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Sample records for actores pro tabaco

  1. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  2. An Outline for Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Charles

    1979-01-01

    Presents an outline of six basic preparation activities for student actors, including reading the play, doing historical research, elemental exercises, learning the part, creating the character, and exercises in movement and voice. (JMF)

  3. Actors: From Audience to Provider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes actors' experiences of distance learning systems in a wide variety of cultural and organizational contexts. In line with the project of this special series of issues, results of research, much of which is longitudinal, allow us to suggest answers to the following questions: Who are the actors of distance…

  4. Categorizing "Others": The Segmentation of Other Actors for "Faith in Others' Efficacy (FIO)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi Kwan; D'Souza, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper provides an innovative categorization of "others" for the variable of "faith in others (FIO)". Adopted by pro-environmental and sustainability literature, FIO refers to faith in the efficacy of other actors. Examination and integration of theories on sustainable pro-environmental behavior leads to the…

  5. Actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of sarcasm.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, P

    2000-10-01

    This study compared actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of the amount of sarcasm used by participants (n = 80) in videotaped conversations. Significant differences were found among perceptions of actors, partners, and observers. Of the three perspectives, actors perceived themselves as using the greatest amount of sarcasm, followed by partners' perceptions of actors. Observers perceived actors as using the least amount of sarcasm. Correlations conducted to assess whether partners and observers recognized actors' individual attempts at sarcasm during the conversations were generally low.

  6. Efficient Actor Recovery Paradigm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Reem K.; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an Efficient Actor Recovery (EAR) paradigm to guarantee the contention-free traffic-forwarding capacity. The EAR paradigm consists of a Node Monitoring and Critical Node Detection (NMCND) algorithm that monitors the activities of the nodes to determine the critical node. In addition, it replaces the critical node with backup node prior to complete node-failure which helps balancing the network performance. The packets are handled using Network Integration and Message Forwarding (NIMF) algorithm that determines the source of forwarding the packets; either from actor or sensor. This decision-making capability of the algorithm controls the packet forwarding rate to maintain the network for a longer time. Furthermore, for handling the proper routing strategy, Priority-Based Routing for Node Failure Avoidance (PRNFA) algorithm is deployed to decide the priority of the packets to be forwarded based on the significance of information available in the packet. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed EAR paradigm, the proposed algorithms were tested using OMNET++ simulation. PMID:28420102

  7. Efficient Actor Recovery Paradigm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Reem K; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-04-14

    The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an Efficient Actor Recovery (EAR) paradigm to guarantee the contention-free traffic-forwarding capacity. The EAR paradigm consists of a Node Monitoring and Critical Node Detection (NMCND) algorithm that monitors the activities of the nodes to determine the critical node. In addition, it replaces the critical node with backup node prior to complete node-failure which helps balancing the network performance. The packets are handled using Network Integration and Message Forwarding (NIMF) algorithm that determines the source of forwarding the packets; either from actor or sensor. This decision-making capability of the algorithm controls the packet forwarding rate to maintain the network for a longer time. Furthermore, for handling the proper routing strategy, Priority-Based Routing for Node Failure Avoidance (PRNFA) algorithm is deployed to decide the priority of the packets to be forwarded based on the significance of information available in the packet. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed EAR paradigm, the proposed algorithms were tested using OMNET++ simulation.

  8. You're a What? Voice Actor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  9. Multicultural Monologues for Young Actors. The Young Actors Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.; Sharrar, Jack, Ed.

    This book presents 62 monologue selections from diverse cultures for young actors to perform. The book's selections offer "quality literature by significant writers." Some of the writers represented in the book are George C. Wolfe, Miguel Pinero, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), John M. Synge, Yukio Mishima, Reynolds…

  10. Actor Interdependence in Collaborative Telelearning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Barbara; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    This paper presents a model of collaborative telelearning and describes how coordination theory has provided a framework for the analysis of actor (inter)dependencies in this scenario. The model is intended to inform the instructional design of learning scenarios, the technological design of the telelearning environment, and the design of…

  11. Reading: Tales for Two Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Judith M.

    1979-01-01

    The author explains how she changes folk tales into simple two-actor plays geared to the oral reading ability of her remedial reading students. Two of her plays are included in this article: "A Halloween Tale" and "The Three Wishes." (SJL)

  12. The Actor and His Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lucille S., Ed.

    Fourteen brief articles deal with training actors to use their bodies effectively on stage. The articles discuss the following topics: the concept of succession-sequential movement (movement that passes through the body joint by joint); learning physical action through staged fight sequences; techniques of empty-handed combat; protecting students…

  13. The Actor and His Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lucille S., Ed.

    Fourteen brief articles deal with training actors to use their bodies effectively on stage. The articles discuss the following topics: the concept of succession-sequential movement (movement that passes through the body joint by joint); learning physical action through staged fight sequences; techniques of empty-handed combat; protecting students…

  14. Reading: Tales for Two Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Judith M.

    1979-01-01

    The author explains how she changes folk tales into simple two-actor plays geared to the oral reading ability of her remedial reading students. Two of her plays are included in this article: "A Halloween Tale" and "The Three Wishes." (SJL)

  15. Privileged Emotion Managers: The Case of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzechowicz, David

    2008-01-01

    Theatre provides a unique set of conditions for the management of emotions. Drawing on participant observation from one repertory theater, three university productions, and interviews with stage actors, directors, and acting instructors, I conceptualize actors as privileged emotion managers. Actors access structural resources that enable their…

  16. Genie Pro

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, S.; Esch-Mosher, D.; Edlund, K.; Eads, D.; Galassi, M.; Theiler, J.; Porter, R.; Harvey, N.; Brumby, S.

    2004-05-15

    Genie Pro is a general purpose, interactive, adaptive tool for automatically labeling regions and finding objects in large amounts of image data. Genie Pro uses supervised learning techniques to search for spatio-spectral algorithms that are best able to match exaple labels provided by a user during a training session. After Genie Pro has discovered a useful algorithm, this algorith can then be applied to other similar types of image data, to label regions and objects similar to those provided during the training session. Genie Pro was originally developed for analyzing multispectral satellite data, but it works equally well with panchromatic (grayscale) and hyperspectral satellite data, aerial imagery, and various kinds of medical imagery. AS a rough guideline, Genie Pro can work with any imagery where the scene being imaged is all approximately at a constant distance fromt he imaging device, and so the scale of imagery is fixed. Applications for Genie Pro include: Crop and terrain type mapping, Road and river network mapping, Broad area search for vehicles and buildings, and Cancer identification in histological images.

  17. Actors in Academia--Roles Professors Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    In order to set the stage for the "actors in academia," the author suggests that the following roles and responsibilities are the most significant ones for the college/university professor, including some for students: (1) Actor; (2) Communicator; (3) Facilitator; (4) Trainer/Coach; (5) Craftsman (craft of teaching); and (6) Manager. After 40…

  18. Mobilizing Workplaces: Actors, Discipline and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Nicoll, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Foucault, and to a lesser extent actor-network theory, this article examines some of their methodological and theoretical implications for conceptions of workplace learning. We suggest that workplaces need to be examined for the spatio-temporal ordering of practices and the actors drawn into them in order to move beyond the…

  19. Mobilizing Workplaces: Actors, Discipline and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Nicoll, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Foucault, and to a lesser extent actor-network theory, this article examines some of their methodological and theoretical implications for conceptions of workplace learning. We suggest that workplaces need to be examined for the spatio-temporal ordering of practices and the actors drawn into them in order to move beyond the…

  20. On the question of homosexuality in actors.

    PubMed

    Neuringer, C

    1989-12-01

    There is a belief that a high percentage of male actors are homosexual. The specific linking of actors and homosexuality seems to have first appeared in the Elizabethan Puritan condemnations of the theater. Psychoanalytic theory has tended to further promulgate the linkage between effeminacy, homosexuality, and acting. An analysis of the relevant existing empirical literature indicates that few studies have addressed themselves to evaluating this relationship. Those studies supporting the effeminacy-actor relationship were seriously flawed both in design (e.g., use of indirect measures to infer homosexuality) and interpretation of the data. Only one study used direct measures of sexual orientation. Even though that study had methodological problems, its results indicated that the percentage of homosexuality among actors was not verifiably greater than that found in the general population. It is felt that the current belief of greater homosexuality in actors, as compared to the general population, is a product of our Puritan heritage, the actor's unconventionality, and of public flaunting of the homoerotic behavior of that portion of actors that are homosexual.

  1. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Actor training for surgical team simulations.

    PubMed

    Kassab, Eva S; King, Dominic; Hull, Louise M; Arora, Sonal; Sevdalis, Nick; Kneebone, Roger L; Nestel, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Immersive simulations can enable surgeons to learn complex sets of skills required for safe surgical practice without risk to patients. However, recruiting healthcare professionals to support surgeons training as members of an operating theatre (OT) team is challenging and resource intensive. We developed a training programme for actors to take on the role of an OT team to support validation studies in a simulated environment. This article describes the evaluation of the programme. The programme comprised of written materials, video discussion and experiential activities. Evaluation methods consisted of post-simulation interviews and questionnaires with actors and surgeons. Participants were recruited by convenience sampling. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and interviews were analysed using thematic extraction. Three actors participated in the programme. Twelve surgeons completed simulations. All data suggest that the training was successful. Actors were perceived as realistic. Suggestions were made to improve training. After a brief training, actors can realistically portray members of an OT team in simulations designed to support surgeon training. This article highlights factors that contributed to success and suggests improvements. Although there are limitations with the study, its findings have relevance to training and assessment that focuses on individual clinician's functioning as a member of an OT team.

  3. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  4. Appia, Craig and the Actor: A New Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Oliver F., Jr.

    Despite the amount of attention paid Adolphe Appia and Edward Gordon Craig, a misconception persists with regard to their ideas concerning the actor; namely, that Appia had the actor dominate all the elements of staging, and that Craig considered the actor less essential. However, to both, the actor was both essential and nonessential to the…

  5. Appia, Craig and the Actor: A New Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Oliver F., Jr.

    Despite the amount of attention paid Adolphe Appia and Edward Gordon Craig, a misconception persists with regard to their ideas concerning the actor; namely, that Appia had the actor dominate all the elements of staging, and that Craig considered the actor less essential. However, to both, the actor was both essential and nonessential to the…

  6. Beyond the actor's traits: forming impressions of actors, targets, and relationships from social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Frey, K P; Smith, E R

    1993-09-01

    Perceivers who observe social behaviors may form impressions not only of actors' traits but also of people as targets and of interpersonal relationships. In Study 1, Ss read about 4 individuals' behaviors under instructions to form actor-, target-, and relationship-based impressions. Ss then read additional behavioral information that they later tried to recall. Ss accurately perceived actor, target, and relationship effects in the presented information, and they better recalled subsequent behaviors that were consistent with all 3 types of impressions. In Study 2, Ss thought of 4 people they knew and judged how much each liked the other 3. These ratings revealed actor, target, and relationship effects as well as individual and dyadic reciprocity. Perceivers can form relatively accurate impressions of people as actors and as targets and accurate impressions of relationships between people, and these impressions influence memory for further behaviors.

  7. Acoustic characteristics [correction of characeristics] of adolescent actors' and non-actors' voices.

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Gordana; Budanovac, Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in the acoustic characteristics of the voice between adolescent actors and non-actors. The experimental sample consisted of 10 actresses and 10 actors while the control sample included 13 girls and 14 boys. Phonation of the vowel /a/, spontaneous speaking and oral reading provided a set of acoustic variables (fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, speaking and reading ranges); t test showed statistically significant differences between actresses and non-actresses in speaking range, reading F(0) maximum, and reading range, whereas between actors and non-actors the difference was found in reading range only. The results showed that drama in education without systematic voice training had no effects in terms of acoustic characteristics of the voice. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Autoreporte de exposición a publicidad y promoción de tabaco en una cohorte de fumadores mexicanos: Antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del tabaco en 2008

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Rosaura Pérez; Thrasher, James F.; Bolaños, Rosibel Rodríguez; Gutiérrez, Inti Barrientos; Hernández, Norma A Ibañez

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Determinar en población fumadora el nivel de exposición a la mercadotecnia por parte de la Industria Tabacalera (IT), a través de diferentes métodos de promocionar sus productos de tabaco, antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco (LGCT) en 2008. Material y métodos Estudio de cohorte en fumadores adultos (n=941 pre-LGCT y n=1051 post-LGCT) de cuatro ciudades mexicanas. Se realizaron análisis multivariados mediante modelos de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada (GEE). Resultados Se incremento el autoreporte de recepción de muestras gratis de cigarros (3.7% a 8.1%), ropa o artículos con marcas o logos (3.6% a 6.4%), haber visto información sobre eventos especiales (1.9% a 4.7%), y bares, antros y discos para mayores de edad (21.4% a 28%). Se observaron decrementos de publicidad en exteriores (54.7% a 47.2%). Conclusión Es necesaria una política integral con prohibiciones totales de la publicidad y promoción de los productos de tabaco que integre mayor vigilancia y sanciones para lograr la disminución y prevención del consumo de tabaco. PMID:22689158

  9. Constructing Careers: Actor, Agent, and Author

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    When individuals seek career counseling, they have stories to tell about their working lives. The aim of career construction theory is to be comprehensive in encouraging employment counselors to listen for a client's career story from the perspectives of actor, agent, and author. Taking multiple perspectives on career stories enables counselors to…

  10. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  11. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  12. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  13. Calculation of the three-dimensional structures of two antigenic sequences, pro-pro-pro-pro-asn-pro-asn-asp-pro and pro-pro-pro-pro-asn-pro-asn-asp-pro-pro-pro, of the circumsporozoite protein from a malaria-causing Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Matthew R; Carty, Robert P; Harding, Michael; Epstein, William

    2013-01-01

    Using the chain build-up procedure based on the program ECEPP, we have computed the lowest energy structures for two terminally blocked subsequences from the antigenic circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium berghei, that is known to cause malaria in animals. The full antigenic sequence is an octapeptide proline-rich tandem repeat, (Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp)(2). We computed the structures for the first octapeptide plus one Pro from the second octapeptide, terminally blocked CH(3)CO-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp-Pro-NHCH(3) as well as the first octpeptide with an additional three Pro residues from the adjoining unit, i.e., CH(3)CO-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Asn-Asp-Pro-Pro-Pro-NHCH(3). We find that the first sequence adopts a number of different low energy structures, the most probable of which has a probability of occurrence of 56 %. Addition of two more Pro residues results in the adoption a single, unique lowest energy structure that has a probability of occurrence of over 95 % without solvation effects and 86 % when solvation effects are included in the calculations. We predict that this structure may be the one recognized as a major antigenic determinant.

