adversary's decision process, starting with the factors upon which decisions are made, called decision attributes. Asymmetric threats are assumed to involve chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) weapons. So, the key decision attributes here are concerned with the acquisition and use of CBRN weapons. We have identified the following five countermeasure objectives for establishing deterrence: (1) Reduce access to CBRN weapons, expertise, materials, and equipment; (2) Make CBRN weapons difficult to use; (3) Reduce the effectiveness of CBRN weapons; (4) Increase the likelihood of being caught acquiring and using CBRN weapons; and (5) Establish a policy of retribution for acquiring and using CBRN weapons. It should be emphasized that an adversary's perception toward these objectives is most important in affecting their decisionmaking. Of course each adversary will respond differently toward these countermeasures, depending upon their motivations, objectives, preferences, resources, and willingness to gamble. Motivation of violence is defined as the fundamental cause or driving force; absent which the intent to do violence no longer exists. Correct understanding of motivations requires adapting your

  4. A decoupled data-driven architecture with vectors and macro actors

    SciTech Connect

    Evripidou, P.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents the implementation of scientific programs on a decoupled data-driven architecture with vectors and macro actors. This hybrid multiprocessor combines the dynamic data-flow principles of execution with the control-flow of the von Neumann model of execution. The two major ideas utilized by the decoupled model are: Vector and macro actors with variable resolution, and asynchronous execution of graph and computation operations. The compiler generates graphs with various-sized actors in order to match the characteristics of the computation. For instance, vector actors are proposed for many aspects of scientific computing while lower resolution (complier-generated collection of scalar actors) or higher resolution (scalar actors) is used for unvectorizable programs. A block-scheduling technique for extracting more parallelism from sequential constructs is incorporated in the decoupled architecture. In addition a graph-level priority-scheduling mechanism is implemented that improves resource utilization and yields higher performance. A graph unit executes all graph operations and a computation unit executes all computation operations. The independence of the two main units of the machine allows the efficient pipelined execution of macro actors with diverse granularity characteristics.

  5. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article.

  6. Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts to identify the primary causer of the state of affairs described (the “actor”) quickly and unambiguously (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky and Schlesewsky, 2009). This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy). Here, we present two experiments demonstrating that actor potential is also encoded at the level of individual nouns (a king is a better actor than a beggar). Experiment 1 collected ratings for 180 German nouns on 12 scales defined by adjective oppositions and deemed relevant for actorhood potential. By means of structural equation modeling, an actor potential (ACT) value was calculated for each noun. Experiment 2, an event-related potential study, embedded nouns from Experiment 1 in verb-final sentences, in which they were either actors or non-actors. N400 amplitude increased with decreasing ACT values and this modulation was larger for highly frequent nouns and for actor versus non-actor nouns. We argue that potency to act is lexically encoded for individual nouns and, since it modulates the N400 even for non-actor participants, it should be viewed as a property that modulates ease of lexical access (akin, for example, to lexical frequency). We conclude that two separate dimensions of actorhood computation are crucial to language comprehension: an experience-based, lexically encoded (bottom–up) representation of actorhood potential, and a prominence-based, computational mechanism for calculating goodness-of-fit to the actor role in a particular (top–down) sentence context. PMID:25688217

  7. proPSA — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ProPSA (-2), or [-2]proPSA, is a PSA isoform which has a leader peptide (-2) amino acids at its N terminal region and does not interact with ACT or alpha-2-macroglobulin or spermidine and therefore is detected as a separate isoform. ProPSA is produced primarily in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland and therefore is very useful in distinguishing between prostate cancer patients with PSA range of 2-10, from those who have BPH. Percent proPSA is the ratio of proPSA to free PSA. In July 2012 the FDA approved an assay measuring levels of [-2]proPSA for monitoring and diagnostic purposes.

  8. Clinton administration shows pro-gas bias

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, L.

    1993-02-01

    President Bill Clinton's cabinet appointments signify a strong shift to more pro-environmental, proconservation energy policies. Clinton signaled a pro-consumer, pro-conservation tilt for the Energy Department with the nomination of Hazel O'Leary, an executive vice president of Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, to be Secretary of Energy. O'Leary will be responsible for implementing the new National Energy Policy Act, which must resolve a number of energy efficiency and conservation issues.

  9. Actors conform, observers react: the effects of behavioral synchrony on conformity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ping; Dai, Xianchi; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in synchronous behavior can induce a more general disposition to copy others, which increases the tendency to conform to others' preferences in an unrelated choice situation. In contrast, observing others perform synchronous behavior can induce psychological reactance and decrease conformity to others' preferences. Five experiments confirmed these different effects and circumscribed the conditions in which they occurred. Actors typically focus their attention on the goal to which their synchronous behavior is directed, inducing a copying-others mindset that generalizes to later situations. In contrast, observers focus on the actors' behavior independently of the goal to which it pertains. Consequently, they become sensitive to the restrictions on freedom that synchronous behavior requires and experience reactance. However, changing the relative attention that actors and observers pay to these factors can reverse the effects of the actors' synchronous behavior on conformity.

  10. Two-factor theory, the actor-critic model, and conditioned avoidance.

    PubMed

    Maia, Tiago V

    2010-02-01

    Two-factor theory (Mowrer, 1947, 1951, 1956) remains one of the most influential theories of avoidance, but it is at odds with empirical findings that demonstrate sustained avoidance responding in situations in which the theory predicts that the response should extinguish. This article shows that the well-known actor-critic model seamlessly addresses the problems with two-factor theory, while simultaneously being consistent with the core ideas that underlie that theory. More specifically, the article shows that (1) the actor-critic model bears striking similarities to two-factor theory and explains all of the empirical phenomena that two-factor theory explains, in much the same way, and (2) there are subtle but important differences between the actor-critic model and two-factor theory, which result in the actor-critic model predicting the persistence of avoidance responses that is found empirically.

  11. Modeling and training emotional talking faces of virtual actors in synthetic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, Savant; Yan, Hong

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of a virtual actor system composed of several subsystems designed to automate some of these animation tasks. Our emphasis is on the facial animation of virtual actors. The paper specifically details the situations processor component of the framework, which is a major building block in the automatic virtual actor system. An expert system using a fuzzy knowledge-based control system is used to realize the automated system. Fuzzy linguistic rules are used to train virtual actors to know the appropriate emotions and gestures to use in different situations of a synthetic movie, the higher level parameters of which are provided by human directors. Theories of emotion, personality, dialogue, and acting, as well as empirical evidence is incorporated into our framework and knowledge bases to produce promising results.

  12. Actor-network Procedures: Modeling Multi-factor Authentication, Device Pairing, Social Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-29

    designed for human consumption, will converge into a theory that will allow automating complex arguments, while resolving some complexities through...through the need for a usable formal model, 4 D. Pavlovic and C. Meadows even before we had heard of the sociological actor-network theory . After we...many relevant ideas. While the originators of actor-network theory never proposed a formal model, we believe that the tasks, methods and logics that we

  13. The Relation of Pro-Sociality to Self-Esteem: The Mediational Role of Quality of Friendships.

    PubMed

    Zuffianò, Antonio; Eisenberg, Nancy; Alessandri, Guido; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette Paula; Pastorelli, Concetta; Milioni, Michela; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2016-02-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the role of quality of friendship in mediating the relation of pro-sociality to self-esteem over time. Participants were 424 Italian young adults (56% females) assessed at two waves (M(age) = 21.1 at Time 1; M(age) = 25 at Time 2). An autoregressive cross-lagged panel model was used to test the mediational model. Self- and friend-report measures of pro-sociality, quality of friendship, and self-esteem were included in the analyses. Results were in line with the hypothesized paths, with quality of friendship mediating the relation of pro-sociality to later self-esteem above and beyond its high stability. Self-esteem, in turn, predicted pro-sociality 4 years later. Overall, the present findings support the potential benefits of behaving pro-socially for an actor in terms of increased perceived self-worth and also expand previous work by outlining the specific mediational role of the quality of friendships. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  15. Actor-recipient role affects neural responses to self in emotional situations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xuemei; Li, Lin; Sun, Lining; Wang, Qianfeng; Guo, Xiuyan

    2015-01-01

    People often take either the role of an actor or that of recipient in positive and negative interpersonal events when they interact with others. The present study investigated how the actor-recipient role affected the neural responses to self in emotional situations. Twenty-five participants were scanned while they were presented with positive and negative interpersonal events and were asked to rate the degree to which the actor/the recipient was that kind of person who caused the interpersonal event. Half of the trials were self-relevant events and the other half were other-relevant events. Results showed that people were more likely to isolate self from negative events when they played the role of actor relative to recipient. Pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (pdACC) were more active for self than other only in negative events. More importantly, also in negative interpersonal events, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) showed greater self-related activations (self-other) when participants played the role of recipient relative to actor, while activities in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were greater for self than other only when the evaluation target played the role of recipient. These results showed that the actor-recipient role affected neural responses to self in emotional situations, especially when a recipient role was played in negative situations. PMID:25926781

  16. Getting acquainted: Actor and partner effects of attachment and temperament on young children's peer behavior.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted.

  17. False recollection of the role played by an actor in an event.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Alan W; Earles, Julie L; Upshaw, Christin

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments demonstrated that eyewitnesses more frequently associate an actor with the actions of another person when those two people had appeared together in the same event, rather than in different events. This greater likelihood of binding an actor with the actions of another person from the same event was associated with high-confidence recognition judgments and "remember" responses in a remember-know task, suggesting that viewing an actor together with the actions of another person led participants to falsely recollect having seen that actor perform those actions. An analysis of age differences provided evidence that familiarity also contributed to false recognition independently of a false-recollection mechanism. In particular, older adults were more likely than young adults to falsely recognize a novel conjunction of a familiar actor and action, regardless of whether that actor and action were from the same or from different events. Older adults' elevated rate of false recognition was associated with intermediate confidence levels, suggesting that it stemmed from increased reliance on familiarity rather than from false recollection. The implications of these results are discussed for theories of conjunction errors in memory and of unconscious transference in eyewitness testimony.

  18. Actor-recipient role affects neural responses to self in emotional situations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xuemei; Li, Lin; Sun, Lining; Wang, Qianfeng; Guo, Xiuyan

    2015-01-01

    People often take either the role of an actor or that of recipient in positive and negative interpersonal events when they interact with others. The present study investigated how the actor-recipient role affected the neural responses to self in emotional situations. Twenty-five participants were scanned while they were presented with positive and negative interpersonal events and were asked to rate the degree to which the actor/the recipient was that kind of person who caused the interpersonal event. Half of the trials were self-relevant events and the other half were other-relevant events. Results showed that people were more likely to isolate self from negative events when they played the role of actor relative to recipient. Pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (pdACC) were more active for self than other only in negative events. More importantly, also in negative interpersonal events, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) showed greater self-related activations (self-other) when participants played the role of recipient relative to actor, while activities in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were greater for self than other only when the evaluation target played the role of recipient. These results showed that the actor-recipient role affected neural responses to self in emotional situations, especially when a recipient role was played in negative situations.

  19. Characteristics of pornography film actors: self-report versus perceptions of college students.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James D; Hayworth, Michelle; Adams, Lea T; Mitchell, Sharon; Hart, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The assumed characteristics of individuals in the adult entertainment industry have been used to advocate positions for and against pornography. Although prior studies have investigated perceptions of porn actors, no data on the actual characteristics of this group exist. The present study compared the self-reports of 105 male and 177 female porn actors to the perceptions of 399 college students on childhood sexual abuse (CSA), self-esteem, work and non-work sexual behaviors, and safe sex issues. College students were asked to identify the characteristics associated with either a male or female porn star. College students provided underestimates for both female and male porn actors on self-esteem, age of first intercourse, lifetime number of partners outside of work, ideal experience in a romantic partner, concerns regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), enjoyment of sex, and condom use during a first time sexual encounter, but overestimated earnings. Additional differences among male porn stars included an underestimate of the number of partners at work. For female porn stars, college students underestimated their enjoyment of work, the probability of catching an STD, and having unprotected sex. Although there were no significant differences on perceived rates of childhood abuse of porn actors, the incidence of CSA among the porn actor participants were within the ranges of the general population. The majority of college student stereotypes were not supported regarding the perceptions of porn actors. These findings were discussed within the context of attributing unfounded characteristics of individuals to an entire industry.

  20. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  1. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward…

  2. That's the man who did it, or was it a woman? Actor similarity and binding errors in event memory.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Kersten, Alan W; Curtayne, Eileen S; Perle, Jonathan G

    2008-12-01

    Mistakes in eyewitness identification frequently occur when incorrect associations are made between a familiar person and the actions of another person. The present research demonstrates that actors do not need to be similar in appearance for such conjunction errors to occur. The actors can, in fact, be very different in appearance, even of different sexes. Participants attempted to remember a series of brief everyday events, each involving an actor performing an action. Increases in actor similarity led to increases in conjunction errors in which participants incorrectly associated a familiar actor with a familiar action that was actually performed by someone else, but conjunction errors frequently occurred even when the familiar actor was of a different sex than the original actor, arguing against the hypothesis that these conjunction errors are due solely to mistaken identity.

  3. Airway hyperresponsiveness; smooth muscle as the principal actor

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Martin, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a defining characteristic of asthma that refers to the capacity of the airways to undergo exaggerated narrowing in response to stimuli that do not result in comparable degrees of airway narrowing in healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction mediates airway narrowing, but it remains uncertain as to whether the smooth muscle is intrinsically altered in asthmatic subjects or is responding abnormally as a result of the milieu in which it sits. ASM in the trachea or major bronchi does not differ in its contractile characteristics in asthmatics, but the more pertinent peripheral airways await complete exploration. The mass of ASM is increased in many but not all asthmatics and therefore cannot be a unifying hypothesis for AHR, although when increased in mass it may contribute to AHR. The inability of a deep breath to reverse or prevent bronchial narrowing in asthma may reflect an intrinsic difference in the mechanisms that lead to softening of contracted ASM when subjected to stretch. Cytokines such as interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α promote a more contractile ASM phenotype. The composition and increased stiffness of the matrix in which ASM is embedded promotes a more proliferative and pro-inflammatory ASM phenotype, but the expected dedifferentiation and loss of contractility have not been shown. Airway epithelium may drive ASM proliferation and/or molecular remodeling in ways that may lead to AHR. In conclusion, AHR is likely multifactorial in origin, reflecting the plasticity of ASM properties in the inflammatory environment of the asthmatic airway. PMID:26998246

  4. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  5. Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro

  6. Not My Problem: Vicarious Conflict Adaptation with Human and Virtual Co-actors

    PubMed Central

    Spapé, Michiel M.; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect refers to an incompatibility between stimulus and response locations resulting in a conflict situation and, consequently, slower responses. Like other conflict effects, it is commonly reduced after repetitions, suggesting an executive control ability, which flexibly rewires cognitive processing and adapts to conflict. Interestingly, conflict is not necessarily individually defined: the Social Simon effect refers to a scenario where two people who share a task show a conflict effect where a single person does not. Recent studies showed these observations might converge into what could be called vicarious conflict adaptation, with evidence indicating that observing someone else's conflict may subsequently reduce one's own. While plausible, there is reason for doubt: both the social aspect of the Simon Effect, and the degree to which executive control accounts for the conflict adaptation effect, have become foci of debate in recent studies. Here, we present two experiments that were designed to test the social dimension of the effect by varying the social relationship between the actor and the co-actor. In Experiment 1, participants performed a conflict task with a virtual co-actor, while the actor-observer relationship was manipulated as a function of the similarity between response modalities. In Experiment 2, the same task was performed both with a virtual and with a human co-actor, while heart-rate measurements were taken to measure the impact of observed conflict on autonomous activity. While both experiments replicated the interpersonal conflict adaptation effects, neither showed evidence of the critical social dimension. We consider the findings as demonstrating that vicarious conflict adaptation does not rely on the social relationship between the actor and co-actor. PMID:27199839

  7. Representing Micro-Macro Linkages by Actor-Based Dynamic Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tom A.B.; Steglich, Christian E.G.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many other agent-based models, by including elements of generalized linear statistical models they aim to be realistic detailed representations of network dynamics in empirical data sets. Statistical parallels to micro-macro considerations can be found in the estimation of parameters determining local actor behavior from empirical data, and the assessment of goodness of fit from the correspondence with network-level descriptives. This article studies several network-level consequences of dynamic actor-based models applied to represent cross-sectional network data. Two examples illustrate how network-level characteristics can be obtained as emergent features implied by micro-specifications of actor-based models. PMID:25960578

  8. Emotional labor actors: a latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work.

  9. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  10. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

    2000-12-01

    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063].

  11. When private actors matter: Information-sharing network and surveillance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Dao, T H; Truong, D B; Nguyen, T T; Nguyen, N T X; Duboz, R; Fournié, G; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Grosbois, V; Vu, D T; Le, T H; Nguyen, V K; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of animal health surveillance systems depends on their capacity to gather sanitary information from the animal production sector. In order to assess this capacity we analyzed the flow of sanitary information regarding Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) suspicions in poultry in Vietnam. Participatory methods were applied to assess the type of actors and likelihood of information sharing between actors in case of HPAI suspicion in poultry. While the reporting of HPAI suspicions is mandatory, private actors had more access to information than public actors. Actors of the upstream sector (medicine and feed sellers) played a key role in the diffusion of information. The central role of these actors and the influence of the information flow on the adoption by poultry production stakeholders of behaviors limiting (e.g. prevention measures) or promoting disease transmission (e.g. increased animal movements) should be accounted for in the design of surveillance and control programs.

  12. Putting Gino's lesson to work: Actor-network theory, enacted humanity, and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Thomas; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-02-01

    This article argues that rehabilitation enacts a particular understanding of "the human" throughout therapeutic assessment and treatment. Following Michel Callon and Vololona Rabeharisoa's "Gino's Lesson on Humanity," we suggest that this is not simply a top-down process, but is cultivated in the application and response to biomedical frameworks of human ability, competence, and responsibility. The emergence of the human is at once a materially contingent, moral, and interpersonal process. We begin the article by outlining the basics of the actor-network theory that underpins "Gino's Lesson on Humanity." Next, we elucidate its central thesis regarding how disabled personhood emerges through actor-network interactions. Section "Learning Gino's lesson" draws on two autobiographical examples, examining the emergence of humanity through rehabilitation, particularly assessment measures and the responses to them. We conclude by thinking about how rehabilitation and actor-network theory might take this lesson on humanity seriously.

  13. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  14. [New actors in the fight against HIV/AIDS: overlapping and competition between existing structures].

    PubMed

    Tantchou Yakam, J C

    2008-06-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemia reshaped international relations and the world research landscape. New facilities have been created and new actors have emerged. New institutions has been grafted into the existing health infrastructure resulting in overlapping and sometimes conflicting actions. In this study we analyze this co-existence using the "Centre of Prevention and Voluntary testing of HIV/AIDS" (CPDV) in Cameroon as an example. The purpose is to show that the involvment of new actors in a health systems with multiple dysfunctions creates an environment leading to "straddling". This situation also raises legitimacy issues and leads to competition for position within the existing hierarchies.

  15. Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Muhammad; Zafar, Nazir Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs), as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving a coverage hole, and thus hinders the network operation. This paper presents a Partitioning detection and Connectivity Restoration (PCR) algorithm to tolerate critical actor failure. As part of pre-failure planning, PCR determines critical/non-critical actors based on localized information and designates each critical node with an appropriate backup (preferably non-critical). The pre-designated backup detects the failure of its primary actor and initiates a post-failure recovery process that may involve coordinated multi-actor relocation. To prove the correctness, we construct a formal specification of PCR using Z notation. We model WSAN topology as a dynamic graph and transform PCR to corresponding formal specification using Z notation. Formal specification is analyzed and validated using the Z Eves tool. Moreover, we simulate the specification to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of PCR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of PCR and the results shown that it outperforms contemporary schemes found in the literature.

  16. Induction of systemic disease resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana by the cyclodipeptides cyclo (l-Pro-l-Pro) and cyclo (d-Pro-d-Pro).

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Hongyue; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodipeptides, formed from two amino acids by cyclodehydration, are produced naturally by many organisms, and are known to possess a large number of biological activities. In this study, we found that cyclo (l-Pro-l-Pro) and cyclo (d-Pro-d-Pro) (where Pro is proline) could induce defence responses and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Treatment with the two cyclodipeptides led to a reduction in disease severity by Phytophthora nicotianae and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infections compared with controls. Both cyclopeptides triggered stomatal closure, induced reactive oxygen species production and stimulated cytosolic calcium ion and nitric oxide production in guard cells. In addition, the application of cyclodipeptides significantly up-regulated the expression of the plant defence gene PR-1a and the PR-1a protein, and increased cellular salicylic acid (SA) levels. These results suggest that the SA-dependent defence pathway is involved in cyclodipeptide-mediated pathogen resistance in N. benthamiana. We report the systemic resistance induced by cyclodipeptides, which sheds light on the potential of cyclodipeptides for the control of plant diseases.

  17. Interactive Theater Experience with 3D Live Captured Actors and Spatial Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter introduces a new reality interactive theater that combines the 3D Live human capturing system, spatial sound, augmented reality, human-oriented interaction, and ambient intelligence technologies. Actors/Dancers at different places remotely are captured by the 3D Live system and transmitted to the theater place in real time and rendered in 3D form and real size, thus they can play/dance with the local actors/dancers and virtual characters at the same place in real time. Audience interaction is allowed and handled by an Ambient Intelligence (AI) agent to generate new actions for virtual characters and send meaningful interactions to real actors. The spatial sound system provides the real 3D sound and at the same time generates special sound effects such as controlling the sound direction that only allows people in a certain direction to heard it. All these features combined together bring a totally new theater experience to both actors/dancers and audiences, and extend the grammar of the traditional theater.

  18. Coordination between Governance Actors in Universities: The Role of Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in a public university. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and analyze policy documents as governance tools that allow departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the board, and the management at different university levels. A central finding is that the…

  19. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  20. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  1. The Role of Key Actors in School Governance: An Italian Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvioni, Daniela; Gandini, Giuseppina; Franzoni, Simona; Gennari, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The greater awareness of the role of key actors in the school governance processes and the need to expect a "new leader" in the increasing school complexity are essential conditions to reform the schools from within, so as to provide them with skills related to globalisation, improvement to the educational quality, strengthening of…

  2. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  3. Scientific Journals of Universities of Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela: Actors and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study was carried out to identify the roles of actors associated with the publication of scientific journals in Chilean, Colombian, and Venezuelan universities. Twenty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with journal editors, university authorities, and other experts. The categories of analysis included university…

  4. Students' Inventory of Social Actors Concerned by the Controversy Surrounding Cellular Telephones: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The present article scrutinizes the manner with which a group of three postsecondary students (in Quebec, Canada) describe the social actors concerned by the controversy surrounding cellular telephones. The study was conducted on the basis of an ethnographic approach. Participant observation was performed by the researcher for 3 hours during each…

  5. Assessing Mediation in Dyadic Data Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledermann, Thomas; Macho, Siegfried; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of mediation in dyadic data is an important issue if researchers are to test process models. Using an extended version of the actor-partner interdependence model the estimation and testing of mediation is complex, especially when dyad members are distinguishable (e.g., heterosexual couples). We show how the complexity of the model…

  6. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  7. Beyond Dyadic Interdependence: Actor-Oriented Models for Co-Evolving Social Networks and Individual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, William J.; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Actor-oriented models are described as a longitudinal strategy for examining the co-evolution of social networks and individual behaviors. We argue that these models provide advantages over conventional approaches due to their ability to account for inherent dependencies between individuals embedded in a social network (i.e., reciprocity,…

  8. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  9. Getting Acquainted: Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment and Temperament on Young Children's Peer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament…

  10. Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance and Perceptions of Group Climate: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining group members' attachment styles and group climate perceptions in the context of the attachment styles and group climate perceptions of the other group members. In the current study, the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine the relationships among (a) a group member's attachment…

  11. Temporal Effects of Performance on Causal Attributions in Actors and Observers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.

    Although understanding how causal attributions for performance develop is important to attribution theory, little research has been done on this topic. To explore changes in attributions during task performance for both actors and observers, 90 female undergraduates participated in a procedure in which they received either 80 percent or 20 percent…

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Armed Non State Actors (ANSAs): Strategic Roles and Operational Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the Final Report of the Technology Investment Fund (TIF) Project entitled A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Armed Non-state Actors...Cmap. The generic ANSA Cmap is a high-level conceptual framework grounded in both multidisciplinary theory and mixed methods practice that distills our

  13. Early Social Fear in Relation to Play with an Unfamiliar Peer: Actor and Partner Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal reports of social fear at 24 months and social behaviors with an unfamiliar peer during play at 36 months, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 1999). The APIM model was used to not only replicate previous findings of direct effects of…

  14. ("un")Doing the Next Generation Science Standards: Climate Change Education Actor-Networks in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colston, Nicole M.; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research investigated how science education communities of practice in Oklahoma engage in translations of climate change education (CCE). Applications of actor-network theory to educational policymaking facilitate this analysis of the spaces of prescription and spaces of negotiation that characterize CCE in Oklahoma. Informed by…

  15. Inside the Actors' Studio: Exploring Dietetics Education Practices through Dialogical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ann L.; Gingras, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Two colleagues, Ann and Jacqui, came together, within the safety of an imagined actors' studio, to explore the challenges that Ann faced in planning a new graduate program in public health nutrition. They met before, during, and after program implementation to discuss Ann's experiences, and audio-taped and transcribed the discussions. When all…

  16. Seven Consciousness-Expanding Techniques and Their Relevance to Actor Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldshuh, David Mark

    This dissertation explores techniques that assist actors in getting their minds and bodies out of the way through consciousness-expanding. The techniques examined here attempt to promote a permeability, a childlike quality of presence, and are largely drawn from Eastern philosophies. Part one of this dissertation discusses structural integration,…

  17. The Promise of the New Actor Training--A Professional Challenge for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Roger

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, theatre faculty have come to understand that advanced degrees do not guarantee that a person is qualified for the subtle, complex, and dangerous job of teaching acting, and that actor training has more to do with the problems of human behavior than with the theatre. The fundamental problem with acting is the fear that controls…

  18. Case-like Categories in Children: The Actor and Some Related Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braine, Martin D. S.; Wells, Robin S.

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in which nursery school children were taught to identify persons, animals, or objects in pictures that took the nominative, objective, or locative case in sentences about the pictures. Inferences are made about categories in children's thinking including animate, and actor and agent. (CTM)

  19. Toddlers as Both More and Less Competent Social Actors in Finnish Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the notion of the competent child has, in the field of Early Childhood Education, become a powerful discourse. In this paradigm, inspired by the sociology of childhood, the child is seen as a competent social actor having agency in his or her life. However, critical comments have been made at both the micro-and macro-level about…

  20. ("Un")Doing Standards in Education with Actor-Network Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent critiques have drawn important attention to the depoliticized consensus and empty promises embedded in network discourses of educational policy. While acceding this critique, this discussion argues that some forms of network analysis--specifically those adopting actor-network theory (ANT) approaches--actually offer useful theoretical…

  1. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated.

  2. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  3. Ex-couples' unwanted pursuit behavior: an actor-partner interdependence model approach.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Olivia; Loeys, Tom; Buysse, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Unwanted pursuit behavior (UPB) refers to a wide range of repeated, unwanted, and privacy-violating intrusions that are inflicted to pursue an intimate or romantic relationship. These behaviors most often occur when partners end their romantic entanglements. Despite the fact that UPB is grounded in relationships, psychological explanations for post-breakup UPB perpetration have been restricted to actor effects assessed in samples of separated individuals. For that reason, the present study aimed to identify feasible partner effects that additionally explain UPB perpetration using a Flemish sample of 46 heterosexual divorced couples, beginning with the notion of interdependence. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we explored actor, partner, and gender main and interaction effects of anxious attachment, satisfaction, alternatives, investments, and conflict in the previous marriage on the perpetration of post-divorce UPBs. The significant Partner × Gender interactions of anxious attachment and satisfaction, Actor × Partner interactions of anxious attachment and quality of alternatives, and the marginally significant partner effect of relational conflict underline the important role of the dyad in studying UPB perpetration. These findings shed new light on the nature of UPB perpetration that go beyond the individual and support the use of a systemic approach in clinical practices.

  4. Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2014-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration. Participants in…

  5. Actor Vocal Training for the Habilitation of Speech in Adolescent Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes to speech production in adolescents with hearing impairment following a period of actor vocal training. In addition to vocal parameters, the study also investigated changes to psychosocial factors such as confidence, self-esteem, and anxiety. The group were adolescent users of cochlear implants (mean age at commencement…

  6. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model: A Model of Bidirectional Effects in Developmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, William L.; Kenny, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) is a model of dyadic relationships that integrates a conceptual view of interdependence with the appropriate statistical techniques for measuring and testing it. In this article we present the APIM as a general, longitudinal model for measuring bidirectional effects in interpersonal relationships. We…

  7. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  8. Why Do Policy Frames Change? Actor-Idea Coevolution in Debates over Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensland, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One shortcoming in the literature on policy framing has been the absence of analytic models through which to explicate change. This paper advances research in this area in three related ways. First, it links policy frames to the actors who employ them. Second, based upon this linkage it proposes two complementary approaches for examining…

  9. Developing Integrated Rural Tourism: Actor Practices in the English/Welsh Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Gunjan; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines community attitudes and distinctive practices that shape local responses to integrated rural tourism (IRT) development in the lagging rural region of the English/Welsh border area. The focus is on how actors acquire attributes as a result of their relations with others and how these assumed identities are performed in, by and…

  10. Social health insurance without corporate actors: changes in self-regulation in Germany, Poland and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors.

  11. Tolerance of Practices by Muslim Actors: An Integrative Social-Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieling, Maike; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2010-01-01

    Using social-cognitive domain theory and social identity theory, tolerance judgments of practices by Muslim actors among Dutch adolescents (12-17) were investigated. The findings for Study 1 (N = 180) demonstrated that participants evaluated 4 practices using different types of reasons: personal, social-conventional, and moral. In Study 2 (N =…

  12. Dealing with Actors and Compliance in Intervention Operations in a Non-permissive Hybrid Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    social classes, urban and rural populations, and economic and political institutions. Hence, not only political actors, but also businesses, media...before the conflict. They include government, ethnic, tribal, clan or community groups, social classes, urban and rural populations, and economic...before the conflict. They include government, ethnic, tribal, clan or community groups, social classes, urban and rural populations, and economic and

  13. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A; Tizado, E Jorge; Pacheco, Pablo

    2014-10-28

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000-7,000 km(2). We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km(2)) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km(2)) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (<100 ha). In addition, forests in areas dominated by smallholders tend to be less fragmented and less degraded. However, although annual deforestation rates fell during this period by 68-85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies.

  14. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A.; Tizado, E. Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000–7,000 km2. We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km2) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km2) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (<100 ha). In addition, forests in areas dominated by smallholders tend to be less fragmented and less degraded. However, although annual deforestation rates fell during this period by 68–85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies. PMID:25313087

  15. From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle and Beyond: The Influence of Policy Actors in the Federal Higher Education Rulemaking Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natow, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    The federal higher education rulemaking process develops policies that can profoundly affect college students, higher education institutions, and other actors in the higher education policy community. But little has been researched about the influence that different types of actors have on higher education rulemaking. By analyzing interviews with…

  16. Side Effects: An Analysis of Mind the Gap's "Boo" and the Reception of Theatre Involving Learning Disabled Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrave, Matt

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses Mind the Gap's Boo, a re-imagining of Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird", which features a cast of learning disabled actors. It is concerned with the public reception of the work, particularly the "effect" of an all-disabled cast. What are the consequences, both ethical and aesthetic, for these actors to tell this story on…

  17. Action observers implicitly expect actors to act goal-coherently, even if they do not: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hrkać, Mari; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-05-01

    Actions observed in everyday life normally consist of one person performing sequences of goal-directed actions. The present fMRI study tested the hypotheses that observers are influenced by the actor's identity, even when this information is task-irrelevant, and that this information shapes their expectation on subsequent actions of the same actor. Participants watched short video clips of action steps that either pertained to a common action with an overarching goal or not, and were performed by either one or by varying actors (2 × 2 design). Independent of goal coherence, actor coherence elicited activation in dorsolateral and ventromedial frontal cortex, together pointing to a spontaneous attempt to integrate all actions performed by one actor. Interestingly, watching an actor performing unrelated actions elicited additional activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting a search in semantic memory in an attempt to construct an overarching goal that can reconcile the disparate action steps with a coherent intention. Post-experimental surveys indicate that these processes occur mostly unconsciously. Findings strongly suggest a spontaneous expectation bias toward actor-related episodes in action observers, and hence to the immense impact of actor information on action observation.

  18. Marital Relationship Quality and Couples' Cognitive Stimulation Practices toward Their Infants: Actor and Partner Effects of White and Hispanic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Wilhelm, Mari S.; Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores actor and partner effects on mothers' and fathers' cognitive stimulation within an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). This model allows us to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' practices are impacted not only by their own experiences but also by their partners' experiences. The APIM treats the couple as the…

  19. Teachers as Language-Policy Actors: Contending with the Erasure of Lesser-Used Languages in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic study of the Voro-language revitalization in Estonia, this article explores the way teachers function as policy actors in the broader context of the school. As policy actors, the language teachers' appropriation of regional-language policy helps simultaneously to reproduce and challenge existing ideologies in the…

  20. Actor modelling and its contribution to the development of integrative strategies for management of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Titz, Alexandra; Döll, Petra

    2009-02-01

    Widespread presence of human pharmaceuticals in water resources across the globe is documented. While some, but certainly not enough, research on the occurrence, fate and effect of pharmaceuticals in water resources has been carried out, a holistic risk management strategy is missing. The transdisciplinary research project "start" aimed to develop an integrative strategy by the participation of experts representing key actors in the problem field "pharmaceuticals in drinking water". In this paper, we describe a novel modelling method, actor modelling with the semi-quantitative software DANA (Dynamic Actor Network Analysis), and its application in support of identifying an integrative risk management strategy. Based on the individual perceptions of different actors, the approach allows the identification of optimal strategies. Actors' perceptions were elicited by participatory model building and interviews, and were then modelled in perception graphs. Actor modelling indicated that an integrative strategy that targets environmentally-responsible prescription, therapy, and disposal of pharmaceuticals on one hand, and the development of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals on the other hand, will likely be most effective for reducing the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water (at least in Germany where the study was performed). However, unlike most other actors, the pharmaceutical industry itself does not perceive that the production of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals is an action that helps to achieve its goals, but contends that continued development of highly active pharmaceutical ingredients will help to reduce the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle. Investment in advanced waste or drinking water treatment is opposed by both the wastewater treatment company and the drinking water supplier, and is not mentioned as appropriate by the other actors. According to our experience, actor modelling is a useful method to suggest effective

  1. Pro-Am Collaboration and the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A.

    2006-04-01

    Professionals need to be aware that there is a valuable resource available and waiting to be used -- the amateur astronomy community. We give some examples of how pro-am collaborations have worked in the past, indicate the advantages and disadvantages of such collaborations, and suggest methods by which a professional can find and work effectively with amateur astronomers.

  2. Pocahontas: Problematizing the Pro-Social.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy; Reese, Debbie

    The Disney film "Pocahontas" appears to be an attempt to respond to growing cultural diversity, calls for multiculturalism, and strong female role models in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the film, examining how Disney's claims to the creation of positive, pro-social representations of women and Native Americans in…

  3. A Pro-Family Income Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Allan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which doubled the personal exemption, increased the eligibility ceiling for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and reduced marginal income-tax rates. Compares the Act with the Acts of 1948 and 1969. Outlines criteria for a pro-family income tax policy. (BJV)

  4. A climate game based on a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Hasselmann, K.

    2003-04-01

    In November 2002 a special exhibition on climate issues opened in the German Museum for Science and Techniques ('Deutsches Museum') in Munich. Within this exposition we present an interactive game in which visitors control future climate policy by adopting the role of either the government, a CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of a global company or a typical private household of an industrialized country. The players endeavor to maintain a sustainable climate in the future (global goal) while pursuing their own individual welfare goals. Task of the exhibition visitor is to combine the personal interests of the actor he is adopting with the global goal. The individual goal of government is maintain economic growth while avoiding conflicts due to inter-regional or societal inequalities. The CEO seeks to maximize total profits (business earnings). The goal of households is to maximize wages and interest earnings. The evolution of the economic system and climate is governed by the decisions of the actors. Government sets economic side conditions in terms of carbon taxes, subsidies for R&D or market infusion support for climate-friendly technologies, and transfers development aid to less advanced regions. The CEOs decide how much to invest in a number of alternative investment options and in which region. Households influences the economy by their purchasing and savings decisions. The model considers four regions, three real actors (mentioned above) and two different goods (climate-adverse and a climate-friendly). We introduce four different kinds of energy (coal, oil/gas, nuclear, renewable). A World Bank handles money flows. At different points in time the actors can cooperate with other actors in order to reach the global goal Stochastic elements regarding future technology and future climate are included. A touch-screen monitor with user friendly interface is used to present animations and videos. An animated climate scientist uses a climate simulator to compute future

  5. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford

  6. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-09-05

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives.

  7. Taking data seriously: the value of actor-network theory in rethinking patient experience data

    PubMed Central

    Zoccatelli, Giulia; Adams, Mary; Allen, Davina; Brearley, Sally; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Robert, Glenn; Donetto, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Hospitals are awash with patient experience data, much of it collected with the ostensible purpose of improving the quality of patient care. However, there has been comparatively little consideration of the nature and capacities of data itself. Using insights from actor-network theory, we propose that paying attention to patient experience data as having agency in particular hospital interactions allows us to better trace how and in what circumstances data lead (or fail to lead) to quality improvement.

  8. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    addressing political and social issues.10 Due to the current environment and the ability to move freely along the Nepalese- Indian border, the Nepalese...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited NONSTATE ACTORS...border, 15. NUMBER OF resti-icted border, border patJ·ol, ct-ime, economy, U.S.-Mexican border relations, border secm-ity force, PAGES Nepalese- Indian

  9. Forest biodiversity monitoring for REDD+: a case study of actors' views in Peru.

    PubMed

    Entenmann, Steffen K; Kaphegyi, Thomas A M; Schmitt, Christine B

    2014-02-01

    The climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Integrating biodiversity monitoring into REDD+ facilitates compliance with the safeguards stipulated by the UNFCCC to exclude environmental risks. Interviews with actors engaged in REDD+ implementation and biodiversity conservation at the national and sub-national level in Peru (n = 30) and a literature review (n = 58) were conducted to pinpoint constraints and opportunities for monitoring effects of REDD+ management interventions on biodiversity, and to identify relevant biodiversity data and indicators. It was found that particularly sub-national actors, who were frequently involved in REDD+ pilot projects, acknowledge the availability of biodiversity data. Actors at both the national and sub-national levels, however, criticized data gaps and data being scattered across biodiversity research organizations. Most of the literature reviewed (78 %) included indicators on the state of certain biodiversity aspects, especially mammals. Indicators for pressure on biodiversity, impacts on environmental functions, or policy responses to environmental threats were addressed less frequently (31, 21, and 10 %, respectively). Integrating biodiversity concerns in carbon monitoring schemes was considered to have potential, although few specific examples were identified. The involvement of biodiversity research organizations in sub-national REDD+ activities enhances monitoring capacities. It is discussed how improvements in collaboration among actors from the project to the national level could facilitate the evaluation of existing information at the national level. Monitoring changes in ecosystem services may increase the ecological and socioeconomic viability of REDD+.

  10. Virtual actors and avatars in a flexible user-determined-scenario environment

    SciTech Connect

    Shawver, D.M.

    1997-02-01

    VRaptor, a VR system for situational training that uses trainer-defined scenarios is described. The trainee is represented by an avatar; the rest of the virtual world is populated by virtual actors, which are under the control of trainer-defined scripts. The scripts allow reactive behaviors, but the trainer can control the overall scenario. This type of training system may be very useful in supplementing physical training.

  11. Modelling the Impact of Human Actors on Groundwater Resources under Conditions of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.; Reichenau, T. G.; Krimly, T.; Dabbert, S.; Schneider, K.; Mauser, W.; Hennicker, R.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources, activities of human actors and climate change are related in many different and complex ways because of the existence of and strong interactions between various influencing factors, including those that are natural-environmental and socio-economic. The GLOWA-Danube research cooperation has developed the integrated simulation system DANUBIA to simulate water-related influences of global change in different spatial and temporal contexts. DANUBIA is a modular system comprised of 17 dynamically-coupled, process-based model components and a framework which controls the interaction of these components with respect to space and time. This contribution describes approaches and capabilities of DANUBIA with regard to the simulation of global change effects on human decisions in water related fields with a focus on agriculture and groundwater. In agriculture, market prices and legislation can be equally or even more important than water availability in determining farmers' behavior and thus in determining the agricultural impact on water resources quantity and quality. The DANUBIA simulation framework and the associated DeepActor-framework for simulation of decision-making by human actors are presented together with the model components which are most relevant to the interactions between agriculture and groundwater. The approach for developing combination climate and socio-economic scenarios is explained. Exemplary scenario results are shown for the Upper Danube Catchment in Southern Germany. References Barthel, R., Janisch, S., N. Schwarz, A. Trifkovic, D. Nickel, C. Schulz, W. Mauser (2008): An integrated modelling framework for simulating regional-scale actor responses to global change in the water domain. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 1095-1121 (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.004) Barthel, R., Reichenau T., Krimly, T., Dabbert, S., Schneider, K., Mauser, W. (2012) Integrated modeling of climate change impacts on agriculture and groundwater

  12. Crystal structure of the collagen triple helix model [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3).

    PubMed

    Berisio, Rita; Vitagliano, Luigi; Mazzarella, Lelio; Zagari, Adriana

    2002-02-01

    The first report of the full-length structure of the collagen-like polypeptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3) is given. This structure was obtained from crystals grown in a microgravity environment, which diffracted up to 1.3 A, using synchrotron radiation. The final model, which was refined to an R(factor) of 0.18, is the highest-resolution description of a collagen triple helix reported to date. This structure provides clues regarding a series of aspects related to collagen triple helix structure and assembly. The strict dependence of proline puckering on the position inside the Pro-Pro-Gly triplets and the correlation between backbone and side chain dihedral angles support the propensity-based mechanism of triple helix stabilization/destabilization induced by hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the analysis of [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3) packing, which is governed by electrostatic interactions, suggests that charges may act as locking features in the axial organization of triple helices in the collagen fibrils.

  13. Humanoids Learning to Walk: A Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value. PMID:23675345

  14. Experiential learning in nursing consultation education via clinical simulation with actors: action research.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Saionara Nunes; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Martini, Jussara Gue; Caravaca-Morera, Jaime Alonso; Bernardi, Mariely Carmelina

    2015-02-01

    This was an action research study conducted during an undergraduate nursing course. The objective was to propose and implement experiential learning for nursing consultation education using clinical simulation with actors. The 4 steps of action research were followed: planning, action, observation and reflection. Three nursing undergraduate students participated in the study. Data were collected in May and July 2013 via participant comments and interviews and were analyzed in accordance with the operative proposal for qualitative data analysis. Planning included constructing and validating the clinical guides, selecting and training the actors, organizing and preparing the scenario and the issuing invitations to the participants. The action was carried out according to Kolb's (1984) 4 stages of learning cycles: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation. Clinical simulation involves different subjects' participation in all stages, and action research is a method that enables the clinical stimulation to be implemented. It must be guided by clear learning objectives and by a critical pedagogy that encourages critical thinking in students. Using actors and a real scenario facilitated psychological fidelity, and debriefing was the key moment of the reflective process that facilitated the integral training of students through experiential learning.

  15. The actor-director and patient-therapist relationships: a process comparison.

    PubMed

    Weiner, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the actor and director, like that between the patient and psychotherapist, relies on intense emotional involvement. Both demand sensitivity, reciprocity, and a deep understanding of human behavior. Because dramatic action is created through continuous conflict between characters, actors must explore not only their actions, but also the reactions of those with whom they are in relationship. The process of therapy is equally interdependent. Through the relationship, therapists provide a context in which their patients can work through their conflicts. As in the rehearsal process, actions are explored in a supportive environment. This paper has presented a process comparison of the actor-director and patient-therapist relationships by proposing that both are art forms that rely on the skill of a trusted facilitator. Some of the techniques explored include: empathic attunement, emotional recall, transference, overcoming performance obstacles, improvisation, risk-taking, the pleasure principle, and creating a sense of family through new object relations. Like therapists, directors never forget that their work cannot be performed alone; it depends on interaction with the most delicate of phenomena: the human soul.

  16. Creating Inquiry Between Technology Developers and Civil Society Actors: Learning from Experiences Around Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Lotte

    2016-06-01

    Engaging civil society actors as knowledgeable dialogue partners in the development and governance of emerging technologies is a new challenge. The starting point of this paper is the observation that the design and orchestration of current organized interaction events shows limitations, particularly in the articulation of issues and in learning how to address the indeterminacies that go with emerging technologies. This paper uses Dewey's notion of 'publics' and 'reflective inquiry' to outline ways of doing better and to develop requirements for a more productive involvement of civil society actors. By studying four novel spaces for interaction in the domain of nanotechnology, this paper examines whether and how elements of Dewey's thought are visible and under what conditions. One of the main findings is that, in our society, special efforts are needed in order for technology developers and civil society actors to engage in a joint inquiry on emerging nanotechnology. Third persons, like social scientists and philosophers, play a role in this respect in addition to external input such as empirically informed scenarios and somewhat protected spaces.

  17. The new face of terrorism in Turkey: actor unknown political murders.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Sadik

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the temporal and spatial trends in actor unknown political murders in Turkey. A total of 1852 cases, defined as actor unknown political murders, occurred in Turkey between 1975 and 2006, with the peak years being 1980 and 1994. Three different time frames could be defined: 1975-1993, 1994-1999, and 2000-2006. During the first period, cases were common all over Turkey, but during the second and third periods, they were more frequent in metropolitan areas and in the southeast. Incidents occurring during the first period could be attributed to the struggle between right- and left-wing supporters, while most murders occurring during the second and third periods seem to have been related to Kurdish separatism. Although the most crucial factor in preventing actor unknown political murders is a politically stable atmosphere, forensics can also play an important role. Turkey needs to improve its forensic services to bring them in line with international standards, namely the Minnesota Protocol.

  18. Humanoids Learning to Walk: A Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value.

  19. Application of actor level social characteristic indicator selection for the precursory detection of bullies in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Holly M.; Fields, Jeremy; Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a national problem for families, courts, schools, and the economy. Social, educational, and professional lives of victims are affected. Early detection of bullies mitigates destructive effects of bullying. Our previous research found, given specific characteristics of an actor, actor logics can be developed utilizing input from natural language processing and graph analysis. Given similar characteristics of cyberbullies, in this paper, we create specific actor logics and apply these to a select social media dataset for the purpose of rapid identification of cyberbullying.

  20. The pro-oxidant activity of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    Aluminum, a non-redox-active metal is, nevertheless, a pro-oxidant both in in vitro preparations and in vivo. It facilitates both superoxide- and iron-driven biological oxidation by mechanisms that remain to be resolved. More than 10 years ago Fridovich and colleagues suggested that the facilitation of superoxide-driven biological oxidation by aluminum was due to an interaction between the metal and the superoxide radical anion (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 13: 79-81; 1992). This thesis has been examined herein and it is concluded that much, if not all, of the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum might be explained by the formation of an aluminum superoxide semireduced radical ion.

  1. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  2. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  3. The PRO nurse: advocate for quality care.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M; Maichele, J

    1993-01-01

    Since the inception of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, nurses have assumed expanded roles in ensuring the monitoring of the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. This unique area of nursing practice offers new challenges and employment opportunities for the nurse as a patient advocate. Nurses who are interested in this role may contact state PRO directors or watch for specific recruitment advertisements in nursing magazines.

  4. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  5. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    PubMed

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage.

  6. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  7. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  8. ProUCL version 4.00.04 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL Version 4.00.04 is an upgrade of ProUCL Version 4.0 (EPA, 2007). ProUCL 4.00.02 contains statistical methods to address various environmental issues for both full data sets without nondetects and for data sets with NDs (also known as left-censored d

  9. c[D-pro-Pro-D-pro-N-methyl-Ala] adopts a rigid conformation that serves as a scaffold to mimic reverse-turns.

    PubMed

    Arbor, Sage; Kao, Jeff; Wu, Yun; Marshall, Garland R

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptides (CTPs) such as tentoxin (Halloin et al., Plant Physiol 1970, 45, 310-314; Saad, Phytopathology 1970, 60, 415-418), ampicidin (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147), HC-toxin (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447), and trapoxin (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328; Itazaki et al., J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1990, 43, 1524-1532) have a wide range of biological activity and potential use ranging from herbicides (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447; Judson, J Agric Food Chem 1987, 35, 451-456) to therapeutics (Loiseau, Biopolymers 2003, 69, 363-385) for malaria (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147) and cancer (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328). To elucidate scaffolds that have few low-energy conformations and could serve as semirigid reverse-turn mimetics, the flexibility of CTPs was determined computationally. Four analogs of cyclic tetraproline c[Pro-pro-Pro-pro] with alternating L- and D-prolines, namely c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala], c[pip-Pro-pip-Pro], c[pro-Pip-pro-Pro], and c[Ala-Pro-pip-Pro] were synthesized and characterized by NOESY NMR. Both molecular mechanics and Density Functional Theory quantum calculations found these head-to-tail CTPs to be constrained to one or two relatively stable conformations. NMR structures, while not always yielding the same lowest energy conformation as expected by in silico predictions, confirmed only one or two highly populated solution conformations for all four peptides examined. c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala] was shown to have a single all trans-amide bond conformation from both in silico predictions and NMR characterization, and to be a reverse-turn mimetic by overlapping four Calpha-Cbeta bonds with those for approximately 6.5% (Tran, J Comput Aided Mol Des 2005, 19, 551-566) of reverse-turns in the Protein Data Bank PDB with a RMSD of 0.57 A.

  10. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning.

  11. Actor-Partner Effects of Male Couples Substance Use with Sex and Engagement in Condomless Anal Sex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Pan, Yue; Feaster, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have examined actor-partner effects about male couples' substance use with sex. Dyadic data from 361 male couples were used to examine these effects regarding engagement in condomless anal sex (CAS) by type of partner and substance. Couples with one or both partners reported using marijuana, amyl nitrates, party drugs, and/or stimulants with sex in their relationship was positively associated with them having had CAS. Actor-partner effects for stimulant use with sex with the main partner were associated with CAS with a casual MSM partner. Only an actor effect for stimulant use with sex with a casual MSM partner was associated with CAS with that partner type, and an actor effect for marijuana use with sex for both partner types was associated with CAS with both partner types. These findings illuminate the need for further inquiry about male couples' substance use with sex for HIV prevention.

  12. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expert users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.

  13. Daily associations among self-control, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship functioning: an examination of actor and partner effects.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict.

  14. Actors and intentions in the development process of a mobile phone platform for self-management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ranerup, Agneta; Hallberg, Inger

    2014-06-24

    Aim: The aim of this study was to enhance the knowledge regarding actors and intentions in the development process of a mobile phone platform for self-management of hypertension. Methods: Our research approach was a 14-month longitudinal "real-time ethnography" method of description and analysis. Data were collected through focus groups with patients and providers, patient interviews, and design meetings with researchers and experts. The analysis was informed by the concepts of actors and inscriptions in actor-network theory (ANT). Results: Our study showed that laypersons, scientific actors, as well as technology itself, might influence development processes of support for self-management of hypertension. The intentions were inscribed into the technology design as well as the models of learning and treatment. Conclusions: The study highlighted important aspects of how actors and intentions feature in the development of the mobile phone platform to support self-management of hypertension. The study indicated the multifacetedness of the participating actors, including the prominent role of technology. The concrete results of such processes included questions in the self-report system, learning and treatment models.

  15. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide, suggesting activity-dependent regulation of its extracellular levels. Exposure of BDNF pro-peptide to mature hippocampal neurons in culture dramatically reduced dendritic spine density. This effect was mediated by caspase-3, as revealed by studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown. BDNF pro-peptide also increased the number of ‘elongated' mitochondria and cytosolic cytochrome c, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-3 pathway. These results, along with BDNF pro-peptide effects recently reported on growth cones and long-term depression (LTD), suggest that BDNF pro-peptide is a negative regulator of neuronal structure and function. PMID:27310873

  16. Performance evaluation of a simulated data-flow computer with low-resolution actors

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudiot, J.L.; Ercegovac, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    In the ambition to go beyond a single-processor architecture, to enhance programmability, and to take advantage of the power brought by VLSI devices, data-flow systems and languages were devised. Indeed, due to their functional semantics, these languages offer promise in the area of multiprocessor systems design and will possibly enable the development of computers comprising large numbers of processors with a corresponding increase in performance. Several important design problems have to be surmounted and are described here. The authors thus present a ''variable-resolution'' scheme, where the level of primitives can be selected so that the overhead due to the data-flow mode of operation is reduced. A deterministic simulation of a data-flow machine with a variable number of processing elements was undertaken and is described here. The tests were performed using various program structures such as directed acyclic graphs, vector operations, and array handling. The performance results observed confirm the advantage of actors with variable size and indicate the presence of a trade-off between overhead control and the need to control parallelism in the program. The authors also look at some of the communication issues and examine the effect of several interconnection networks (dual counter-rotating rings, daisy chain, and optimal double loop network) on the performance. It is shown how increasing communication costs induce a performance degradation that can be masked when the size of the basic data-flow actor is increased. The associative memory cycle time is also changed with similar conclusions. Finally, the lower-resolution scheme is applied to the array handling case; the observations confirm the advantage of a more complex actor at the array level.

  17. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people’s actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  18. Actor groups, related needs, and challenges at the climate downscaling interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Benestad, Rasmus; Diamando, Vlachogannis; Heike, Hübener; Kanamaru, Hideki; Pagé, Christian; Margarida Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro; Maraun, Douglas; Kreienkamp, Frank; Christodoulides, Paul; Fischer, Andreas; Szabo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    At the climate downscaling interface, numerous downscaling techniques and different philosophies compete on being the best method in their specific terms. Thereby, it remains unclear to what extent and for which purpose these downscaling techniques are valid or even the most appropriate choice. A common validation framework that compares all the different available methods was missing so far. The initiative VALUE closes this gap with such a common validation framework. An essential part of a validation framework for downscaling techniques is the definition of appropriate validation measures. The selection of validation measures should consider the needs of the stakeholder: some might need a temporal or spatial average of a certain variable, others might need temporal or spatial distributions of some variables, still others might need extremes for the variables of interest or even inter-variable dependencies. Hence, a close interaction of climate data providers and climate data users is necessary. Thus, the challenge in formulating a common validation framework mirrors also the challenges between the climate data providers and the impact assessment community. This poster elaborates the issues and challenges at the downscaling interface as it is seen within the VALUE community. It suggests three different actor groups: one group consisting of the climate data providers, the other two groups being climate data users (impact modellers and societal users). Hence, the downscaling interface faces classical transdisciplinary challenges. We depict a graphical illustration of actors involved and their interactions. In addition, we identified four different types of issues that need to be considered: i.e. data based, knowledge based, communication based, and structural issues. They all may, individually or jointly, hinder an optimal exchange of data and information between the actor groups at the downscaling interface. Finally, some possible ways to tackle these issues are

  19. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals.

  20. Multinational Experiment 7: A Process for Deterring and Influencing Actors in Space, v1.01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    6.4.2), Present-bias (6.4.4), Omni-balancing (6.4.6), Rubicon Theory (6.4.7), Organisational Model (6.5), Politics Model (6.6) UNCLASSIFIED Page...threats originating internally, as opposed to external threats. 6.4.7 Rubicon Theory explains a difference between decision making processes before...Effort shifts to carrying out the chosen course of action. Rubicon theory proposes that once actors have selected a course of action changing that

  1. The legal highs problem in the Polish printed media--actors, claims, and its hidden meanings.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Katarzyna; Bujalski, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of a qualitative analysis of press articles focused on legal highs in Poland. The aim of analysis was the identification of all social actors involved in the media discourse, the arguments used, and the claims made in the frame of social, political, economical, legal, and moral issues. This analysis covered two major daily newspapers--Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita and two weeklies--Polityka and Newsweek. Articles were collected during a systematic analysis covering the complete number of issues starting from 2008 to 2011. As a result, a base of 386 articles was developed. The study was founded by the statutory budget.

  2. Photoelectron spectrum of PrO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2015-08-01

    The photoelectron (PE) spectrum of PrO- exhibits a short 835 ± 20 cm-1 vibrational progression of doublets (210 ± 30 cm-1 splitting) assigned to transitions from the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s2 Ω = 4 anion ground state to the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 3.5 and 4.5 neutral states. This assignment is analogous to that of the recently reported PE spectrum of CeO-, though the 82 cm-1 splitting between the 4f [2F2.5] σ6s Ω = 2 and Ω = 3 CeO neutral states could not be resolved [Ray et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064305 (2015)]. The origin of the transition to the Ω = 3.5 neutral ground state is 0.96 ± 0.01 eV, which is the adiabatic electron affinity of PrO. Density functional theory calculations on the anion and neutral molecules support the assignment. The appearance of multiple, irregularly spaced and low-intensity features observed ca. 1 eV above the ground state cannot be reconciled with low-lying electronic states of PrO that are accessible via one-electron detachment. However, neutral states correlated with the 4f2 [3H4] 5d superconfiguration are predicted to be approximately 1 eV above the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 3.5 neutral ground state, leading to the assignment of these features to shake-up transitions to the excited neutral states. Based on tentative hot band transition assignments, the term energy of the previously unobserved 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 2.5 neutral state is determined to be 1840 ± 110 cm-1.

  3. Adiponectinemia controls pro-angiogenic cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Eren, Philippe; Camus, Stéphane; Matrone, Gianfranco; Ebrahimian, Téni G; François, Delphine; Tedgui, Alain; Sébastien Silvestre, Jean; Blanc-Brude, Olivier P

    2009-11-01

    Angiogenic cell therapy with the transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) or bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) receives considerable attention as an approach to revascularize ischemic tissues. Adiponectin is a circulating hormone produced by the apM1 gene in adipocytes. Adiponectin modulates lipid metabolism and obesity, and it was recently found to promote physiological angiogenesis in response to ischemia. Patients with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors or myocardial infarction may benefit from progenitor cell therapy, but they display depressed adiponectinemia. We hypothesized that adiponectin stimulation of transplanted cells is critical for their pro-angiogenic function. We aimed to establish whether adiponectinemia in the cell donor or in the cell recipient determines the success of pro-angiogenic cell therapy. In vitro, we found that conditioned media derived from wild-type adipocytes (adipo-CM) or purified adiponectin strongly enhanced BM-MNC survival and proliferation and stimulated EPC differentiation, whereas adipo-CM from apM1-/- adipocytes was one-half less effective. On the other hand, wild-type and apM1-/- BM-MNC displayed similar resistance to apoptosis and proliferation rates. In vivo, wild-type, and apM1-/- BM-MNC induced similar angiogenic reactions in wild-type ischemic hindlimbs. In contrast, wild-type BM-MNC had much diminished effects in apM1-/- ischemic hindlimbs. We concluded that adiponectin enhances BM-MNC survival and proliferation, and adiponectinemia in the cell therapy recipient is essential for the pro-angiogenic benefits of cell therapy. These observations imply that progenitor cell transplantation might only induce angiogenesis in patients with high adiponectinemia.

  4. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  5. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    PubMed

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements.

  6. Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made.

  7. Pro-neurotrophins, sortilin, and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gary R; Nykjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling is important in the development and functional maintenance of nociceptors, but it also plays a central role in initiating and sustaining heat and mechanical hyperalgesia following inflammation. NGF signaling in pain has traditionally been thought of as primarily engaging the classic high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA to initiate sensitization events. However, the discovery that secreted proforms of nerve NGF have biological functions distinct from the processed mature factors raised the possibility that these proneurotrophins (proNTs) may have distinct function in painful conditions. ProNTs engage a novel receptor system that is distinct from that of mature neurotrophins, consisting of sortilin, a type I membrane protein belonging to the VPS10p family, and its co-receptor, the classic low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Here, we review how this new receptor system may itself function with or independently of the classic TrkA system in regulating inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:24494677

  8. Autophagy and the (Pro)renin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Binger, Katrina J; Muller, Dominik N

    2013-10-21

    The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a newly reported member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS); a hormonal cascade responsible for regulating blood pressure. Originally, identification of PRR was heralded as the next drug target of the RAS, of which such therapies would have increased benefits against target-organ damage and hypertension. However, in the years since its discovery, several conditional knockout mouse models of PRR have demonstrated an essential role for this receptor unrelated to the RAS and blood pressure. Specific deletion of PRR in podocytes or cardiomyocytes resulted in the rapid onset of organ failure and subsequently animal mortality after only a matter of weeks. In both cell types, loss of PRR resulted in the intracellular accumulation of autophagosomes and misfolded proteins, indicating a disturbance in autophagy. In light of the fact that the majority of PRR is located intracellularly, this molecular function appears to be more relevant than its ability to bind to high, non-physiological concentrations of (pro)renin. This review will focus on the role of PRR in autophagy and its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Understanding the link between PRR, autophagy and how its loss results in cell death will be essential for deciphering its role in physiology and pathology.