  14. [LEVELS OF OBESITY, METABOLIC PROFILE, CONSUMPTION OF TABACO AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN SEDENTARY YOUTHS].

    PubMed

    Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Delgado Floody, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    Antecedentes: en Chile, la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENS) realizada en 2009-2010 reportó una elevada prevalencia de exceso de peso, sedentarismo, colesterol elevado y síndrome metabólico en la población. Objetivo: determinar en jóvenes sedentarios la prevalencia de obesidad y consumo de tabaco, y analizar su asociación con el perfil metabólico, el porcentaje de masa grasa y la presión arterial. Pacientes y métodos: se evaluaron 125 jóvenes sedentarios, 26 hombres y 99 mujeres, entre 17 y 29 años de edad. Se realizaron mediciones de: índice de masa corporal (IMC), porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG), contorno de cintura (CC), presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, colesterol total, colesterol HDL (cHDL), colesterol LDL (cLDL), triglicéridos, glicemia y consumo de tabaco. Resultados: el cHDL (p = 0,000) y el %MG (p = 0,043) fueron superiores en las mujeres. El 37,6% de los jóvenes resultó ser fumador. El 35, 2 % de la muestra presentó malnutrición por exceso. Los sujetos obesos presentaron mayores niveles en: contorno de cintura (p = 0,000) y %MG (p = 0,000). Al analizar la obesidad por CC, esta presentó diferencias significativas en el IMC, %MG presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. El IMC presentó asociación positiva con el CC, %MG, colesterol total, triglicéridos, cLDL y presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). El CC presentó asociación con el %MG, triglicéridos y presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). El %MG no presentó asociación con las demás variables. Conclusiones: existe una elevada prevalencia de malnutrición por exceso y consumo de tabaco en la muestra de estudio, si bien las demás variables no presentan categorías de alto riesgo, es un momento oportuno para intervenir y revertir estas tendencias negativas para la salud.

  15. Non-compliant Actors (NONCAS) Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-23

    being rather friendly. The colour terminology is borrowed from the operational planning and/or wargaming domains, where actors are classified...according to colours . NONCAS-Handbook, 23 July 2010 Page 5 identified which are helpful to classify and evaluate NC/NONCAS and which have direct... stereotyping , strong conformity pressure, illusion of unanimity, self-appointed mind-guards (see ―What motivates potential adversaries?‖: p. 16

  16. Can Humans Fly Action Understanding with Multiple Classes of Actors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-08

    formulation jointly captures the actor-action tuples as unique entities but cannot model the common actor and action behaviors among different tu- ples as...tionships in the individual actor and action spaces as well as Model Actor Action <A, A> Actor Action <A, A> Naïve Bayes 70.51 74.40 56.17 76.85 78.29... model them. This phenomenon occurs in all of our experiments. Finally, the trilayer model outperforms the other two mod- els in terms of both individual

  17. The actor-observer effect in virtual reality presentations.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; Västfjäll, D; Kleiner, M

    2001-04-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) presentations are becoming a more and more frequent means of communicating information and displaying data to large groups of viewers. VR presentations put heavy demands on reproduction of visual, aural, and tactile information. A common situation in VR presentations is that one actor acts in the virtual environment (VE), while a group of people observes the actors actions in the VE, often from the perspective of the actor. The current paper aims to study actors' (participants actively interacting with the VE) and observers' (participants passively observing the actors' interaction with the VE) evaluations of the VR presentation. In an experiment, 16 actors and 16 observers either acted in or observed a VE and performed ratings of the quality of the presentation. The results showed that actors experienced higher presence and realism, and enjoyed the VR experience more than observers did. Observers, on the other hand, experienced that external events distracted their attention more than actors did. Finally, actors experienced more symptoms of simulation sickness. However, no differences between actors and observers were found for ratings of audio quality.

  18. Pro-sociality without empathy

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Hollis, Karen; Nowbahari, Elise; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Empathy, the capacity to recognize and share feelings experienced by another individual, is an important trait in humans, but is not the same as pro-sociality, the tendency to behave so as to benefit another individual. Given the importance of understanding empathy's evolutionary emergence, it is unsurprising that many studies attempt to find evidence for it in other species. To address the question of what should constitute evidence for empathy, we offer a critical comparison of two recent studies of rescuing behaviour that report similar phenomena but are interpreted very differently by their authors. In one of the studies, rescue behaviour in rats was interpreted as providing evidence for empathy, whereas in the other, rescue behaviour in ants was interpreted without reference to sharing of emotions. Evidence for empathy requires showing that actor individuals possess a representation of the receiver's emotional state and are driven by the psychological goal of improving its wellbeing. Proving psychological goal-directedness by current standards involves goal-devaluation and causal sensitivity protocols, which, in our view, have not been implemented in available publications. Empathy has profound significance not only for cognitive and behavioural sciences but also for philosophy and ethics and, in our view, remains unproven outside humans. PMID:22859561

  19. The educational value of improvisational actors to teach communication and relational skills: perspectives of interprofessional learners, faculty, and actors.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sigall K; Pascucci, Robert; Fancy, Kristina; Coleman, Kelliann; Zurakowski, David; Meyer, Elaine C

    2014-09-01

    To assess the educational value of improvisational actors in difficult conversation simulations to teach communication and relational skills to interprofessional learners. Surveys of 192 interprofessional health care professionals, and 33 teaching faculty, and semi-structured interviews of 10 actors. Descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test and chi-square test were used for quantitative analyses, and the Crabtree and Miller approach was used for qualitative analyses. 191/192 (99.5%) interprofessional learners (L), and 31/33 (94%) teaching faculty (F) responded to surveys. All 10/10 actors completed interviews. Nearly all participants found the actors realistic (98%L, 96%F), and valuable to the learning (97%L, 100%F). Most felt that role-play with another clinician would not have been as valuable as learning with actors (80%L, 97%F). There were no statistically significant differences in perceived value between learners who participated in the simulations (47%) versus those who observed (53%), or between doctors, nurses, or psychosocial professionals. Qualitative assessment yielded five actor value themes: Realism, Actor Feedback, Layperson Perspective, Depth of Emotion, and Role of Improvisation in Education. Actors independently identified similar themes as goals of their work. The value attributed to actors was nearly universal among interprofessional learners and faculty, and independent of enactment participation versus observation. Authenticity, feedback from actors, patient/family perspectives, emotion, and improvisation were key educational elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II Marten Lohstroh Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maximally Permissive Composition of Actors in Ptolemy II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...addresses the problem of handling dynamic data, in the statically typed, actor-oriented modeling environment called Ptolemy II. It explores the possibilities

  1. Integrating actors into a simulation program: a primer.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Robert C; Weinstock, Peter H; O'Connor, Brigid E; Fancy, Kristina M; Meyer, Elaine C

    2014-04-01

    We describe our more than 10 years' experience working with actors and provide a "how-to" guide to recruiting, auditioning, hiring, training, and mentoring actors for work as simulated patients in simulation programs. We contend that trained actors add great realism, richness, and depth to simulation-based training programs. The actors experience satisfaction from their contributions, and their skill and improvisational talent allow programs to offer ethical and relational training, customized to a wide range of practitioners and adapted across a variety of health care conversations. Such learning opportunities can directly address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies in preparing capable, confident, and empathic health care practitioners.

  2. Development of an open-source web-based intervention for Brazilian smokers - Viva sem Tabaco.

    PubMed

    Gomide, H P; Bernardino, H S; Richter, K; Martins, L F; Ronzani, T M

    2016-08-02

    Web-based interventions for smoking cessation available in Portuguese do not adhere to evidence-based treatment guidelines. Besides, all existing web-based interventions are built on proprietary platforms that developing countries often cannot afford. We aimed to describe the development of "Viva sem Tabaco", an open-source web-based intervention. The development of the intervention included the selection of content from evidence-based guidelines for smoking cessation, the design of the first layout, conduction of 2 focus groups to identify potential features, refinement of the layout based on focus groups and correction of content based on feedback provided by specialists on smoking cessation. At the end, we released the source-code and intervention on the Internet and translated it into Spanish and English. The intervention developed fills gaps in the information available in Portuguese and the lack of open-source interventions for smoking cessation. The open-source licensing format and its translation system may help researchers from different countries deploying evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation.

  3. ACToR: Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR) is a set of databases compiling information on chemicals in the environment from a large number of public and in-house EPA sources. ACToR has 3 main goals: (1) The serve as a repository of public toxicology information ...

  4. On with the Show! A Guide for Directors and Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bestor, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    Divided into two parts, the Director's Handbook and the Actor's Handbook, On With the Show! enables directors and actors to get the most out of rehearsal time at home and on the stage. Providing essential time-saving techniques, worksheets, and samples, this guide allows performers and directors to work more effectively and efficiently toward the…

  5. Understanding the Employment of Actors. Research Division Report #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    Focusing on actors' employment problems, part 1 of this report describes data collected by Actor's Equity primarily in terms of: (1) membership files; (2) the organization's contract department; (3) pension and welfare funds; and (4) employment statistics. Part 2 analyzes these data sets in relation to employment, unemployment, risk factors for…

  6. Influential Spheres: Examining Actors' Perceptions of Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thier, Michael; Smith, Joanna; Pitts, Christine; Anderson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Many layers of education governance press upon U.S. schools, so we separated state actors into those internal to and those external to the system. In the process, we unpacked the traditional state-local dichotomy. Using interview data (n = 45) from six case-study states, we analyzed local leaders', state-internal actors', and state-external…

  7. Teaching, Learning, and Leading: Preparing Teachers as Educational Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, Amy J.; Ryan, Ann Marie; Tocci, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Within the current federal, state, and local contexts of educational reform, teachers must be recognized as central actors in policy work, but rarely do we explicitly consider preparing teachers to become policy actors. Understanding these implications for teacher education, we investigate teacher candidates' learning of the complexity and…

  8. Is It What You Do, or When You Do It? the Roles of Contingency and Similarity in Pro-Social Effects of Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Being imitated has a wide range of pro-social effects, but it is not clear how these effects are mediated. Naturalistic studies of the effects of being imitated have not established whether pro-social outcomes are due to the similarity and/or the contingency between the movements performed by the actor and those of the imitator. Similarity is…

  9. Is It What You Do, or When You Do It? the Roles of Contingency and Similarity in Pro-Social Effects of Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Being imitated has a wide range of pro-social effects, but it is not clear how these effects are mediated. Naturalistic studies of the effects of being imitated have not established whether pro-social outcomes are due to the similarity and/or the contingency between the movements performed by the actor and those of the imitator. Similarity is…

  10. ProMat

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  11. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    PubMed

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  12. Towards a computational model of actor-based language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Alday, Phillip M; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiological data from a range of typologically diverse languages provide evidence for a cross-linguistically valid, actor-based strategy of understanding sentence-level meaning. This strategy seeks to identify the participant primarily responsible for the state of affairs (the actor) as quickly and unambiguously as possible, thus resulting in competition for the actor role when there are multiple candidates. Due to its applicability across languages with vastly different characteristics, we have proposed that the actor strategy may derive from more basic cognitive or neurobiological organizational principles, though it is also shaped by distributional properties of the linguistic input (e.g. the morphosyntactic coding strategies for actors in a given language). Here, we describe an initial computational model of the actor strategy and how it interacts with language-specific properties. Specifically, we contrast two distance metrics derived from the output of the computational model (one weighted and one unweighted) as potential measures of the degree of competition for actorhood by testing how well they predict modulations of electrophysiological activity engendered by language processing. To this end, we present an EEG study on word order processing in German and use linear mixed-effects models to assess the effect of the various distance metrics. Our results show that a weighted metric, which takes into account the weighting of an actor-identifying feature in the language under consideration outperforms an unweighted distance measure. We conclude that actor competition effects cannot be reduced to feature overlap between multiple sentence participants and thereby to the notion of similarity-based interference, which is prominent in current memory-based models of language processing. Finally, we argue that, in addition to illuminating the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of actor competition, the present model can form the basis for a more comprehensive

  13. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  14. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  15. 29 CFR 570.125 - Actors and performers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an actor or performer in motion pictures or theatrical productions, or in radio or television... definition will be helpful in determining whether a child qualifies as a “* * * performer in motion...

  16. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  17. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    PubMed

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik

    2012-06-01

    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm.

  18. Actors: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RD-A157 917 ACTORS: A MODEL OF CONCURRENT COMPUTATION IN 1/3- DISTRIBUTED SY𔃿TEMS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CRMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...EmmmmmmEmmmmmE mmmmmmmmmmmmmmlfllfllf EEEEEEEmmmmmEE Sa~WNVS AO nflWl ,VNOIJVN 27 n- -o :1 ~ili0 Technical Report 844 Actors: A Model Of Concurrent...Computation In Distributed Systems Gui A. Aghai MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Thsdocument ha. been cipp -oved I= pblicrelease and sale; itsI

  19. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (S) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology. We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  20. [Mortality of Polish actors in 1981-1999].

    PubMed

    Poznańska, Anna; Gajewski, Antoni K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mortality of Polish actors (males and females) with the general Polish population for the period 1981-1999 and for two sub-periods: 1981-1991 and 1992-1998. Initially the studied cohort included 3992 dramatic actors (2161 males, 1831 females) of age 18-80 years (at the moment of cohort entrance). After detailed data verification statistical analysis was made for 2120 actors and 1767 actresses, contributing 29477.1 and 24886.2 person-years of observation, respectively. A total of 633 deaths (368 males and 265 females) were noted during the analyzed period. Statistical approach based on the follow-up method. Comparison with the reference population (Polish males and females from urban areas) was made by means of the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their 95% confidence intervals. Direct comparison of the selected subgroups' mortality based on the rate ratio analysis. Standardized mortality ratios were 0.739 (95%CI: 0.666-0.819) for the actors and 0.887 (95%CI: 0.784-1.001) for actresses. Mortality of the actors' cohort was found to be significantly lower than in the reference population during total analyzed period, whereas for actresses no significant differences were found. Age-specific SMR dependence was found. Statistically significant lowering of SMR was observed for actors up to 80 years old. Finally, it could be concluded that in contrast to the actresses' cohort the actors' mortality in 1992-1999 significantly decreased in relation to 1981-1991 period. Moreover, the decrease of the actors' mortality exceeded tendencies observed for Polish urban population.