  9. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  10. Value importance and value congruence as determinants of trust in health policy actors.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Susan M; Ponting, J Rick

    2003-09-01

    The paper examines levels and determinants of trust in a health care system and in key actors in the health policy community. Talcott Parsons theorizes that the sharing of common values is a necessary condition for interpersonal trust to exist; this paper tests that notion at the level of systemic (institutional) trust. The paper reports findings of a 1999 survey of 493 randomly selected residents of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It uses multiple regression analysis to identify the determinants of three different types of trust-generalized systemic trust, fiduciary trust, and generalized trust in particular actors' input to health system changes. Among the numerous independent variables, special attention is devoted to the degree of congruence or incongruence between the importance which respondents attach to one of the values enunciated in the Canada Health Act-namely, 'accessibility' (equal access to quality health care)-and the importance which respondents believe is attached to that value by the Regional Health Authority and by the Premier of the province. Both value importance and value congruence on equal accessibility are found to be important factors explaining variation in all three types of trust. In explaining levels of trust in the Premier on the issue of health care system reform, congruence on equal accessibility proved to be even more important than such factors as political partisanship, political cynicism, and personal experience as a patient in the health care system. Findings also suggest that there is an emotional component to systemic trust.

  11. The actor-critic learning is behind the matching law: matching versus optimal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yutaka; Fukai, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make a correct choice of behavior from various options is crucial for animals' survival. The neural basis for the choice of behavior has been attracting growing attention in research on biological and artificial neural systems. Alternative choice tasks with variable ratio (VR) and variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement have often been employed in studying decision making by animals and humans. In the VR schedule task, alternative choices are reinforced with different probabilities, and subjects learn to select the behavioral response rewarded more frequently. In the VI schedule task, alternative choices are reinforced at different average intervals independent of the choice frequencies, and the choice behavior follows the so-called matching law. The two policies appear robustly in subjects' choice of behavior, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that these seemingly different policies can appear from a common computational algorithm known as actor-critic learning. We present experimentally testable variations of the VI schedule in which the matching behavior gives only a suboptimal solution to decision making and show that the actor-critic system exhibits the matching behavior in the steady state of the learning even when the matching behavior is suboptimal. However, it is found that the matching behavior can earn approximately the same reward as the optimal one in many practical situations.

  12. Amnesia in an actor: Learning and re-learning of play passages despite severe autobiographical amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael D; Morton, John

    2015-06-01

    We describe the case of an accomplished actor, whom we term AB, who suffered severe amnesia following a cardiac arrest and hypoxic brain damage, affecting medial temporal and thalamic structures. His performance on standard episodic memory tests, and on measures of retrograde amnesia, including autobiographical memory, was severely impaired. When presented with passages from plays he had not appeared in, AB showed a severe impairment at the first learning trial, but thereafter showed a 'normal' learning curve for this semantically and syntactically complex material. On being presented with passages from plays he had performed in the past, AB did not show any recognition of them whatsoever, as one might expect from his severe episodic memory impairment. However, AB showed a striking benefit (savings score) in relearning passages he had previously performed, compared with new passages, despite not having any autobiographical recall of having performed the relearned passages before. Moreover, although his initial recall performance in learning these passages was impaired compared with healthy control actors of similar age and experience, AB demonstrated the same incremental learning rate on subsequent learning trials of the passages as did the controls. We conclude that, although severely impaired at the first learning trial (on both 'new' and 'old' passages), AB was able to employ his long-established semantic and procedural skills to attempt the task, and that thereafter he showed a 'normal' rate of incremental learning from a lower baseline.

  13. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicholas S; Baucom, Katherine J W; Bourne, Stacia; Butner, Jonathan; Crenshaw, Alexander O; Hogan, Jasara N; Imel, Zac E; Wiltshire, Travis J; Baucom, Brian R W

    2017-02-27

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor-partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce an interdependent pattern that emerges over time. Additionally, positive within-person, or actor, effects are commonly misinterpreted as indicating growth from one time point to the next when they actually represent decline. We suggest that change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and vector field diagrams (VFDs) can be used to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial in making VFDs using multilevel modeling. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Actor-critic-based optimal tracking for partially unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a partially model-free adaptive optimal control solution to the deterministic nonlinear discrete-time (DT) tracking control problem in the presence of input constraints. The tracking error dynamics and reference trajectory dynamics are first combined to form an augmented system. Then, a new discounted performance function based on the augmented system is presented for the optimal nonlinear tracking problem. In contrast to the standard solution, which finds the feedforward and feedback terms of the control input separately, the minimization of the proposed discounted performance function gives both feedback and feedforward parts of the control input simultaneously. This enables us to encode the input constraints into the optimization problem using a nonquadratic performance function. The DT tracking Bellman equation and tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) are derived. An actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm is used to learn the solution to the tracking HJB equation online without requiring knowledge of the system drift dynamics. That is, two neural networks (NNs), namely, actor NN and critic NN, are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Early social fear in relation to play with an unfamiliar peer: Actor and partner effects.

    PubMed

    Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Fox, Nathan A; Henderson, Heather A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal reports of social fear at 24 months and social behaviors with an unfamiliar peer during play at 36 months, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 1999). The APIM model was used to not only replicate previous findings of direct effects of early social fear on children's own social behavior (i.e., actor effects), but also to extend these findings by examining whether children's early social fear relates to an unfamiliar peer's behavior at 36 months (i.e., partner effects). Results revealed that social fear was associated with lower levels of children's own social engagement as well as less social engagement and dysregulated behavior in their play partners. These findings show that toddlers' social interactive behaviors are interdependent and reflect unique contributions of both the individual and their social partner's characteristics. In contrast, social fear was associated with children's own social wariness with the unfamiliar peer, but not their play partners' wariness. We discuss findings in terms of the influence of early social fear on young children's interpersonal environments and the potential role of these altered environments in supporting continuity of social fear and wariness over time.

  16. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    PubMed

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  17. Actor coalitions and implementation in strategic delta planning: Opening the Haringvliet sluices in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermoolen, Myrthe; Hermans, Leon

    2016-04-01

    The sustained development of urbanizing deltas is influenced by natural and societal processes. These processes are characterized by their long time span, in which conflicting interests of different stakeholders have to be reconciled. Reaching consent between actors is a challenge itself, but maintaining this consent throughout different stages of strategic planning - from advocacy and agenda setting to implementation - over these long periods of time is even more difficult. The implementation stage still includes many different actors involved, some of which are different than the ones who agreed before, due to both the long run of the strategic delta planning, and to a shift of tasks and responsibilities. Thus, implementation of strategic plans often features delays, deviations of agreed plans and unintended outcomes. A key question therefore is how coalition dynamics in (pre-)planning stages influence and are influenced by the coalition dynamics during implementation. The different stages in strategic planning are often studied from either a plan formulation or an implementation perspective, but the connection between the two proves an important bottleneck for strategic planning in deltas. For instance, many building with nature solutions are still in their pilot-phase, and their upscaling can profit from lessons concerning past implementation efforts. The proposed contribution will use the case of the management of the Dutch Haringvliet sluices and the decision ('Kierbesluit') in 2000 to put these sluices ajar, to study the link between the different strategic delta planning stages and the role of the formation and change of actor coalitions herein. With the completion of the Haringvliet dam with outlet sluices in 1970, the Haringvliet estuary of the rivers Rhine and Meuse was closed off from the sea, creating a fresh water lake. This was done to make the Dutch Southwest delta safe from flooding, and had positive effects for agricultural water supply and

  18. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org.

  19. A design and application of a multi-agent system for simulation of multi-actor spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Ligtenberg, Arend; Wachowicz, Monica; Bregt, Arnold K; Beulens, Adrie; Kettenis, Dirk L

    2004-08-01

    Multi-agent Systems (MAS) offer a conceptual approach to include multi-actor decision making into models of land use change. The main goal is to explore the use of MAS to simulate spatial scenarios based on modelling multi-actor decision-making within a spatial planning process. We demonstrate MAS that consists of agents representing organizations and interest groups involved in an urban allocation problem during a land use planning process. The multi-actor based decision-making is modelled by generating beliefs and preferences of actors about the location of and relation between spatial objects. This allows each agent to confront these beliefs and preferences with it's own desires and with that of other agents. The MAS loosely resembles belief, desire and intentions architecture. Based on a case study for a hypothetical land use planning situation in a study area in the Netherlands we discuss the potential and limitations of the MAS to build models that enable spatial planners to include the 'actor factor' in their analysis and design of spatial scenarios. In addition, our experiments revealed the need for further research on the representation of spatial objects and reasoning, learning and communication about allocation problems using MAS.

  20. The Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in Senegal: Untangling the Interactions Between International Institutions and National Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Gianluca; Brans, Marleen; Dème, Moustapha; Failler, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    International institutions, understood as sets of rules contained in international agreements, are aimed at orienting national governments towards specific policy options. Nevertheless, they can determine a change in national policies and practices only if states are willing and capable of incorporating international obligations into their national legislations and ensuring their application and enforcement in areas that follow completely under national jurisdiction. The establishment of marine protected areas promoted by international agreements as a tool for the protection of marine resources represents an interesting case for revealing the complex interactions between international institutions and national actors. Particularly, the establishment of these areas in Senegal shows the salience of domestic constellations of actors who may support or undercut national commitments to international regimes: political elites, bureaucracies, the general public and target groups. By anchoring the empirical analysis to an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, the article explains how dynamic constellations of actors can distort the penetration of international objectives in the national policy framework. Different constellations of national actors can indeed bend international institutions at different moments: during the formulation of a new law in line with international obligations; in the definition of its implementation framework; and in the enforcement of national policies.

  1. Uneasy allies: pro-choice physicians, feminist health activists and the struggle for abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C E; Weitz, T A; Stacey, C L

    2004-09-01

    Abortion represents a particularly interesting subject for a social movements analysis of healthcare issues because of the involvement of both feminist pro-choice activists and a segment of the medical profession. Although both groups have long shared the same general goal of legal abortion, the alliance has over time been an uneasy one, and in many ways a contradictory one. This paper traces points of convergence as well as points of contention between the two groups, specifically: highlighting the tensions between the feminist view of abortion as a women-centred service, with a limited, 'technical' role for the physicians, and the abortion-providing physicians' logic of further medicalization/professional upgrading of abortion services as a response to the longstanding marginality and stigmatisation of abortion providers. Only by noting the evolving relationships between these two crucial sets of actors can one fully understand the contemporary abortion rights movement. We conclude by speculating about similar patterns in medical/lay relationships in other health social movements where 'dissident doctors' and lay activists are similarly seeking recognition for medical services that are controversial.

  2. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  3. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. Objective The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Methods Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader’s activity as a video commentator, and uploader’s physical location by country. Results The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Conclusions Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more

  4. Visions of the Future - the Changing Role of Actors in Data-Intensive Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, L.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Around the world scientific disciplines are increasingly facing the challenge of a burgeoning volume of research data. This data avalanche consists of a stream of information generated from sensors and scientific instruments, digital recordings, social-science surveys or drawn from the World Wide Web. All areas of the scientific economy are affected by this rapid growth in data, from the logging of digs in Archaeology, telescope data with observations of distant galaxies in Astrophysics or data from polls and surveys in the Social Sciences. The challenge for science is not only to process the data through analysis, reduction and visualization, but also to set up infrastructures for provisioning and storing the data. The rise of new technologies and developments also poses new challenges for the actors in the area of research data infrastructures. Libraries, as one of the actors, enable access to digital media and support the publication of research data and its long-term archiving. Digital media and research data, however, introduce new aspects into the libraries' range of activities. How are we to imagine the library of the future? The library as an interface to the computer centers? Will library and computer center fuse into a new service unit? What role will scientific publishers play in future? Currently the traditional form of publication still carry greater weight - articles for conferences and journals. But will this still be the case in future? New forms of publication are already making their presence felt. The tasks of the computer centers may also change. Yesterday their remit was provisioning of rapid hardware, whereas now everything revolves around the topic of data and services. Finally, how about the researchers themselves? Not such a long time ago, Geoscience was not necessarily seen as linked to Computer Science. Nowadays, modern Geoscience relies heavily on IT and its techniques. Thus, in how far will the profile of the modern geoscientist change

  5. How large are actor and partner effects of personality on relationship satisfaction? The importance of controlling for shared method variance.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Previous research suggests that the personality of a relationship partner predicts not only the individual's own satisfaction with the relationship but also the partner's satisfaction. Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, the present research tested whether actor and partner effects of personality are biased when the same method (e.g., self-report) is used for the assessment of personality and relationship satisfaction and, consequently, shared method variance is not controlled for. Data came from 186 couples, of whom both partners provided self- and partner reports on the Big Five personality traits. Depending on the research design, actor effects were larger than partner effects (when using only self-reports), smaller than partner effects (when using only partner reports), or of about the same size as partner effects (when using self- and partner reports). The findings attest to the importance of controlling for shared method variance in dyadic data analysis.

  6. Actor-Network Theory and methodology: Just what does it mean to say that nonhumans have agency?

    PubMed

    Sayes, Edwin

    2014-02-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a controversial social theory. In no respect is this more so than the role it 'gives' to nonhumans: nonhumans have agency, as Latour provocatively puts it. This article aims to interrogate the multiple layers of this declaration to understand what it means to assert with Actor-Network Theory that nonhumans exercise agency. The article surveys a wide corpus of statements by the position's leading figures and emphasizes the wider methodological framework in which these statements are embedded. With this work done, readers will then be better placed to reject or accept the Actor-Network position - understanding more precisely what exactly it is at stake in this decision.

  7. HPV vaccine introduction at the local level in a developing country: attitudes and criteria among key actors.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Marion; Wiesner, Carolina; Cortés, Claudia; Trujillo, Lina María

    2010-05-01

    In most developing countries, HPV vaccines have been licensed but there are no national policy recommendations, nor is it clear how decisions on the introduction of this new vaccine are made. Decentralization processes in many Latin American countries favor decision-making at the local level. Through a qualitative study we explored knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and the criteria that influence decision-making among local health actors in four regions of Colombia. We conducted a total of 14 in-depths interviews with different actors; for the analysis we performed content analysis. Results indicate that decision-making on the HPV vaccine at the local level has mainly been driven by pressure from local political actors, in a setting where there is low technical knowledge of the vaccine. This increases the risk of initiatives that may foster inequity. Local decisions and initiatives need to be strengthened technically and supported by national-level decisions, guidelines and follow-up.

  8. Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is an increasingly influential, but still deeply contested, approach to understand humans and their interactions with inanimate objects. We argue that health services research, and in particular evaluations of complex IT systems in health service organisations, may benefit from being informed by Actor-Network Theory perspectives. Discussion Despite some limitations, an Actor-Network Theory-based approach is conceptually useful in helping to appreciate the complexity of reality (including the complexity of organisations) and the active role of technology in this context. This can prove helpful in understanding how social effects are generated as a result of associations between different actors in a network. Of central importance in this respect is that Actor-Network Theory provides a lens through which to view the role of technology in shaping social processes. Attention to this shaping role can contribute to a more holistic appreciation of the complexity of technology introduction in healthcare settings. It can also prove practically useful in providing a theoretically informed approach to sampling (by drawing on informants that are related to the technology in question) and analysis (by providing a conceptual tool and vocabulary that can form the basis for interpretations). We draw on existing empirical work in this area and our ongoing work investigating the integration of electronic health record systems introduced as part of England's National Programme for Information Technology to illustrate salient points. Summary Actor-Network Theory needs to be used pragmatically with an appreciation of its shortcomings. Our experiences suggest it can be helpful in investigating technology implementations in healthcare settings. PMID:21040575

  9. Actor-partner effects of demographic and relationship factors associated with HIV risk within gay male couples.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Champeau, Donna; Harvey, S Marie

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has investigated the association of relationship factors and dynamics with sexual behaviors and HIV risk among gay male couples. However, few studies with gay male couples have used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework to examine whether factors influence an individual and his partner's sexual risk behaviors. None of these studies analyzed whether relationship factors had influenced the sexual risk behaviors of both partners within the couple. Our cross-sectional study used dyadic data from 142 gay male couples to assess actor-partner effects of relationship commitment, trust, and investment in one's sexual agreement for HIV risk. Multilevel modeling was used to examine which actor-partner effects of these factors were predictive of individuals and their partners having had UAI within and outside the relationship. Results indicated that participants' likelihood of having had UAI within and outside of the relationship significantly decreased with: (1) actor effects of value in and commitment to a sexual agreement, and quality of alternatives to the relationship and (2) partner effects of participant's age, dependability of trust, quality of alternatives to the relationship, and investment of relationship commitment. No significant actor-partner effects were detected for having had UAI within the relationship. Our findings suggest that future HIV prevention strategies should take into account how relationship factors influence an individual and his main partners' sexual risk behaviors and in turn, the couple's risk for HIV. However, more research is needed to examine how actor-partner effects of relationship factors influence a variety of sexual risk behaviors within gay male couples.

  10. [The prevention of voice disorders in the actor: protocol and follow-up nine months of professional theater].

    PubMed

    Ormezzano, Y; Delale, A; Lamy-Simonian, A

    2011-01-01

    In July 2009, at the beginning of this work, 26 theses addressing professional principles of voice were listed in the database of SUDOC (Système Universitaire de Documentation): 9 related to voices of teachers (about 900,000* professionals in France), 14 theses relating to singers (7500** professionals), and only 3 about the voice of actors (20 000*** professional actors in France in 2006). The latter pertaining to concerning rookie actors (sensibilisation vocale auprès du comédien débutant Bichet, Linda, Bordeaux II, 2006), the mechanical larynx (étude des mécanismes laryngés dans la voix projetée: cas particulier des comédiennes Guerin, Mélanie, Paris VI, 2009), vocal fatigue (Fatigue vocale après une tâche d'utilisation prolongée de la voix chez le comédien Canaan Baggioni, Brigitte, Aix-Marseille II, 2009). Professional actors are plentiful; their training in vocal technique is very heterogeneous, or non-existent: it is not a prerequisite to have a degree to work as an actor! This lack of vocal technique is associated with risk factors specific to the acting profession: numerous travels in air-conditioned vehicles, unsuitable workplaces; dusty or poorly heated, irregular working patterns, excessive demands from directors... All this makes the actors highly susceptible to voice disorders. The protocol for the prevention of voice disorders presented here is holistic and ecological. This work also examines the effectiveness of such a preventive protocol aimed at theatre comedians.

  11. Explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions is shaped by expertise: evidence from professional actors

    PubMed Central

    Conson, Massimiliano; Ponari, Marta; Monteforte, Eva; Ricciato, Giusy; Sarà, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Can reading others' emotional states be shaped by expertise? We assessed processing of emotional facial expressions in professional actors trained either to voluntary activate mimicry to reproduce character's emotions (as foreseen by the “Mimic Method”), or to infer others' inner states from reading the emotional context (as foreseen by “Stanislavski Method”). In explicit recognition of facial expressions (Experiment 1), the two experimental groups differed from each other and from a control group with no acting experience: the Mimic group was more accurate, whereas the Stanislavski group was slower. Neither acting experience, instead, influenced implicit processing of emotional faces (Experiment 2). We argue that expertise can selectively influence explicit recognition of others' facial expressions, depending on the kind of “emotional expertise”. PMID:23825467

  12. Explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions is shaped by expertise: evidence from professional actors.

    PubMed

    Conson, Massimiliano; Ponari, Marta; Monteforte, Eva; Ricciato, Giusy; Sarà, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Can reading others' emotional states be shaped by expertise? We assessed processing of emotional facial expressions in professional actors trained either to voluntary activate mimicry to reproduce character's emotions (as foreseen by the "Mimic Method"), or to infer others' inner states from reading the emotional context (as foreseen by "Stanislavski Method"). In explicit recognition of facial expressions (Experiment 1), the two experimental groups differed from each other and from a control group with no acting experience: the Mimic group was more accurate, whereas the Stanislavski group was slower. Neither acting experience, instead, influenced implicit processing of emotional faces (Experiment 2). We argue that expertise can selectively influence explicit recognition of others' facial expressions, depending on the kind of "emotional expertise".

  13. Testing crossover effects in an actor-partner interdependence model among Chinese dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Cheung, Fanny M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided.

  14. Virtual communication about psychiatric intensive care units: Social actor representatives claim space on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2016-09-07

    Psychiatric intensive care units (PICU) provide care for those with the worst phases of mental illness. What defines a PICU is often decided locally at hospitals. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe a contemporary discourse on how PICU are socially constructed from virtual discussions. An explorative and descriptive study design was applied for this qualitative inquiry using discourse methodology. The data were collected in Twitter's search string and consists of 215 Twitter postings. A framework of social actor representatives that form the discourse was established and presented in three categories: (i) hospital and agencies communicating about PICU; (ii) health-care professionals communicating about PICU; and (iii) service users and relatives communicating about PICU. Hospitals, agencies, and health-care professionals hold great power and responsibility for informing the public about PICU. Transparent and informative tweets could turn the mystery of PICU into more specific, positive portrayals.

  15. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    PubMed

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense.

  16. Ensuring Mobility-Supporting Environments for an Aging Population: Critical Actors and Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Kochtitzky, Chris S.; Freeland, Amy L.; Yen, Irene H.

    2011-01-01

    Successful aging takes on an array of attributes, including optimal health and community participation. Research indicates that (1) persons with disabilities, including age-related disabilities, report frequent barriers to community participation, including unsuitable building design (43%), transportation (32%), and sidewalks/curbs (31%), and (2) many seniors report an inability to cross roads safely near their homes. This paper attempts to define mobility-related elements that contribute to optimal health and quality of life, within the context of successful aging. It then examines the impacts of community design on individual mobility, delving into which traditional and nontraditional actors—including architects, urban planners, transportation engineers, occupational therapists, and housing authorities—play critical roles in ensuring that community environments serve as facilitators (rather than barriers) to mobility. As America ages, mobility challenges for seniors will only increase unless both traditional aging specialists and many nontraditional actors make a concerted effort to address the challenges. PMID:21766029

  17. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children’s Acquiescence to False Suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Kyndra C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children’s accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children’s age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts. PMID:26955204

  18. From actors to agents to persons: the development of character representation in young children's narratives.

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou, Ageliki; Richner, Elizabeth S

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed a puzzling discrepancy in existing research about when children achieve and manifest a mentalistic conception of the person. Narrative research suggests that children do not represent characters as mental agents until middle childhood, whereas social cognition research places this understanding at around 4 years. Using a theoretically informed typology, 617 stories were analyzed composed by 30 children participating in a storytelling and story-acting practice integrated into their preschool curriculum. Results indicated that children's representation of characters shifted from almost exclusively physical and external portrayals of "actors" at 3 to increasing inclusion of "agents" with rudimentary mental states at 4 and of "persons" with mental representational capacities by 5. The developmental trajectories of boys and girls differed somewhat.

  19. An actor-partner interdependence model of spousal criticism and depression.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A

    2010-08-01

    Although perceived criticism is relational, most theory and research concerns only relatives' criticism toward patients and not the converse. With a sample of 33 depressed patients and their spouses, we take a fully relational approach to criticism by testing an actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Patient intended criticism was especially strongly associated with depressive symptoms for wives, whereas patient perceived criticism was especially negatively related to depressive symptoms for husbands. Nondepressed partner intended criticism was positively related to patient depressive symptoms, but nondepressed wife perceived criticism was negatively related to husband depressive symptoms. The importance of including patient intended and partner perceived criticism as well as examining sex differences in models of criticism and depression are discussed.

  20. Interdependence theory and the actor-partner interdependence model: where theory and method converge.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Robert E; Knee, C Raymond

    2012-11-01

    This work describes an application of the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) that allows researchers to test hypotheses in terms of interdependence theory (IT). The authors' goal is to move beyond the obvious similarities of these two frameworks by providing a detailed conceptual integration. This analysis demonstrates that aspects of APIM analysis reveal a useful perspective on interdependence not explicitly articulated by IT. They also expand on ideas presented by Kenny and Ledermann by exploring the relationship between their ratio parameter k and IT, and introducing two additional ratios (h and c) also suggested by IT. A complete worked example of APIM analysis from the perspective of IT, along with a SAS MACRO that produces confidence intervals for k, h, and c, is provided.

  1. Performance evaluation of a simulated data-flow computer with low-resolution actors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaudiot, J. L.; Ercegovac, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Basic problems related to the exploitation of parallelism in a program include sequencing of the instructions and communication of the data. It is pointed out that the data-flow approach offers an elegant solution to the sequencing problem, since all data dependencies are automatically handled and only instructions with ready input sets are activated. It is shown that a change in the level of subcomputations (actors) affects communications costs. The concept of variable resolution is discussed, and the testbed environment is examined. Attention is given to the architecture of the processing elements, the communication network, and the simulators. A description of the analytical model is also provided. Simulation and results are discussed, taking into account test programs and allocation, the variation of the number of processing elements, the variation of the resolution in directed acyclic graphs, performance in processing loops, and array handling.

  2. Rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal actor-partner effects in adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Norona, Jerika C; Roberson, Patricia N E; Welsh, Deborah P

    2016-08-01

    The present study utilizes the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the longitudinal relationship between rejection sensitivity and one's own and one's partner's depressive symptoms. The sample included adolescent romantic couples from the U.S. (N = 198 adolescents; 50% girls; 90.2% Caucasian) whose rejection sensitivity at Time 1 and depressive symptoms approximately one year later (Time 2) were assessed. Additionally, aggressive behaviors and maintenance behaviors that commonly associated with rejection sensitivity (e.g., self-silencing) are explored as mediators. Results indicate that boyfriends' rejection sensitivity at Time 1 predicted girlfriends' depressive symptoms at Time 2. Additionally, girls' rejection sensitivity predicted their own and their boyfriends' self-silencing. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Trait hostility is associated with systemic inflammation in married couples: an actor-partner analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Uchino, Bert N; Bosch, Jos A; Kent, Robert G

    2014-10-01

    Trait anger and hostility predict the development of coronary heart disease, and systemic inflammation may partly mediate this association. In a sample of 94 middle-aged and older married couples, we replicate research showing a within individuals (i.e., actor effect) association of trait hostility with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). As a novel extension of that research, the present study also examined the association of individuals' trait hostility with their partners' hsCRP (i.e., partner effect). Controlling for potential confounds, trait hostility, measured with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, was significantly associated with both participants' own hsCRP, b=.0528 (SE=.0196), p=.008 and their partners' levels b=.0473 (SE=.0194), p=.016. Hence, the inflammatory correlates of trait hostility occur not only within individuals but between them, as well. The effects of unhealthy personality traits may extend to intimate partners and possibly other social network members.

  4. Multirate parallel distributed compensation of a cluster in wireless sensor and actor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-xi; Huang, Ling-yun; Zhang, Hao; Hua, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stabilisation problem for one of the clusters with bounded multiple random time delays and packet dropouts in wireless sensor and actor networks is investigated in this paper. A new multirate switching model is constructed to describe the feature of this single input multiple output linear system. According to the difficulty of controller design under multi-constraints in multirate switching model, this model can be converted to a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. By designing a multirate parallel distributed compensation, a sufficient condition is established to ensure this closed-loop fuzzy control system to be globally exponentially stable. The solution of the multirate parallel distributed compensation gains can be obtained by solving an auxiliary convex optimisation problem. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show, compared with solving switching controller, multirate parallel distributed compensation can be obtained easily. Furthermore, it has stronger robust stability than arbitrary switching controller and single-rate parallel distributed compensation under the same conditions.

  5. Reusing models of actors and services in smart homecare to improve sustainability.

    PubMed

    Walderhaug, Ståle; Stav, Erlend; Mikalsen, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Industrial countries are faced with a growing elderly population. Homecare systems with assistive smart house technology enable elderly to live independently at home. Development of such smart home care systems is complex and expensive and there is no common reference model that can facilitate service reuse. This paper proposes reusable actor and service models based on a model-driven development process where end user organizations and domain healthcare experts from four European countries have been involved. The models, specified using UML can be reused actively as assets in the system design and development process and can reduce development costs, and improve interoperability and sustainability of systems. The models are being evaluated in the European IST project MPOWER.

  6. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS

    PubMed Central

    SKELCHER, CHRIS; SMITH, STEVEN RATHGEB

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity – segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences. PMID:26640298

  7. Industry Actors, Think Tanks, and Alcohol Policy in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Corporate actors seek to influence alcohol policies through various means, including attempts to shape the evidential content of policy debates. In this case study, we examined how SABMiller engaged the think tank Demos to produce reports on binge drinking, which were heavily promoted among policymakers at crucial stages in the development of the UK government’s 2012 alcohol strategy. One key report coincided with other SABMiller-funded publications, advocating measures to enhance parenting as an alternative to minimum unit pricing. In this instance, the perceived independence of an influential think tank was used to promote industry interests in tactics similar to those of transnational tobacco corporations. This approach is in keeping with other alcohol industry efforts to marginalize the peer-reviewed literature. PMID:24922137

  8. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Lindström, Lars; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2013-12-01

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women's reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar's management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

  9. Free-viewpoint video of human actors using multiple handheld Kinects.

    PubMed

    Ye, Genzhi; Liu, Yebin; Deng, Yue; Hasler, Nils; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai; Theobalt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We present an algorithm for creating free-viewpoint video of interacting humans using three handheld Kinect cameras. Our method reconstructs deforming surface geometry and temporal varying texture of humans through estimation of human poses and camera poses for every time step of the RGBZ video. Skeletal configurations and camera poses are found by solving a joint energy minimization problem, which optimizes the alignment of RGBZ data from all cameras, as well as the alignment of human shape templates to the Kinect data. The energy function is based on a combination of geometric correspondence finding, implicit scene segmentation, and correspondence finding using image features. Finally, texture recovery is achieved through jointly optimization on spatio-temporal RGB data using matrix completion. As opposed to previous methods, our algorithm succeeds on free-viewpoint video of human actors under general uncontrolled indoor scenes with potentially dynamic background, and it succeeds even if the cameras are moving.

  10. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS.

    PubMed

    Skelcher, Chris; Smith, Steven Rathgeb

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity - segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences.

  11. Antithrombotic Protective Effects of Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro Peptide during Emotional Stress Provoked by Forced Swimming Test in Rats.

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation was enhanced and all factors (total, enzyme, and non-enzyme) of the fibrinolytic system were suppressed in rats in 60 min after forced swimming test. Argininecontaining tetrapeptide glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro administered prior to this test activated fibrinolysis and prevented hypercoagulation. Administration of this peptide in 5 min after swimming test also enhanced anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and antithrombotic activity of the blood. Therefore, glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro exerted both preventive and curative effects on the hemostasis system and prevented enhancement of blood coagulation provoked by emotional stress modeled by forced swimming test.

  12. Two states of the triple helix in the thermal transition of the collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10.

    PubMed

    Kai, T; Uchiyama, S; Nishi, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Tomiyama, T

    2004-08-01

    The collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 is known to fold into a triple helix in solution. So far, the triple helix has been considered to exist as a single state. However, our previous study of (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 in solution has indicated the presence of two different states of the triple helix, a lower (HL) and a higher temperature state (HH). In the present study, these triple-helical states were investigated in more detail by NMR. Complete stereospecific assignments of the methylene protons of the proline residues were accomplished by the use of NOESY and TOCSY spectra. The temperature dependence of the 1H chemical shifts showed that the HL-to-HH thermal transition can be attributed to a conformational change of the first proline (Pro1) residues of the (Pro-Pro-Gly) triplets. Since TOCSY spectra with a 10 ms mixing-time confirmed a down puckering of these Pro residues in the HL state, but interconverting down and up puckerings in the HH state, the HL-to-HH thermal transition corresponds to conformational changes of the pyrrolidine rings of the Pro1 residues from an uniform down puckering to a more flexible state. The results confirm that thermal unfolding of the triple helix proceeds through the intermediate HH state.

  13. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  14. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2013-04-01

    Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD) learning of Doya (2000) to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  15. iSAW: Integrating Structure, Actors, and Water to study socio-hydro-ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Armstrong, Andrea; Baker, Michelle A.; Bedingfield, Sean; Betts, David; Buahin, Caleb; Buchert, Martin; Crowl, Todd; Dupont, R. Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Flint, Courtney; Grant, Jacqualine; Hinners, Sarah; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Jones, Amber S.; Licon, Carlos; Null, Sarah E.; Odame, Augustina; Pataki, Diane E.; Rosenberg, David; Runburg, Madlyn; Stoker, Philip; Strong, Courtenay

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization, climate, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Although water systems are complex, a need exists for a generalized representation of these systems to identify important components and linkages to guide scientific inquiry and aid water management. We developed an integrated Structure-Actor-Water framework (iSAW) to facilitate the understanding of and transitions to sustainable water systems. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research that could address management challenges across scales (e.g., plot to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, transitioning, and urban landscapes). The framework was designed to be generalizable across all human-environment systems, yet with sufficient detail and flexibility to be customized to specific cases. iSAW includes three major components: structure (natural, built, and social), actors (individual and organizational), and water (quality and quantity). Key linkages among these components include: (1) ecological/hydrologic processes, (2) ecosystem/geomorphic feedbacks, (3) planning, design, and policy, (4) perceptions, information, and experience, (5) resource access and risk, and (6) operational water use and management. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of the iSAW framework by applying it to two research and management problems: understanding urban water supply and demand in a changing climate and expanding use of green storm water infrastructure in a semi-arid environment. The applications demonstrate that a generalized conceptual model can identify important components and linkages in complex and diverse water systems and facilitate communication about those systems among researchers from diverse disciplines.

  16. High-resolution structures of collagen-like peptides [(Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Xaa-Yaa-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4]: implications for triple-helix hydration and Hyp(X) puckering.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Kenji; Hongo, Chizuru; Wu, Guanghan; Mizuno, Kazunori; Noguchi, Keiichi; Ebisuzaki, Shutoku; Tanaka, Yuji; Nishino, Norikazu; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2009-05-01

    Structures of (Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Xaa-Yaa-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4 (ppg9-XYG) where (Xaa, Yaa)=(Pro, Hyp), (Hyp, Pro) or (Hyp, Hyp) were analyzed at high resolution using synchrotron radiation. Molecular and crystal structures of these peptides are very similar to those of the (Pro-Pro-Gly)9 peptide. The results obtained in this study, together with those obtained from related compounds, indicated the puckering propensity of the Hyp in the X position: (1) Hyp(X) residues involved in the Hyp(X):Pro(Y) stacking pairs prefer the down-puckering conformation, as in ppg9-OPG, and ppg9-OOG; (2) Hyp(X) residues involved in the Hyp(X):Hyp(Y) stacking pairs prefer the up-puckering conformation if there is no specific reason to adopt the down-puckering conformation. Water molecules in these peptide crystals are classified into two groups, the 1st and 2nd hydration waters. Water molecules in the 1st hydration group have direct hydrogen bonds with peptide oxygen atoms, whereas those in the 2nd hydration group do not. Compared with globular proteins, the number of water molecules in the 2nd hydration shell of the ppg9-XYG peptides is very large, likely due to the unique rod-like molecular structure of collagen model peptides. In the collagen helix, the amino acid residues in the X and Y positions must protrude outside of the triple helix, which forces even the hydrophobic side chains, such as Pro, to be exposed to the surrounding water molecules. Therefore, most of the waters in the 2nd hydration shell are covering hydrophobic Pro side chains by forming clathrate structures.

  17. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted.

  18. Pro-ELT; A Teacher Training Blended Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshtehardi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Pro-ELT is a blended teacher training course. The aim of Pro-ELT is to strengthen English teaching and learning through a blended training approach that includes; quality face to face delivery, supported distance learning and integrated proficiency and methodology training. It delivers quality language teaching and teacher development courses to…

  19. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  20. The PRO Instructional Strategy in the Construction of Scientific Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an instructional strategy called Premise-Reasoning-Outcome (PRO) designed to support students in the construction of scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, the PRO strategy involves identifying three components of a scientific explanation: (i) premise--an accepted…

  1. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  2. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  3. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  4. German cockroach frass proteases cleave pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Valerie S; Page, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, secreted as pro-MMP-9, is cleaved by serine proteases at the N-terminus to generate active MMP-9. Pro-MMP-9 has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma. Because many inhaled aeroallergens contain active proteases, the authors sought to determine whether German cockroach (GC) fecal remnants (frass) and house dust mite (HDM) were able to cleave pro-MMP-9. Treatment of recombinant human (rh) pro-MMP-9 with GC frass resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cleavage. This was abrogated by pretreating frass with an inhibitor of serine, but not cysteine protease activity. GC frass also induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9 from primary human neutrophils dependent on the active serine proteases in GC frass. HDM was less potent at cleaving pro-MMP-9. Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a naturally occurring protease inhibitor, attenuated GC frass-induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9. A1AT partially inactivated the serine protease activity in GC frass, while GC frass cleaved A1AT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that GC frass-derived serine proteases could regulate the activity of MMP-9 and that A1AT may play an important role in modulating GC frass activity in vivo. These data suggest a mechanism by which inhalation of GC frass could regulate airway remodeling through the activation of pro-MMP-9.

  5. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  6. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  7. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  8. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  9. Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)

  10. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  11. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  12. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  13. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  14. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  15. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension.

  16. Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

  17. Pro-Am collaborations in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, G. M.

    2004-10-01

    The text of the Presidential Address delivered at The Geological Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London on 2003 October 29. In this second Presidential Address, I wish to discuss the very real opportunities that exist for collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers in a wide variety of fields. As the scope of research in astronomy grows by the day and some questions are answered, we are then often faced by even greater challenges. Professional astronomers naturally adjust their goals and areas of investigation. The result is that gaps are left in which the amateur can take over the role. Alternatively where there is a considerable technical challenge, the task can be shared by professional and amateurs with frequent exchanges of results and discussion. The main areas which are worthy of debate, involve whether the amateur is suitably equipped for the task, which naturally leads us to discuss the equipment available, and the observing techniques employed. It is also worth examining which classes of object are suited to the cause of Pro-Am.

  18. Pro and contra IBR-eradication.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Mathias; Engels, Monika

    2006-03-31

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections such as infectious rhinotracheitis (IBR), infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV, balanoposthitis (IBP), and abortion. Despite of a pronounced immune response, the virus is never eliminated from an infected host but establishes life-long latency and may be reactivated at intervals. Europe has a long history of fighting against BoHV-1 infections, yet, only a small number of countries has achieved IBR-eradication. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to review the reasoning pro and contra such a task. Clearly, the goal can indeed be achieved as has been demonstrated by a number of European countries. However, detection and stamping out of seemingly healthy virus carriers is inevitable in the process. Unfortunately, the use of vaccines is only of temporary and limited value. Therefore, there are numerous considerations to be put forward against such plans, including the high costs, the great risks, and the unsatisfactory quality of tools. If either control or eradication of IBR is nonetheless a goal, then better vaccines are needed as well as better companion tests. Moreover, better tools for the characterization of viral isolates are required. Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous.

  19. ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huang, Katherine [Chisholm lab, MIT

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

  20. Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Irmak, Ster; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Erguen, Sueleyman; Tilki, Derya

    2009-11-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  1. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  2. A Study of the Effects of Authoritarian and Democratic Directing Styles on Actors Who are Cognitively Complex and Cognitively Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Barbara Fulton; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of cognitive complexity and directorial style on changes in actors' perceptions of self-worth and in their cognitive complexity and effects on their attitudes toward a particular theatrical task. Authoritarian and democratic directorial styles were examined. Subjects, 32 members…

  3. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation.

  4. A Changed Language of Education with New Actors and Solutions: The Authorization of Promotion and Prevention Programmes in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Andreas; Englund, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how changes in the language of Swedish education policy have opened up a new social perception of education, in which space has been created for new actors, models and solutions in terms of managing activities in schools. Specifically, it seeks to illustrate how various "promotion" and "prevention…

  5. Exploring Actor-Partner Interdependence in Family Therapy: Whose View (Parent or Adolescent) Best Predicts Treatment Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Shaffer, Katharine S.

    2012-01-01

    Predictions of family therapy outcome consistently vary depending on which client rates the alliance. We used the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) to test the interdependence of parents' and adolescents' ratings of alliance, session depth/value, and improvement-so-far after Sessions 3, 6, and 9. Initial analyses…

  6. If You Get Better, Will I? An Actor-Partner Analysis of the Mutual Influence of Group Therapy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquin, Jill D.; Kivlighan, D. Martin, III; Drogosz, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of group psychotherapy has been empirically studied and supported over several decades; however, there remains much to understand regarding the specific factors contributing to effective group psychotherapy. The current study uses Kashy and Kenny's (2000) actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to examine the relationship…

  7. The Seductive Power of an Innovation: Enrolling Non-Conventional Actors in a Drip Irrigation Community in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benouniche, Maya; Errahj, Mostafa; Kuper, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the motivations of non-conventional innovation actors to engage in innovation processes, how their involvement changed the technology and their own social-professional status, and to analyze their role in the diffusion of the innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We studied the innovation process of…

  8. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological…

  9. Expectations as a key to understanding actor strategies in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen vehicles.

    PubMed

    Budde, Björn; Alkemade, Floortje; Weber, K Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Due to its environmental impact, the mobility system is increasingly under pressure. The challenges to cope with climate change, air quality, depleting fossil resources imply the need for a transition of the current mobility system towards a more sustainable one. Expectations and visions have been identified as crucial in the guidance of such transitions, and more specifically of actor strategies. Still, it remained unclear why the actors involved in transition activities appear to change their strategies frequently and suddenly. The empirical analysis of the expectations and strategies of three actors in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology indicates that changing actor strategies can be explained by rather volatile expectations related to different levels. Our case studies of the strategies of two large car manufacturers and the German government demonstrate that the car manufacturers refer strongly to expectations about the future regime, while expectations related to the socio-technical landscape level appear to be crucial for the strategy of the German government.

  10. The Pursuit of Memory: Examining Art Teaching and Pedagogical Practices through Hannah Arendt's Actor-Spectator Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mun Yee

    2011-01-01

    Memories of our schooling and teaching experiences shape our curriculum and pedagogical decision-making process in art education when we become teachers and teacher educators. In this paper, using Hannah Arendt's Actor-Spectator Theory, I engage in retrospective critical introspection of my practices as an art teacher and curriculum developer in…

  11. A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  12. Actor-Centered Social Work: Re-visioning "Person-in-Environment" through a Critical Theory Lens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondrat, Mary Ellen

    2002-01-01

    This article revisions the relationship between person and social environment through the lens of critical theory. Emphasizing distinctively human characteristics, arguments define human actors as coconstructors of their social environments. Although human behavior is shaped by society and its structures, those very structures are recursively…

  13. Learning about a Fish from an ANT: Actor Network Theory and Science Education in the Postgenomic Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by…

  14. Expectations as a key to understanding actor strategies in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Björn; Alkemade, Floortje; Weber, K. Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Due to its environmental impact, the mobility system is increasingly under pressure. The challenges to cope with climate change, air quality, depleting fossil resources imply the need for a transition of the current mobility system towards a more sustainable one. Expectations and visions have been identified as crucial in the guidance of such transitions, and more specifically of actor strategies. Still, it remained unclear why the actors involved in transition activities appear to change their strategies frequently and suddenly. The empirical analysis of the expectations and strategies of three actors in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology indicates that changing actor strategies can be explained by rather volatile expectations related to different levels. Our case studies of the strategies of two large car manufacturers and the German government demonstrate that the car manufacturers refer strongly to expectations about the future regime, while expectations related to the socio-technical landscape level appear to be crucial for the strategy of the German government. PMID:24850974

  15. Understanding the Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Evidence from the Global Partnership for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menashy, Francine

    2016-01-01

    The study detailed in this paper examines the growing role of non-state actors in the transnational policy-making landscape through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)--a partnership of donor and developing country governments, multilateral organizations, civil society, private companies and foundations, dedicated to…

  16. The Externals of Character: The Work that Needs To Be Done To Make an Actor's Actions Effective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Presents an exercise to guide student actors through the process of building a character by identifying the story and conflict, finding and playing actions that serve the story and define character, selecting and using props, choosing costume and make-up that will help reveal character, and choosing a physicality and voice consistent with the…

  17. Thinking Management and Leadership within Colleges and Schools Somewhat Differently: A Practice-Based, Actor-Network Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne; Perillo, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the significance of materiality for management and leadership in education using resources provided by actor-network theory (ANT). Espousing the idea that human interactions are mediated by material objects and that these objects participate in the production of practices, ANT affords thinking management and leadership in a…

  18. Colombian Lay People's Willingness to Forgive Different Actors of the Armed Conflict: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Lopez, Wilson; Pineda Marin, Claudia; Murcia Leon, Maria Camila; Perilla Garzon, Diana Carolina; Mullet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study examined lay people's willingness to forgive acts that were committed by actors of the armed conflicts in Colombia. The participants (100 persons living in Bogota) were shown vignettes describing cases in which a member of the guerilla or a member of the former paramilitary forces asks for forgiveness to a victim's family, and were…

  19. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ChemInformatics Libraries (FutureToxII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from ove...

  20. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  1. The pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of calprotectin on human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunfei; Hou, Jianxia; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

    2014-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis.

  2. Contribution of marital conflict to marital quality in short and long-term marriages: An actor-partner interdependence model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Saadat, Hassan; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Zade, Nima Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In the field of family research, previous studies have made great strides toward understanding the relationship between marital conflict and quality. However, they have only studied couples in short-term marriages. Therefore, much remains to be unraveled with regard to long-term marriages. We aimed investigate the comparative contribution of aspects of marital conflict to marital quality in short-and long-term marriages in Iranian families. Materials and Methods: Using random clustered sampling, 400 dyads in intact first marriages were surveyed across eight provinces of Iran. Complete surveys for both husbands and wives were returned for 162 households (couple's response rate: 40.5%). Survey measures included demographics questionnaire, Barati and Sanai's Marital Conflict Questionnaire and Blum and Mehrabian's Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the actor-partner interdependence model of marital conflict-marital quality. Results: Generalized additive models were incorporated to define what constitutes short-and long-term marriages. Based on the models regressed, duration ≤ 10 years was defined as short-term, whereas duration ≥ 25 years was labeled long-term. In short-term marriages (n = 44), decreased sexual relations, increased daily hassles and sidedness in relations with parents were negatively associated with marital quality in both actor and actor-to-partner paths. In long-term married couples (n = 46), only increased daily hassles (P < 0.001) and disagreement over financial affairs (P = 0.005) contributed to actor paths and only sidedness in relationships with parents showed significant negative association to marital quality in actor-to-partner paths. Conclusions: Different themes of conflict contribute to the diminished level of marital quality in early and late stages of the marriage. Conflicts over sex, relationship with extended family and daily hassles are emphasized in the early years of

  3. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  4. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Yanina S; Monteoliva, Mariela I; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L; Laróvere, Laura E; Alvarez, María E

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro.

  5. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Yanina S.; Monteoliva, Mariela I.; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L.; Laróvere, Laura E.; Alvarez, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro. PMID:26284090

  6. Auditory-Motor Expertise Alters “Speech Selectivity” in Professional Musicians and Actors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwee Ling; Nusbaum, Howard; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Several perisylvian brain regions show preferential activation for spoken language above and beyond other complex sounds. These “speech-selective” effects might be driven by regions’ intrinsic biases for processing the acoustical or informational properties of speech. Alternatively, such speech selectivity might emerge through extensive experience in perceiving and producing speech sounds. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study disambiguated such audiomotor expertise from speech selectivity by comparing activation for listening to speech and music in female professional violinists and actors. Audiomotor expertise effects were identified in several right and left superior temporal regions that responded to speech in all participants and music in violinists more than actresses. Regions associated with the acoustic/information content of speech were identified along the entire length of the superior temporal sulci bilaterally where activation was greater for speech than music in all participants. Finally, an effect of performing arts training was identified in bilateral premotor regions commonly activated by finger and mouth movements as well as in right hemisphere “language regions.” These results distinguish the seemingly speech-specific neural responses that can be abolished and even reversed by long-term audiomotor experience. PMID:20829245

  7. Health workforce governance: Processes, tools and actors towards a competent workforce for integrated health services delivery.

    PubMed

    Barbazza, Erica; Langins, Margrieta; Kluge, Hans; Tello, Juan

    2015-12-01

    A competent health workforce is a vital resource for health services delivery, dictating the extent to which services are capable of responding to health needs. In the context of the changing health landscape, an integrated approach to service provision has taken precedence. For this, strengthening health workforce competencies is an imperative, and doing so in practice hinges on the oversight and steering function of governance. To aid health system stewards in their governing role, this review seeks to provide an overview of processes, tools and actors for strengthening health workforce competencies. It draws from a purposive and multidisciplinary review of literature, expert opinion and country initiatives across the WHO European Region's 53 Member States. Through our analysis, we observe distinct yet complementary roles can be differentiated between health services delivery and the health system. This understanding is a necessary prerequisite to gain deeper insight into the specificities for strengthening health workforce competencies in order for governance to rightly create the institutional environment called for to foster alignment. Differentiating between the contribution of health services and the health system in the strengthening of health workforce competencies is an important distinction for achieving and sustaining health improvement goals.

  8. Comprehending body language and mimics: an ERP and neuroimaging study on Italian actors and viewers.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the neural mechanism subserving the ability to understand people's emotional and mental states by observing their body language (facial expression, body posture and mimics) was investigated in healthy volunteers. ERPs were recorded in 30 Italian University students while they evaluated 280 pictures of highly ecological displays of emotional body language that were acted out by 8 male and female Italian actors. Pictures were briefly flashed and preceded by short verbal descriptions (e.g., "What a bore!") that were incongruent half of the time (e.g., a picture of a very attentive and concentrated person shown after the previous example verbal description). ERP data and source reconstruction indicated that the first recognition of incongruent body language occurred 300 ms post-stimulus. swLORETA performed on the N400 identified the strongest generators of this effect in the right rectal gyrus (BA11) of the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, the bilateral uncus (limbic system) and the cingulate cortex, the cortical areas devoted to face and body processing (STS, FFA EBA) and the premotor cortex (BA6), which is involved in action understanding. These results indicate that face and body mimics undergo a prioritized processing that is mostly represented in the affective brain and is rapidly compared with verbal information. This process is likely able to regulate social interactions by providing on-line information about the sincerity and trustfulness of others.

  9. The proof is in the pudding: putting Actor-Network-Theory to work in medical education.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Alan

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes valid evidence from medical education research is typically grounded in the scientific paradigm of proof through experiment. Here, explanation through single meaning is privileged over exploration of multiple presentations of phenomena--short, interpretation eclipses appreciation. This approach is challenged as reductive by naturalistic qualitative methods such as rich ethnographic field reports, presented as narratives. Contemporary ethnographic approaches have entered medical education by a back door--disguised as a stable of 'social learning theories'. Communities of Practice theory, Activity Theory and Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) all serve as research practices forming identifiable contemporary ethnographies. 'Evidence' is conceived as exploratory rather than explanatory, through baroque descriptions of innovations in learning organizations, including medicine. ANT is then both a theory of innovation in organizations and an ethnographic method, where practice and theory coincide. ANT is interested primarily not in epistemologies, but in how a phenomenon such as an 'illness' is conceived across differing practices as multiple ontologies (experienced meanings), each meaning generated and suspended within a particular network of effects. How such networks are initiated and developed has significance for rethinking the nature of 'evidence', restoring faith in the value of a good story.

  10. Efficient Actor-Critic Algorithm with Hierarchical Model Learning and Planning

    PubMed Central

    Fu, QiMing

    2016-01-01

    To improve the convergence rate and the sample efficiency, two efficient learning methods AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP (AC-HMLP with ℓ2-regularization) are proposed by combining actor-critic algorithm with hierarchical model learning and planning. The hierarchical models consisting of the local and the global models, which are learned at the same time during learning of the value function and the policy, are approximated by local linear regression (LLR) and linear function approximation (LFA), respectively. Both the local model and the global model are applied to generate samples for planning; the former is used only if the state-prediction error does not surpass the threshold at each time step, while the latter is utilized at the end of each episode. The purpose of taking both models is to improve the sample efficiency and accelerate the convergence rate of the whole algorithm through fully utilizing the local and global information. Experimentally, AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP are compared with three representative algorithms on two Reinforcement Learning (RL) benchmark problems. The results demonstrate that they perform best in terms of convergence rate and sample efficiency. PMID:27795704

  11. Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Maureen; Sinopoli, Katia J; Fletcher, Jack M; Schachar, Russell

    2008-09-01

    This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes.

  12. International actors and population policies in India, with special reference to contraceptive policies.

    PubMed

    Ollila, E; Koivusalo, M; Hemminki, E

    2000-01-01

    The international population policy agenda has traditionally been dominated by demographically driven population control policies. However, in the population policy development that preceded the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, people's reproductive needs and rights received more emphasis. The aim of this study was to analyze how the new emphasis in population policies has been interpreted at the country level. In analyzing population policy rhetoric and its practical interpretations in India in 1994, the authors found that the rhetoric was broadening to encompass women's empowerment and reproductive health and that the use of direct method-specific monetary incentives and disincentives for accepting family planning methods was disapproved. However, population policy options were still considered mainly in terms of their ability to reduce fertility. Furthermore, the increased emphasis on the general market agenda was more important than that on reproductive needs and rights in molding population policies, as was evident in the greater stress on cost-recovery systems and nongovernmental actors. The findings suggest that the broader agenda for population policies and reproductive rights has been interpreted so that it can serve the aims of population-growth control and be implemented in the context of more market-oriented social policies and trade liberalization.

  13. CD47 update: a multifaceted actor in the tumour microenvironment of potential therapeutic interest.

    PubMed

    Sick, E; Jeanne, A; Schneider, C; Dedieu, S; Takeda, K; Martiny, L

    2012-12-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitous 50 kDa five-spanning membrane receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. This receptor, also known as integrin-associated protein, mediates cell-to-cell communication by ligation to transmembrane signal-regulatory proteins SIRPα and SIRPγ and interacts with integrins. CD47 is also implicated in cell-extracellular matrix interactions via ligation with thrombospondins. Furthermore, CD47 is involved in many and diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion and migration. It also plays a key role in many immune and cardiovascular responses. Thus, this multifaceted receptor might be a central actor in the tumour microenvironment. Solid tumours are composed of not only cancer cells that actively proliferate but also other cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts that make up the tumour microenvironment. Tumour cell proliferation is strongly sustained by continuous sprouting of new vessels, which also represents a gate for metastasis. Moreover, infiltration of inflammatory cells is observed in most neoplasms. Much evidence has accumulated indicating that infiltrating leukocytes promote cancer progression. Given its ubiquitous expression on all the different cell types that compose the tumour microenvironment, targeting CD47 could represent an original therapeutic strategy in the field of oncology. We present a current overview of the biological effects associated with CD47 on cancer cells and stromal cells.

  14. Unpacking complexity in public health interventions with the Actor-Network Theory.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Angèle; Potvin, Louise

    2016-08-04

    This article proposes a sociologically informed theoretical and methodological framework to address the complexity of public health interventions (PHI). It first proposes three arguments in favour of using the Actor-Network Theory (ANT) for the framework. ANT: (1) deals with systems made of human and non-human entities and proposes a relational view of action; (2) provides an understanding of the intervention-context interactions and (3) is a tool for opening the intervention's black box. Three principles derived from ANT addressing theoretical problems with conceptualisation of PHI as complex systems are proposed: (1) to focus on the process of connecting the network entities instead of their stabilised form; (2) both human and non-human entities composing networks have performative capacities and (3) network and intervention shape one another. Three methodological guidelines are further derived: (1) the researcher's task consists in documenting the events that transform the network and intervention; (2) events must be ordered chronologically to represent the intervention's evolution and (3) a broad range of data is needed to capture complex interventions' evolution. Using ANT as a guide, this paper helps reconcile technicist and social views of PHI and provides a mean to integrate process and effect studies of interventions.

  15. Quantization-Based Adaptive Actor-Critic Tracking Control With Tracking Error Constraints.

    PubMed

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong; Ye, Dan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive actor-critic (AC) tracking control is investigated for a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinearities and quantized inputs. Different from the existing results based on reinforcement learning, the tracking error constraints are considered and new critic functions are constructed to improve the performance further. To ensure that the tracking errors keep within the predefined time-varying boundaries, a tracking error transformation technique is used to constitute an augmented error system. Specific critic functions, rather than the long-term cost function, are introduced to supervise the tracking performance and tune the weights of the AC neural networks (NNs). A novel adaptive controller with a special structure is designed to reduce the effect of the NN reconstruction errors, input quantization, and disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the boundedness of the closed-loop signals and the desired tracking performance can be guaranteed. Finally, simulations on two connected inverted pendulums are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families.

  17. Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    DENNIS, MAUREEN; SINOPOLI, KATIA J.; FLETCHER, JACK M.; SCHACHAR, RUSSELL

    2008-01-01

    This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes. PMID:18764966

  18. Social actors and discourse on abortion in the Mexican press: the Paulina case.

    PubMed

    Taracena, Rosario

    2002-05-01

    The "Paulina case" is the story of a 13-year-old girl in Mexico who became pregnant in 1999 after being raped. Although she received permission to obtain a legal abortion, the hospital convinced her mother through misleading information to decline the abortion. This case has become an almost obligatory point of reference when abortion is discussed in Mexico. This paper analyses how the Mexican press portrayed the Paulina case and the social actors who participated in it--Paulina herself, Paulina's allies, the state government, the Catholic Church, members of the political party PAN and the National Human Rights Commission. One of the great breakthroughs of this case was that the denial of an abortion was judged to be a form of negligence. In demanding justice for Paulina, Paulina's allies were given moral authority in the press to denounce those who denied her an abortion. While the government of Baja California state and members of the PAN were held responsible for their role in the case, the Catholic Church, who was also responsible, seemed to escape criticism. It is probable that the large emotional weight of the Paulina case accomplished more in terms of changing public opinion in support of women's right to decide on abortion than any other single event to date.

  19. Toward Nucleating the Concept of the Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF): Perspective from the Principal Actors.

    PubMed

    Coats, Erik R; Wilson, Patrick I

    2017-03-31

    Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach-seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Conversely positing that economics is a primary barrier, we investigated, characterized, and described nontechnical socio-political barriers to realizing wastewater resource recovery. Principal actors in the Pacific NW region of the U.S. (representing a progressive populace facing stringent water quality regulations) were interviewed. Results revealed that economics were, indeed, the primary barrier to implementation/expansion of the WRRF concept. Consistent throughout interviews was a prevalent sense that the "cost of doing something (different)" was a principal consideration in resource recovery actions/policies. Moreover, "economics drives decisions," and "95% the bottom line is money. Show return on investment, it will get people's attention." Who pays was also a concern: "Government isn't going to pay. The states and Federal government won't give any grants, and we can't raise rates." Applying business case evaluations was seen as a pathway to actualizing resource recovery. Most encouragingly, the consensus was that resource recovery is a necessary future paradigm, and that real barriers are surmountable.

  20. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  1. Pro-oxidative action of polyphenols as action mechanism for their pro-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Logrieco, Antonio; Leone, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols, secondary metabolites widely present in plant kingdom, are known for their positive effects on human health, such as treatments of degenerative disease and cancer. Many dietary polyphenols show anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and they are proposed as chemopreventive agents for many skin disorders and cancer. Exposure to solar UV radiation is widely considered to cause skin cancer and a consistent carcinogenic dose derived from UVA causes several skin disorders as a consequence of free radicals generation and DNA damages. In this study, verbascoside, isoverbascoside and tyrosol were investigated for their effects on HEKa (Human Epidermal Keratinocytes adult) cell cultures challenged from UVA-rays. Non-toxic doses of each polyphenol were assayed on HEKa before, during and after the exposure to a damaging dose of UVA. Treatment with polyphenols before and after the UVA-irradiation exerted a pro-oxidant effect, while the simultaneous treatment caused a weak decrease of ROS production. The increasing of ROS levels was associated with a proapoptotic effect on HEKa, detected by AnnexinV/Propidiun Iodide, mainly evident in surviving cells treated with the polyphenols after the UVA-irradiation. The pro-apoptotic effect was confirmed by the immunodetection of significant changes in the Bax and Bcl-xL protein levels, leading to apoptotic events. The hypothesis that these polyphenols could trigger the apoptosis pathway mainly in UVA-damaged cells, via ROS increase, is here proposed as action mechanism behind their protective effect.

  2. High Serum Levels of Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (pro BNP) Identify Cardioembolic Origin in Undetermined Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; Brea, David; Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Leira, Rogelio; Dávalos, Antonio; Castillo, José

    2009-01-01

    Background: Stroke subtype diagnosis leads to specific therapies to reduce recurrences. Because nearly one third of patients remain with unknown etiology after a complete screening workup, we aim to investigate whether molecular markers of myocardial damage were associated with cardioembolic stroke and if they were useful to reclassify strokes of undetermined etiology. Methods: We included 262 patients with first ischemic stroke within the first 12 hours. Stroke subtype was evaluated by TOAST criteria. Stroke of undetermined origin were reclassified into likely atherothrombotic or likely cardioembolic according to a predefined non-validated algorithm. Blood samples were obtained on admission to determine serum levels of molecular markers (pro-BNP, pro-ANP and CK-MB) of myocardial damage. Results: Patients with cardioembolic infarct showed higher levels of pro-BNP, pro-ANP and CK-MB. Pro-BNP > 360 pg/mL was independently associated with cardioembolic stroke (OR: 28.51, CI95%: 5.90–136.75, p < 0.0001). Stroke etiology was undetermined in 82 patients (31%); 34 were reclassified as likely cardioembolic, 22 as likely atherothrombotic, and 26 remained as undetermined. Pro-BNP > 360 pg/mL was the only factor independently associated with likely cardioembolic stroke. Conclusions: Pro-BNP levels higher than 360 pg/mL are associated with cardioembolic stroke and may be useful to reclassify undetermined strokes as of cardioembolic origin. PMID:19729800

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic role of procalcitonin (PCT) and MR-pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Silvia; Spoto, Silvia; Fogolari, Marta; Cortigiani, Marco; Fioravanti, Marta; De Florio, Lucia; Curcio, Brunella; Cavalieri, Danilo; Costantino, Sebastiano; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections is crucial for adequate antibiotic treatment. Serum molecules such as Procalcitonin (PCT) have been used as biomarkers of infection. Recently, the mid-regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has been evaluated in combination with PCT for sepsis diagnosis. The diagnostic role of PCT and MR-proADM both in sepsis and in localized infections together with their contribution to effective antibiotic therapy has been evaluated. One hundred and eighty-two patients with bacterial infection has been enrolled: PCT and MR-proADM were measured at admission (T = 0), at 12-24 h (T = 1) and in the third or fifth day of antibiotic therapy (T = 3-5). ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic) and post-test probability were calculated. MR-proADM increased with the severity of the infection. PCT resulted significantly higher in sepsis than localized infection. After antibiotic therapy, PCT significantly decreased in localized respiratory infections and in sepsis, while MR-proADM decreased significantly after antibiotic therapy only in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. The threshold values of PCT and MR-proADM were >0.1 ng/mL and >0.8 nmol/L, respectively. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM increased the post-test probability of the diagnosis of bacterial infections compared to PCT alone. In conclusion, PCT and MR-proADM combination improves the diagnosis of bacterial infection and contribute to prognosis and antibiotic therapy effectiveness.