  1. Fibrinopeptide A binds Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Root-Bernstein, R S; Westall, F C

    1984-01-01

    The tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro inhibits fibrinogen aggregation, probably by binding to the same sites used during initiation of fibrin formation. The Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binding sites have not yet been identified. However, their possible sequence and locations have been predicted on the basis of the amino acid pairing hypothesis. One of these predicted sites is on fibrinopeptide A. We report here that nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicate that Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro binds to fibrinopeptide A with a binding constant, K, of ca. 10(4) per mol. We also report results of 19 related peptide combinations used as controls. PMID:6589598

  2. PRO-140 (Progenics).

    PubMed

    Poli, G

    2001-09-01

    PRO-140, a monoclonal antibody against the HIV coreceptor CCR5, is under investigation by Progenics and the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) as a potential treatment for HIV infection [211441], [286246], [286247]. Phase I/II trials were expected to commence during 2001 [395621], [409142], despite being initially planned for 2000 [322637], [361819], [365216], [375598], [408483]. In January 1998, ADARC and Progenics reported that the HIV binding site on the CCR5 coreceptor is distinct from betachemokine binding domains, which they claimed may allow for the development of therapeutics with fewer side effects [273391], 421256]. In vitro studies have shown PRO-140 potently blocked all of 17 primary HIV isolates that use CCR5 as a fusion coreceptor [342173]. In October 2000, Progenics was awarded an SBIR grant to fund a 2-year project exploring the breadth, potency and durability of PRO-140 therapy in laboratory and animal models of HIV infection. This project was a collaboration between Progenics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University and the Scripps Research Institute [385982]. In May 1999, the company entered into an agreement with Protein Design Labs (PDL) for the humanization by PDL of PRO-140 [325445]. In November 1997, Progenics was awarded a 600,000 dollars grant from the NIAID for the examination of new approaches to HIV vaccine design based on CCR5 [268407].

  3. TOXIRAE PRO PID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxiRAE Pro PID measures total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a photoionization detector (PID). This sensor can be programmed to measure concentrations of a specified compound automatically and has a real time reading of VOC concentrations in parts per million (ppm) ...

  4. TOXIRAE PRO PID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxiRAE Pro PID measures total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a photoionization detector (PID). This sensor can be programmed to measure concentrations of a specified compound automatically and has a real time reading of VOC concentrations in parts per million (ppm) ...

  5. Understanding actors and object-goals in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Richard; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2010-04-15

    When another person takes 10 pounds from your hand, it matters if they are a shopkeeper or a robber. That is, the meaning of a simple, goal-directed action can vary depending on the identity of the actors involved. Research examining action understanding has identified an action observation network (AON) that encodes action features such as goals and kinematics. However, it is not yet known how or where the brain links actor identity to action goal. In the present paper, we used a repetition suppression paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural representation of actor identity within the context of object-directed actions. Participants watched video clips of two different actors with two different object-goals. Repeated presentation of the same actor suppressed the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in fusiform gyrus and occipitotemporal cortex. In contrast, repeated presentation of an action with the same object-goal suppressed the BOLD response throughout the AON. Our data reveal an extended brain network for understanding other people and their everyday actions that go beyond the traditional action observation network.

  6. Body height and occupational success for actors and actresses.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph

    2010-08-01

    The association of body height with occupational success has been frequently studied, with previous research mainly finding a positive effect among men and positive or null effects among women. Occupational success has almost exclusively been measured so far by short-term success variables (e.g., annual income). In the present study, the relationship of success and height was examined in a group of actors and actresses using a large online database about movies (Internet Movie Database) where heights of actors and actresses are stated. The number of roles played in movies and television series during each actor's lifetime was used as a measure of long-term occupational success. No height effect was found for male actors but a significant negative effect was found for actresses, even after controlling for possible confounding influences (age and birth year). Compared to the general population, actors and actresses were significantly taller; however, actresses who were shorter than average were more likely to achieve greater occupational success, in terms of being featured in more movies.

  7. Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata

    2012-11-01

    Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.

  8. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  9. Private actors, global health and learning the lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Youde, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance.

  10. Lifelong Learning in the EU: Changing Conceptualisations, Actors, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volles, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changing conceptualisations, actors, and policies of lifelong learning (LLL) in the European Union (EU) from the time the topic first emerged and was promoted by international organisations in the 1960s. The author uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework to analyse how the LLL discourse became an important part of the EU…

  11. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  12. Researching the Habitus of Global Policy Actors in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reprises the argument for the emergence of a global education policy field and then focuses on the shared habitus of global and national policy actors and technicians. It is argued that this shared habitus is constituted as a reflection of and a contribution to the creation of the global education policy field. Bourdieu's approach to…

  13. Researching the Habitus of Global Policy Actors in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Baroutsis, Aspa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reprises the argument for the emergence of a global education policy field and then focuses on the shared habitus of global and national policy actors and technicians. It is argued that this shared habitus is constituted as a reflection of and a contribution to the creation of the global education policy field. Bourdieu's approach to…

  14. U.S. Strategy, African Key Actors, and China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    national security interests and offer a strategy to counter China’s neocolonial encroachment on the continent. 15. SUBJECT TERMS African Political Elites...offer a strategy to counter China’s neocolonial encroachment on the continent. U.S. STRATEGY, AFRICAN KEY ACTORS, AND CHINA China-Africa trade will

  15. Student Actor Ailments: Ten Ills and How To Cure Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Barbara Long

    2000-01-01

    Lists the top ten acting ailments often encountered in student actors, and offers advice to cure these ailments: the split personality, the beauty queen and the leading man, the comedian, the director in training, the moody one, the character-clueless, the loner, the mimic, the stage-frightened, and the opening night artist. (SR)

  16. Lifelong Learning in the EU: Changing Conceptualisations, Actors, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volles, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changing conceptualisations, actors, and policies of lifelong learning (LLL) in the European Union (EU) from the time the topic first emerged and was promoted by international organisations in the 1960s. The author uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework to analyse how the LLL discourse became an important part of the EU…

  17. Children's Recognition of Plans in the Behavior of Other Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Marsha D.; Sedlak, Andrea J.

    An investigation of children's tendencies to infer planfulness from the behavior of other actors revealed systematic differences in the responses of kindergarten and second-grade children to questions about the motives, goals, and knowledge of story characters. Participating in the study were 13 boys and 13 girls attending public school (15…

  18. Spatial boundary choice and the views of different actors

    SciTech Connect

    Karstens, Sonja A.M. . E-mail: s.a.m.karstens@geodelft.nl; Bots, Pieter W.G.; Slinger, Jill H.

    2007-07-15

    The selection of spatial and temporal scales of analysis is an important and challenging activity at the start of any Policy Analysis or Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The scale sets bounds on the types of problems to be addressed, the solutions to be found and the impacts to be evaluated. Particular scale choices may be more or less beneficial to different actors and are therefore politically loaded. Despite its importance, this topic has rarely been specifically addressed through empirical research. This paper presents an assessment of the impacts of scale choice from varying points of view - those of political actors, commissioners, analysts and scientists - focusing on one type of scale choice: the spatial boundary of the study. An examination of the completed transboundary Long Term Vision Study (LTV) of the Scheldt Estuary, commissioned by the Flemish and Dutch governments, is used to illustrate how actors vary both in the boundaries they choose and the assessment they make of the implications of that boundary choice. Consequently, no perfect spatial scale choice appears to exist. The paper recommends ways to structure the problem of scale selection to facilitate rational deliberation. It is suggested that the methods used to analyse different actors perspectives for the completed LVT study, in future could be employed up-front at the start of other projects. Scale-dependent decision trade-offs could then be made more transparent.

  19. Media actors' perceptions of their roles in reporting food incidents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Annabelle M; Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Webb, Trevor; Calnan, Michael; Caraher, Martin; Lloyd, Sue; McCullum, Dean; Elliott, Anthony; Ward, Paul R

    2014-12-18

    Previous research has shown that the media can play a role in shaping consumer perceptions during a public health crisis. In order for public health professionals to communicate well-informed health information to the media, it is important that they understand how media view their role in transmitting public health information to consumers and decide what information to present. This paper reports the perceptions of media actors from three countries about their role in reporting information during a food incident. This information is used to present ideas and suggestions for public health professionals working with media during food incidents. Thirty three semi-structured interviews with media actors from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom were conducted and analysed thematically. Media actors were recruited via purposive sampling using a sampling strategy, from a variety of formats including newspaper, television, radio and online. Media actors said that during a food incident, they play two roles. First, they play a role in communicating information to consumers by acting as a conduit for information between the public and the relevant authorities. Second, they play a role as investigators by acting as a public watchdog. Media actors are an important source of consumer information during food incidents. Public health professionals can work with media by actively approaching them with information about food incidents; promoting to media that as public health professionals, they are best placed to provide the facts about food incidents; and by providing angles for further investigation and directing media to relevant and correct information to inform such investigations. Public health professionals who adapt how they work with media are more likely to influence media to portray messages that fit what they would like the public to know and that are in line with public health recommendations and enable consumers to engage in safe and health promoting

  20. VR/IS Lab Virtual Actor research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shawver, D.M.; Stansfield, S.

    1995-06-22

    This overview presents current research at Sandia National Laboratories in the Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation Lab. Into an existing distributed VR environment which we have been developing, and which provides shared immersion for multiple users, we are adding virtual actor support. The virtual actor support we are adding to this environment is intended to provide semi-autonomous actors, with oversight and high-level guiding control by a director/user, and to allow the overall action to be driven by a scenario. We present an overview of the environment into which our virtual actors will be added in Section 3, and discuss the direction of the Virtual Actor research itself in Section 4. We will briefly review related work in Section 2. First however we need to place the research in the context of what motivates it. The motivation for our construction of this environment, and the line of research associated with it, is based on a long-term program of providing support, through simulation, for situational training, by which we mean a type of training in which students learn to handle multiple situations or scenarios. In these situations, the student may encounter events ranging from the routine occurance to the rare emergency. Indeed, the appeal of such training systems is that they could allow the student to experience and develop effective responses for situations they would otherwise have no opportunity to practice, until they happened to encounter an actual occurance. Examples of the type of students for this kind of training would be security forces or emergency response forces. An example of the type of training scenario we would like to support is given in Section 4.2.

  1. Balancing influence between actors in healthcare decision making

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Healthcare costs in most developed countries are not clearly linked to better patient and public health outcomes, but are rather associated with service delivery orientation. In the U.S. this has resulted in large variation in healthcare availability and use, increased cost, reduced employer participation in health insurance programs, and reduced overall population health outcomes. Recent U.S. healthcare reform legislation addresses only some of these issues. Other countries face similar healthcare issues. Discussion A major goal of healthcare is to enhance patient health outcomes. This objective is not realized in many countries because incentives and structures are currently not aligned for maximizing population health. The misalignment occurs because of the competing interests between "actors" in healthcare. In a simplified model these are individuals motivated to enhance their own health; enterprises (including a mix of nonprofit, for profit and government providers, payers, and suppliers, etc.) motivated by profit, political, organizational and other forces; and government which often acts in the conflicting roles of a healthcare payer and provider in addition to its role as the representative and protector of the people. An imbalance exists between the actors, due to the resources and information control of the enterprise and government actors relative to the individual and the public. Failure to use effective preventive interventions is perhaps the best example of the misalignment of incentives. We consider the current Pareto efficient balance between the actors in relation to the Pareto frontier, and show that a significant change in the healthcare market requires major changes in the utilities of the enterprise and government actors. Summary A variety of actions are necessary for maximizing population health within the constraints of available resources and the current balance between the actors. These actions include improved transparency of

  2. Actor and analyst: a response to Coopmans and Button.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We question the logic of Coopmans and Button's critique of our analysis of expertise on three grounds. First, their critique depends on a clear distinction between actor and analysts that we show cannot be maintained. Second, we question their reticence to allow the use of taxonomies in the analysis of expertise, suggesting that it is contradicted by their own descriptions of expert work, and we accuse them of making a mistake in the way they relate commonsense to specialist skills. Finally, we express our puzzlement at the antiseptic-like precautions that some ethnomethodologists apply to analysts' categories, especially given that--as we show--analysts' categories sometimes provide a superior resource for understanding and can change the actors' world as well as describing it.

  3. Performance Analysis of an Actor-Based Distributed Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Object-oriented design of simulation programs appears to be very attractive because of the natural association of components in the simulated system with objects. There is great potential in distributing the simulation across several computers for the purpose of parallel computation and its consequent handling of larger problems in less elapsed time. One approach to such a design is to use "actors", that is, active objects with their own thread of control. Because these objects execute concurrently, communication is via messages. This is in contrast to an object-oriented design using passive objects where communication between objects is via method calls (direct calls when they are in the same address space and remote procedure calls when they are in different address spaces or different machines). This paper describes a performance analysis program for the evaluation of a design for distributed simulations based upon actors.

  4. Teachers as Actors: The Implications of Acting on Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2007-10-01

    In the spring of 2006, a rather unusual advertisement by the Centre of Teaching and Academic Growth at UBC (http://www.tag.ubc.ca) came to my attention. Faculty members were invited to take part in a workshop entitled "All the World's a Stage: Teachers as Actors," offered by a zoology instructor and an amateur actor, Greg Bole: Teaching can be seen as creating an interpersonal relationship and hence uses many of the same skills as acting. The investigation and use of acting skills in teacher preparation can allow a greater facility with diverse methods, increase skill at adapting to change in the classroom or lecture hall, and an increased ability to quickly form positive relationships with students. (Greg Bole: http://www.tag.ubc.ca/programs/series-detail.php?series_id=249 )

  5. Towards Feature Selection in Actor-Critic Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    initially proposed by Barto et al. (1983), aim at combining the strong elements of the two major classes of reinforcement learning algorithms...analysis of actor/critic algorithms using eligibility traces: Reinforcement learning with imperfect value functions. In Proceedings of the International... reinforcement learning . In Kearns, M. S., Solla, S. A., and Cohn, D. A., editors, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, volume 11, pages 1024

  6. Pro-Active Behavior Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E., Jr.

    The paper outlines the basic tactics in pro-active behavior management, a behavior modification approach for use with severely handicapped students which reorders the staff/student relationship by focusing on positive interaction. Pro-active behavior management is noted to involve interruption of established behavior chains, environmental…

  7. The Psychological Self as Actor, Agent, and Author.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Dan P

    2013-05-01

    The psychological self may be construed as a reflexive arrangement of the subjective "I" and the constructed "Me," evolving and expanding over the human life course. The psychological self begins life as a social actor, construed in terms of performance traits and social roles. By the end of childhood, the self has become a motivated agent, too, as personal goals, motives, values, and envisioned projects for the future become central features of how the I conceives of the Me. A third layer of selfhood begins to form in the adolescent and emerging adulthood years, when the self as autobiographical author aims to construct a story of the Me, to provide adult life with broad purpose and a dynamic sense of temporal continuity. An integrative theory that envisions the psychological self as a developing I-Me configuration of actor, agent, and author helps to synthesize a wide range of conceptions and findings on the self from social, personality, cognitive, cultural, and developmental psychology and from sociology and other social sciences. The actor-agent-author framework also sheds new light on studies of self-regulation, self-esteem, self-continuity, and the relationship between self and culture.