  4. ProUCL version 4.1.00 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL version 4.1.00 represents a comprehensive statistical software package equipped with statistical methods and graphical tools needed to address many environmental sampling and statistical issues as described in various these guidance documents.

  5. ProUCL version 4.00.05 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL 4.00.05 serves as a companion software package for Calculating Upper Confidence Limits for Exposure Point Concentrations at Hazardous Waste Sites and Guidance for Comparing Background and Chemical Concentrations in Soil for CERCLA Sites.

  6. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-01-20

    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation.

  7. Recent advances in tissue (pro)renin imaging.

    PubMed

    Prokai, Agnes; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2010-06-01

    Due to its pivotal role in blood pressure control and renal pathologies there is renewed interest in renin and its precursor prorenin. Also, the newly discovered (pro)renin receptor is a new element of the ever broadening renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The complexity of RAS including the recently recognized collecting duct site of (pro)renin (a term denoting both renin and prorenin) synthesis requires the use of advanced research techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. With the help of this technology we have pioneered an imaging approach to directly visualize (pro)renin content, release and tissue activity in the living kidney. The use of this technology is reviewed here and exemplified by the direct visualization of (pro)renin activity in the collecting duct. New pharmacological tools, the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the handle region peptide (decoy peptide) was used to further characterize the intra-renal, collecting duct RAS.

  8. Recent advances in tissue (pro)renin imaging

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Agnes; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2010-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Due to its pivotal role in blood pressure control and renal pathologies there is renewed interest in renin and its precursor prorenin. Also, the newly discovered (pro)renin receptor is a new element of the ever broadening renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The complexity of RAS including the recently recognized collecting duct site of (pro)renin (a term denoting both renin and prorenin) synthesis requires the use of advanced research techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. With the help of this technology we have pioneered an imaging approach to directly visualize (pro)renin content, release and tissue activity in the living kidney. The use of this technology is reviewed here and exemplified by the direct visualization of (pro)renin activity in the collecting duct. New pharmacological tools, the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the handle region peptide (decoy peptide) was used to further characterize the intra-renal, collecting duct RAS. PMID:20515794

  9. Dogs Do Not Show Pro-social Preferences towards Humans

    PubMed Central

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylène; Mainix, Gaëlle; Range, Friederike; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species’ propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners. In a recent study, using a food delivery paradigm, dogs were shown to preferentially express pro-social choices toward familiar compared to unfamiliar conspecifics. Using the same set-up and methods in the current study, we investigated dogs’ pro-social preferences toward familiar and unfamiliar human partners. We found that dogs’ pro-social tendencies did not extend to humans and the identity of the human partners did not influence the rate of food delivery. Interestingly, dogs tested with their human partners spent more time gazing at humans, and did so for longer after food consumption had ended than dogs tested with conspecific partners in the initial study. To allow comparability between results from dogs tested with a conspecific and a human partner, the latter were asked not to communicate with dogs in any way. However, this lack of communication from the human may have been aversive to dogs, leading them to cease performing the task earlier compared to the dogs paired with familiar conspecifics in the prior study. This is in line with previous findings suggesting that human communication in such contexts highly affects dogs’ responses. Consequently, we encourage further studies to examine dogs’ pro-social behavior toward humans taking into consideration their potential responses

  10. Dogs Do Not Show Pro-social Preferences towards Humans.

    PubMed

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylène; Mainix, Gaëlle; Range, Friederike; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Pro-social behaviors are defined as voluntary actions that benefit others. Comparative studies have mostly focused on investigating the presence of pro-sociality across species in an intraspecific context. Taken together, results on both primates and non-primate species indicate that reliance on cooperation may be at work in the selection and maintenance of pro-social sentiments. Dogs appear to be the ideal model when investigating a species' propensity for pro-sociality in an interspecific context because it has been suggested that as a consequence of domestication, they evolved an underlying temperament encouraging greater propensity to cooperate with human partners. In a recent study, using a food delivery paradigm, dogs were shown to preferentially express pro-social choices toward familiar compared to unfamiliar conspecifics. Using the same set-up and methods in the current study, we investigated dogs' pro-social preferences toward familiar and unfamiliar human partners. We found that dogs' pro-social tendencies did not extend to humans and the identity of the human partners did not influence the rate of food delivery. Interestingly, dogs tested with their human partners spent more time gazing at humans, and did so for longer after food consumption had ended than dogs tested with conspecific partners in the initial study. To allow comparability between results from dogs tested with a conspecific and a human partner, the latter were asked not to communicate with dogs in any way. However, this lack of communication from the human may have been aversive to dogs, leading them to cease performing the task earlier compared to the dogs paired with familiar conspecifics in the prior study. This is in line with previous findings suggesting that human communication in such contexts highly affects dogs' responses. Consequently, we encourage further studies to examine dogs' pro-social behavior toward humans taking into consideration their potential responses both with and

  11. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  12. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  13. Analysing animal social network dynamics: the potential of stochastic actor-oriented models.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David N; Ilany, Amiyaal; Silk, Matthew J; Tregenza, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Animals are embedded in dynamically changing networks of relationships with conspecifics. These dynamic networks are fundamental aspects of their environment, creating selection on behaviours and other traits. However, most social network-based approaches in ecology are constrained to considering networks as static, despite several calls for such analyses to become more dynamic. There are a number of statistical analyses developed in the social sciences that are increasingly being applied to animal networks, of which stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) are a principal example. SAOMs are a class of individual-based models designed to model transitions in networks between discrete time points, as influenced by network structure and covariates. It is not clear, however, how useful such techniques are to ecologists, and whether they are suited to animal social networks. We review the recent applications of SAOMs to animal networks, outlining findings and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of SAOMs when applied to animal rather than human networks. We go on to highlight the types of ecological and evolutionary processes that SAOMs can be used to study. SAOMs can include effects and covariates for individuals, dyads and populations, which can be constant or variable. This allows for the examination of a wide range of questions of interest to ecologists. However, high-resolution data are required, meaning SAOMs will not be useable in all study systems. It remains unclear how robust SAOMs are to missing data and uncertainty around social relationships. Ultimately, we encourage the careful application of SAOMs in appropriate systems, with dynamic network analyses likely to prove highly informative. Researchers can then extend the basic method to tackle a range of existing questions in ecology and explore novel lines of questioning.

  14. Contracting private sector providers for public sector health services in Jalisco, Mexico: perspectives of system actors

    PubMed Central

    Nigenda, Gustavo H; González, Luz María

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries. PMID:19849831

  15. Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms in Wetlands – Fameless Actors in Carbon Cycling and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Michael; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Friedrich, Michael W.; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36–50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point toward the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change. PMID:22403575

  16. The current structure of key actors involved in research on land and soil degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escadafal, Richard; Barbero, Celia; Exbrayat, Williams; Marques, Maria Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; El Haddadi, Anass; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    Land and soil conservation topics, the final mandate of the United Convention to Combat desertification in drylands, have been diagnosed as still suffering from a lack of guidance. On the contrary, climate change and biodiversity issues -the other two big subjects of the Rio Conventions- seem to progress and may benefit from the advice of international panels. Arguably the weakness of policy measures and hence the application of scientific knowledge by land users and stakeholders could be the expression of an inadequate research organization and a lack of ability to channel their findings. In order to better understand the size, breadth and depth of the scientific communities involved in providing advice to this convention and to other bodies, this study explores the corpus of international publications dealing with land and/or with soils. A database of several thousands records including a significant part of the literature published so far was performed using the Web of Science and other socio-economic databases such as FRANCIS and CAIRN. We extracted hidden information using bibliometric methods and data mining applied to these scientific publications to map the key actors (laboratories, teams, institutions) involved in research on land and on soils. Several filters were applied to the databases in combination with the word "desertification". The further use of Tetralogie software merges databases, analyses similarities and differences between keywords, disciplines, authors and regions and identifies obvious clusters. Assessing their commonalities and differences, the visualisation of links and gaps between scientists, organisations, policymakers and other stakeholders is possible. The interpretation of the 'clouds' of disciplines, keywords, and techniques will enhance the understanding of interconnections between them; ultimately this will allow diagnosing some of their strengths and weaknesses. This may help explain why land and soil degradation remains a

  17. Theorising big IT programmes in healthcare: strong structuration theory meets actor-network theory.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob

    2010-05-01

    The UK National Health Service is grappling with various large and controversial IT programmes. We sought to develop a sharper theoretical perspective on the question "What happens - at macro-, meso- and micro-level - when government tries to modernise a health service with the help of big IT?" Using examples from data fragments at the micro-level of clinical work, we considered how structuration theory and actor-network theory (ANT) might be combined to inform empirical investigation. Giddens (1984) argued that social structures and human agency are recursively linked and co-evolve. ANT studies the relationships that link people and technologies in dynamic networks. It considers how discourses become inscribed in data structures and decision models of software, making certain network relations irreversible. Stones' (2005) strong structuration theory (SST) is a refinement of Giddens' work, systematically concerned with empirical research. It views human agents as linked in dynamic networks of position-practices. A quadripartite approcach considers [a] external social structures (conditions for action); [b] internal social structures (agents' capabilities and what they 'know' about the social world); [c] active agency and actions and [d] outcomes as they feed back on the position-practice network. In contrast to early structuration theory and ANT, SST insists on disciplined conceptual methodology and linking this with empirical evidence. In this paper, we adapt SST for the study of technology programmes, integrating elements from material interactionism and ANT. We argue, for example, that the position-practice network can be a socio-technical one in which technologies in conjunction with humans can be studied as 'actants'. Human agents, with their complex socio-cultural frames, are required to instantiate technology in social practices. Structurally relevant properties inscribed and embedded in technological artefacts constrain and enable human agency. The fortunes

  18. A Modified Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (MAPAF) for analyzing decentralized forest governance: case study from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abrar Juhar; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-06-15

    This paper posits a Modified Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (MAPAF) that makes three major improvements on the Actor-Power-Accountability Framework (APAF) developed by Agrawal and Ribot (1999). These improvements emphasize the nature of decentralized property rights, linking the outputs of decentralization with its outcomes and the inclusion of contextual factors. Applying MAPAF to analyze outputs and outcomes from two major decentralized forest policies in Ethiopia, i.e., delegation and devolution, has demonstrated the following strengths of the framework. First, by incorporating vital bundles of property rights into APAF, MAPAF creates a common ground for exploring and comparing the extent of democratization achieved by different decentralizing reforms. Second, the inclusion of social and environmental outcomes in MAPAF makes it possible to link the output of decentralization with local level outcomes. Finally, the addition of contextual factors enhances MAPAF's explanatory power by providing room for investigating exogenous factors other than democratization that contribute to the outcomes of decentralization reforms.

  19. Reciprocal Associations Among Maternal and Child Characteristics of At-Risk Families: A Longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Claridge, Amy M; Wojciak, Armeda S; Lettenberger-Klein, Cassandra G; Pettigrew, Haley V; McWey, Lenore M; Chaviano, Casey L

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have found linear associations among maternal and child characteristics. However, family systems theorists suggest that relationships are more complex and family members are interdependent. We used actor-partner interdependence modeling to unravel associations among maternal and child characteristics to predict outcomes in adolescence. We used data from 361 mother-child dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect and found both actor and partner effects. Maternal depression and history of victimization were associated with children's later reports of lower mother-adolescent relationship quality. Children's perceptions of relationship quality were also associated with mothers' later depressive symptoms and perceptions of relationship quality. Overall, results highlighted interdependence among mothers and their children over time. We discuss implications for marriage and family therapists.

  20. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological adaptation. The sample includes 76 Spanish couples who completed validated questionnaires measuring predictors, i.e., self-efficacy and positive contributions, and adaptation outcomes i.e., stress, anxiety, depression and psychological well-being. Multilevel analysis revealed many actor and some partner effects of parental self-efficacy and positive contributions to be important determinants of adaptation above and beyond child and sociodemographic factors, and as such, these effects should be targeted in clinical intervention programs.

  1. Actor interfaces and practices of power in a community health worker programme: a South African study of unintended policy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    This paper makes a contribution to a much-neglected aspect of policy analysis: the practice of power in implementation. Practices of power are at the heart of every policy process, yet are rarely explicitly explored in the health policy literature. This paper provides a detailed study of micro-practices of power by those at the frontline of service delivery in the implementation of a national community health worker policy in one rural South African sub-district. The paper is based on a small-scale qualitative study which collected data through observations, interviews and focus group discussions with health services and facility managers, community health workers and community members. Practices of power were analysed using VeneKlasen and Miller's categorization of multiple dimensions of power, as power over, power with, power to and power within. Furthermore, the concept of 'actor interface analysis' allowed exploration of different actors' experience, interests and their specific location in the landscape of local health system governance. The study revealed that almost all policy actors exercised some form of power, from authoritative power, derived from hierarchy and budget control, to the discretionary power of those working at lower levels to withhold labour or organize in-service training. Each of these practices of power had their rationale in different actors' efforts to make the intervention 'fit' their understandings of local reality. While each had a limited impact on policy outcomes, their cumulative effect produced a significant thinning down of the policy's intent. However, discretionary power was not always used to undermine policy. One manager's use of discretionary power in fact led to a partial reconstruction of the original policy intent. The paper concludes that understanding and being responsive to the complexity of local realities, interests and contexts and the multi-layered practices of power may allow managers to adopt more appropriate

  2. Extracellular Vesicle-functionalized Decalcified Bone Matrix Scaffolds with Enhanced Pro-angiogenic and Pro-bone Regeneration Activities

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Liming; Lei, Qian; Zhao, Aiqi; Wang, Hongxiang; Li, Qiubai; Cao, Yilin; Jie Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhichao

    2017-01-01

    Vascularization is crucial for bone regeneration after the transplantation of tissue-engineered bone grafts in the clinical setting. Growing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are potently pro-angiogenic both in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we fabricated a novel EV-functionalized scaffold with enhanced pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with MSC-derived EVs. EVs were harvested from rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and the pro-angiogenic potential of EVs was investigated in vitro. DBM scaffolds were then coated with EVs, and the modification was verified by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Next, the pro-angiogenic and pro-bone regeneration activities of EV-modified scaffolds were evaluated in a subcutaneous bone formation model in nude mice. Micro-computed tomography scanning analysis showed that EV-modified scaffolds with seeded cells enhanced bone formation. Enhanced bone formation was confirmed by histological analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 proved that EV-modified scaffolds promoted vascularization in the grafts, thereby enhancing bone regeneration. This novel scaffold modification method provides a promising way to promote vascularization, which is essential for bone tissue engineering. PMID:28367979

  3. Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

    2013-05-01

    New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

  4. Client and therapist therapeutic alliance, session evaluation, and client reliable change: a moderated actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Marmarosh, Cheri L; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) was used to study the early therapeutic alliance in 74 clients being treated by 29 therapists to explore the relationship between the alliance and treatment progress, while prioritizing the dyadic nature of the alliance. The APIM examines collaboration/influence by modeling the impact of one dyad member's alliance ratings on the other member's session impact rating (partner effects). In terms of the alliance, the results revealed significant client-actor effects for client ratings of session depth and positivity as well as significant therapist-actor effects for therapist ratings of session smoothness and positivity. For client-rated alliance, there were also significant client-partner effects for therapist ratings of session depth. For clients who made a reliable change in treatment, an increase in client-reported alliance was related to therapist reporting more arousal in the 3rd session. For clients who did not make a reliable change in treatment, client-reported alliance was not related to therapist arousal. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Development of the Flight Tether for ProSEDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Vaughn, Jason; Welzyn, Ken; Carroll, Joe; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System to deploy a newly designed and developed tether which will provide tether generated drag thrust of approx. 0.4 N. The development and production of very long tethers with specific properties for performance and survivability will be required to enable future tether missions. The ProSEDS tether design and the development process may provide some lessons learned for these future missions. The ProSEDS system requirements drove the design of the tether to have three different sections of tether each serving a specialized purpose. The tether is a total of 15 kilometers long: 10 kilometers of a non-conductive Dyneema lead tether; 5 km of CCOR conductive coated wire; and 220 meters of insulated wire with a protective Kevlar overbraid. Production and joining of long tether lengths involved many development efforts. Extensive testing of tether materials including ground deployment of the full-length ProSEDS tether was conducted to validate the tether design and performance before flight.

  6. Structure and activation of pro-activin A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  7. Cytosolic pro-apoptotic SPIKE induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ivana; Kastratovic, Tatjana; Zelen, Ivanka; Zivanovic, Aleksandar; Arsenijevic, Slobodan; Mitrovic, Marina

    2010-04-30

    Proteins of the BCL-2 family are important regulators of apoptosis. The BCL-2 family includes three main subgroups: the anti-apoptotic group, such as BCL-2, BCL-XL, BCL-W, and MCL-1; multi-domain pro-apoptotic BAX, BAK; and pro-apoptotic "BH3-only" BIK, PUMA, NOXA, BID, BAD, and SPIKE. SPIKE, a rare pro-apoptotic protein, is highly conserved throughout the evolution, including Caenorhabditis elegans, whose expression is downregulated in certain tumors, including kidney, lung, and breast. In the literature, SPIKE was proposed to interact with BAP31 and prevent BCL-XL from binding to BAP31. Here, we utilized the Position Weight Matrix method to identify SPIKE to be a BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein mainly localized in the cytosol of all cancer cell lines tested. Overexpression of SPIKE weakly induced apoptosis in comparison to the known BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BIK. SPIKE promoted mitochondrial cytochrome c release, the activation of caspase 3, and the caspase cleavage of caspase's downstream substrates BAP31 and p130CAS. Although the informatics analysis of SPIKE implicates this protein as a member of the BH3-only BCL-2 subfamily, its role in apoptosis remains to be elucidated.

  8. The development of spontaneous trait inferences about the actor and spontaneous trait transferences about the informant: Evidence from children aged 8-13 years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Yan, Binggan; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Yaolong

    2016-07-12

    In social-cognitive research, little attention has been paid to the developmental course of spontaneous trait inferences about the actor (STIs about the actor) and spontaneous trait transferences about the informant (STTs about the informant). Using a false recognition paradigm, Study 1 investigated the developmental course of STIs and Study 2 investigated the developmental course of STTs, comparing 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, 12- and 13-year olds. The results of Study 1 showed that 8-year olds could make STIs about the actor, and the magnitude of STIs increased from ages 8 to 10 years, stabilised at the age of 10, 11, 12 years, and decreased from ages 12 through 13 years. The results of Study 2 showed that 8-year olds could make STTs about the informant, and the magnitude of STTs did not vary with age. In all age groups, the magnitude of STIs about the actor was greater than that of STTs about the informant.

  9. ProCure21+ should speed scheme starts.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    This October saw the launch of the new ProCure21+ National Framework under which, the Department of Health (DH) team behind the new scheme claims, the NHS can potentially save a further pound 200 million of public money on top of the substantial sums saved under predecessor, ProCure21, via faster, more streamlined procurement, design, planning, and construction, of publicly-funded healthcare schemes. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed, with the DH's senior responsible officer (SRO) and P21+ team leader Peter Sellars, the background to the new Framework's introduction, the success of its forerunner, and the additional benefits that ProCure21 + (which is backed by organisations incuding HM Treasury, the National Audit Office, and the Office of Government Commerce) should bring to the entire healthcare building supply chain.

  10. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, −3 and −13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGFβ, but soluble TGFβ at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  11. Pro-A-type natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin predict progression of chronic kidney disease: the MMKD Study.

    PubMed

    Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Kollerits, Barbara; Struck, Joachim; Ritz, Eberhard; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-02-01

    A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. We conducted a prospective 7-year study of 177 nondiabetic patients with primary chronic kidney disease to see if ANP and ADM plasma concentrations predict the progression of their disease, using novel sandwich immunoassays covering the midregional epitopes of the stable prohormones (MRproANP and MR-proADM). Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or terminal renal failure, which occurred in 65 patients. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of renal endpoints showed similar areas under the curve for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (0.838), MR-proANP (0.810), and MRproADM (0.876), respectively, as did the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses of the patients stratified according to the median of the respective markers. In separate multiple Cox-proportional hazard regression analyses, increased plasma concentrations of both peptides were each strongly predictive of the progression of chronic kidney disease after adjustments for age, gender, GFR, proteinuria and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our study suggests that MR-proANP and MR-proADM are useful new markers of progression of primary nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

  12. ProGolem: A System Based on Relative Minimal Generalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza

    Over the last decade Inductive Logic Programming systems have been dominated by use of top-down refinement search techniques. In this paper we re-examine the use of bottom-up approaches to the construction of logic programs. In particular, we explore variants of Plotkin's Relative Least General Generalisation (RLGG) which are based on subsumption relative to a bottom clause. With Plotkin's RLGG, clause length grows exponentially in the number of examples. By contrast, in the Golem system, the length of ij-determinate RLGG clauses were shown to be polynomially bounded for given values of i and j. However, the determinacy restrictions made Golem inapplicable in many key application areas, including the learning of chemical properties from atom and bond descriptions. In this paper we show that with Asymmetric Relative Minimal Generalisations (or ARMGs) relative to a bottom clause, clause length is bounded by the length of the initial bottom clause. ARMGs, therefore do not need the determinacy restrictions used in Golem. An algorithm is described for constructing ARMGs and this has been implemented in an ILP system called ProGolem which combines bottom-clause construction in Progol with a Golem control strategy which uses ARMG in place of determinate RLGG. ProGolem has been evaluated on several well-known ILP datasets. It is shown that ProGolem has a similar or better predictive accuracy and learning time compared to Golem on two determinate real-world applications where Golem was originally tested. Moreover, ProGolem was also tested on several non-determinate real-world applications where Golem is inapplicable. In these applications, ProGolem and Aleph have comparable times and accuracies. The experimental results also suggest that ProGolem significantly outperforms Aleph in cases where clauses in the target theory are long and complex.

  13. Terrifying Landscapes: A Study of Scientific Research Into Understanding Motivations of Non-State Actors to Acquire and/or Use Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-22

    Terrorism, NonState Actors, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Exploration of the Pinkerton Database ”, in “NonState Actors, Terrorism, and Weapons of...for the broad research community. One such database is the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), which covers over 69,000 incidents since 1970...problems encountered in other databases around issues of consistency in counting methods, comprehensiveness of geopolitical coverage, and breadth of

  14. Actor-partner effects associated with experiencing intimate partner violence or coercion among male couples enrolled in an HIV prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) and coercion have been associated with negative health outcomes, including increased HIV risk behaviors, among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is the first study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with experiencing IPV or coercion among US MSM dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), an analytic framework to describe interdependent outcomes within dyads. Methods Among MSM couples enrolled as dyads in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial (RCT), two outcomes are examined in this cross-sectional analysis: 1) the actor experiencing physical or sexual IPV from the study partner in the past 3-months and 2) the actor feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by the study partner. Two multilevel APIM logistic regression models evaluated the association between each outcome and actor, partner, and dyad-level factors. Results Of 190 individuals (95 MSM couples), 14 reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV from their study partner in the past 3 months (7.3%) and 12 reported feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by their study partner (6.3%). Results of multivariate APIM analyses indicated that reporting experienced IPV was associated (p < 0.1) with non-Black/African American actor race, lower actor education, and lower partner education. Reporting experienced coercion was associated (p < 0.1) with younger actor age and lower partner education. Conclusions These findings from an HIV prevention RCT for MSM show considerable levels of IPV experienced in the past 3-months and coercion to participate in the research study, indicating the need for screening tools and support services for these behaviors. The identification of factors associated with IPV and coercion demonstrate the importance of considering actor and partner effects, as well as dyadic-level effects, to improve development of screening tools and support services for these outcomes. PMID:24580732

  15. The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Non-State Actors in 2035

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    aggressively and violently when they achieve a deindividuated state further, the analysis found when accountability was reduced through anonymity ...NOTE AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE RING OF GYGES: ANONYMITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE‘S EFFECT ON THE DETERRENCE OF NON-STATE ACTORS IN...00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Ring of Gyges: Anonymity and Technological Advance’s Effect on the Deterrence of Non-State Actors in 2035 5a

  16. ProADD: A database on Protein Aggregation Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shobana, Ramesh; Pandaranayaka, Eswari PJ

    2014-01-01

    ProADD, a database for protein aggregation diseases, is developed to organize the data under a single platform to facilitate easy access for researchers. Diseases caused due to protein aggregation and the proteins involved in each of these diseases are integrated. The database helps in classification of proteins involved in the protein aggregation diseases based on sequence and structural analysis. Analysis of proteins can be done to mine patterns prevailing among the aggregating proteins. Availability http://bicmku.in/ProADD PMID:25097386

  17. Place-Based Initiatives to Improve Health in Disadvantaged Communities: Cross-Sector Characteristics and Networks of Local Actors in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Moody, James; Nelson, Alicia; Willis, Janese M.; Fuller, Lori; Smart, Allen J.; Easterling, Doug; Silberberg, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the leadership attributes and collaborative connections of local actors from the health sector and those outside the health sector in a major place-based health initiative. Methods. We used survey data from 340 individuals in 4 Healthy Places North Carolina counties from 2014 to assess the leadership attributes (awareness, attitudes, and capacity) and network connections of local actors by their organizational sector. Results. Respondents’ leadership attributes—scored on 5-point Likert scales—were similar across Healthy Places North Carolina counties. Although local actors reported high levels of awareness and collaboration around community health improvement, we found lower levels of capacity for connecting diversity, identifying barriers, and using resources in new ways to improve community health. Actors outside the health sector had generally lower levels of capacity than actors in the health sector. Those in the health sector exhibited the majority of network ties in their community; however, they were also the most segregated from actors in other sectors. Conclusions. More capacity building around strategic action—particularly in nonhealth sectors—is needed to support efforts in making widespread changes to community health. PMID:27459443

  18. Victimization and Exposure to Pro-Self-Harm and Pro-Suicide Websites: A Cross-National Study.

    PubMed

    Minkkinen, Jaana; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2017-02-01

    The study of websites displaying methods of both physical self-harm and suicide has become an important aspect of deliberate self-injury and suicide research. However, little is known about contextual factors related to entering such sites. Using data from 3,567 respondents aged 15-30 in the US, UK, Germany, and Finland, we found that experiences of victimization are associated with entering pro-self-harm sites and pro-suicide sites. Also, the victimization context had relevance, as online victimization was particularly related to pro-self-harm behavior. The findings suggest a need to organize more specific online support for the victims of violence and online aggression.

  19. Ionizing radiation modulates human macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype preserving their pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic capacities

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Pinto, Ana; Laranjeiro Pinto, Marta; Patrícia Cardoso, Ana; Monteiro, Cátia; Teixeira Pinto, Marta; Filipe Maia, André; Castro, Patrícia; Figueira, Rita; Monteiro, Armanda; Marques, Margarida; Mareel, Marc; dos Santos, Susana Gomes; Seruca, Raquel; Adolfo Barbosa, Mário; Rocha, Sónia; José Oliveira, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy, attention has been paid to immune cells, which not only modulate cancer cell response to therapy but are also highly recruited to tumours after irradiation. Particularly, the effect of ionizing radiation on macrophages, using therapeutically relevant doses, is not well understood. To evaluate how radiotherapy affects macrophage behaviour and macrophage-mediated cancer cell activity, human monocyte derived-macrophages were subjected, for a week, to cumulative ionizing radiation doses, as used during cancer treatment (2 Gy/fraction/day). Irradiated macrophages remained viable and metabolically active, despite DNA damage. NF-kappaB transcription activation and increased Bcl-xL expression evidenced the promotion of pro-survival activity. A significant increase of pro-inflammatory macrophage markers CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR, but not CCR7, TNF and IL1B was observed after 10 Gy cumulative doses, while anti-inflammatory markers CD163, MRC1, VCAN and IL-10 expression decreased, suggesting the modulation towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, ionizing radiation induced macrophage morphological alterations and increased their phagocytic rate, without affecting matrix metalloproteases (MMP)2 and MMP9 activity. Importantly, irradiated macrophages promoted cancer cell-invasion and cancer cell-induced angiogenesis. Our work highlights macrophage ability to sustain cancer cell activities as a major concern that needs to be addressed to improve radiotherapy efficacy. PMID:26735768

  20. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sandra; Quétier, Fabien; Cáceres, Daniel M; Trainor, Sarah F; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Finegan, Bryan; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Poorter, Lourens

    2011-01-18

    The crucial role of biodiversity in the links between ecosystems and societies has been repeatedly highlighted both as source of wellbeing and as a target of human actions, but not all aspects of biodiversity are equally important to different ecosystem services. Similarly, different social actors have different perceptions of and access to ecosystem services, and therefore, they have different wants and capacities to select directly or indirectly for particular biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. Their choices feed back onto the ecosystem services provided to all parties involved and in turn, affect future decisions. Despite this recognition, the research communities addressing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human outcomes have yet to develop frameworks that adequately treat the multiple dimensions and interactions in the relationship. Here, we present an interdisciplinary framework for the analysis of relationships between functional diversity, ecosystem services, and human actions that is applicable to specific social environmental systems at local scales. We connect the mechanistic understanding of the ecological role of diversity with its social relevance: ecosystem services. The framework permits connections between functional diversity components and priorities of social actors using land use decisions and ecosystem services as the main links between these ecological and social components. We propose a matrix-based method that provides a transparent and flexible platform for quantifying and integrating social and ecological information and negotiating potentially conflicting land uses among multiple social actors. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by way of land use examples from temperate to subtropical South America, an area of rapid social and ecological change.