  8. When More Power Makes Actors Worse off: Turning a Profit in the American Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskorski, Mikolaj Jan; Casciaro, Tiziana

    2006-01-01

    We propose a theory which predicts that an increase in an actor's relative power reduces the actor's rewards in high mutual dependence dyads. Our argument is based on the premise that higher relative power gives the more powerful actor a greater share of surplus, but it also reduces dyadic exchange frequency, which lowers the expected magnitude of…

  9. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  10. Breaking into the Business: Experiences of Actors with Disabilities in the Entertainment Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Olivia; Hayward, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    The pursuit of an acting career is a difficult one for anybody. However, studies have yet to factor how disability affects casting opportunities. This study describes the employment of actors with disabilities, along with the unique barriers they encounter in the audition and casting process. Actors with disabilities from the Screen Actors Guild…

  11. When More Power Makes Actors Worse off: Turning a Profit in the American Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskorski, Mikolaj Jan; Casciaro, Tiziana

    2006-01-01

    We propose a theory which predicts that an increase in an actor's relative power reduces the actor's rewards in high mutual dependence dyads. Our argument is based on the premise that higher relative power gives the more powerful actor a greater share of surplus, but it also reduces dyadic exchange frequency, which lowers the expected magnitude of…

  12. A Low-cost System for Generating Near-realistic Virtual Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Mahmoud; Hussain, Khaled F.; Ibrahim, Hosny M.; Omar, Nagwa M.

    2015-06-01

    Generating virtual actors is one of the most challenging fields in computer graphics. The reconstruction of a realistic virtual actor has been paid attention by the academic research and the film industry to generate human-like virtual actors. Many movies were acted by human-like virtual actors, where the audience cannot distinguish between real and virtual actors. The synthesis of realistic virtual actors is considered a complex process. Many techniques are used to generate a realistic virtual actor; however they usually require expensive hardware equipment. In this paper, a low-cost system that generates near-realistic virtual actors is presented. The facial features of the real actor are blended with a virtual head that is attached to the actor's body. Comparing with other techniques that generate virtual actors, the proposed system is considered a low-cost system that requires only one camera that records the scene without using any expensive hardware equipment. The results of our system show that the system generates good near-realistic virtual actors that can be used on many applications.

  13. Breaking into the Business: Experiences of Actors with Disabilities in the Entertainment Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Olivia; Hayward, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    The pursuit of an acting career is a difficult one for anybody. However, studies have yet to factor how disability affects casting opportunities. This study describes the employment of actors with disabilities, along with the unique barriers they encounter in the audition and casting process. Actors with disabilities from the Screen Actors Guild…

  14. Sacred Shock: Student Actors on Anti-Bullying Improvisation and Impact of Self-Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Sharlene Elinor

    2017-01-01

    This article describes responses of a group of adolescent student actors and actor alumni involved in anti-bullying skits arising from a critical case study of the Tolerance Troupe from a small rural and suburban borough in Pennsylvania. Seventeen active members and 19 actor alumni participated in semi-structured interviews focusing on what the…

  15. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.

  16. The effects of mood on spontaneous trait inferences about the actor: Evidence from Chinese undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Zhao, Yaolong; Li, Qianqian; Yang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Prior research has indicated that positive moods increase but negative moods decrease the trait activation of spontaneous trait inferences (STIs). However, it is unknown whether this difference is also present in STIs about the actor. In Study 1, using a false recognition paradigm, we found that Chinese undergraduates made STIs about the actor. In Study 2, we found that the happy Chinese undergraduates were more likely to make STIs about the actor than the sad Chinese undergraduates. These findings showed that Chinese people made STIs about the actor and moods had an influence on their STIs about the actor.

  17. Global Surgery 2030: a roadmap for high income country actors

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Sarah L M; Abdullah, Fizan; Amado, Vanda; Anderson, Geoffrey A; Cossa, Matchecane; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa; Davies, Justine; Debas, Haile T; Dyer, George S M; Erdene, Sarnai; Farmer, Paul E; Gaumnitz, Amber; Hagander, Lars; Haider, Adil; Leather, Andrew J M; Lin, Yihan; Marten, Robert; Marvin, Jeffrey T; McClain, Craig D; Meara, John G; Meheš, Mira; Mock, Charles; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Orgoi, Sergelen; Prestero, Timothy; Price, Raymond R; Raykar, Nakul P; Riesel, Johanna N; Riviello, Robert; Rudy, Stephen M; Saluja, Saurabh; Sullivan, Richard; Tarpley, John L; Taylor, Robert H; Telemaque, Louis-Franck; Toma, Gabriel; Varghese, Asha; Walker, Melanie; Yamey, Gavin; Shrime, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals have ended and the Sustainable Development Goals have begun, marking a shift in the global health landscape. The frame of reference has changed from a focus on 8 development priorities to an expansive set of 17 interrelated goals intended to improve the well-being of all people. In this time of change, several groups, including the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery, have brought a critical problem to the fore: 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. The magnitude of this problem and the world's new focus on strengthening health systems mandate reimagined roles for and renewed commitments from high income country actors in global surgery. To discuss the way forward, on 6 May 2015, the Commission held its North American launch event in Boston, Massachusetts. Panels of experts outlined the current state of knowledge and agreed on the roles of surgical colleges and academic medical centres; trainees and training programmes; academia; global health funders; the biomedical devices industry, and news media and advocacy organisations in building sustainable, resilient surgical systems. This paper summarises these discussions and serves as a consensus statement providing practical advice to these groups. It traces a common policy agenda between major actors and provides a roadmap for maximising benefit to surgical patients worldwide. To close the access gap by 2030, individuals and organisations must work collectively, interprofessionally and globally. High income country actors must abandon colonial narratives and work alongside low and middle income country partners to build the surgical systems of the future. PMID:28588908

  18. Global Surgery 2030: a roadmap for high income country actors.

    PubMed

    Ng-Kamstra, Joshua S; Greenberg, Sarah L M; Abdullah, Fizan; Amado, Vanda; Anderson, Geoffrey A; Cossa, Matchecane; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa; Davies, Justine; Debas, Haile T; Dyer, George S M; Erdene, Sarnai; Farmer, Paul E; Gaumnitz, Amber; Hagander, Lars; Haider, Adil; Leather, Andrew J M; Lin, Yihan; Marten, Robert; Marvin, Jeffrey T; McClain, Craig D; Meara, John G; Meheš, Mira; Mock, Charles; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Orgoi, Sergelen; Prestero, Timothy; Price, Raymond R; Raykar, Nakul P; Riesel, Johanna N; Riviello, Robert; Rudy, Stephen M; Saluja, Saurabh; Sullivan, Richard; Tarpley, John L; Taylor, Robert H; Telemaque, Louis-Franck; Toma, Gabriel; Varghese, Asha; Walker, Melanie; Yamey, Gavin; Shrime, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals have ended and the Sustainable Development Goals have begun, marking a shift in the global health landscape. The frame of reference has changed from a focus on 8 development priorities to an expansive set of 17 interrelated goals intended to improve the well-being of all people. In this time of change, several groups, including the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery, have brought a critical problem to the fore: 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. The magnitude of this problem and the world's new focus on strengthening health systems mandate reimagined roles for and renewed commitments from high income country actors in global surgery. To discuss the way forward, on 6 May 2015, the Commission held its North American launch event in Boston, Massachusetts. Panels of experts outlined the current state of knowledge and agreed on the roles of surgical colleges and academic medical centres; trainees and training programmes; academia; global health funders; the biomedical devices industry, and news media and advocacy organisations in building sustainable, resilient surgical systems. This paper summarises these discussions and serves as a consensus statement providing practical advice to these groups. It traces a common policy agenda between major actors and provides a roadmap for maximising benefit to surgical patients worldwide. To close the access gap by 2030, individuals and organisations must work collectively, interprofessionally and globally. High income country actors must abandon colonial narratives and work alongside low and middle income country partners to build the surgical systems of the future.

  19. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    PubMed

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made.

  20. ACToR – Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a collection of databases collated or developed by the US EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT). More than 200 sources of publicly available data on environmental chemicals have been brought together and made searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by chemical structure. Data includes chemical structure, physico-chemical values, in vitro assay data and in vivo toxicology data. Chemicals include, but are not limited to, high and medium production volume industrial chemicals, pesticides (active and inert ingredients), and potential ground and drinking water contaminants.

  1. The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    113 THE SOVIET POPULATION POLICY DEOTE: ACTOS AD I SSUES 1/2 (U) RAND CORP SATA MONICA CR N FESHBACH DEC 86 RN/ N -2472-RF F49620-86-C-BNS UN CLSIFIED...Corporation 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138 0 I1 ~I A RAND NOTE N -2472-AF The Soviet Population Policy Debate: Actors and Issues...8 5 t I 4 61 - PP ~ V’V ~V /./( N % 4 wW f VW ... .. in,1 ix - TABLES 1. Benchmark Dates

  2. Construal level and free will beliefs shape perceptions of actors' proximal and distal intent

    PubMed Central

    Plaks, Jason E.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Two components of lay observers' calculus of moral judgment are proximal intent (the actor's mind is focused on performing the action) and distal intent (the actor's mind is focused on the broader goal). What causes observers to prioritize one form of intent over the other? The authors observed whether construal level (Studies 1–2) and beliefs about free will (Studies 3–4) would influence participants' sensitivity to the actor's proximal vs. distal intent. In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's proximal and distal intent were independently manipulated. In Study 1, when only distal intent was present in the actor's mind, participants rated the psychologically distant actor more responsible than the psychologically near actor. In Study 2, when only distal intent was in the actor's mind, participants with a chronic high level of action identification rated the actor more responsible than did those with a low level of action identification. In both studies, when only proximal intent was in the actor's mind, construal level did not predict judgments of responsibility. In Study 3, when only proximal intent was present in the actor's mind, the more participants believed in free will, the more they rated the actor responsible. When only distal intent was in the actor's mind, free will belief did not influence ratings of responsibility. In Study 4, the same pattern emerged when free will/determinism beliefs were manipulated and the actor performed a positive (life-saving) act. The authors discuss how these results shed new light on the literatures on moral reasoning and psycho-legal theory. PMID:26106352

  3. Development of the TabacoQuest app for computerization of data collection on smoking in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Renata Marques de; Duarte, Alexandre Freitas; Alves, Domingos; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira

    2016-08-29

    to develop a mobile app for research on the use of tobacco among psychiatric patients and the general population. applied research with the technological development of an app for data collection on an Android tablet. For its development, we considered three criteria: data security, benefits for participants and optimization of the time of researchers. We performed tests with twenty fictitious participants and a final test with six pilots. the app collects data, stores them in the database of the tablet and export then to an Excel spreadsheet. calculator, stopwatch, offline operation, branching logic, field validation and automatic tabulation. the app prevents human error, increases the quality of the data by validating them during the interview, allows the performing of automatic tabulation and makes the interviews less tiring. Its success may encourage the use of this and other computational resources by nurses as a research tool. desenvolver aplicativo mobile para pesquisa sobre o uso de tabaco entre pacientes psiquiátricos e a população geral. pesquisa aplicada com o desenvolvimento tecnológico de um aplicativo para coleta de dados em tablet Android. Para seu desenvolvimento, consideraram-se três critérios: segurança dos dados, benefícios para os participantes e otimização do tempo dos pesquisadores. Testes com 20 participantes fictícios e teste final com seis pilotos. o aplicativo coleta os dados, armazena-os no banco de dados do tablet e os exporta para planilha Excel. Recursos: calculadora; cronômetro; funcionamento off-line, lógica de ramificação, validação de campos e tabulação automática. o aplicativo previne erros humanos e aumenta a qualidade dos dados ao validá-los durante a entrevista, permite realizar tabulação automática e torna as entrevistas menos cansativas. Seu sucesso poderá incentivar o uso desse e outros recursos computacionais pelos enfermeiros, como ferramenta de pesquisa. desarrollar aplicativo móvil para hacer

  4. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  5. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  6. Working on gender issues with partners and other actors.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Discussions at the workshop centered around the Oxfam UK/1 program work on gender with its partners and other actors. Gender issues have been part of the program since 1985. Around 80% of the program involves mixed partners (men and women), while around 15% involves women-only groups. Strategies for working with partners include training, ongoing dialogue, involvement in planning, networking, lobbying, advocacy work, sectoral interventions, and research to highlight issues. Improving the gender work of existing counterparts and building new relationships are the goals of the Oxfam UK/1 program. Gender awareness should be used as a criterion in choosing those with whom work is done. Time-bound strategies are needed to persuade partners to respond to the gender-related needs of target groups. Resources are needed to enhance the capacity skills of willing partners. The workshop produced the following recommendations: 1) program managers must take conscious steps to invest time and resources in seeking out new relationships with new potential actors; 2) local culture should be analyzed to develop a locally appropriate approach to gender discrimination, and strategies have to synchronize policy directives with what is happening on the ground; 3) in seeking new relationships, centers of positive energy, which can create a domino effect and break down resistance, should be identified; and 4) networking should be broadened to outside the current universe of counterparts.

  7. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study.

    PubMed

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences.

  8. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Uz Zaman Khan, Nazib; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a “health knowledge economy”, organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term “health knowledge economy” draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  9. Analysis of stress, musculoskeletal disorders, and fatigue among broadcasting actors.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon-Hee; Kim, Ham-Gyum; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to assess the health effects of broadcasting actors through a comprehensive research on their job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue and to investigate those factors having an impact on their health condition to present a basis for comparative studies and effective human resource management in the future. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was performed to analyze the relevance of the general features, job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue. [Results] Analysis of job stress, one of the characteristics of individuals, revealed that 32.4% of the subjects with less than 5 years of service, 55.5% of those with 6 to 10 years of service, and 52.4% of those with more than 10 years of service showed a high level of stress. Analysis of psychosocial stress, another characteristic of individuals, revealed that 13.4% of the nonsmokers had a high level of psychosocial stress, while 37.7% of smokers had a high level of psychosocial stress based on analysis of chronic disease and psychosocial health. [Conclusion] Based on this study of the stress and fatigue of broadcasting actors, it is expected that improvements can be made to promote their mental health conditions and, organizational safety and to promote effective human resource management.

  10. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups.