  1. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature's benefits to society

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Sandra; Cáceres, Daniel M.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Pérez-Harguindeguy, Natalia; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Finegan, Bryan; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Poorter, Lourens

    2011-01-01

    The crucial role of biodiversity in the links between ecosystems and societies has been repeatedly highlighted both as source of wellbeing and as a target of human actions, but not all aspects of biodiversity are equally important to different ecosystem services. Similarly, different social actors have different perceptions of and access to ecosystem services, and therefore, they have different wants and capacities to select directly or indirectly for particular biodiversity and ecosystem characteristics. Their choices feed back onto the ecosystem services provided to all parties involved and in turn, affect future decisions. Despite this recognition, the research communities addressing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human outcomes have yet to develop frameworks that adequately treat the multiple dimensions and interactions in the relationship. Here, we present an interdisciplinary framework for the analysis of relationships between functional diversity, ecosystem services, and human actions that is applicable to specific social environmental systems at local scales. We connect the mechanistic understanding of the ecological role of diversity with its social relevance: ecosystem services. The framework permits connections between functional diversity components and priorities of social actors using land use decisions and ecosystem services as the main links between these ecological and social components. We propose a matrix-based method that provides a transparent and flexible platform for quantifying and integrating social and ecological information and negotiating potentially conflicting land uses among multiple social actors. We illustrate the applicability of our framework by way of land use examples from temperate to subtropical South America, an area of rapid social and ecological change. PMID:21220325

  2. Learning about a fish from an ANT: actor network theory and science education in the postgenomic era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-03-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by the FDA, AquaBounty Technologies' AquAdvantage® salmon, as a vehicle for exploring the ways in which the biosciences have fundamentally altered the boundary between nature and culture and thus the way the public understands both. In response to the new challenges of a postgenomic society, I outline three frameworks for using ANT literacies in classroom settings. Each frame, I argue, is foundational to the development of a scientific literacy that can trace and map actors involved in controversies such as the AquAdvantage® salmon. In examining these frames I follow the actor of a salmon through an environmental history lens, the technoscientific literacy operating in AquaBounty's FDA application and the National Academies new science education framework, and finally to a model of democracy rooted in an ethic of the common. The ultimate claim of this article is that until science education (and education in general) can begin to include nonhumans such as the AquAdvantage® salmon as part of a common political framework, students, educators, and community members will continue to be at the mercy of experts and corporate stakeholders for defining the terms in which people heal, feed, and educate themselves now and in the future.

  3. Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Trials (ProCESS, ARISE, ProMISe): What is Optimal Resuscitation?

    PubMed

    Osborn, Tiffany M

    2017-04-01

    Between 2014 and 2015, 3 independent, multicenter, randomized controlled trials evaluated early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) in severe sepsis and septic shock: Protocolized Care for Early Septic Shock (ProCESS) from the United States; Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE), and Protocolised Management in Sepsis (ProMISe) in the United Kingdom. All 3 trials confirmed that there was no survival benefit of EGDT compared to usual resuscitation. How should we define usual care for sepsis given these study findings? Furthermore, the definition of sepsis has now been updated. This article reviews key findings of these 3 trials and discusses these important issues in sepsis management.

  4. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  5. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; Wendel de Joode, Berna van; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-07-15

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other

  6. Rethinking agency and medical adherence technology: applying Actor Network Theory to the case study of Digital Pills.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-12-01

    Much literature surrounding medical technology and adherence posits that technology is a mechanism for social control. This assumes that the medical establishment can take away patients' agency. Although power relationships and social control can play a key role, medical technology can also serve as an agentive tool to be utilized. We (1) offer the alternative framework of Actor Network Theory to view medical technology, (2) discuss the literature on medication adherence and technology, (3) delve into the ramifications of looking at adherence as a network and (4) use Digital Pills as a case study of dispersed agency.

  7. ProOpDB: Prokaryotic Operon DataBase.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Blanca; Ciria, Ricardo; Martinez-Guerrero, Cristian E; Merino, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The Prokaryotic Operon DataBase (ProOpDB, http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor) constitutes one of the most precise and complete repositories of operon predictions now available. Using our novel and highly accurate operon identification algorithm, we have predicted the operon structures of more than 1200 prokaryotic genomes. ProOpDB offers diverse alternatives by which a set of operon predictions can be retrieved including: (i) organism name, (ii) metabolic pathways, as defined by the KEGG database, (iii) gene orthology, as defined by the COG database, (iv) conserved protein domains, as defined by the Pfam database, (v) reference gene and (vi) reference operon, among others. In order to limit the operon output to non-redundant organisms, ProOpDB offers an efficient method to select the most representative organisms based on a precompiled phylogenetic distances matrix. In addition, the ProOpDB operon predictions are used directly as the input data of our Gene Context Tool to visualize their genomic context and retrieve the sequence of their corresponding 5' regulatory regions, as well as the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of their genes.

  8. The "Creation-Science" Case and Pro Bono Publico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Peggy L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes contributions and efforts of New York law firm (Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, Flom) personnel in developing plaintiff's case in McLean v. Arkansas 590 (balanced treatment of creationism/evolution). Discusses aspects of "Pro Bono Publico" (unpaid public interest service) endeavors in general and those related to this law firm in…

  9. Enhancements to Demilitarization Process Maps Program (ProMap)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-14

    Mar 16 100% 100% 3 Quarterly Technical and Business Status Report 20 Dec 15 100% 100% 4 Task 3: ProMap program update that imports MIDAS 30 Jun 16...100% 100% 5 Quarterly Technical and Business Status Report 20 Mar 16 100% 100% 6 Quarterly Technical and Business Status Report 20 Jun 16 100% 100

  10. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  11. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93 Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... from a subsequent act of terrorism....

  12. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  13. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  14. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  15. Putting the "Pro" into TESL/TEFL Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstam, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Offers seven steps practicing English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers can take to create a strong professional identity: become an articulate ESL spokesperson, collaborate with a mainstream teacher or content-area teacher, be a learner as well as a teacher, take a pro-active stance on ESL issues, become an active member of your state TESL…

  16. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  17. The Role of Cyclo(His-Pro) in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grottelli, Silvia; Ferrari, Ilaria; Pietrini, Grazia; Peirce, Matthew J.; Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may have distinct genetic etiologies and pathological manifestations, yet share common cellular mechanisms underpinning neuronal damage and dysfunction. These cellular mechanisms include excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, oxidative damage, ER stress and neuroinflammation. Recent data have identified a dual role in these events for glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, which are able both to induce and to protect against damage induced by diverse stresses. Cyclo(His-Pro), a cyclic dipeptide derived from the hydrolytic removal of the amino-terminal pyroglutamic acid residue of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, may be important in regulating the nature of the glial cell contribution. Cyclo(His-Pro) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system and is a key substrate of organic cation transporters, which are strongly linked to neuroprotection. The cyclic dipeptide can also cross the brain-blood-barrier and, once in the brain, can affect diverse inflammatory and stress responses by modifying the Nrf2-NF-κB signaling axis. For these reasons, cyclo(His-Pro) has striking potential for therapeutic application by both parenteral and oral administration routes and may represent an important new tool in counteracting neuroinflammation-based degenerative pathologies. In this review, we discuss the chemistry and biology of cyclo(His-Pro), how it may interact with the biological mechanisms driving neurodegenerative disease, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and thereby act to preserve or restore neuronal function. PMID:27529240

  18. PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.

    PubMed

    Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

    2010-10-01

    Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

  19. QSAR Study of Mosquito Repellents Using Codessa Pro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    SciFinder catalog.21 Using Codessa Pro in the normal manner gave the 3-descriptor model for the vapor pressure shown in Table 3 with the follow- ing...20. Stone, M. J. R. Stat. Soc. B. 1977, 38, 44. 21. SciFinder Scholar, American Chemical Society, 2003. 22. Katritzky, A. R.; Wang, Y.; Sild, S.; Tamm

  20. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  1. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

  2. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  3. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26950209

  4. Polymorphism of collagen triple helix revealed by 19F NMR of model peptide [Pro-4(R)-hydroxyprolyl-Gly]3-[Pro-4(R)-fluoroprolyl-Gly]-[Pro-4(R)-hydroxyprolyl-Gly]3.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Nemoto, Nobuaki; Motooka, Daisuke; Nishi, Yoshinori; Doi, Masamitsu; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nakazawa, Takashi; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2012-06-14

    We have characterized various structures of (Pro-Hyp(R)-Gly)(3)-Pro-fPro(R)-Gly-(Pro-Hyp(R)-Gly)(3) in the process of cis-trans isomerization and helix-coil transition by exploiting the sole (19)F NMR probe in 4(R)-fluoroproline (fPro(R)). Around the transition temperature (T(m)), we detected a species with a triple helical structure distinct from the ordinary one concerning the alignment of three strands. The (19)F-(19)F exchange spectroscopy showed that this misaligned and that the ordinary triple helices were interchangeable only indirectly via an extended monomer strand with all-trans peptide bonds at Pro-fPro(R), Pro-Hyp(R), and Gly-Pro in the central segment. This finding demonstrates that the helix-coil transition of collagen peptides is not described with a simple two-state model. We thus elaborated a scheme for the transition mechanism of (Pro-Hyp(R)-Gly)(n) that the most extended monomer strand can be the sole source both to the misaligned and correctly folded triple-helices. The staggered ends could help misaligned triple helices to self-assemble to higher-order structures. We have also discussed the possible relationship between the misaligned triple helix accumulating maximally at T(m) and the kinetic hysteresis associated with the helix-coil transition of collagen.

  5. Using Pro/ENGINEER`s{reg_sign} interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, J.

    1994-06-01

    When the ACCORD Process introduced Pro/ENGINEER to Sandians several years ago, a new process for design/definition was implemented. Prior to ACCORD, engineers and draftsmen worked in the 2-D mode with a program caned ANVIL{reg_sign}, which had limited capabilities. Although the transition from 2-D modeling to 3-D modeling met with some resistance, most engineers have embraced this new concept with enthusiasm They are now able to work in the 3-D mode and at increased levels of productivity with appropriate time savings never achieved before. One area that Pro/ENGINEER is noted for that this report will concentrate on, is the powerful interface module with its wide selection of transfer file configurations. This allows the engineer to create parts or assemblies and transfer them to many different second party software packages whose vendors can provide the capability for stress analysis, rapid prototypes, virtual reality environments, or many other forms of advanced manufacturing modes of communication. The ACCORD Program has at its core, the Pro/ENGINEER program from Parametric Technology Inc. Included in the ACCORD program, are several supporting programs from other vendors to make this cooperation between software packages a reality. It is possible to create parts in Pro/ENG transfer those parts to another package that has the capability to analyze the parts for deficiencies, then optimize those parts, and allow for changes to be made. Also included in this report, are other packages closely tied to Pro/ENGINEER, but not necessarily supported under the ACCORD program. Some of these packages allow you to create very impressive video productions, or allow you to meander through a virtual reality scenario. All of these new software packages will give you a new perspective on performance. This report will show how some of these interfaces work, and how you can improve your productivity if you utilize the ACCORD program as it is implemented here at Sandia.

  6. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta 11 second stage to achieve approx. 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  7. [BNP or NT-proBNP: "that is the question"].

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C; Neuder, Y; Pison, C; Chouri, N; Barnoud, D; Belle, L; Beaune, G

    2007-01-01

    Blood measurements of BNP and NT-proBNP, its catabolite, improve diagnosis for patients admitted to emergency departments with dyspnoea. In this paper, we have compared the BNP to the NT-proBNP for 119 dyspnoeic patients using at random clear clinical status. Among the test group of 119 patients, 57 showed coherent biological results for the 2 markers. These results confirm the final clinical diagnosis. Nine patients with congestive heart failure had abnormally low BNP and NT-proBNP rates. Six of these patients experienced long delays (longer than 48 hours and less than 72 hours) between their admission in emergency and the biological measurement of the natriuretic biomarkers. Three of the other patients could be not only flash OAP cases with a fast growth and a fast normalisation of BNP but also could have existing genetical factors. These genetical factors leading to high variability in BNP synthesis are not related to physiological or cardiac factors. 43 patients showed a mismatch between BNP and NT-proBNP. BNP appeared to be unstable in vitro. The lack of stability in whole blood or plasma samples is increased by sampling in a glass EDTA collection tube and too long delays in transferring the samples from the emergency area and the laboratory in a big hospital. Ten patients showed a mismatch with abnormally high NT-proBNP or false positive results. Among these 10 patients, 5 had renal dysfunction with a high level of creatinine concentration. It is clear that all Diagnostics Manufacturers should now propose different cut-off for natriuretic peptides tests according to the degree of patients' renal impairment.

  8. Development of Polymer Coatings for the ProSEDS Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetsky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria; Wright, Ken

    2000-01-01

    The ProSEDS mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned, expendable booster. A 5 km conductive tether is attached to the deployer baseplate on the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the Delta II second stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-15 km non-conductive tether, which in turn is attached to an endmass. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for optimum conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with 12.7 micrometers (0.5 mil) atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR and PANi, wrapped around a braided Kevlar 29 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure has been performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Plasma chamber tests have been completed, as well as tether deployment tests. Also developed for the ProSEDS mission was the insulating polymer TOR-BP. Approximately 200 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta II second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulating material is TOR-BP with a dielectric strength of TBD.

  9. Association between GPX1 Pro189Leu polymorphism and the occurrence of bladder cancer in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hadami, K; Ameziane El Hassani, R; Ameur, A; Dakka, N; Abbar, M; Al Bouzidi, A; Attaleb, M; El Mzibri, M

    2016-12-30

    Worldwide, Bladder cancer is the most frequent male malignancy. It is the third most common male malignancy in Morocco. The risk factors for developing bladder cancer are multiples including dietary conditions, environmental exposure and oxidative stress. GPX1 gene encoding for the human cellular antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase1 is a key factor in the cell detoxification process. GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism is associated with a decrease of enzyme activity and may contribute to bladder cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study was planned to assess the presence of GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism in Moroccan population to determine whether it is associated with the risk of developing bladder cancer in Moroccan patients. A total of 32 patients with bladder cancer and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Genotyping of the GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism was carried out by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Pro198Leu polymorphism was observed in both bladder cancer patients and healthy controls. No significant association between the polymorphism and bladder cancer occurrence was found (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.425; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.435). For the analysis of Pro198Leu polymorphism and progression of bladder cancer, no association was observed neither for stages (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.500; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.500) nor grades (Pro/Leu vs. Pro/Pro: p=0.415; Leu vs. Pro: p=0.427). Our results clearly showed no significant association between Pro198Leu polymorphism and risk of bladder cancer in our population, suggesting that the effect of this polymorphism on bladder cancer development might be a result of a combination with other genetic alterations and/or non-genetic variables such as diet and lifestyle factors.

  10. Cybersecurity threats to satellite communications: Towards a typology of state actor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen-Couriel, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    Cybersecurity threats to satellite communications are a relatively new phenomenon, yet have quickly come to the forefront of concern for the sustainability of satellite systems due to the vulnerabilities that such threats may exploit and negatively impact. These vulnerabilities are mission-critical: they include launch systems, communications, telemetry, tracking and command, and mission completion. They and other aspects of satellite communications depend heavily on secure and resilient cyber capabilities for all stages of the satellite's lifespan. Because of the inherently global nature of both satellite and cyberspace activities, these capabilities rely significantly on international cooperation for setting a baseline of agreed legal norms that protect satellites and satellite communications. This critical cooperation is relevant during all mission phases, from planning to final wrap-up. Under optimal circumstances, the norms and standards protecting satellites and satellite transmissions are developed and enforced by those nation-state actors that are committed to system operability and overall mission sustainability for those satellites launched under their aegis and responsibility. However, when breaches of international law do occur in the form of hostile cyber events that cause damage to satellite communications, a range of measures should be available to the victim state, provided by the appropriate legal regime or regimes. This article proposes that a comprehensive and integrative multi-stakeholder review be undertaken in the near future of the measures available under international law for responding to hostile acts directed at satellite systems and communications, in a manner that takes into account both existing regimes of international law reviewed herein, as well as considerations of cybersecurity. These measures will depend upon the characterization of hostile interference with satellite transmissions in accordance with a proposed typology of

  11. Structuring an integrated care system: interpreted through the enacted diversity of the actors involved—the case of a French healthcare network

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Research question We are looking at the process of structuring an integrated care system as an innovative process that swings back and forth between the diversity of the actors involved, local aspirations and national and regional regulations. We believe that innovation is enriched by the variety of the actors involved, but may also be blocked or disrupted by that diversity. Our research aims to add to other research, which, when questioning these integrated systems, analyses how the actors involved deal with diversity without really questioning it. Case study The empirical basis of the paper is provided by case study analysis. The studied integrated care system is a French healthcare network that brings together healthcare professionals and various organisations in order to improve the way in which interventions are coordinated and formalised, in order to promote better detection and diagnosis procedures and the implementation of a care protocol. We consider this case as instrumental in developing theoretical proposals for structuring an integrated care system in light of the diversity of the actors involved. Results and discussion We are proposing a model for structuring an integrated care system in light of the enacted diversity of the actors involved. This model is based on three factors: the diversity enacted by the leaders, three stances for considering the contribution made by diversity in the structuring process and the specific leading role played by those in charge of the structuring process. Through this process, they determined how the actors involved in the project were differentiated, and on what basis those actors were involved. By mobilising enacted diversity, the leaders are seeking to channel the emergence of a network in light of their own representation of that network. This model adds to published research on the structuring of integrated care systems. PMID:21637706

  12. Platelet adhesion and degranulation induce pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signalling in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Egan, Karl; Crowley, Darragh; Smyth, Paul; O'Toole, Sharon; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; Gallagher, Michael; Canney, Aoife; Norris, Lucy; Conlon, Niamh; McEvoy, Lynda; Ffrench, Brendan; Stordal, Britta; Keegan, Helen; Finn, Stephen; McEneaney, Victoria; Laios, Alex; Ducrée, Jens; Dunne, Eimear; Smith, Leila; Berndt, Michael; Sheils, Orla; Kenny, Dermot; O'Leary, John

    2011-01-01

    Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

  13. Nanomolar aluminum induces pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic gene expression in human brain cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Lukiw, Walter J; Percy, Maire E; Kruck, Theo P

    2005-09-01

    Aluminum, the most abundant neurotoxic metal in our biosphere, has been implicated in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). To further understand aluminum's influence on gene expression, we examined total messenger RNA levels in untransformed human neural cells exposed to 100 nanomolar aluminum sulfate using high density DNA microarrays that interrogate the expression of every human gene. Preliminary data indicate that of the most altered gene expression levels, 17/24 (70.8%) of aluminum-affected genes, and 7/8 (87.5%) of aluminum-induced genes exhibit expression patterns similar to those observed in AD. The seven genes found to be significantly up-regulated by aluminum encode pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic signaling elements, including NF-kappaB subunits, interleukin-1beta precursor, cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, beta-amyloid precursor protein and DAXX, a regulatory protein known to induce apoptosis and repress transcription. The promoters of genes up-regulated by aluminum are enriched in binding sites for the stress-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and NF-kappaB, suggesting a role for aluminum, HIF-1 and NF-kappaB in driving atypical, pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic gene expression. The effect of aluminum on specific stress-related gene expression patterns in human brain cells clearly warrant further investigation.

  14. The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California: A Guide to Pro-Kid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California is the only comprehensive roadmap at the state level for policymakers, stakeholders, and others who want all children--especially children of color and children from low-income families--to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. A plethora of research shows that investments in quality…

  15. Diacerein inhibits the pro-atherogenic & pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1 on human keratinocytes & endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lei; Many, Benjamin; Chan, Lawrence S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated IL-1-induced regulation of genes related to inflammation and atherogenesis in human keratinocytes and endothelial cells, and if ‘diacerein’, an oral IL-1 inhibiting drug currently approved for use in osteoarthritis, would reverse IL-1’s effects on these cells. Primary human keratinocytes and coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with either IL-1α or IL-1β, with and without diacerein. Using PCR-array, we assessed differential gene-expression regulated by IL-1 and diacerein. We identified 34 pro-atherogenic genes in endothelial cells and 68 pro-inflammatory genes in keratinocytes significantly (p<0.05) regulated at least 2-fold by IL-1, in comparison to control. Diacerein completely or partially reversed this regulation on almost all genes. Using ELISA, we confirmed diacerein’s ability to reverse IL-1-driven gene-regulation of 11 selected factors, at the protein level. The results support a novel idea that diacerein acts as an inhibitor of the pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1. Diacerein may have therapeutic applications to diminish IL-1-induced skin inflammation in psoriasis and attenuate IL-1-induced development of atherosclerosis. Further investigation into diacerein’s effect on skin inflammation, atherogenesis and cardiovascular risk in animal models or humans is warranted. PMID:28323859

  16. [Social actors in HIV/AIDS prevention: opposition and interests in educational policy in Mexico, 1994-2000].

    PubMed

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Nasaiya, Kittipong; Brambila, Alberto Torres

    2007-03-01

    Studies and recommendations by health agencies have emphasized the importance of education in HIV-AIDS prevention. Mexico has included topics on sexuality and HIV-AIDS in school programs, triggering resistance by some social actors. The current study seeks to clarify the various positions and interests and their influence on the textbook content. A literature search was conducted on the period during which the last educational reform was implemented in Mexico. The discourse analysis focused on the ethnography of communication, which identified: the various actors' positions, arguments, actions, economic and political power, and relations to others. The results show that those who oppose the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum base their position on tradition, contrary to modernization and secularization of social life, and that their positions range from refusal to raising conditions. Networks have been formed that provide such groups with significant economic and political power. Government has given in to some demands by partially modifying the textbook contents. The current analysis proposes to reflect on the potential repercussions of such actions on the control of the epidemic.

  17. TraitEnactments as Density Distributions: The Role of Actors, Situations, and Observers in Explaining Stability and Variability

    PubMed Central

    Fleeson, William; Law, Mary Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to determine (i)whether the high consistency of individual differences in average aggregated behavior is due to actors’ personalities or to consistency in the situations those actors encounter; and(ii)whether the surprisingly high within-person variability in trait enactment is a real phenomenon corroborated by observers, or merely in individuals’ heads. Although traits are supposed to describe what individuals are like in everyday life, little evidence exists about the enactment of trait content in everyday life. Past experience-sampling studies have found both highly variable and highly consistent trait enactment, but were restricted to self-report data and to naturally occurring situations. The current study used experience-sampling in controlled lab environments with 97 targets and 183 observers to address these shortcomings. Targets attended hour-long lab sessions 20x each and observers rated targets’ behavior. Parameters of distributions were highly consistent (r’s ~ .80), revealing that actors were responsible for consistency, not situations. Nonetheless, observer ratings revealed that most variability in trait enactment was within-person, confirming that even when people put it on the line in ways that affect others, they still varied rapidly in the traits they enacted. In the face of two historically vexing objections to traits, this paper supports the density distributions model of traits and argues that trait conceptualizations must accommodate large within-person variability. PMID:26348598

  18. Conceptualising the public health role of actors operating outside of formal health systems: The case of social enterprise.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Baker, Rachel; Kerr, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of actors that operate outside formal health systems, but nevertheless have a vital, if often under-recognised, role in supporting public health. The specific example used is the 'social enterprise', an organisation that seeks, through trading, to maximise social returns, rather than the distribution of profits to shareholders or owners. In this paper we advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the causal pathways at work in social enterprises, by considering them as a particularly complex form of public health 'intervention'. Data were generated through qualitative, in depth, semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion, with a purposive, maximum variation sample of social enterprise practitioners (n = 13) in an urban setting in the west of Scotland. A method of analysis inspired by critical realism - Causation Coding - enabled the identification of a range of explanatory mechanisms and potential pathways of causation between engagement in social enterprise-led activity and various outcomes, which have been grouped into physical health, mental health and social determinants. The findings then informed the construction of an empirically-informed conceptual model to act as a platform upon which to develop a future research agenda. The results of this work are considered to not only encourage a broader and more imaginative consideration of what actually constitutes a public health intervention, but also reinforces arguments that actors within the Third Sector have an important role to play in addressing contemporary and future public health challenges.

  19. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors.

    PubMed

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M T E

    2015-08-18

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample's prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these.

  20. Nursing Students' Reflections After Meetings With Patients and Their Relatives Enacted by Professional Actors: Being Touched and Feeling Empathy.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Anja; Sundbaum, Johanna Karlsson; Engström, Åsa

    2017-02-01

    When professional actors have been used in mental health simulations with nursing students, the experience has been regarded as a meaningful contribution to their education and described as a safe way of experiencing challenging situations that can occur in clinical settings. The aim was to study nursing students' reflections after meetings with nursing patients and their relatives, as enacted by professional actors, in psychiatric/elderly care. The design was a qualitative descriptive research approach. Gibbs's ( 1988 ) reflective cycle was the basis for the questions that were asked. Written reflections with 60 nursing students were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. The analysis produced the theme "being touched and feeling empathy," with four categories: "becoming aware of what knowledge and skills are needed," "wanting to do well and to have the right answer," "daring to get close and being present," and "knowledge comes alive." Simulation with real people who act as patients or relatives in vulnerable situations creates feelings of empathy. To talk with them, experience eye contact, and see how they react on touch makes nursing students feel they have experienced closeness and their knowledge has become alive.

  1. Adaptive Actor-Critic Design-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for Partially Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Input Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of integral sliding-mode control for a class of nonlinear systems with input disturbances and unknown nonlinear terms through the adaptive actor-critic (AC) control method. The main objective is to design a sliding-mode control methodology based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method, so that the closed-loop system with time-varying disturbances is stable and the nearly optimal performance of the sliding-mode dynamics can be guaranteed. In the first step, a neural network (NN)-based observer and a disturbance observer are designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear terms and estimate the input disturbances, respectively. Based on the NN approximations and disturbance estimations, the discontinuous part of the sliding-mode control is constructed to eliminate the effect of the disturbances and attain the expected equivalent sliding-mode dynamics. Then, the ADP method with AC structure is presented to learn the optimal control for the sliding-mode dynamics online. Reconstructed tuning laws are developed to guarantee the stability of the sliding-mode dynamics and the convergence of the weights of critic and actor NNs. Finally, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A participant observation study using actors at 30 publicly funded HIV counseling and testing sites in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, A J; Gehl, M B; Encandela, J; Schelzel, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to augment an evaluation of Pennsylvania publicly funded HIV counseling and testing sites, particularly of the staff-client interaction. METHODS: Actors were trained as research assistants and sent to 30 randomly chosen sites to be tested and counseled for HIV disease. Instruments based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines were designed and used to evaluate them. RESULTS: Data were generated that identified the range of compliance with CDC guidelines and state policy. Among the findings were that 10 of 30 sites required signed consents despite a state policy allowing anonymous testing. Only 17% of providers developed a written risk reduction plan, even though 69% of all sites surveyed by mail asserted that such plans were developed. Only 2 of 5 HIV-positive actors were offered partner notification services, even though 100% of sites visited by an interviewer claimed to offer such services. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that although evaluation methods such as mail surveys and site visits are useful for evaluating the existence of appropriate policies and protocols and gathering baseline data, they might not be sufficient for assessing actual staff-client interaction. PMID:10897188

  3. Working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A longitudinal actor partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Hill, Clara E; Gelso, Charles J; Baumann, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) to examine the dyadic associations of 74 clients and 23 therapists in their evaluations of working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement over time in ongoing psychodynamic or interpersonal psychotherapy. There were significant actor effects for both therapists and clients, with the participant's own ratings of working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their own evaluations of session quality. There were significant client partner effects, with clients' working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their therapists' evaluations of session quality. The client partner real relationship effect was stronger in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' real relationship ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' working alliance ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings when clients made greater improvement than when clients made lesser improvement. For clients' session outcome ratings, there were complex three-way interactions, such that both Client real relationship and working alliance interacted with client improvement and time in treatment to predict clients' session quality. These findings strongly suggest both individual and partner effects when clients and therapists evaluate psychotherapy process and outcome. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Su-Mia; Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample’s prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these. PMID:26295247

  5. Remarriage Beliefs as Predictors of Marital Quality and Positive Interaction in Stepcouples: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Higginbotham, Brian; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined remarriage beliefs as predictors of marital quality and positive interaction in a sample of 179 stepcouples. Three beliefs were measured using subscales from the Remarriage Belief Inventory (RMBI) including success is slim, children are the priority, and finances should be pooled. Several significant actor and partner effects were found for both wives' and husbands' beliefs. Wives' marital quality was positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Wives' reports of their own and spouses' positive interaction were both positively associated with their beliefs that finances should be pooled. Their reports of spouses' positive interaction were also negatively associated with husbands' beliefs that success is slim. Husbands' marital quality was positively associated with wives' beliefs that children are the priority, positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled, and negatively with success is slim. Positive interaction for husbands was positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Finally, husbands' reports of positive interaction for their spouses were positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled. Implications for future research utilizing dyadic data analysis with stepcouples are addressed.

  6. Cell surface chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in melanoma: role in the activation of pro-MMP-2 (pro-gelatinase A).

    PubMed

    Iida, Joji; Wilhelmson, Krista L; Ng, Janet; Lee, Peter; Morrison, Charlotte; Tam, Eric; Overall, Christopher M; McCarthy, James B

    2007-05-01

    We previously reported that CS (chondroitin sulfate) GAG (glycosaminoglycan), expressed on MCSP (melanoma-specific CS proteoglycan), is important for regulating MT3-MMP [membrane-type 3 MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)]-mediated human melanoma invasion and gelatinolytic activity in vitro. In the present study, we sought to determine if CS can directly enhance MT3-MMP-mediated activation of pro-MMP-2. Co-immunoprecipitation studies suggest that MCSP forms a complex with MT3-MMP and MMP-2 on melanoma cell surface. When melanoma cells were treated with betaDX (p-nitro-beta-D-xylopyranoside) to inhibit coupling of CS on the core protein, both active form and proform of MMP-2 were no longer co-immunoprecipitated with either MCSP or MT3-MMP, suggesting a model in which CS directly binds to MMP-2 and presents the gelatinase to MT3-MMP to be activated. By using recombinant proteins, we determined that MT3-MMP directly activates pro-MMP-2 and that this activation requires the interaction of the C-terminal domain of pro-MMP-2 with MT3-MMP. Activation of pro-MMP-2 by suboptimal concentrations of MT3-MMP is also significantly enhanced in the presence of excess C4S (chondroitin 4-sulfate), whereas C6S (chondroitin 6-sulfate) or low-molecular-mass hyaluronan was ineffective. Affinity chromatography studies using CS isolated from aggrecan indicate that the catalytic domain of MT3-MMP and the C-terminal domain of MMP-2 directly bind to the GAG. Thus the direct binding of pro-MMP-2 with CS through the C-domain would present the catalytic domain of pro-MMP-2 to MT3-MMP, which facilitates the generation of the active form of MMP-2. These results suggest that C4S, which is expressed on tumour cell surface, can function to bind to pro-MMP-2 and facilitate its activation by MT3-MMP-expressing tumour cells to enhance invasion and metastasis.

  7. Pro-TRH and pro-CRF expression in paraventricular nucleus of small litter-reared fasted adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, F; Alvarez-Salas, E; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Amaya, M I; García-Luna, C; de Gortari, P

    2014-04-01

    Neuroendocrine axes adapt to nutrient availability. During fasting, the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is reduced, whereas that of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased. Overfeeding-induced hyperleptinemia during lactation may alter the regulatory set point of neuroendocrine axes and their adaptability to fasting in adulthood. Hyperleptinemia is developed in rodents by litter size reduction during lactation; adult rats from small litters become overweight, but their paraventricular nucleus (PVN) TRH synthesis is unchanged. It is unclear whether peptide expression still responds to nutrient availability. PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model. We analyzed adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to fasting-induced low leptin levels of reduced-litter adult rats. Offspring litters were reduced to 2-3/dam (early-overfed) or maintained at 8/dam (controls, C). At 10 weeks old, a subset of animals from each group was fasted for 48 h and leptin, corticosterone, and thyroid hormones serum levels were analyzed. In brain, expressions of leptin receptor, NPY and SOCS3, were evaluated in arcuate nucleus, and those of proTRH and proCRF in PVN by real-time PCR. ProTRH expression in anterior and medial PVN subcompartments was assayed by in situ hybridization. Early-overfed adults developed hyperphagia and excessive weight, together with decreased proTRH expression in anterior PVN, supporting the anorexigenic effects of TRH. Early-overfed rats presented low PVN proTRH synthesis, whereas fasting did not induce a further reduction. Fasting-induced stress was unable to increase corticosterone levels, contributing to reduced body weight loss in early-overfed rats. We concluded that early overfeeding impaired the adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to excess weight and fasting in adults.

  8. The increase of serum Bcl-2 concentration in moderate head injury outcome: The role of ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10

    PubMed Central

    Indharty, Rr Suzy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability. Apoptosis after TBI contributes significantly to the final extent of tissue damage. The Bcl-2 family proteins are important apoptosis modulators which increased in injured neurons. Bcl-2 has shown an antiapoptotic effect in rats and mice. ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 is a synthetic short fragment of ACTH devoid of hormonal effects and has neuromodulatory properties. ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 has been shown to increase levels of Bcl-2 and BDNF in vitro as well as in vivo. It has been postulated that ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 will result in improved clinical outcome and reduce hospital length of stay. The goal of this study is to compare the effect of standard therapy only with standard therapy and ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10, the increase of Bcl-2, and clinical outcome with reduction of hospital stay. Materials and Methods: Subjects of moderate head injury (MHI) with no indication of surgery were taken consecutively (n = 40) and separated into two groups: standard treatment only and standard treatment combined with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10. Blood samples were taken on day 1 and day 5 from each subject for measurements of Bcl-2 concentration. Barthel Index and MMSE were measured, at discharge and hospital length of stay was noted. Results: Forty subjects have been involved in this study, three subjects died in the standard therapy group, and one subject in ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 group. Bcl-2 serum level in standard therapy was 1.39 ± 0.75 ng/mL on day 1 and 1.48 ± 0.77 ng/mL on day 5. After treatment with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10, Bcl-2 level was 1.39 ± 0.70 ng/mL on day 1 and 3.70 ± 1.02 ng/mL on day 5. The serum Bcl-2 concentration was significantly increased with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 therapy with shorter hospital length of stay (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 increased serum Bcl-2 levels and reduced hospital length of stay significantly compared with standard

  9. Systematic Evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Content of Clinical Trial Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Kyte, Derek; Duffy, Helen; Fletcher, Benjamin; Gheorghe, Adrian; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine; Draper, Heather; Ives, Jonathan; Brundage, Michael; Blazeby, Jane; Calvert, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative evidence suggests patient-reported outcome (PRO) information is frequently absent from clinical trial protocols, potentially leading to inconsistent PRO data collection and risking bias. Direct evidence regarding PRO trial protocol content is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the PRO-specific content of UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme trial protocols. Methods and Findings We conducted an electronic search of the NIHR HTA programme database (inception to August 2013) for protocols describing a randomised controlled trial including a primary/secondary PRO. Two investigators independently reviewed the content of each protocol, using a specially constructed PRO-specific protocol checklist, alongside the ‘Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials’ (SPIRIT) checklist. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with a third investigator. 75 trial protocols were included in the analysis. Protocols included a mean of 32/51 (63%) SPIRIT recommendations (range 16–41, SD 5.62) and 11/33 (33%) PRO-specific items (range 4–18, SD 3.56). Over half (61%) of the PRO items were incomplete. Protocols containing a primary PRO included slightly more PRO checklist items (mean 14/33 (43%)). PRO protocol content was not associated with general protocol completeness; thus, protocols judged as relatively ‘complete’ using SPIRIT were still likely to have omitted a large proportion of PRO checklist items. Conclusions The PRO components of HTA clinical trial protocols require improvement. Information on the PRO rationale/hypothesis, data collection methods, training and management was often absent. This low compliance is unsurprising; evidence shows existing PRO guidance for protocol developers remains difficult to access and lacks consistency. Study findings suggest there are a number of PRO protocol checklist items that are not fully

  10. Design of a case management model for people with chronic disease (Heart Failure and COPD). Phase I: modeling and identification of the main components of the intervention through their actors: patients and professionals (DELTA-icE-PRO Study)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases account for nearly 60% of deaths around the world. The extent of this silent epidemic has not met determined responses in governments, policies or professionals in order to transform old Health Care Systems, configured for acute diseases. There is a large list of research about alternative models for people with chronic conditions, many of them with an advanced practice nurse as a key provider, as case management. But some methodological concerns raise, above all, the design of the intervention (intensity, frequency, components, etc). Methods/Design Objectives: General: To develop the first and second phases (theorization and modeling) for designing a multifaceted case-management intervention in people with chronic conditions (COPD and heart failure) and their caregivers. Specific aims: 1) To identify key events in people living with chronic disease and their relation with the Health Care System, from their point of view. 2) To know the coping mechanisms developed by patients and their caregivers along the story with the disease. 3) To know the information processing and its utilization in their interactions with health care providers. 4) To detect potential unmet needs and the ways deployed by patients and their caregivers to resolve them. 5) To obtain a description from patients and caregivers, about their itineraries along the Health Care System, in terms of continuity, accessibility and comprehensiveness of care. 6) To build up a list of promising case-management interventions in patients with Heart Failure and COPD with this information in order to frame it into theoretical models for its reproducibility and conceptualization. 7) To undergo this list to expert judgment to assess its feasibility and pertinence in the Andalusian Health Care. Design: Qualitative research with two phases: For the first five objectives, a qualitative technique with biographic stories will be developed and, for the remaining objectives, an expert consensus through Delphi technique, on the possible interventions yielded from the first phase. The study will be developed in the provinces of Almería, Málaga and Granada in the Southern Spain, from patients included in the Andalusian Health Care Service database with the diagnosis of COPD or Heart Failure, with the collaboration of case manager nurses and general practitioners for the assessment of their suitability to inclusion criteria. Patients and caregivers will be interviewed in their homes or their Health Centers, with their family or their case manager nurse as mediator. Discussion First of a series of studies intended to design a case-management service for people with heart failure and COPD, in the Andalusian Health Care System, where case management has been implemented since 2002. Accordingly with the steps of a theoretical model for complex interventions, in this study, theorization and intervention modeling phases will be developed. PMID:21126369

  11. ColorPro: PSF-corrected aperture-matched photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Dan; Benitez, Narciso

    2015-08-01

    ColorPro automatically obtains robust colors across images of varied PSF. To correct for the flux lost in images with poorer PSF, the "detection image" is blurred to match the PSF of these other images, allowing observation of how much flux is lost. All photometry is performed in the highest resolution frame (images being aligned given WCS information in the FITS headers), and identical apertures are used in every image. Usually isophotal apertures are used, as determined by SExtractor (ascl:1010.064). Using SExSeg (ascl:1508.006), object aperture definitions can be pre-defined and object detections from different image filters can be combined automatically into a single comprehensive "segmentation map." After producing the final photometric catalog, ColorPro can automatically run BPZ (ascl:1108.011) to obtain Bayesian Photometric Redshifts.

  12. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed.

  13. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  14. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group.

  15. Sex education training: a Pro Familia pilot project.

    PubMed

    1979-07-01

    A Pro Familia (Saarbrucken) project has established a pilot sex education project to teach youth leaders happy sexual relationships, how relationships are formed and influenced, and the physiological and biological realities surrounding those relationships. The training is intended for two groups. Personnel involved in out-of-school activities will be trained in 5-10 sessions of 2-3 hours each. The basic course highlights the participants' attitudes towards sexuality, sex education, and conflicts arising in youth work. 6 months later a further course follows in which practical experiences are exchanged. Training in the field is also provided for personnel of youth clubs, centres. Personal attitudes are discussed and a discussion group, led by Pro Familia personnel, are formed. Future workers in out-of-school activities need further training. A 2 term course at the Technical High School for social workers and extra courses in sociology, psychology, and teacher training, are being considered.

  16. Identifying Parents Who Are Amenable to Pro-Vaccination Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    While health care providers are often cited as parents’ most trusted source for information and advice about vaccination, parents differ in their level of receptiveness to pro-vaccination conversations. The purpose of this research was to identify points in individual parents’ decision-making processes when parents are particularly open to receiving information and advice from their children’s health care providers. Interview data were collected from 20 mothers and 5 couples. Analysis of these data suggested 3 primary circumstances when parents were particularly open to receiving information and advice: during parents’ initial decision-making, as parents continued to assess vaccination options, and during particular circumstances that prompted parents to reconsider previously made vaccination choices. These results provide a mechanism for providers to identify parents who may be particularly receptive to pro-vaccination conversations. By prioritizing conversations with parents at one of these points, health care providers’ efforts at promoting vaccination may be more effective. PMID:27335987

  17. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Christopher P.; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0–absent, 1–equivocal, 2–mild, 3–moderate, 4–severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  18. Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

  19. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Curtis, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The summary of activity during this reporting period, most of which was covered by a no-cost extension of the grant, is as follows: 1) Participation in remote and in-situ (at MSFC EDAC facility) mission operation simulations; 2) Analysis of the decay rate of ProSEDS when starting the mission at a lower altitude; 3) Analysis of the deployment control law performance when deploying at a lower altitude.

  20. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  1. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-07-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other

  2. PRoNTo: pattern recognition for neuroimaging toolbox.

    PubMed

    Schrouff, J; Rosa, M J; Rondina, J M; Marquand, A F; Chu, C; Ashburner, J; Phillips, C; Richiardi, J; Mourão-Miranda, J

    2013-07-01

    In the past years, mass univariate statistical analyses of neuroimaging data have been complemented by the use of multivariate pattern analyses, especially based on machine learning models. While these allow an increased sensitivity for the detection of spatially distributed effects compared to univariate techniques, they lack an established and accessible software framework. The goal of this work was to build a toolbox comprising all the necessary functionalities for multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data, based on machine learning models. The "Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging Toolbox" (PRoNTo) is open-source, cross-platform, MATLAB-based and SPM compatible, therefore being suitable for both cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. In addition, it is designed to facilitate novel contributions from developers, aiming to improve the interaction between the neuroimaging and machine learning communities. Here, we introduce PRoNTo by presenting examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine learning framework implemented in PRoNTo, and cannot be easily investigated with mass univariate statistical analysis.

  3. PPARγ2Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Weimin

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an important transcription factor regulating adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity. Numerous genetic mutations of PPARγ have been identified and these mutations positively or negatively regulate insulin sensitivity. Among these, a relatively common polymorphism of PPARγ, Pro12Ala of PPARγ2, the isoform expressed only in adipose tissue has been shown to be associated with lower body mass index, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and resistance to the risk of type 2 diabetes in human subjects carrying this mutation. Subsequent studies in different ethnic populations, however, have revealed conflicting results, suggesting a complex interaction between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and environmental factors such as the ratio of dietary unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and/or between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and genetic factors such as polymorphic mutations in other genes. In addition, this polymorphic mutation in PPARγ2 is associated with other aspects of human diseases, including cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, Alzheimer disease and aging. This review will highlight findings from recent studies. PMID:19390629

  4. Control of the Immune Response by Pro-Angiogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Voron, Thibault; Marcheteau, Elie; Pernot, Simon; Colussi, Orianne; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien; Terme, Magali

    2014-01-01

    The progressive conversion of normal cells into cancer cells is characterized by the acquisition of eight hallmarks. Among these criteria, the capability of the cancer cell to avoid the immune destruction has been noted. Thus, tumors develop mechanisms to become invisible to the immune system, such as the induction of immunosuppressive cells, which are able to inhibit the development of an efficient immune response. Molecules produced in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the occurrence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Recently, it has been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exhibits immunosuppressive properties in addition to its pro-angiogenic activities. VEGF-A can induce the accumulation of immature dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, and inhibit the migration of T lymphocytes to the tumor. Other pro-angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor (PlGF) could also participate in tumor-induced immunosuppression, but only few works have been performed on this point. Here, we review the impact of pro-angiogenic factors (especially VEGF-A) on immune cells. Anti-angiogenic molecules, which target VEGF-A/VEGFR axis, have been developed in the last decades and are commonly used to treat cancer patients. These drugs have anti-angiogenic properties but can also counteract the tumor-induced immunosuppression. Based on these immunomodulatory properties, anti-angiogenic molecules could be efficiently associated with immunotherapeutic strategies in preclinical models. These combinations are currently under investigation in cancer patients. PMID:24765614

  5. BH3 mimetics activate multiple pro-autophagic pathways.

    PubMed

    Malik, S A; Orhon, I; Morselli, E; Criollo, A; Shen, S; Mariño, G; BenYounes, A; Bénit, P; Rustin, P; Maiuri, M C; Kroemer, G

    2011-09-15

    The BH3 mimetic ABT737 induces autophagy by competitively disrupting the inhibitory interaction between the BH3 domain of Beclin 1 and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), thereby stimulating the Beclin 1-dependent allosteric activation of the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Here, we examined whether ABT737 stimulates other pro-autophagic signal-transduction pathways. ABT737 caused the activating phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and of the AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, the activating phosphorylation of several subunits of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) and the hyperphosphorylation of the IKK substrate IκB, inhibition of the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and consequent dephosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6 kinase. In addition, ABT737 treatment dephosphorylates (and hence likewise inhibits) p53, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Akt. All these effects were shared by ABT737 and another structurally unrelated BH3 mimetic, HA14-1. Functional experiments revealed that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IKK, Sirtuin and the p53-depleting ubiquitin ligase MDM2 prevented ABT737-induced autophagy. These results point to unexpected and pleiotropic pro-autophagic effects of BH3 mimetics involving the modulation of multiple signalling pathways.

  6. The Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Erica de Almeida; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. Their actions are mediated by the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which, once bound to their ligands, act as transcription factors that can directly modulate gene expression. Through protein–protein interactions with other transcription factors, they can also regulate the activity of many genes in a composite or tethering way. Rapid non-genomic signaling was also demonstrated since glucocorticoids can act through membrane receptors and activate signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinases cascades, to modulate other transcriptions factors and activate or repress various target genes. By all these different mechanisms, glucocorticoids regulate numerous important functions in a large variety of cells, not only in the peripheral organs but also in the central nervous system during development and adulthood. In general, glucocorticoids are considered anti-inflammatory and protective agents due to their ability to inhibit gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and other possible damaging molecules. Nonetheless, recent studies have uncovered situations in which these hormones can act as pro-inflammatory agents depending on the dose, chronicity of exposure, and the structure/organ analyzed. In this review, we will provide an overview of the conditions under which these phenomena occur, a discussion that will serve as a basis for exploring the mechanistic foundation of glucocorticoids pro-inflammatory gene regulation in the brain. PMID:27445981

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.; Yacoubian, Stephanie; Yang, Rong

    2009-01-01

    The popular view that all lipid mediators are pro-inflammatory arises largely from the finding that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The resolution of inflammation was widely held to be a passive event until recently, with the characterization of novel biochemical pathways and lipid-derived mediators that are actively turned on in resolution possessing potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. A lipid mediator informatics approach was employed to systematically identify new families of endogenous local-acting mediators from omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in resolving exudates in addition to the lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins generated from arachidonic acid. These new chemical mediator families were coined resolvins and protectins, given their potent bioactions. In this annual review, we present recent advances on the biosynthesis and stereospecific actions of these new pro-resolving mediators, which have also proven to be organ protective and anti-fibrotic. PMID:18233953

  8. Inhibition of murine AIDS by pro-glutathione (GSH) molecules.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, A; Paoletti, M F; Casabianca, A; Orlandi, C; Schiavano, G F; Chiarantini, L; Clayette, P; Oiry, J; Vogel, J-U; Cinatl, J; Magnani, M

    2008-02-01

    Antioxidant molecules can be used both to replenish the depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) occurring during HIV infection, and to inhibit HIV replication. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of two pro-GSH molecules able to cross the cell membrane more easily than GSH. We used an experimental animal model consisting of C57BL/6 mice infected with the LP-BM5 viral complex; the treatments were based on the intramuscular administration of I-152, a pro-drug of N-acetylcysteine and S-acetyl-beta-mercaptoethylamine, and S-acetylglutathione, an acetylated GSH derivative. The results show that I-152, at a concentration of 10.7 times lower than GSH, caused a reduction in lymph node and spleen weights of about 55% when compared to infected animals and an inhibition of about 66% in spleen and lymph node virus content. S-acetylglutathione, at half the concentration of GSH, caused a reduction in lymph node weight of about 17% and in spleen and lymph node virus content of about 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that the administration of pro-GSH molecules may favorably substitute for the use of GSH as such.

  9. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Space Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Ballance, Judy

    1998-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. ProSEDS which is planned to fly in 2000, will use the flight proven Small Expendable C, Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 15 km spectra) from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. ProSEDS will utilize tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer of payloads and upper stages from LEO to higher orbits it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  10. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Enrico; Ballance, Judy

    1998-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. ProSEDS which is planned to fly in 2000, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 15 km spectra) from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust, thus demonstrating deorbit thrust. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. ProSEDS will utilize tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer of payloads and upper stages from LEO to higher orbits it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  11. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures. Subsequently, tenocytes gene expression of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components (type I collagen, decorin, fibronectin), the cell-ECM receptor β1-integrin, the angiogenic factor myodulin, ECM degrading matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumour necrosis factor [TNFα] and IL-6) was analysed. The only significant effect of leukocytes on tenocytes ECM genes expression was a suppression of type I collagen by neutrophils combined with TNFα stimulation. The same effect could be observed analysing the β1-integrin and myodulin gene expression. However, PBMCs up-regulated significantly cytokine and MMP1 gene expression in tenocytes. These in vitro results suggest that mononuclear cells could present an exogenic stimulus for the induction of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators in tendon. PMID:23738251

  12. Increase in osmotolerance of Rhizobium fredii soybean isolate BD32 by the proB proA operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Neumivakin, L V; Solovjev, V P; Sokhansanj, A; Tilba, V A; Moseiko, N A; Shachbasian, R V; Piruzian, E S

    1995-12-26

    The proB proA operons (which are blocked by the feedback inhibition of proline production) of Escherichia coli wild type or with the mutation proBosm, blocking feedback inhibition effect of proline production, were cloned in a broad host range shuttle vector pVA 12-2. The hybrid plasmids pLVA(proB+A+) and pNSA(proBosm proA), were transferred into a low level osmotolerance Rhizobium fredii strain BD32. Both types of transconjugants were characterised by increased osmotolerance in a minimal medium supplied with 0.4-0.8 M NaCl but in the case of pNSA the effect was more significant. The strain BD32/pNSA had an increased level of intracellular proline concentration. Practical application of the increase in Rhizobium resistance to the stress factors is discussed.

  13. Role of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature BDNF conversion in activity-dependent competition at developing neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Je, H Shawn; Yang, Feng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Nagappan, Guhan; Hempstead, Barbara L; Lu, Bai

    2012-09-25

    Formation of specific neuronal connections often involves competition between adjacent axons, leading to stabilization of the active terminal, while retraction of the less active ones. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show that activity-dependent conversion of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature (m)BDNF mediates synaptic competition. Stimulation of motoneurons triggers proteolytic conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF at nerve terminals. In Xenopus nerve-muscle cocultures, in which two motoneurons innervate one myocyte, proBDNF-p75(NTR) signaling promotes retraction of the less active terminal, whereas mBDNF-tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) facilitates stabilization of the active one. Thus, proBDNF and mBDNF may serve as potential "punishment" and "reward" signals for inactive and active terminals, respectively, and activity-dependent conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF may regulate synapse elimination.

  14. Accelerating learning for pro-poor health markets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid evolution of health markets, learning is key to promoting the identification and uptake of health market policies and practices that better serve the needs of the poor. However there are significant challenges to learning about health markets. We discuss the different forms that learning takes, from the development of codified scientific knowledge, through to experience-based learning, all in relationship to health markets. Discussion Notable challenges to learning in health markets include the difficulty of acquiring data from private health care providers, designing evaluations that capture the complex dynamics present within health markets and developing communities of practice that encompass the diverse actors present within health markets, and building trust and mutual understanding across these groups. The paper proposes experimentation with country-specific market data platforms that can integrate relevant evidence from different data sources, and simultaneously exploring strategies to secure better information on private providers and health markets. Possible approaches to adapting evaluation designs so that they are better able to take account of different and changing contexts as well as producing real time findings are discussed. Finally capturing informal knowledge about health markets is key. Communities of practice that bridge different health market actors can help to share such experience-based knowledge and in so doing, may help to formalize it. More geographically-focused communities of practice are needed, and such communities may be supported by innovation brokers and/or be built around member-based organizations. Summary Strategic investments in and support to learning about health markets can address some of the challenges experienced to-date, and accelerate learning that supports health markets that serve the poor. PMID:24961671

  15. ProQ3: Improved model quality assessments using Rosetta energy terms

    PubMed Central

    Uziela, Karolis; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment of protein models using no other information than the structure of the model itself has been shown to be useful for structure prediction. Here, we introduce two novel methods, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen, inspired by the state-of-art method ProQ2, but using a completely different description of a protein model. ProQ2 uses contacts and other features calculated from a model, while the new predictors are based on Rosetta energies: ProQRosFA uses the full-atom energy function that takes into account all atoms, while ProQRosCen uses the coarse-grained centroid energy function. The two new predictors also include residue conservation and terms corresponding to the agreement of a model with predicted secondary structure and surface area, as in ProQ2. We show that the performance of these predictors is on par with ProQ2 and significantly better than all other model quality assessment programs. Furthermore, we show that combining the input features from all three predictors, the resulting predictor ProQ3 performs better than any of the individual methods. ProQ3, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen are freely available both as a webserver and stand-alone programs at http://proq3.bioinfo.se/. PMID:27698390

  16. NetPro: Methodologies and Tools for Project Based Learning in Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markkanen, Hannu; Donzellini, Giuliano; Ponta, Domenico

    The mission of the NetPro European project is to develop project-based learning through the Internet. The NetPro project is creating tools and services to facilitate communication and collaboration between distant students, and to manage access and control of project deliverables. NetPro project teams form cross-institutional learning communities.…

  17. ProQ3: Improved model quality assessments using Rosetta energy terms.

    PubMed

    Uziela, Karolis; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2016-10-04

    Quality assessment of protein models using no other information than the structure of the model itself has been shown to be useful for structure prediction. Here, we introduce two novel methods, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen, inspired by the state-of-art method ProQ2, but using a completely different description of a protein model. ProQ2 uses contacts and other features calculated from a model, while the new predictors are based on Rosetta energies: ProQRosFA uses the full-atom energy function that takes into account all atoms, while ProQRosCen uses the coarse-grained centroid energy function. The two new predictors also include residue conservation and terms corresponding to the agreement of a model with predicted secondary structure and surface area, as in ProQ2. We show that the performance of these predictors is on par with ProQ2 and significantly better than all other model quality assessment programs. Furthermore, we show that combining the input features from all three predictors, the resulting predictor ProQ3 performs better than any of the individual methods. ProQ3, ProQRosFA and ProQRosCen are freely available both as a webserver and stand-alone programs at http://proq3.bioinfo.se/.

  18. Quality of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Reporting Across Cancer Randomized Controlled Trials According to the CONSORT PRO Extension: A Pooled Analysis of 557 Trials

    PubMed Central

    Efficace, Fabio; Fayers, Peter; Pusic, Andrea; Cemal, Yeliz; Yanagawa, Jane; Jacobs, Marc; la Sala, Andrea; Cafaro, Valentina; Whale, Katie; Rees, Jonathan; Blazeby, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background The main objectives of this study were to identify the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have included a patient-reported outcome (PRO) endpoint across a wide range of cancer specialties and to evaluate completeness of PRO reporting according to the CONSORT PRO extension. Methods RCTs with a PRO endpoint, conducted across several cancer specialties and published between 2004 and 2013 were considered. Studies were evaluated based on previously defined criteria, including the CONSORT PRO extension and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing RCT Risk of Bias. Analyses were also conducted by type of PRO endpoint (primary versus secondary) and by cancer disease site. Results A total of 56,696 potentially eligible records were scrutinized and 557 RCTs with a PRO evaluation, enrolling overall 254,677 patients, were identified. PROs were most frequently used in RCTs of breast (N=123), lung (N=85) and colorectal (N=66) cancer. Overall, PROs were secondary endpoint in 421 (76%) RCTs. Four out of six CONSORT PRO items evaluated were documented in less than 50% of the RCTs. Level of reporting was higher in RCTs with PRO as a primary endpoint. Presence of a supplementary report was the only statistically significant factor associated with greater completeness of reporting for both RCTs with PRO as primary (β=0.19; P=0.001) or secondary endpoint (β=0.30; P<0.001). Conclusion Implementation of the CONSORT PRO extension is equally important across all cancer specialties. Its use can also contribute in revealing the robust PRO design of some studies, which might be obscured by poor outcome reporting. PMID:26079197

  19. Phase behavior and crystallogenesis under counter-diffusion conditions of the collagen-model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Alessandro; Castagnolo, Dario; Carotenuto, Luigi; Vitagliano, Luigi; Berisio, Rita; Sorrentino, Giosué; González-Ramírez, Luis; García-Ruiz, Juan; Zagari, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Single chains of the collagen-model polypeptide with sequence (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10, hereafter referred to as (PPG) 10, aggregate to form rod-shaped triple helices. Precipitation diagrams of (PPG) 10 as a function of pH and various molecular mass poly(ethylene glycol) concentrations have been measured. These results were used to design experiments to test the quality of (PPG) 10 crystal grown on ground (in gelled and free solutions) and in space in two different facilities, the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility based on the free-interface diffusion technique and the Granada Crystallization Facility based on counter-diffusion technique. Experiments were monitored by optical microscopy on earth. X-ray diffraction analysis of the grown crystals reveals the benefit of the counter-diffusion technique.

  20. An Actor-Network Theory Analysis of Policy Innovation for Smoke-Free Places: Understanding Change in Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Ron; Coghill, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Complex, transnational issues like the tobacco epidemic are major challenges that defy analysis and management by conventional methods, as are other public health issues, such as those associated with global food distribution and climate change. We examined the evolution of indoor smoke-free regulations, a tobacco control policy innovation, and identified the key attributes of those jurisdictions that successfully pursued this innovation and those that to date have not. In doing so, we employed the actor-network theory, a comprehensive framework for the analysis of fundamental system change. Through our analysis, we identified approaches to help overcome some systemic barriers to the solution of the tobacco problem and comment on other complex transnational problems. PMID:20466949

  1. Scientist-Centered Workflow Abstractions via Generic Actors, Workflow Templates, and Context-Awareness for Groundwater Modeling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Critchlow, Terence J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Ngu, Anne Hee Hiong

    2011-07-04

    A drawback of existing scientific workflow systems is the lack of support to domain scientists in designing and executing their own scientific workflows. Many domain scientists avoid developing and using workflows because the basic objects of workflows are too low-level and high-level tools and mechanisms to aid in workflow construction and use are largely unavailable. In our research, we are prototyping higher-level abstractions and tools to better support scientists in their workflow activities. Specifically, we are developing generic actors that provide abstract interfaces to specific functionality, workflow templates that encapsulate workflow and data patterns that can be reused and adapted by scientists, and context-awareness mechanisms to gather contextual information from the workflow environment on behalf of the scientist. To evaluate these scientist-centered abstractions on real problems, we apply them to construct and execute scientific workflows in the specific domain area of groundwater modeling and analysis.

  2. Dyadic effects of marital satisfaction on coparenting in Chinese families: Based on the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Xin-Chun

    2016-04-18

    Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, this study explored the spillover and crossover effects of marital satisfaction on coparenting in Chinese nuclear and extended families. Spillover and crossover effects refer to the transfer of experiences, affects or behaviors, focusing on the intra-personal and inter-personal transfer of a marital subsystem to a coparenting subsystem. The participants comprised 279 couples with children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years old. The marital satisfaction and extent of coparenting of both the fathers and the mothers was tested to examine the dyadic interaction. Structural equation modeling results revealed significant intra-personal and inter-personal correlations between marital satisfaction and coparenting, indicating spillover and crossover effects in nuclear and extended families, and there were no differences between the two family structures. The results indicated that fathers' marital satisfaction influenced both fathers' and mothers' coparenting practices.

  3. Research Note: The consequences of different methods for handling missing network data in Stochastic Actor Based Models.

    PubMed

    Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2015-05-01

    Although stochastic actor based models (e.g., as implemented in the SIENA software program) are growing in popularity as a technique for estimating longitudinal network data, a relatively understudied issue is the consequence of missing network data for longitudinal analysis. We explore this issue in our research note by utilizing data from four schools in an existing dataset (the AddHealth dataset) over three time points, assessing the substantive consequences of using four different strategies for addressing missing network data. The results indicate that whereas some measures in such models are estimated relatively robustly regardless of the strategy chosen for addressing missing network data, some of the substantive conclusions will differ based on the missing data strategy chosen. These results have important implications for this burgeoning applied research area, implying that researchers should more carefully consider how they address missing data when estimating such models.

  4. A confidence metric for using neurobiological feedback in actor-critic reinforcement learning based brain-machine interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Noeline W.; Sanchez, Justin C.; Prasad, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) can be used to restore function in people living with paralysis. Current BMIs require extensive calibration that increase the set-up times and external inputs for decoder training that may be difficult to produce in paralyzed individuals. Both these factors have presented challenges in transitioning the technology from research environments to activities of daily living (ADL). For BMIs to be seamlessly used in ADL, these issues should be handled with minimal external input thus reducing the need for a technician/caregiver to calibrate the system. Reinforcement Learning (RL) based BMIs are a good tool to be used when there is no external training signal and can provide an adaptive modality to train BMI decoders. However, RL based BMIs are sensitive to the feedback provided to adapt the BMI. In actor-critic BMIs, this feedback is provided by the critic and the overall system performance is limited by the critic accuracy. In this work, we developed an adaptive BMI that could handle inaccuracies in the critic feedback in an effort to produce more accurate RL based BMIs. We developed a confidence measure, which indicated how appropriate the feedback is for updating the decoding parameters of the actor. The results show that with the new update formulation, the critic accuracy is no longer a limiting factor for the overall performance. We tested and validated the system onthree different data sets: synthetic data generated by an Izhikevich neural spiking model, synthetic data with a Gaussian noise distribution, and data collected from a non-human primate engaged in a reaching task. All results indicated that the system with the critic confidence built in always outperformed the system without the critic confidence. Results of this study suggest the potential application of the technique in developing an autonomous BMI that does not need an external signal for training or extensive calibration. PMID:24904257

  5. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems.