  11. Analysis of stress, musculoskeletal disorders, and fatigue among broadcasting actors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon-Hee; Kim, Ham-Gyum; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to assess the health effects of broadcasting actors through a comprehensive research on their job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue and to investigate those factors having an impact on their health condition to present a basis for comparative studies and effective human resource management in the future. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was performed to analyze the relevance of the general features, job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue. [Results] Analysis of job stress, one of the characteristics of individuals, revealed that 32.4% of the subjects with less than 5 years of service, 55.5% of those with 6 to 10 years of service, and 52.4% of those with more than 10 years of service showed a high level of stress. Analysis of psychosocial stress, another characteristic of individuals, revealed that 13.4% of the nonsmokers had a high level of psychosocial stress, while 37.7% of smokers had a high level of psychosocial stress based on analysis of chronic disease and psychosocial health. [Conclusion] Based on this study of the stress and fatigue of broadcasting actors, it is expected that improvements can be made to promote their mental health conditions and, organizational safety and to promote effective human resource management. PMID:27942117

  12. What about the "actor's formant" in actresses' voices?

    PubMed

    Master, Suely; De Biase, Noemi Grigolleto; Madureira, Sandra

    2012-05-01

    Spectrographic analysis of male actors' voices showed a cluster, the "actor's formant" (AF), which is related to the perception of good and projected voice quality. To date, similar phenomena have not been described in the voices of actresses. Therefore, the objective of the current investigation was to compare actresses' and nonactresses' voices through acoustic analysis to verify the existence of the "AF" cluster or the strategies used to produce the performing voice. Thirty actresses and 30 nonactresses volunteered as subjects in the present study. All subjects read a 40-second text at both habitual and loud levels. Praat (v.5.1) was then used to analyze equivalent sound pressure level (Leq), speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), and in the long-term average spectrum window, the difference between the amplitude level of the fundamental frequency and first formant (L1-L0), the spectral tilt (alpha ratio), and the amplitude and frequency of the "AF" region. Significant differences between the groups, in both levels, were observed for SFF and L1-L0, with actresses presenting lower values. There were no significant differences between groups for Leq or alpha ratio at either level. There was no evidence of an "AF" cluster in the actresses' voices. Voice projection for this group of actresses seemed to be mainly a result of a laryngeal setting instead of vocal tract resonances. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  14. A Least Squares Temporal Difference Actor-Critic Algorithm with Applications to Warehouse Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    A Least Squares Temporal Difference Actor -Critic Algorithm with Applications to Warehouse Management ∗ Reza Moazzez Estanjini† Keyong Li‡ Ioannis Ch...the actor -critic type and uses a least squares temporal difference learning method. It operates on a sample-path of the system and optimizes the...converges more smoothly than earlier actor -critic algorithms while substantially outperforming heuristics used in practice. Keywords: Markov decision

  15. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  16. Ship Finds and Their Management as Actor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2012-12-01

    Ship finds in Norwegian waters that are more than 100 years old came under the jurisdiction of the Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) in 1963, when section 12a of the Norwegian Cultural Heritage Act was implemented. As a consequence, a functional division between land and sea was created where management objects receive different values depending on whether or not they belong to a ship. The objective of this paper is to review Norwegian CHM underwater policy, and discuss the creation of a new management object and its borders with the introduction of a section on ship finds specifically focusing on Actor Network Theory. It is argued that the understanding of the ship find and its belongings can not be understood as something based on inherent qualities to the management object. Instead this paper proposes to comprehend the ship find as a phenomenon held together within a heterogeneous network.

  17. Can tics be performed convincingly by an actor?

    PubMed

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Riemann, Laura; Krämer, Hermann; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the German movie "Vincent will Meer" a healthy actor portrays a man with Tourette's syndrome. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of tics is convincing and whether this judgment depends on whether he/she suffers from tics or not. While the movie was broadcasted in German cinemas, we put an online survey (including 28 questions on different aspects related to the observation, performance, and authenticity of tics) on the web pages of the German self-help group. 276/296 surveys submitted could be used for further analyses. 95.7% of all participants felt that the performance of tics was convincing. However, people with tics (n = 26) were less convinced compared to those who had never met a person with tics (n = 110) (P = 0.020). Our results further support the hypothesis that tics are not "abnormal" but "physiological" movements that are only misplaced both in time and context.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Polytrauma: Actor and Target

    PubMed Central

    Wiegner, Rebecca; Lampl, Lorenz; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are considered indispensable in regeneration processes after tissue trauma. MSCs are recruited to damaged areas via several chemoattractant pathways where they function as “actors” in the healing process by the secretion of manifold pro- and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pro- and anticoagulatory, and trophic/angiogenic factors, but also by proliferation and differentiation into the required cells. On the other hand, MSCs represent “targets” during the pathophysiological conditions after severe trauma, when excessively generated inflammatory mediators, complement activation factors, and damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns challenge MSCs and alter their functionality. This in turn leads to complement opsonization, lysis, clearance by macrophages, and reduced migratory and regenerative abilities which culminate in impaired tissue repair. We summarize relevant cellular and signaling mechanisms and provide an up-to-date overview about promising future therapeutic MSC strategies in the context of severe tissue trauma. PMID:27340408

  19. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  20. Survival in Academy Award-winning actors and actresses.

    PubMed

    Redelmeier, D A; Singh, S M

    2001-05-15

    Social status is an important predictor of poor health. Most studies of this issue have focused on the lower echelons of society. To determine whether the increase in status from winning an academy award is associated with long-term mortality among actors and actresses. Retrospective cohort analysis. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. All actors and actresses ever nominated for an academy award in a leading or a supporting role were identified (n = 762). For each, another cast member of the same sex who was in the same film and was born in the same era was identified (n = 887). Life expectancy and all-cause mortality rates. All 1649 performers were analyzed; the median duration of follow-up time from birth was 66 years, and 772 deaths occurred (primarily from ischemic heart disease and malignant disease). Life expectancy was 3.9 years longer for Academy Award winners than for other, less recognized performers (79.7 vs. 75.8 years; P = 0.003). This difference was equal to a 28% relative reduction in death rates (95% CI, 10% to 42%). Adjustment for birth year, sex, and ethnicity yielded similar results, as did adjustments for birth country, possible name change, age at release of first film, and total films in career. Additional wins were associated with a 22% relative reduction in death rates (CI, 5% to 35%), whereas additional films and additional nominations were not associated with a significant reduction in death rates. The association of high status with increased longevity that prevails in the public also extends to celebrities, contributes to a large survival advantage, and is partially explained by factors related to success.

  1. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  2. Reassembling the Social - An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latour, Bruno

    2005-09-01

    Reassembling the Social is a fundamental challenge from one of the world's leading social theorists to how we understand society and the 'social'. Bruno Latour's contention is that the world 'social' as used by Social Scientists has become laden with assumptions to the point where it has become misnomer. When the adjective is applied to a phenomenon, it is used to indicate a stabilized state of affairs, a bundle of ties that in due course may be used to account for another phenomenon. But Latour also finds the word used as if it described a type of material, in a comparable way to an adjective such as 'wooden' or 'steely'. Rather than simply indicating what is already assembled together, it is now used in a way that makes assumptions about the nature of what is assembled. It has become a word that designates two distinct things: a process of assembling: and a type of material, distinct from others. Latour shows why 'the social' cannot be thought of as a kind of material or domain, and disputes attempts to provide a 'social explanation' of other states of affairs. While these attempts have been productive (and probably necessary) in the past, the very success of the social sciences mean that they are largely no longer so. At the present stage it is no longer possible to inspect the precise constituents entering the social domain. Latour returns to the original meaning of 'the social' to redefine the notion and allow it to trace connections again. It will then be possible to resume the traditional goal of the social sciences, but using more refined tools. Drawing on his extensive work examining the 'assemblages' of nature, Latour finds it necessary to scrutinize thoroughly the exact content of what is assembled under the umbrella of Society. This approach, a 'sociology of associations' has become known as Actor-Network-Theory, and this book is an essential introduction both for those seeking to understand Actor-Network-Theory, or the ideas of one of its most

  3. Between the Lines: Neutral Scenes Turn Lazy Actors into Master Sleuths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    Describes "neutral scenes," a dialog exchange for which actors must supply the meaning. Contends the exercise provides young actors the opportunity to use all the basic tools they will need when they progress to more conventional scene work, such as finding conflict, using given circumstances, playing relationships. Advises analyzing the…

  4. Explaining How Political Actors Gain Strategic Positions: Predictors of Centrality in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamara V.; Wang, Yuling; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from interviews with 111 reading policy actors from California, Connecticut, Michigan, and Utah, this study explains how individuals acquire central positions in issue networks. Regression analyses showed that the greater a policy actor's reputed influence was and the more similar their preferences were to other members in the network,…

  5. Reading Educational Reform with Actor Network Theory: Fluid Spaces, Otherings, and Ambivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2011-01-01

    In considering two extended examples of educational reform efforts, this discussion traces relations that become visible through analytic approaches associated with actor-network theory (ANT). The strategy here is to present multiple readings of the two examples. The first reading adopts an ANT approach to follow ways that all actors--human and…

  6. Representing Micro-Macro Linkages by Actor-Based Dynamic Network Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many other agent-based models, by including elements of…

  7. Up the ANTe: Understanding Entrepreneurial Leadership Learning through Actor-Network Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sue; Kempster, Steve; Barnes, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of educators in supporting the development of entrepreneurial leadership learning by creating peer learning networks of owner-managers of small businesses. Using actor-network theory, the authors think through the process of constructing and maintaining a peer learning network (conceived of as an actor-network) and…

  8. Does Dance Matter? The Relevance of Dance Technique in Professional Actor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savrami, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Since the establishment of Acting Studies, movement has always been a part of actor training. In the current vocational training institutions in the UK, movement for actors covers a wide range of subjects, including dance, somatics and movement practices. The aim of this research was to collect information about the dance techniques considered…

  9. Commercial Actors and the Governing of Education: The Case of Academy School Sponsors in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which commercial actors are operating in state education by focusing on the case study of England's academies policy. First of all the discussion outlines the development of academies over time and the way in which the policy has provided opportunities for private actors to become involved in the state schooling…

  10. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-State Actors, and the Advance of Frontier Higher Education Markets in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Komljenovic, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the growth of global non-state and multilateral actors in the "global south" and the creation of frontier markets in the higher education sector. These developments are part of market-making changes in higher education as the sector is opened to new actors, logics, and innovative services, aimed at "the global…

  12. Nonhumans Unbound: Actor-Network Theory and the Reconsideration of "Things" in Educational Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to call attention to the missing discourse of non-humans as social actors in the Social Foundations of Education. The paper outlines three common figuring metaphors that impede the adoption of such a theoretical discourse and shows how Actor-Network Theory (ANT), more recently developed in the nascent field of Science and…

  13. Reading Educational Reform with Actor Network Theory: Fluid Spaces, Otherings, and Ambivalences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2011-01-01

    In considering two extended examples of educational reform efforts, this discussion traces relations that become visible through analytic approaches associated with actor-network theory (ANT). The strategy here is to present multiple readings of the two examples. The first reading adopts an ANT approach to follow ways that all actors--human and…

  14. Explaining How Political Actors Gain Strategic Positions: Predictors of Centrality in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tamara V.; Wang, Yuling; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from interviews with 111 reading policy actors from California, Connecticut, Michigan, and Utah, this study explains how individuals acquire central positions in issue networks. Regression analyses showed that the greater a policy actor's reputed influence was and the more similar their preferences were to other members in the network,…

  15. Asian American Actors in Film, Television and Theater, An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Examined how Asian American actors coped with the constraints of being minorities in an industry where physical appearance is crucial to success. Respondents' narratives reflected such coping strategies as not confronting issues of race, rationalizing that things are much better now for Asian American actors than in previous years, and believing…

  16. Non-State Actors, and the Advance of Frontier Higher Education Markets in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Komljenovic, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the growth of global non-state and multilateral actors in the "global south" and the creation of frontier markets in the higher education sector. These developments are part of market-making changes in higher education as the sector is opened to new actors, logics, and innovative services, aimed at "the global…

  17. Does Dance Matter? The Relevance of Dance Technique in Professional Actor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savrami, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Since the establishment of Acting Studies, movement has always been a part of actor training. In the current vocational training institutions in the UK, movement for actors covers a wide range of subjects, including dance, somatics and movement practices. The aim of this research was to collect information about the dance techniques considered…

  18. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  19. Camus' Actor as Tom Stoppard's Player; A Key to Interpreting "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zivanovic, Judith

    An examination of Albert Camus' definition of the actor in "The Myth on Sisyphus" helps to illuminate the character and role of The Player in Tom Stoppard's play and, hence, to bring light to an understanding of the philosophy of the play itself. The actor, for Camus, reveals our mortality in the face of the absurdity of our mortality,…

  20. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  1. Detecting, measuring, and testing dyadic patterns in the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David A; Ledermann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Family researchers have used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to study romantic couples, parent-child dyads, and siblings. We discuss a new method to detect, measure, and test different theoretically important patterns in the APIM: equal actor and partner effect (couple pattern); same size, but different signs of actor and partner effects (contrast pattern); and zero partner effects (actor-only pattern). To measure these different patterns, as well as others, we propose the estimation of the parameter k, which equals the partner effect divided by the actor effect. For both indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., twins) and distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples), we propose strategies for estimating and testing different models. We illustrate our new approach with four data sets. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. A decoupled graph/computation data-driven architecture with variable-resolution actors

    SciTech Connect

    Evripidou, P.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents a hybrid multiprocessor architecture that combines the advantages of the dynamic data-flow principles of execution with those of the control-flow model of execution. Two major design ideas are utilized by the proposed model: asynchronous execution of graph and computation operations, and variable- resolution actors. The independence of the two main unites of the machine allows an efficient implementation of functional/data-flow principles with conventional, mature technology. The compiler generates graphs with variable-sized actors in order to match the characteristics of the application to the target machine. For instance, vector actors are proposed for many aspects of scientific computing, while lower resolution (Compound Macro Actors) or conversely higher resolution (atomic instruction actors) is used for unvectorizable programs.

  3. Representing Micro-Macro Linkages by Actor-Based Dynamic Network Models.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tom A B; Steglich, Christian E G

    2015-05-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many other agent-based models, by including elements of generalized linear statistical models they aim to be realistic detailed representations of network dynamics in empirical data sets. Statistical parallels to micro-macro considerations can be found in the estimation of parameters determining local actor behavior from empirical data, and the assessment of goodness of fit from the correspondence with network-level descriptives. This article studies several network-level consequences of dynamic actor-based models applied to represent cross-sectional network data. Two examples illustrate how network-level characteristics can be obtained as emergent features implied by micro-specifications of actor-based models.