  6. A confidence metric for using neurobiological feedback in actor-critic reinforcement learning based brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Prins, Noeline W; Sanchez, Justin C; Prasad, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) can be used to restore function in people living with paralysis. Current BMIs require extensive calibration that increase the set-up times and external inputs for decoder training that may be difficult to produce in paralyzed individuals. Both these factors have presented challenges in transitioning the technology from research environments to activities of daily living (ADL). For BMIs to be seamlessly used in ADL, these issues should be handled with minimal external input thus reducing the need for a technician/caregiver to calibrate the system. Reinforcement Learning (RL) based BMIs are a good tool to be used when there is no external training signal and can provide an adaptive modality to train BMI decoders. However, RL based BMIs are sensitive to the feedback provided to adapt the BMI. In actor-critic BMIs, this feedback is provided by the critic and the overall system performance is limited by the critic accuracy. In this work, we developed an adaptive BMI that could handle inaccuracies in the critic feedback in an effort to produce more accurate RL based BMIs. We developed a confidence measure, which indicated how appropriate the feedback is for updating the decoding parameters of the actor. The results show that with the new update formulation, the critic accuracy is no longer a limiting factor for the overall performance. We tested and validated the system onthree different data sets: synthetic data generated by an Izhikevich neural spiking model, synthetic data with a Gaussian noise distribution, and data collected from a non-human primate engaged in a reaching task. All results indicated that the system with the critic confidence built in always outperformed the system without the critic confidence. Results of this study suggest the potential application of the technique in developing an autonomous BMI that does not need an external signal for training or extensive calibration.

  7. Association of protein S p.Pro667Pro dimorphism with plasma protein S levels in normal individuals and patients with inherited protein S deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castaman, G; Biguzzi, E; Razzari, C; Tosetto, A; Fontana, G; Asti, D; Brancaccio, V; Castori, D; Lane, D A; Faioni, E M

    2007-01-01

    A dimorphism in PROS1 gene (c.A2,001G, p.Pro667Pro) has been associated with significantly reduced levels of both free and total protein S in carriers of the GG genotype. It is not known how the GG genotype could influence PS levels in normals, whether it could influence the levels of protein S in carriers of mutations in PROS1 gene and whether this genotype acts as an isolated or additive risk factor for venous thrombosis. With this as background, we evaluated the association of p.Pro667Pro dimorphism with free and total protein S centrally measured in a panel of 119 normal controls, 222 individuals with low protein S and 137 individuals with normal PS levels belonging to 76 families with protein S deficiency enrolled in the ProSIT study. Transient expression of recombinant wild type protein S and p.Pro667Pro protein S was performed to evaluate the role of the A to G transition at position 2001 in vitro. The p.Pro667Pro polymorphism was also expressed together with a p.Glu67Ala variant to assess a possible influence on protein S levels in protein S deficient subjects. Free and total protein S levels were significantly lower in normal women. In normal women only was the GG genotype associated with significantly lower free protein S levels in comparison to AA and AG genotypes (P=0.032). No significant influence of GG genotype was observed in patients, either with known mutations or with low protein S levels. These data were confirmed by in vitro transient expression, showing no difference in secretion levels of the p.Pro667Pro variant (even in association with the p.Glu67Ala mutation), compared to the wild type protein S. The genotype in itself was neither a significant risk factor for venous thrombosis nor a risk modifier in patients with known mutations.

  8. An in vitro analysis of separation of multi-use ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next instruments in extracted mandibular molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Ertas, Huseyin; Capar, Ismail Davut

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the separation incidence of reused ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next rotary instruments and identified the location of separated fragments. The root canals of extracted human mandibular molars were prepared with 10 assorted sets of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next instruments. After each preparation, instrument sets were autoclaved. This arrangement was repeated until an instrument fractured. The number of prepared teeth until fracture occurred was recorded for each instrument set. Teeth in which the instruments fractured were analyzed to determine the separation grade, apical relation, and coronal position. Fracture surfaces of the instruments were examined with scanning electron microscope. ProTaper Universal instruments fractured after application to a mean of 7.3 teeth, and ProTaper Next instruments after application to a mean of 5.7 teeth (p > 0.05). In the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next groups, F2 and X1 were the most commonly fractured instruments, respectively. Torsional and cyclic failures were evenly distributed in both the groups. The mean lengths of the fractured fragments of the instruments showed no statistically significant difference. The distance between the tip of the fractured instruments and apical constriction was similar (p > 0.05). However, the mean distance between the root canal orifice and coronal part of the fractured instrument was shorter in the ProTaper Next group (p < 0.05). The life span of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next instruments was the same for preparation of mandibular molar teeth. None of the instruments were fractured in the first usage.

  9. Expression, purification and functional characterization of recombinant Zucchini yellow mosaic virus HC-Pro.

    PubMed

    Fuellgrabe, Marc W; Boonrod, Kajohn; Jamous, Rana; Moser, Mirko; Shiboleth, Yoel; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    HC-Pro is a helper component-proteinase which acts as a multifunctional protein in the potyviral life cycle. Apart from its proteolytic activity, HC-Pro has the capacity to bind duplex small RNAs (sRNAs). To investigate HC-Pro-mediated sRNA binding in vitro, high amounts of purified protein are required. For this purpose, the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) HC-Pro was expressed as a fusion with hexa-histidine (6xHis) or maltose-binding protein (MBP) in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion proteins were purified by affinity chromatography. 6xHis:HC-Pro and MBP:HC-Pro were partially soluble. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that only MBP:HC-Pro exhibits the sRNA binding activity. The recombinant HC-Pro bound 21 bp siRNAs as well as 19 bp and 24 bp siRNAs. A point mutation in the highly conserved FRNK box produced the HC-Pro(FINK) protein, previously shown to be associated with reduced viral symptoms and weak sRNA binding. In this study, sRNA binding of the MBP:HA-HC-Pro(FINK) was not detectable. The high yield of purified HC-Pro offers the possibility to study the biochemistry of the protein in detail.

  10. Computer-assisted design of pro-drugs for antimalarial atovaquone.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik; Hallak, Hussein

    2010-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and ab initio calculation results for the proton transfer reaction in Kirby's enzyme models 1-6 reveal that the reaction rate is largely dependent on the existence of a hydrogen bonding net in the reactants and the corresponding transition states. Further, the distance between the two reacting centers and the angle of the hydrogen bonding formed along the reaction path has profound effects on the rate. Hence, the study on the systems reported herein could provide a good basis for designing antimalarial (atovaquone) pro-drug systems that can be used to release the parent drug in a controlled manner. For example, based on the calculated log EM, the cleavage process for pro-drug 1Pro may be predicted to be about 10¹¹ times faster than that for a pro-drug 4Pro and about 10⁴ times faster than pro-drug 2Pro: rate (1Pro) > rate (2Pro > rate (4Pro). Thus, the rate by which the pro-drug releases the antimalarial drug can be determined according to the nature of the linker (Kirby's enzyme model 1-6).

  11. Flexibility of K3 and ProTaper universal instruments.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin-Soares, Renata; Barato Filho, Flares; Vanni, José Roberto; Almeida, Susimara; Oliveira, Elias Pandonor Motcy de; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Limongi, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This study used a mechanical test to evaluate the flexibility of instruments from the K3 (conicity 0.04) and the ProTaper Universal systems when they were new and after 5 uses in simulated canals. Five sets of instruments of each system were tested: K3 (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45) and ProTaper Universal (S1, S2, F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5). Each set of instruments was used to prepare a simulated canal and the same set of instruments was used 5 times (50 canals). The number of each subgroup represented the number of uses: 0 (control), 1, 3 and 5 uses. Before and after each use, the instruments were submitted to a mechanical flexibility test performed in a Versat 502 universal testing machine. Interactions between the instrument and the number of uses were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test at a 5% level of significance. Instruments from both systems presented lower flexibility after the third use compared to the flexibility obtained after uses 0 and 1 (p<0.05), and maintained the same flexibility after the fifth use. The flexibility of instruments from the K3 system decreased with the increase of diameter, irrespective of the number of uses. Among the instruments from the ProTaper Universal system, the shaping files presented greater flexibility than the finishing files. F2 and F3 were the least flexible instruments, and F4 and F5 presented flexibility values similar to those of F1.

  12. Context of action of Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) in the Hypersensitive Response of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proline (Pro) dehydrogenase (ProDH) potentiates the oxidative burst and cell death of the plant Hypersensitive Response (HR) by mechanisms not yet elucidated. ProDH converts Pro into ∆1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and can act together with P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH) to produce Glu, or with P5C reductase (P5CR) to regenerate Pro and thus stimulate the Pro/P5C cycle. To better understand the effects of ProDH in HR, we studied the enzyme at three stages of the defense response differing in their ROS and cell death levels. In addition, we tested if ProDH requires P5CDH to potentiate HR. Results Control and infected leaves of wild type and p5cdh plants were used to monitor ProDH activity, in vivo Pro catabolism, amino acid content, and gene expression. Wild type plants activated ProDH at all HR stages. They did not consume Pro during maximal ROS accumulation, and maintained almost basal P5C levels at all conditions. p5cdh mutants activated ProDH as wild type plants. They achieved maximum oxidative burst and cell death levels producing normal HR lesions, but evidenced premature defense activation. Conclusion ProDH activation has different effects on HR. Before the oxidative burst it leads to Pro consumption involving the action of P5CDH. During the oxidative burst, ProDH becomes functionally uncoupled to P5CDH and apparently works with P5CR. The absence of P5CDH does not reduce ROS, cell death, or pathogen resistance, indicating this enzyme is not accompanying ProDH in the potentiation of these defense responses. In contrast, p5cdh infected plants displayed increased ROS burst and earlier initiation of HR cell death. In turn, our results suggest that ProDH may sustain HR by participating in the Pro/P5C cycle, whose action on HR must be formally evaluated in a future. PMID:24410747

  13. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    2001-01-01

    This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

  14. C-terminal Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide in contrast to full-length neuropeptide semax exhibits no neuroprotective effect in experimental cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Fadyukova, O E; Kadi, A; Bai, Ou; Andzhusheva, G M; Koshelev, V B

    2005-04-01

    The C-terminal fragment Pro-Gly-Pro of semax does not modulate the development of symptoms of neurological deficiency and mortality in rats with incomplete global cerebral ischemia. Hence, previously revealed neuroprotective effects of semax are mainly determined by corticotropin ACTH4-7 fragment.

  15. Making Women the Subjects of the Abortion Debate: A Class Exercise that Moves beyond "Pro-Choice" and "Pro-Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sara L.; Willman, Rebecca K.; Clark, Leisa; Walsh, Clare

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom exercise designed to put women (and children and men) back at the center of the abortion debate, avoiding the standard rhetoric and engaging reflection on how everyone might find common political goals among the so-called pro-life and pro-choice sides. The exercise the authors offer in this article…

  16. An approach to design long-term monitoring and evaluation frameworks in multi-actor systems--a case in water management.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Leon M; Naber, Arienne C; Enserink, Bert

    2012-11-01

    Learning-by-doing and adaptive management require careful monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of environmental policies and programs under implementation. Selecting relevant indicators is difficult, especially when monitoring over a longer period of time. Further challenges arise when policies are developed as a collaborative effort among multiple actors. This paper discusses an approach to design frameworks for long-term monitoring and evaluation in multi-actor systems. It uses Dynamic Actor Network Analysis (DANA) as an actor-sensitive method to reconstruct program theories. This is combined with elements of assumption-based planning to identify critical assumptions and associated indicators to incorporate the dynamic aspects related to long-term monitoring. An application of this approach is described for a case of water management in the Netherlands. Here, mapping multiple perspectives and identifying critical assumptions helped to broaden the scope of monitoring in important ways. Identifying associated indicators and expectations on their development in response to policy implementation proved more difficult. From this case, it can be concluded that the approach is feasible, useful, but also demanding. However, with continuing trends of networked governance and adaptive management, additional efforts to reflect these trends in monitoring and evaluation, through this and similar approaches, are needed.

  17. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews.

    PubMed

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona

    2015-04-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a "balanced" way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage.

  18. The Discourse of Interculturality and Its Transnational Migration: Towards a Comparative Analysis of Its Appropriation by Academic and Political Actors in the State of Veracruz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Laura Selene Mateos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the ways in which social and educational networks are being configured around the actors participating in the increasingly transnational field of intercultural education both at the Universidad Veracruzana Intercultural and the Veracruz State Ministry of Education. It starts by defining the notion of discursive migration as…

  19. Affective Feedback from Computers and its Effect on Perceived Ability and Affect: A Test of the Computers as Social Actor Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punya

    2006-01-01

    We report an experimental study that examined two questions: (a) The effect of affective feedback from computers on participants' motivation and self-perception of ability; and (b) whether people respond similarly to computer feedback as they do to human feedback. This study, framed within the Computers As Social Actors (CASA) framework,…

  20. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a “balanced” way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage. PMID:26045639

  1. The Changing Landscape of Literacy Curriculum in a Sino-Canada Transnational Education Programme: An Actor-Network Theory Informed Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zheng; Heydon, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns an exploratory and interpretive case study of the literacy curricula in a Canadian transnational education programme (Pseudonym: SCS) delivered in China where Ontario secondary school curricula were used at the same time as the Chinese national high school curricula. Using ethnographic tools and actor-network theory, the study…

  2. Aggregating data for computational toxicology applications: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR) System.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard S; Martin, Matthew T; Egeghy, Peter; Gangwal, Sumit; Reif, David M; Kothiya, Parth; Wolf, Maritja; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas; Smith, Doris; Vail, James; Frame, Alicia; Mosher, Shad; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Richard, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    Computational toxicology combines data from high-throughput test methods, chemical structure analyses and other biological domains (e.g., genes, proteins, cells, tissues) with the goals of predicting and understanding the underlying mechanistic causes of chemical toxicity and for predicting toxicity of new chemicals and products. A key feature of such approaches is their reliance on knowledge extracted from large collections of data and data sets in computable formats. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a large data resource called ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to support these data-intensive efforts. ACToR comprises four main repositories: core ACToR (chemical identifiers and structures, and summary data on hazard, exposure, use, and other domains), ToxRefDB (Toxicity Reference Database, a compilation of detailed in vivo toxicity data from guideline studies), ExpoCastDB (detailed human exposure data from observational studies of selected chemicals), and ToxCastDB (data from high-throughput screening programs, including links to underlying biological information related to genes and pathways). The EPA DSSTox (Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity) program provides expert-reviewed chemical structures and associated information for these and other high-interest public inventories. Overall, the ACToR system contains information on about 400,000 chemicals from 1100 different sources. The entire system is built using open source tools and is freely available to download. This review describes the organization of the data repository and provides selected examples of use cases.

  3. An Actor-Oriented Transfer Perspective on High School Students' Development of the Use of Procedures to Solve Problems on Rate of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roorda, Gerrit; Vos, Pauline; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal observation study about students' development in their use of procedures to calculate instantaneous rate of change. Different procedures for solving tasks on rate of change are taught in mathematics and physics classes, and together they form a repertoire. Our study took an actor-oriented perspective, which…

  4. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  5. Actors and Ideology for Educational Policy Transfer: The Case of Education Reforms in the Two Koreas during the Soviet and US Military Occupation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically considers the notion of educational policy transfer by addressing the roles of significant actors, based on an analysis of educational reforms made during the Soviet and US military occupation in the two Koreas. Using evidence from the Korean cases, the paper challenges the state-centric, linear, and static views of…

  6. Regional differences in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pro-peptide, proBDNF and preproBDNF in the brain confer stress resilience.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bangkun; Yang, Chun; Ren, Qian; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Chen, Qian-Xue; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Using learned helplessness (LH) model of depression, we measured protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pro-peptide, BDNF precursors (proBDNF and preproBDNF) in the brain regions of LH (susceptible) and non-LH rats (resilience). Expression of preproBDNF, proBDNF and BDNF pro-peptide in the medial prefrontal cortex of LH rats, but not non-LH rats, was significantly higher than control rats, although expression of these proteins in the nucleus accumbens of LH rats was significantly lower than control rats. This study suggests that regional differences in conversion of BDNF precursors into BDNF and BDNF pro-peptide by proteolytic cleavage may contribute to stress resilience.

  7. Capturing Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Data Electronically: The Past, Present, and Promise of ePRO Measurement in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Coons, Stephen Joel; Eremenco, Sonya; Lundy, J Jason; O'Donohoe, Paul; O'Gorman, Hannah; Malizia, William

    2015-08-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important means of evaluating the treatment benefit of new medical products. It is recognized that PRO measures should be used when assessing concepts best known by the patient or best measured from the patient's perspective. As a result, there is growing emphasis on well defined and reliable PRO measures. In addition, advances in technology have significantly increased electronic PRO (ePRO) data collection capabilities and options in clinical trials. The movement from paper-based to ePRO data capture has enhanced the integrity and accuracy of clinical trial data and is encouraged by regulators. A primary distinction in the types of ePRO platforms is between telephone-based interactive voice response systems and screen-based systems. Handheld touchscreen-based devices have become the mainstay for remote (i.e., off-site, unsupervised) PRO data collection in clinical trials. The conventional approach is to provide study subjects with a handheld device with a device-based proprietary software program. However, an emerging alternative for clinical trials is called bring your own device (BYOD). Leveraging study subjects' own Internet-enabled mobile devices for remote PRO data collection (via a downloadable app or a Web-based data collection portal) has become possible due to the widespread use of personal smartphones and tablets. However, there are a number of scientific and operational issues that must be addressed before BYOD can be routinely considered as a practical alternative to conventional ePRO data collection methods. Nevertheless, the future for ePRO data collection is bright and the promise of BYOD opens a new chapter in its evolution.

  8. Competency in Chaos: Lifesaving Performance of Care Providers Utilizing a Competency-Based, Multi-Actor Emergency Preparedness Training Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lancer A.; Swartzentruber, Derrick A.; Davis, Christopher Ashby; Maddux, P. Tim; Schnellman, Jennifer; Wahlquist, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Providing comprehensive emergency preparedness training (EPT) to care providers is important to the future success of disaster operations in the US. Few EPT programs possess both competency-driven goals and metrics to measure performance during a multi-patient simulated disaster. Methods A 1-day (8-hour) EPT course for care providers was developed to enhance provider knowledge, skill, and comfort necessary to save lives during a simulated disaster. Nine learning objectives, 18 competencies, and 34 performance objectives were developed. During the 2-year demonstration of the curriculum, 24 fourth-year medical students and 17 Veterans Hospital Administration (VHA) providers were recruited and volunteered to take the course (two did not fully complete the research materials). An online pre-test, two post-tests, course assessment, didactic and small group content, and a 6-minute clinical casualty scenario were developed. During the scenario, trainees working in teams were confronted with three human simulators and 10 actor patients simultaneously. Unless appropriate performance objectives were met, the simulators “died” and the team was exposed to “anthrax.” After the scenario, team members participated in a facilitator-led debriefing using digital video and then repeated the scenario. Results Trainees (N = 39) included 24 (62%) medical students; seven (18%) physicians; seven (18%) nurses; and one (3%) emergency manager. Forty-seven percent of the VHA providers reported greater than 16 annual hours of disaster training, while 15 (63%) of the medical students reported no annual disaster training. The mean (SD) score for the pre-test was 12.3 (3.8), or 51% correct, and after the training, the mean (SD) score was 18.5 (2.2), or 77% (P <.01). The overall rating for the course was 96 out of 100. Trainee self-assessment of “Overall Skill” increased from 63.3 out of 100 to 83.4 out of 100 and “Overall Knowledge” increased from 49.3 out of 100 to 78

  9. Antioxidant, pro-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of parsley.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Lantto, Tiina A; Raasmaja, Atso; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2011-06-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves were macerated with a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract which was then defatted with (40°-60°) petrol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using a battery of in vitro assays, viz., iron(iii) reduction, iron(ii) chelation and free radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of the pro-oxidant activity of the extract was based upon its effects upon DNA fragmentation and protein carbonylation. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of the extract were determined in non-cancerous CV1-P fibroblast and cancerous A375 melanoma cells using MTT and LDH tests and caspase 3-like activity assay. The highest concentration, 2.0 mg ml(-1), decreased the viability of both cell lines, however, the cancerous melanoma cells were slightly susceptible to the effects. The observed cytotoxicity was not due to the caspase 3 activity. In conclusion, the toxicity might be explained by the pro-oxidative activity of components within the extract against proteins and/or DNA but it is not related to caspase 3-dependent apoptosis within cells.

  10. PRoViScout: a planetary scouting rover demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Gerhard; Woods, Mark; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Labrosse, Frédéric; Medina, Alberto; Tyler, Laurence; Barnes, David P.; Fritz, Gerald; Kapellos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Mobile systems exploring Planetary surfaces in future will require more autonomy than today. The EU FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (2010-2012) establishes the building blocks of such autonomous exploration systems in terms of robotics vision by a decision-based combination of navigation and scientific target selection, and integrates them into a framework ready for and exposed to field demonstration. The PRoViScout on-board system consists of mission management components such as an Executive, a Mars Mission On-Board Planner and Scheduler, a Science Assessment Module, and Navigation & Vision Processing modules. The platform hardware consists of the rover with the sensors and pointing devices. We report on the major building blocks and their functions & interfaces, emphasizing on the computer vision parts such as image acquisition (using a novel zoomed 3D-Time-of-Flight & RGB camera), mapping from 3D-TOF data, panoramic image & stereo reconstruction, hazard and slope maps, visual odometry and the recognition of potential scientifically interesting targets.

  11. Pro-Tumoral Inflammatory Myeloid Cells as Emerging Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Szebeni, Gabor J.; Vizler, Csaba; Nagy, Lajos I.; Kitajka, Klara; Puskas, Laszlo G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the observation of Virchow, it has long been known that the tumor microenvironment constitutes the soil for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and for the release of inflammatory mediators. Under certain circumstances, inflammation remains unresolved and promotes cancer development. Here, we review some of these indisputable experimental and clinical evidences of cancer related smouldering inflammation. The most common myeloid infiltrate in solid tumors is composed of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). These cells promote tumor growth by several mechanisms, including their inherent immunosuppressive activity, promotion of neoangiogenesis, mediation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and alteration of cellular metabolism. The pro-tumoral functions of TAMs and MDSCs are further enhanced by their cross-talk offering a myriad of potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets. We highlight these main pro-tumoral mechanisms of myeloid cells and give a general overview of their phenotypical and functional diversity, offering examples of possible therapeutic targets. Pharmacological targeting of inflammatory cells and molecular mediators may result in therapies improving patient condition and prognosis. Here, we review experimental and clinical findings on cancer-related inflammation with a major focus on creating an inventory of current small molecule-based therapeutic interventions targeting cancer-related inflammatory cells: TAMs and MDSCs. PMID:27886105

  12. Pro-Resolving Molecules—New Approaches to Treat Sepsis?

    PubMed Central

    Buechler, Christa; Pohl, Rebekka; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex response of the body to exogenous and endogenous insults. Chronic and systemic diseases are attributed to uncontrolled inflammation. Molecules involved in the initiation of inflammation are very well studied while pathways regulating its resolution are insufficiently investigated. Approaches to down-modulate mediators relevant for the onset and duration of inflammation are successful in some chronic diseases, while all of them have failed in sepsis patients. Inflammation and immune suppression characterize sepsis, indicating that anti-inflammatory strategies alone are inappropriate for its therapy. Heme oxygenase 1 is a sensitive marker for oxidative stress and is upregulated in inflammation. Carbon monoxide, which is produced by this enzyme, initiates multiple anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activities with higher production of omega-3 fatty acid-derived lipid metabolites being one of its protective actions. Pro-resolving lipids named maresins, resolvins and protectins originate from the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid while lipoxins are derived from arachidonic acid. These endogenously produced lipids do not simply limit inflammation but actively contribute to its resolution, and thus provide an opportunity to combat chronic inflammatory diseases and eventually sepsis. PMID:28241480

  13. Do Null Subjects (mis-)Trigger Pro-drop Grammars?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-12-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [−pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing their grammars to a [−pro] setting. Mack et al. (J Memory Lang 67(1):211-223, 2012) showed that sentences with noise covering the subject are analyzed as having null subjects more often with a first person pronoun and with a present tense--properties correlated with more predictable referents--compared to a third person pronoun and past tense. However, those results might in principle have been due to reporting null subjects for verbs that often occur with null subjects. An experiment is reported here in which comparable results are found for sentences containing nonsense verbs. Participants preferred a null subject more often for first person present tense sentences than for third person past tense sentences. The results are as expected if participants are responding to predictability, the likelihood of reduction, rather than to lexical statistics. The results are argued to be important in removing a class of mis-triggering examples from the language acquisition problem.

  14. The effects of Operation Rescue on pro-life support.

    PubMed

    Ansuini, C G; Fiddler-woite, J; Woitaszek, R S

    1994-12-01

    Operation Rescue is a militant anti-abortion group. The organization conveys its position against abortion by targeting a city in which it will mount speeches, rallies, pickets, and media barrages. Operation Rescue held activities in Greater Buffalo, New York, in 1992. The authors investigated the effect of the anti-abortion campaign upon a sample of non-activist university undergraduate students and the anti-abortion cause in general. 114 male and 195 female students of the State University of New York College at Buffalo participated. 60% were younger than age 22 years and 17% were 46 years of age or older. 87% were sexually active, but only 18% were married. 11% reported having an abortion themselves or dating someone who had. 150 subjects were surveyed each spring for three years with regard to their abortion-related attitudes and behaviors. 18% of the participants identified themselves as pro-life in 1991, 22% in 1992, and 12% in 1993, the year after the Operation Rescue campaign. 70% identified themselves as pro-choice in 1991, 60% in 1992, and 57% in 1993. The percentage of respondents reporting that they would not have an abortion themselves, but support a woman's right to free choice with regard to abortion steadily increased from 11% in 1991 to 19% in 1992 and 30% in 1993. In general, support for the anti-abortion camp increased during protest activities, but decreased overall over the long term. The campaign had a particularly negative effect upon males.

  15. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  16. Development of novel cyclic peptides as pro-apoptotic agents.

    PubMed

    Brindisi, Margherita; Maramai, Samuele; Brogi, Simone; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Butini, Stefania; Guarino, Egeria; Casagni, Alice; Lamponi, Stefania; Bonechi, Claudia; Nathwani, Seema M; Finetti, Federica; Ragonese, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Paola; Campiglia, Pietro; Valenti, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Morbidelli, Lucia; Zisterer, Daniela M; Williams, Clive D; Donati, Alessandro; Baldari, Cosima; Campiani, Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Cristina; Gemma, Sandra

    2016-07-19

    Our recent finding that paclitaxel behaves as a peptidomimetic of the endogenous protein Nur77 inspired the design of two peptides (PEP1 and PEP2) reproducing the effects of paclitaxel on Bcl-2 and tubulin, proving the peptidomimetic nature of paclitaxel. Starting from these peptide-hits, we herein describe the synthesis and the biological investigation of linear and cyclic peptides structurally related to PEP2. While linear peptides (2a,b, 3a,b, 4, 6a-f) were found inactive in cell-based assays, biological analysis revealed a pro-apoptotic effect for most of the cyclic peptides (5a-g). Cellular permeability of 5a (and also of 2a,b) on HL60 cells was assessed through confocal microscopy analysis. Further cellular studies on a panel of leukemic cell lines (HL60, Jurkat, MEC, EBVB) and solid tumor cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human melanoma A375 and 501Mel cells, and murine melanoma B16F1 cells) confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of the cyclic peptides. Cell cycle analysis revealed that treatment with 5a, 5c, 5d or 5f resulted in an increase in the number of cells in the sub-G0/G1 peak. Direct interaction with tubulin (turbidimetric assay) and with microtubules (immunostaining experiments) was assessed in vitro for the most promising compounds.

  17. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

  18. The propeptide precursor proSAAS is involved in fetal neuropeptide processing and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Wei, Suwen; Gomes, Ivone; Czyzyk, Traci; Mzhavia, Nino; Pan, Hui; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D; Pintar, John E

    2010-06-01

    Mice with a targeted mutation in proSAAS have been generated to investigate whether peptides derived from this precursor could function as an inhibitor of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in vivo as well as to determine any alternate roles for proSAAS in nervous and endocrine tissues. Fetal mice lacking proSAAS exhibit complete, adult-like processing of prodynorphin in the prenatal brain instead of the incomplete processing seen in the brains of wild-type fetal mice where inhibitory proSAAS intermediates are transiently accumulated. This study provides evidence that proSAAS is directly involved in the prenatal regulation of neuropeptide processing in vivo. However, adult mice lacking proSAAS have normal levels of all peptides detected using a peptidomics approach, suggesting that PC1/3 activity is not affected by the absence of proSAAS in adult mice. ProSAAS knockout mice exhibit decreased locomotion and a male-specific 10-15% decrease in body weight, but maintain normal fasting blood glucose levels and are able to efficiently clear glucose from the blood in response to a glucose challenge. This work suggests that proSAAS-derived peptides can inhibit PC1/3 in embryonic brain, but in the adult brain proSAAS peptides may function as neuropeptides that regulate body weight and potentially other behaviors.

  19. Characterization of collagen model peptides containing 4-fluoroproline; (4(S)-fluoroproline-pro-gly)10 forms a triple helix, but (4(R)-fluoroproline-pro-gly)10 does not.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masamitsu; Nishi, Yoshinori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Nakazawa, Takashi; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2003-08-20

    Collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 has a triple helical structure and undergoes a thermal transition to a single random coil structure. The transition temperature of the analogous model peptides depends largely on amino acid substitution. Substitution of Pro by 4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) or 4-fluoroproline (fPro) has especially attracted attention because the position of substitution and chirality of the hydroxyl group or fluorine atom affect the transition temperatures. Here, we demonstrated that (4(S)-fPro-Pro-Gly)10 takes a triple helical structure, but (4(R)-fPro-Pro-Gly)10 exists in a single chain structure. This is not consistent with the case of Hyp substitution in our previous report where both (4(S)-Hyp-Pro-Gly)10 and (4(R)-Hyp-Pro-Gly)10 are in a single random coil state.

  20. PRO-2-PAM: The First Therapeutic Drug for Reactivation of Organo-Phosphate-Inhibited Central (Brain) and Peripheral Cholinesterases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1. Synthesis and Properties of 1-Methyl- 1,6- dihydropyridine -2-carbaldoxime, a Pro-Drug of N- Methylpyridinium-2-carbaldoxime Chloride, J. Med... Synthesis of pro-2-PAM (Fig. 1). We synthesized the pro-drug, pro-2-PAM, as previously described (Bodor, 1976). However, the final step, the E1