  4. CREMA-D: Crowd-sourced Emotional Multimodal Actors Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Houwei; Cooper, David G.; Keutmann, Michael K.; Gur, Ruben C.; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    People convey their emotional state in their face and voice. We present an audio-visual data set uniquely suited for the study of multi-modal emotion expression and perception. The data set consists of facial and vocal emotional expressions in sentences spoken in a range of basic emotional states (happy, sad, anger, fear, disgust, and neutral). 7,442 clips of 91 actors with diverse ethnic backgrounds were rated by multiple raters in three modalities: audio, visual, and audio-visual. Categorical emotion labels and real-value intensity values for the perceived emotion were collected using crowd-sourcing from 2,443 raters. The human recognition of intended emotion for the audio-only, visual-only, and audio-visual data are 40.9%, 58.2% and 63.6% respectively. Recognition rates are highest for neutral, followed by happy, anger, disgust, fear, and sad. Average intensity levels of emotion are rated highest for visual-only perception. The accurate recognition of disgust and fear requires simultaneous audio-visual cues, while anger and happiness can be well recognized based on evidence from a single modality. The large dataset we introduce can be used to probe other questions concerning the audio-visual perception of emotion. PMID:25653738

  5. Can Tics be Performed Convincingly by an Actor?

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.; Riemann, Laura; Krämer, Hermann; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background. In the German movie “Vincent will Meer” a healthy actor portrays a man with Tourette's syndrome. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the performance of tics is convincing and whether this judgment depends on whether he/she suffers from tics or not. Methods. While the movie was broadcasted in German cinemas, we put an online survey (including 28 questions on different aspects related to the observation, performance, and authenticity of tics) on the web pages of the German self-help group. 276/296 surveys submitted could be used for further analyses. Results. 95.7% of all participants felt that the performance of tics was convincing. However, people with tics (n = 26) were less convinced compared to those who had never met a person with tics (n = 110) (P = 0.020). Conclusions. Our results further support the hypothesis that tics are not “abnormal” but “physiological” movements that are only misplaced both in time and context. PMID:24895487

  6. CREMA-D: Crowd-sourced Emotional Multimodal Actors Dataset.

    PubMed

    Cao, Houwei; Cooper, David G; Keutmann, Michael K; Gur, Ruben C; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    People convey their emotional state in their face and voice. We present an audio-visual data set uniquely suited for the study of multi-modal emotion expression and perception. The data set consists of facial and vocal emotional expressions in sentences spoken in a range of basic emotional states (happy, sad, anger, fear, disgust, and neutral). 7,442 clips of 91 actors with diverse ethnic backgrounds were rated by multiple raters in three modalities: audio, visual, and audio-visual. Categorical emotion labels and real-value intensity values for the perceived emotion were collected using crowd-sourcing from 2,443 raters. The human recognition of intended emotion for the audio-only, visual-only, and audio-visual data are 40.9%, 58.2% and 63.6% respectively. Recognition rates are highest for neutral, followed by happy, anger, disgust, fear, and sad. Average intensity levels of emotion are rated highest for visual-only perception. The accurate recognition of disgust and fear requires simultaneous audio-visual cues, while anger and happiness can be well recognized based on evidence from a single modality. The large dataset we introduce can be used to probe other questions concerning the audio-visual perception of emotion.

  7. Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts to identify the primary causer of the state of affairs described (the "actor") quickly and unambiguously (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky and Schlesewsky, 2009). This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy). Here, we present two experiments demonstrating that actor potential is also encoded at the level of individual nouns (a king is a better actor than a beggar). Experiment 1 collected ratings for 180 German nouns on 12 scales defined by adjective oppositions and deemed relevant for actorhood potential. By means of structural equation modeling, an actor potential (ACT) value was calculated for each noun. Experiment 2, an event-related potential study, embedded nouns from Experiment 1 in verb-final sentences, in which they were either actors or non-actors. N400 amplitude increased with decreasing ACT values and this modulation was larger for highly frequent nouns and for actor versus non-actor nouns. We argue that potency to act is lexically encoded for individual nouns and, since it modulates the N400 even for non-actor participants, it should be viewed as a property that modulates ease of lexical access (akin, for example, to lexical frequency). We conclude that two separate dimensions of actorhood computation are crucial to language comprehension: an experience-based, lexically encoded (bottom-up) representation of actorhood potential, and a prominence-based, computational mechanism for calculating goodness-of-fit to the actor role in a particular (top-down) sentence context.

  8. ["Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa].

    PubMed

    Siefert, Linda

    2017-02-01

    "Pro Ana": Psychodynamic References for Anorexia Nervosa The internet-based phenomenon "Pro Ana" refers to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa in a positive way. To understand what the phenomenon "Pro Ana" represents, the websites are used as a starting point of the current analysis. Based on these results, similarities and differences between "Pro Ana" and the eating disorder anorexia nervosa are discussed. Furthermore psychodynamic references for anorexia nervosa are derived and finally their importance for treatment motivation will be considered.

  9. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  10. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  11. Tempus Pro Patient Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-03

    5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Remote...En route care, vital signs, monitoring, expeditionary 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME...record. Tempus Pro is a multi-parameter vital signs monitor designed for use in pre-hospital and remote locations. AF3899L, Patient Movement Record

  12. [Pro Familia statistics for 1974].

    PubMed

    1975-09-01

    Statistics for 1974 for the West German family planning organization Pro Familia are reported. 56 offices are now operating, and 23,726 clients were seen. Men were seen more frequently than previously. 10,000 telephone calls were also handled. 16-25 year olds were increasingly represented in the clientele, as were unmarried persons of all ages. 1,242 patients were referred to physicians or clinics for clinical diagnosis.

  13. Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el efecto de las advertencias sanitarias (AS) con pictogramas en las cajetillas de tabaco en adultos fumadores. Material y métodos Cohorte de fumadores con representatividad poblacional de siete ciudades mexi canas, antes (2010) y después (2011) de la implementación de AS con pictogramas (ASP). Para determinar el cambio en las variables sobre el impacto cognitivo y conductual de las advertencias, se estimaron modelos bivariados y ajustados de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada. En el Segundo levantamiento (2011), se estimaron modelos para determiner los factores que se asocian con el reporte de recordar cada advertencia que había entrado al mercado, además de los factores asociados con el autorreporte del impacto de cada advertencia vigente. Resultados Se observaron incrementos importantes de 2010 a 2011 en los conocimientos sobre los riesgos de fumar, los componentes tóxicos del tabaco y el número telefónico para recibir consejos sobre dejar de fumar. La recordación e impacto de las primeras advertencias con pictogramas parecen ser amplios y equitativos a través de la población fumadora. En comparación con 2010, un mayor nivel de ex fumadores entrevistados en 2011 reportaron que las advertencias habían influido mucho en dejar de fumar (RM=2.44, 95% IC 1.27–4.72). Conclusiones Las AS con pictogramas han logrado un impacto importante en el conocimiento y conducta, información relevante para la población y en tomadores de decisiones. PMID:22689162

  14. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  15. Neuronal release of proBDNF.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianmin; Siao, Chia-Jen; Nagappan, Guhan; Marinic, Tina; Jing, Deqiang; McGrath, Kelly; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Mark, Willie; Tessarollo, Lino; Lee, Francis S; Lu, Bai; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2009-02-01

    Pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF utilize distinct receptors to mediate divergent neuronal actions. Using new tools to quantitate endogenous BDNF isoforms, we found that mouse neurons secrete both proBDNF and mature BDNF. The highest levels of proBDNF and p75 were observed perinatally and declined, but were still detectable, in adulthood. Thus, BDNF actions are developmentally regulated by secretion of proBDNF or mature BDNF and by local expression of p75 and TrkB.

  16. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  17. Deterring Asymmetric Threats from Sub-State Actors

    SciTech Connect

    Homsy, R V

    2002-01-31

    Deterrence means preventing another's actions by influencing their decisionmaking process. Nuclear deterrence was successfully accomplished during the Cold War by holding the adversary's valuable assets at risk by targeting them with nuclear weapons, a policy known as mutually assured destruction (MAD). In this case neither player attacks the other, because the ultimate outcome is self-destruction. Deterrence based upon MAD is largely ineffective against sub-state actors who may have few if any assets, the location of which may be unknown. Furthermore, the threat of destroying their assets may only serve to strengthen their motivation to do more stealthy violence, the threat being interpreted as a taunt. The key to establishing deterrence is understanding the adversary's decision process, starting with the factors upon which decisions are made, called decision attributes. Asymmetric threats are assumed to involve chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) weapons. So, the key decision attributes here are concerned with the acquisition and use of CBRN weapons. We have identified the following five countermeasure objectives for establishing deterrence: (1) Reduce access to CBRN weapons, expertise, materials, and equipment; (2) Make CBRN weapons difficult to use; (3) Reduce the effectiveness of CBRN weapons; (4) Increase the likelihood of being caught acquiring and using CBRN weapons; and (5) Establish a policy of retribution for acquiring and using CBRN weapons. It should be emphasized that an adversary's perception toward these objectives is most important in affecting their decisionmaking. Of course each adversary will respond differently toward these countermeasures, depending upon their motivations, objectives, preferences, resources, and willingness to gamble. Motivation of violence is defined as the fundamental cause or driving force; absent which the intent to do violence no longer exists. Correct understanding of motivations requires adapting your

  18. Force-stabilizing synergies in motor tasks involving two actors

    PubMed Central

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Reschechtko, Sasha; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ability of two persons to produce force-stabilizing synergies in accurate multi-finger force production tasks under visual feedback on the total force only. The subjects produced a time profile of total force (the sum of two hand forces in one-person tasks and the sum of two subject forces in two-person tasks) consisting of a ramp-up, steady-state, and ramp-down segments; the steady-state segment was interrupted in the middle by a quick force pulse. Analyses of the structure of inter-trial finger force variance, motor equivalence, anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs), and the unintentional drift of the sharing pattern were performed. The two-person performance was characterized by a dramatically higher amount of inter-trial variance that did not affect total force, higher finger force deviations that did not affect total force (motor equivalent deviations), shorter ASAs, and larger drift of the sharing pattern. The rate of sharing pattern drift correlated with the initial disparity between the forces produced by the two persons (or two hands). The drift accelerated following the quick force pulse. Our observations show that sensory information on the task-specific performance variable is sufficient for the organization of performance-stabilizing synergies. They suggest, however, that two actors are less likely to follow a single optimization criterion as compared to a single performer. The presence of ASAs in the two-person condition might reflect fidgeting by one or both of the subjects. We discuss the characteristics of the drift in the sharing pattern as reflections of different characteristic times of motion within the sub-spaces that affect and do not affect salient performance variables. PMID:26105756

  19. Force-stabilizing synergies in motor tasks involving two actors.

    PubMed

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Reschechtko, Sasha; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the ability of two persons to produce force-stabilizing synergies in accurate multi-finger force production tasks under visual feedback on the total force only. The subjects produced a time profile of total force (the sum of two hand forces in one-person tasks and the sum of two subject forces in two-person tasks) consisting of a ramp-up, steady-state, and ramp-down segments; the steady-state segment was interrupted in the middle by a quick force pulse. Analyses of the structure of inter-trial finger force variance, motor equivalence, anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs), and the unintentional drift of the sharing pattern were performed. The two-person performance was characterized by a dramatically higher amount of inter-trial variance that did not affect total force, higher finger force deviations that did not affect total force (motor equivalent deviations), shorter ASAs, and larger drift of the sharing pattern. The rate of sharing pattern drift correlated with the initial disparity between the forces produced by the two persons (or two hands). The drift accelerated following the quick force pulse. Our observations show that sensory information on the task-specific performance variable is sufficient for the organization of performance-stabilizing synergies. They suggest, however, that two actors are less likely to follow a single optimization criterion as compared to a single performer. The presence of ASAs in the two-person condition might reflect fidgeting by one or both of the subjects. We discuss the characteristics of the drift in the sharing pattern as reflections of different characteristic times of motion within the subspaces that affect and do not affect salient performance variables.

  20. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-04-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  1. [Health Promoting Behavior in Pregnant Couples: Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hee; Song, Young A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the actor and partner effects of self-efficacy, marital adjustment, and social support on the health promoting behavior of Korean pregnant couples. Participants were 132 couples who met the eligibility criteria. Data were collected from June to November, 2016 at a community health center. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for analyzing the actor and partner effects of self-efficacy, marital adjustment, and social support on health promoting behavior. The fitness indices for the model were GFI=0.90, NFI=0.92, CFI=0.91, TLI=0.90, and RMSEA=0.04, which satisfied the criteria. Self-efficacy had actor and partner effect on health promoting behavior of wives, but had only actor effect of on health promoting behavior of husbands. Marital adjustment showed actor and partner effect on the health promoting behavior of pregnant couples. Social support only had an actor effect on the health promoting behavior of wives. And, marital adjustment and social support had a mutual effect. This study indicates that the partner involvement is needed to develop health promotion programs for pregnant couples.

  2. A decoupled data-driven architecture with vectors and macro actors

    SciTech Connect

    Evripidou, P.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents the implementation of scientific programs on a decoupled data-driven architecture with vectors and macro actors. This hybrid multiprocessor combines the dynamic data-flow principles of execution with the control-flow of the von Neumann model of execution. The two major ideas utilized by the decoupled model are: Vector and macro actors with variable resolution, and asynchronous execution of graph and computation operations. The compiler generates graphs with various-sized actors in order to match the characteristics of the computation. For instance, vector actors are proposed for many aspects of scientific computing while lower resolution (complier-generated collection of scalar actors) or higher resolution (scalar actors) is used for unvectorizable programs. A block-scheduling technique for extracting more parallelism from sequential constructs is incorporated in the decoupled architecture. In addition a graph-level priority-scheduling mechanism is implemented that improves resource utilization and yields higher performance. A graph unit executes all graph operations and a computation unit executes all computation operations. The independence of the two main units of the machine allows the efficient pipelined execution of macro actors with diverse granularity characteristics.

  3. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-09-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  4. Bombing alone: tracing the motivations and antecedent behaviors of lone-actor terrorists,.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender's grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors' plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article.

  5. Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potency to act and identification of the actor role

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Sabine; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The inference of causality is a crucial cognitive ability and language processing is no exception: recent research suggests that, across different languages, the human language comprehension system attempts to identify the primary causer of the state of affairs described (the “actor”) quickly and unambiguously (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky and Schlesewsky, 2009). This identification can take place verb-independently based on certain prominence cues (e.g., case, word order, animacy). Here, we present two experiments demonstrating that actor potential is also encoded at the level of individual nouns (a king is a better actor than a beggar). Experiment 1 collected ratings for 180 German nouns on 12 scales defined by adjective oppositions and deemed relevant for actorhood potential. By means of structural equation modeling, an actor potential (ACT) value was calculated for each noun. Experiment 2, an event-related potential study, embedded nouns from Experiment 1 in verb-final sentences, in which they were either actors or non-actors. N400 amplitude increased with decreasing ACT values and this modulation was larger for highly frequent nouns and for actor versus non-actor nouns. We argue that potency to act is lexically encoded for individual nouns and, since it modulates the N400 even for non-actor participants, it should be viewed as a property that modulates ease of lexical access (akin, for example, to lexical frequency). We conclude that two separate dimensions of actorhood computation are crucial to language comprehension: an experience-based, lexically encoded (bottom–up) representation of actorhood potential, and a prominence-based, computational mechanism for calculating goodness-of-fit to the actor role in a particular (top–down) sentence context. PMID:25688217

  6. Inferring the Size of a Goal Object from an Actor's Grasping Movement in 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daum, Moritz M.; Vuori, Maria T.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2009-01-01

    The present study applied a preferential looking paradigm to test whether 6- and 9-month old infants are able to infer the size of a goal object from an actor's grasping movement. The target object was a cup with the handle rotated either towards or away from the actor. In two experiments, infants saw the video of an actor's grasping movement…

  7. Actors conform, observers react: the effects of behavioral synchrony on conformity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ping; Dai, Xianchi; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in synchronous behavior can induce a more general disposition to copy others, which increases the tendency to conform to others' preferences in an unrelated choice situation. In contrast, observing others perform synchronous behavior can induce psychological reactance and decrease conformity to others' preferences. Five experiments confirmed these different effects and circumscribed the conditions in which they occurred. Actors typically focus their attention on the goal to which their synchronous behavior is directed, inducing a copying-others mindset that generalizes to later situations. In contrast, observers focus on the actors' behavior independently of the goal to which it pertains. Consequently, they become sensitive to the restrictions on freedom that synchronous behavior requires and experience reactance. However, changing the relative attention that actors and observers pay to these factors can reverse the effects of the actors' synchronous behavior on conformity.

  8. Modeling and training emotional talking faces of virtual actors in synthetic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, Savant; Yan, Hong

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of a virtual actor system composed of several subsystems designed to automate some of these animation tasks. Our emphasis is on the facial animation of virtual actors. The paper specifically details the situations processor component of the framework, which is a major building block in the automatic virtual actor system. An expert system using a fuzzy knowledge-based control system is used to realize the automated system. Fuzzy linguistic rules are used to train virtual actors to know the appropriate emotions and gestures to use in different situations of a synthetic movie, the higher level parameters of which are provided by human directors. Theories of emotion, personality, dialogue, and acting, as well as empirical evidence is incorporated into our framework and knowledge bases to produce promising results.

  9. Two-factor theory, the actor-critic model, and conditioned avoidance.

    PubMed

    Maia, Tiago V

    2010-02-01

    Two-factor theory (Mowrer, 1947, 1951, 1956) remains one of the most influential theories of avoidance, but it is at odds with empirical findings that demonstrate sustained avoidance responding in situations in which the theory predicts that the response should extinguish. This article shows that the well-known actor-critic model seamlessly addresses the problems with two-factor theory, while simultaneously being consistent with the core ideas that underlie that theory. More specifically, the article shows that (1) the actor-critic model bears striking similarities to two-factor theory and explains all of the empirical phenomena that two-factor theory explains, in much the same way, and (2) there are subtle but important differences between the actor-critic model and two-factor theory, which result in the actor-critic model predicting the persistence of avoidance responses that is found empirically.

  10. Matching safety to access: global actors and pharmacogovernance in Kenya- a case study.

    PubMed

    Moscou, Kathy; Kohler, Jillian C

    2017-03-23

    The Kenyan government has sought to address inadequacies in its National Pharmaceutical Policy and the Pharmacy and Poisons Board's (PPB) medicines governance by engaging with global actors (e.g. the World Health Organization). Policy actors have influenced the way pharmacovigilance is defined, how challenges are understood and which norms are requisite to address drug safety issues. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between specific modes of engagement among global (exogenous) and domestic actors at the national and sub-national level to identify the positive or negative effect on pharmacovigilance and pharmacogovernance in Kenya. Pharmacogovernance is defined as the manner in which governing structures; policy instruments; institutional authority (e.g., ability to act, implement and enforce norms, policies and processes) and resources are managed to promote societal interests for patient safety and protection from adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Qualitative research methods that included key informant interviews and document analysis, were employed to investigate the relationship between global actors' patterns of engagement with national actors and pharmacogovernance in Kenya. Global actors' influence on pharmacogovernance and pharmacovigilance priorities in Kenya (e.g., legislation and adverse drug reaction surveillance) was positively perceived by key informants. We found that global actors' engagement with state actors produced positive and negative outcomes. Engagement with the PPB and Ministry of Health (MOH) that was characterized as dependent (advocacy, empowerment, delegated) or interdependent (collaborative, cooperative, consultative) was mostly associated with positive outcomes e.g., capacity building; strengthening legislation and stakeholder coordination. Fragmentation (independent engagement) hindered risk communication between public, private, and NGO health programs. A framework for assessing pharmacogovernance would support policy

  11. Exploring workplace actors experiences of the social organization of return-to-work.

    PubMed

    Tjulin, Asa; Maceachen, Ellen; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2010-09-01

    There is a limited body of research on how the actual social exchange among workplace actors influences the practice of return-to-work. The objective of this study was to explore how workplace actors experience social relations at the workplace and how organizational dynamics in workplace-based return-to-work extends before and beyond the initial return of the sick listed worker to the workplace. An exploratory qualitative method approach was used, consisting of individual open-ended interviews with 33 workplace actors at seven worksites that had re-entering workers. The workplace actors represented in these interviews include: re-entering workers, supervisors, co-workers, and human resource managers. The analysis identified three distinct phases in the return to work process: while the worker is off work, when the worker returns back to work, and once back at work during the phase of sustainability of work ability. The two prominent themes that emerged across these phases include the theme of invisibility in relation to return-to-work effort and uncertainty, particularly, about how and when to enact return-to-work. The findings strengthen the notion that workplace-based return-to-work interventions need to take social relations amongst workplace actors into account. They also highlight the importance and relevance of the varied roles of different workplace actors during two relatively unseen or grey areas, of return-to-work: the pre-return and the post-return sustainability phase. Attention to the invisibility of return-to-work efforts of some actors and uncertainty about how and when to enact return-to-work between workplace actors can promote successful and sustainable work ability for the re-entering worker.

  12. proPSA — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ProPSA (-2), or [-2]proPSA, is a PSA isoform which has a leader peptide (-2) amino acids at its N terminal region and does not interact with ACT or alpha-2-macroglobulin or spermidine and therefore is detected as a separate isoform. ProPSA is produced primarily in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland and therefore is very useful in distinguishing between prostate cancer patients with PSA range of 2-10, from those who have BPH. Percent proPSA is the ratio of proPSA to free PSA. In July 2012 the FDA approved an assay measuring levels of [-2]proPSA for monitoring and diagnostic purposes.

  13. Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists*,†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sociodemographic network characteristics and antecedent behaviors of 119 lone-actor terrorists. This marks a departure from existing analyses by largely focusing upon behavioral aspects of each offender. This article also examines whether lone-actor terrorists differ based on their ideologies or network connectivity. The analysis leads to seven conclusions. There was no uniform profile identified. In the time leading up to most lone-actor terrorist events, other people generally knew about the offender’s grievance, extremist ideology, views, and/or intent to engage in violence. A wide range of activities and experiences preceded lone actors’ plots or events. Many but not all lone-actor terrorists were socially isolated. Lone-actor terrorists regularly engaged in a detectable and observable range of activities with a wider pressure group, social movement, or terrorist organization. Lone-actor terrorist events were rarely sudden and impulsive. There were distinguishable behavioral differences between subgroups. The implications for policy conclude this article. PMID:24313297

  14. Characteristics of pornography film actors: self-report versus perceptions of college students.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James D; Hayworth, Michelle; Adams, Lea T; Mitchell, Sharon; Hart, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The assumed characteristics of individuals in the adult entertainment industry have been used to advocate positions for and against pornography. Although prior studies have investigated perceptions of porn actors, no data on the actual characteristics of this group exist. The present study compared the self-reports of 105 male and 177 female porn actors to the perceptions of 399 college students on childhood sexual abuse (CSA), self-esteem, work and non-work sexual behaviors, and safe sex issues. College students were asked to identify the characteristics associated with either a male or female porn star. College students provided underestimates for both female and male porn actors on self-esteem, age of first intercourse, lifetime number of partners outside of work, ideal experience in a romantic partner, concerns regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), enjoyment of sex, and condom use during a first time sexual encounter, but overestimated earnings. Additional differences among male porn stars included an underestimate of the number of partners at work. For female porn stars, college students underestimated their enjoyment of work, the probability of catching an STD, and having unprotected sex. Although there were no significant differences on perceived rates of childhood abuse of porn actors, the incidence of CSA among the porn actor participants were within the ranges of the general population. The majority of college student stereotypes were not supported regarding the perceptions of porn actors. These findings were discussed within the context of attributing unfounded characteristics of individuals to an entire industry.

  15. Actor-recipient role affects neural responses to self in emotional situations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xuemei; Li, Lin; Sun, Lining; Wang, Qianfeng; Guo, Xiuyan

    2015-01-01

    People often take either the role of an actor or that of recipient in positive and negative interpersonal events when they interact with others. The present study investigated how the actor-recipient role affected the neural responses to self in emotional situations. Twenty-five participants were scanned while they were presented with positive and negative interpersonal events and were asked to rate the degree to which the actor/the recipient was that kind of person who caused the interpersonal event. Half of the trials were self-relevant events and the other half were other-relevant events. Results showed that people were more likely to isolate self from negative events when they played the role of actor relative to recipient. Pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (pdACC) were more active for self than other only in negative events. More importantly, also in negative interpersonal events, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) showed greater self-related activations (self-other) when participants played the role of recipient relative to actor, while activities in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were greater for self than other only when the evaluation target played the role of recipient. These results showed that the actor-recipient role affected neural responses to self in emotional situations, especially when a recipient role was played in negative situations. PMID:25926781

  16. False recollection of the role played by an actor in an event

    PubMed Central

    Earles, Julie L.; Upshaw, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrated that eyewitnesses more frequently associate an actor with the actions of another person when those two people had appeared together in the same event, rather than in different events. This greater likelihood of binding an actor with the actions of another person from the same event was associated with high-confidence recognition judgments and “remember” responses in a remember–know task, suggesting that viewing an actor together with the actions of another person led participants to falsely recollect having seen that actor perform those actions. An analysis of age differences provided evidence that familiarity also contributed to false recognition independently of a false-recollection mechanism. In particular, older adults were more likely than young adults to falsely recognize a novel conjunction of a familiar actor and action, regardless of whether that actor and action were from the same or from different events. Older adults’ elevated rate of false recognition was associated with intermediate confidence levels, suggesting that it stemmed from increased reliance on familiarity rather than from false recollection. The implications of these results are discussed for theories of conjunction errors in memory and of unconscious transference in eyewitness testimony. PMID:23722927

  17. Getting acquainted: Actor and partner effects of attachment and temperament on young children's peer behavior.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted.

  18. False recollection of the role played by an actor in an event.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Alan W; Earles, Julie L; Upshaw, Christin

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments demonstrated that eyewitnesses more frequently associate an actor with the actions of another person when those two people had appeared together in the same event, rather than in different events. This greater likelihood of binding an actor with the actions of another person from the same event was associated with high-confidence recognition judgments and "remember" responses in a remember-know task, suggesting that viewing an actor together with the actions of another person led participants to falsely recollect having seen that actor perform those actions. An analysis of age differences provided evidence that familiarity also contributed to false recognition independently of a false-recollection mechanism. In particular, older adults were more likely than young adults to falsely recognize a novel conjunction of a familiar actor and action, regardless of whether that actor and action were from the same or from different events. Older adults' elevated rate of false recognition was associated with intermediate confidence levels, suggesting that it stemmed from increased reliance on familiarity rather than from false recollection. The implications of these results are discussed for theories of conjunction errors in memory and of unconscious transference in eyewitness testimony.

  19. Actor-recipient role affects neural responses to self in emotional situations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xuemei; Li, Lin; Sun, Lining; Wang, Qianfeng; Guo, Xiuyan

    2015-01-01

    People often take either the role of an actor or that of recipient in positive and negative interpersonal events when they interact with others. The present study investigated how the actor-recipient role affected the neural responses to self in emotional situations. Twenty-five participants were scanned while they were presented with positive and negative interpersonal events and were asked to rate the degree to which the actor/the recipient was that kind of person who caused the interpersonal event. Half of the trials were self-relevant events and the other half were other-relevant events. Results showed that people were more likely to isolate self from negative events when they played the role of actor relative to recipient. Pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) and posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (pdACC) were more active for self than other only in negative events. More importantly, also in negative interpersonal events, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) showed greater self-related activations (self-other) when participants played the role of recipient relative to actor, while activities in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) were greater for self than other only when the evaluation target played the role of recipient. These results showed that the actor-recipient role affected neural responses to self in emotional situations, especially when a recipient role was played in negative situations.

  20. Clinton administration shows pro-gas bias

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, L.

    1993-02-01

    President Bill Clinton's cabinet appointments signify a strong shift to more pro-environmental, proconservation energy policies. Clinton signaled a pro-consumer, pro-conservation tilt for the Energy Department with the nomination of Hazel O'Leary, an executive vice president of Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, to be Secretary of Energy. O'Leary will be responsible for implementing the new National Energy Policy Act, which must resolve a number of energy efficiency and conservation issues.

  1. That's the man who did it, or was it a woman? Actor similarity and binding errors in event memory.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Kersten, Alan W; Curtayne, Eileen S; Perle, Jonathan G

    2008-12-01

    Mistakes in eyewitness identification frequently occur when incorrect associations are made between a familiar person and the actions of another person. The present research demonstrates that actors do not need to be similar in appearance for such conjunction errors to occur. The actors can, in fact, be very different in appearance, even of different sexes. Participants attempted to remember a series of brief everyday events, each involving an actor performing an action. Increases in actor similarity led to increases in conjunction errors in which participants incorrectly associated a familiar actor with a familiar action that was actually performed by someone else, but conjunction errors frequently occurred even when the familiar actor was of a different sex than the original actor, arguing against the hypothesis that these conjunction errors are due solely to mistaken identity.

  2. Neuronal release of proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmin; Siao, Chia-Jen; Nagappan, Guhan; Marinic, Tina; Jing, Deqiang; McGrath, Kelly; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Mark, Willie; Tessarollo, Lino; Lee, Francis S; Lu, Bai; Hempstead, Barbara L

    2009-01-01

    Pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) and mature BDNF utilize distinct receptors to mediate divergent neuronal actions. Using new tools to quantitate endogenous BDNF isoforms, we found that mouse neurons secrete both proBDNF and mature BDNF. The highest levels of proBDNF and p75 were observed perinatally and declined, but were still detectable, in adulthood. Thus, BDNF actions are developmentally regulated by secretion of proBDNF or mature BDNF and by local expression of p75 and TrkB. PMID:19136973

  3. [Can we consider the journalist an actor in suicide prevention?

    PubMed

    Notredame, C-E; Pauwels, N; Vaiva, G; Danel, T; Walter, M

    2016-10-01

    After more than 50 years of dedicated research, media coverage of suicide is now well known to have a significant influence on the suicide epidemiology. This influence is supposed to result from two opposite effects. The Werther effect (WE) refers to the robust increase of suicide rates following the publication of a suicide story. This specific kind of mass cluster implies a suggestion process, i.e. imitation of the depicted death by vulnerable persons. In contract, the preventive potential of medias has been labeled the "Papageno effect" (PE). Although more recently discovered and far less known, PE predicts that journalists can help prevent suicidal behaviors beyond a simple WE reduction. Because PE and WE directly bridge journalistic productions to suicidal events, several national and international health organisms (including the World Health Organization) started to see the media as new prevention opportunities. In this paper, we intend to assess the extent to which journalists can be considered as public health actors in the specific field of suicide prevention. Based on a critical review of the so-called Media effect studies, we explore the opportunities, limits and constraints of collaborating with media professionals for public health actions. For that purpose, we focus on the main strategy employed so far, namely providing recommendations for more cautious coverage of suicide. An overview of the efficacy of these recommendations serves not only as a starting point for understanding how public health and journalistic perspectives can confront, but also how they can be combined in a fertile way. Numerous suicide prevention organisms developed strategies in order to assist journalists in reporting suicide stories in a safer way. As a formal support to these strategies, around 30 national or international guides have been produced around the word, with the shared aim of reducing WE and, eventually, promoting PE. The recommendations about articles' style

  4. The PRO-ACT database

    PubMed Central

    Berry, James; Shui, Amy; Zach, Neta; Sherman, Alexander; Sinani, Ervin; Walker, Jason; Katsovskiy, Igor; Schoenfeld, David; Cudkowicz, Merit; Leitner, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To pool data from completed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinical trials and create an open-access resource that enables greater understanding of the phenotype and biology of ALS. Methods: Clinical trials data were pooled from 16 completed phase II/III ALS clinical trials and one observational study. Over 8 million de-identified longitudinally collected data points from over 8,600 individuals with ALS were standardized across trials and merged to create the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database. This database includes demographics, family histories, and longitudinal clinical and laboratory data. Mixed effects models were used to describe the rate of disease progression measured by the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and vital capacity (VC). Cox regression models were used to describe survival data. Implementing Bonferroni correction, the critical p value for 15 different tests was p = 0.003. Results: The ALSFRS-R rate of decline was 1.02 (±2.3) points per month and the VC rate of decline was 2.24% of predicted (±6.9) per month. Higher levels of uric acid at trial entry were predictive of a slower drop in ALSFRS-R (p = 0.01) and VC (p < 0.0001), and longer survival (p = 0.02). Higher levels of creatinine at baseline were predictive of a slower drop in ALSFRS-R (p = 0.01) and VC (p < 0.0001), and longer survival (p = 0.01). Finally, higher body mass index (BMI) at baseline was associated with longer survival (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The PRO-ACT database is the largest publicly available repository of merged ALS clinical trials data. We report that baseline levels of creatinine and uric acid, as well as baseline BMI, are strong predictors of disease progression and survival. PMID:25298304

  5. Airway hyperresponsiveness; smooth muscle as the principal actor

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Martin, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a defining characteristic of asthma that refers to the capacity of the airways to undergo exaggerated narrowing in response to stimuli that do not result in comparable degrees of airway narrowing in healthy subjects. Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction mediates airway narrowing, but it remains uncertain as to whether the smooth muscle is intrinsically altered in asthmatic subjects or is responding abnormally as a result of the milieu in which it sits. ASM in the trachea or major bronchi does not differ in its contractile characteristics in asthmatics, but the more pertinent peripheral airways await complete exploration. The mass of ASM is increased in many but not all asthmatics and therefore cannot be a unifying hypothesis for AHR, although when increased in mass it may contribute to AHR. The inability of a deep breath to reverse or prevent bronchial narrowing in asthma may reflect an intrinsic difference in the mechanisms that lead to softening of contracted ASM when subjected to stretch. Cytokines such as interleukin-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α promote a more contractile ASM phenotype. The composition and increased stiffness of the matrix in which ASM is embedded promotes a more proliferative and pro-inflammatory ASM phenotype, but the expected dedifferentiation and loss of contractility have not been shown. Airway epithelium may drive ASM proliferation and/or molecular remodeling in ways that may lead to AHR. In conclusion, AHR is likely multifactorial in origin, reflecting the plasticity of ASM properties in the inflammatory environment of the asthmatic airway. PMID:26998246

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a pro-fibrotic and pro-oncogenic factor: a pivotal target to improve the radiotherapy therapeutic index.

    PubMed

    Rancoule, Chloé; Espenel, Sophie; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Vallard, Alexis; Rehailia-Blanchard, Amel; El Meddeb Hamrouni, Anis; Xia, Yaxiong; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Ben-Mrad, Majed; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-06-27

    Radiation-induced fibrosis is widely considered as a common but forsaken phenomenon that can lead to clinical sequela and possibly vital impairments. Lysophosphatidic acid is a bioactive lipid involved in fibrosis and probably in radiation-induced fibrosis as suggested in recent studies. Lysophosphatidic acid is also a well-described pro-oncogenic factor, involved in carcinogenesis processes (proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration). The present review highlights and summarizes the links between lysophosphatidic acid and radiation-induced fibrosis, lysophosphatidic acid and radioresistance, and proposes lysophosphatidic acid as a potential central actor of the radiotherapy therapeutic index. Besides, we hypothesize that following radiotherapy, the newly formed tumour micro-environment, with increased extracellular matrix and increased lysophosphatidic acid levels, is a favourable ground to metastasis development. Lysophosphatidic acid could therefore be an exciting therapeutic target, minimizing radio-toxicities and radio-resistance effects.

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a pro-fibrotic and pro-oncogenic factor: a pivotal target to improve the radiotherapy therapeutic index

    PubMed Central

    Rancoule, Chloé; Espenel, Sophie; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Vallard, Alexis; Rehailia-Blanchard, Amel; Hamrouni, Anis El Meddeb; Xia, Yaxiong; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Ben-Mrad, Majed; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced fibrosis is widely considered as a common but forsaken phenomenon that can lead to clinical sequela and possibly vital impairments. Lysophosphatidic acid is a bioactive lipid involved in fibrosis and probably in radiation-induced fibrosis as suggested in recent studies. Lysophosphatidic acid is also a well-described pro-oncogenic factor, involved in carcinogenesis processes (proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, migration). The present review highlights and summarizes the links between lysophosphatidic acid and radiation-induced fibrosis, lysophosphatidic acid and radioresistance, and proposes lysophosphatidic acid as a potential central actor of the radiotherapy therapeutic index. Besides, we hypothesize that following radiotherapy, the newly formed tumour micro-environment, with increased extracellular matrix and increased lysophosphatidic acid levels, is a favourable ground to metastasis development. Lysophosphatidic acid could therefore be an exciting therapeutic target, minimizing radio-toxicities and radio-resistance effects. PMID:28402936

  8. Vilification and Social Movements: A Case Study of Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderford, Marsha L.

    1989-01-01

    Examines vilification (a rhetorical strategy which discredits adversaries as ungenuine and malevolent advocates) in the rhetoric of pro-life and pro-choice movements in Minnesota between 1973 and 1980. (SR)

  9. Not My Problem: Vicarious Conflict Adaptation with Human and Virtual Co-actors

    PubMed Central

    Spapé, Michiel M.; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect refers to an incompatibility between stimulus and response locations resulting in a conflict situation and, consequently, slower responses. Like other conflict effects, it is commonly reduced after repetitions, suggesting an executive control ability, which flexibly rewires cognitive processing and adapts to conflict. Interestingly, conflict is not necessarily individually defined: the Social Simon effect refers to a scenario where two people who share a task show a conflict effect where a single person does not. Recent studies showed these observations might converge into what could be called vicarious conflict adaptation, with evidence indicating that observing someone else's conflict may subsequently reduce one's own. While plausible, there is reason for doubt: both the social aspect of the Simon Effect, and the degree to which executive control accounts for the conflict adaptation effect, have become foci of debate in recent studies. Here, we present two experiments that were designed to test the social dimension of the effect by varying the social relationship between the actor and the co-actor. In Experiment 1, participants performed a conflict task with a virtual co-actor, while the actor-observer relationship was manipulated as a function of the similarity between response modalities. In Experiment 2, the same task was performed both with a virtual and with a human co-actor, while heart-rate measurements were taken to measure the impact of observed conflict on autonomous activity. While both experiments replicated the interpersonal conflict adaptation effects, neither showed evidence of the critical social dimension. We consider the findings as demonstrating that vicarious conflict adaptation does not rely on the social relationship between the actor and co-actor. PMID:27199839

  10. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  11. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  12. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward…

  13. Emotional labor actors: a latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J

    2015-05-01

    Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work.

  14. [Governance in Guatemalan municipal development councils: an analysis of actors and power relationships].

    PubMed

    Flores, Walter; Gómez-Sánchez, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    Decentralisation and other public policies have created public spaces for participation in most Latin-American countries where community representatives, together with municipal authorities and other public functionaries, decide on social investment plans, including health services and infrastructure. The municipal development council system constitutes such public space in Guatemala. This study analysed such system's governance in a sample of 6 rural municipalities. A descriptive design was used, applying qualitative and quantitative techniques to study three central categories: the strategic actors, the rules of the game and power asymmetry levels amongst actors. The findings revealed inconsistencies amongst the actors who had to participate according to the legal framework and those actors who actually did so in practice. Divergent interests were also identified for participating which affected the possibility of reaching consensus during decision-making. Analysing the rules of the game led to identifying formal and non-formal mechanisms favouring some actors' ability to influence decisions. Analysing power asymmetry levels led to identifying that community representatives had fewer power resources than institutional representatives (local government and other government organisations). Community representatives also face different barriers blocking their participation and perceive a lesser capacity to influence decision-making. Existing barriers and fewer power resources experienced by community representatives reduce their abilities to influence decision-making in municipal development councils.

  15. Modelling the lay expert for first-year medical students: the actor-patient as teacher.

    PubMed

    Nestel, Debra; Muir, Elizabeth; Plant, Marilyn; Kidd, Jane; Thurlow, Sue

    2002-09-01

    Actors are widely used in medical education as simulated patients. In this session, the role of actors was extended to 'simulated students' and facilitators in an introductory communication session. After an initial activity with the entire cohort of first-year students, groups of 20 students worked with either an actor or medical teacher in three activities. The activities aimed to raise students' awareness of the range of communication challenges in medical education and practice. After the session, students completed evaluation forms based on their experiences in the session. The results revealed no difference between students who were facilitated by actors or medical teachers in relation to meeting the learning objectives and their ratings of the usefulness of the activities to support learning. The actors who participated in this session were experienced in working with medical students. Their enhanced role provides students with an opportunity to identify with and reflect on the expertise of a lay teacher and to consider extending their definition of a learning opportunity to more informal encounters.

  16. Life satisfaction and inflammation in couples: an actor-partner analysis.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Bert N; de Grey, Robert G Kent; Cronan, Sierra; Smith, Timothy W; Diener, Ed; Joel, Samantha; Bosch, Jos

    2017-09-07

    Life satisfaction has been linked to lower cardiovascular disease mortality. However, much less is known about the biological mechanisms linking life satisfaction to physical health. In addition, the dyadic context of life satisfaction has not been considered despite increasing evidence that partners influence each other in health-relevant ways. These questions were addressed with 94 married couples who completed measures of life satisfaction and had their blood drawn for determination of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Actor-partner models showed that higher actor levels of life satisfaction predicted lower levels of IL-6 and CRP (p's < .05), whereas partner levels of life satisfaction did not predict any measure of inflammation. The actor results were not mediated by marital satisfaction or health behaviors. Finally, no actor × partner interactions were significant and these links were not moderated by marital satisfaction. These data highlight inflammation as a potentially important biological mechanism linking actor reports of life satisfaction to lower cardiovascular mortality.

  17. Representing Micro-Macro Linkages by Actor-Based Dynamic Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tom A.B.; Steglich, Christian E.G.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic actor-based models for network dynamics have the primary aim of statistical inference about processes of network change, but may be regarded as a kind of agent-based models. Similar to many other agent-based models, they are based on local rules for actor behavior. Different from many other agent-based models, by including elements of generalized linear statistical models they aim to be realistic detailed representations of network dynamics in empirical data sets. Statistical parallels to micro-macro considerations can be found in the estimation of parameters determining local actor behavior from empirical data, and the assessment of goodness of fit from the correspondence with network-level descriptives. This article studies several network-level consequences of dynamic actor-based models applied to represent cross-sectional network data. Two examples illustrate how network-level characteristics can be obtained as emergent features implied by micro-specifications of actor-based models. PMID:25960578

  18. Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimla; Sood, Jayashree; Sahai, Chand; Kumra, V P

    2009-01-01

    Summary Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMA at times maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placement to assess the ventilatory and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraoperatively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity. PMID:20640203

  19. Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro

  20. Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing: a tale of two warring tribes.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-11-07

    There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as "pro-anorexia") and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing and accentuate the need for

  1. When private actors matter: Information-sharing network and surveillance of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Dao, T H; Truong, D B; Nguyen, T T; Nguyen, N T X; Duboz, R; Fournié, G; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Grosbois, V; Vu, D T; Le, T H; Nguyen, V K; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of animal health surveillance systems depends on their capacity to gather sanitary information from the animal production sector. In order to assess this capacity we analyzed the flow of sanitary information regarding Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) suspicions in poultry in Vietnam. Participatory methods were applied to assess the type of actors and likelihood of information sharing between actors in case of HPAI suspicion in poultry. While the reporting of HPAI suspicions is mandatory, private actors had more access to information than public actors. Actors of the upstream sector (medicine and feed sellers) played a key role in the diffusion of information. The central role of these actors and the influence of the information flow on the adoption by poultry production stakeholders of behaviors limiting (e.g. prevention measures) or promoting disease transmission (e.g. increased animal movements) should be accounted for in the design of surveillance and control programs.

  2. At what age do children learn to discriminate between act and actor?

    PubMed

    Björkqvist, K; Osterman, K

    2001-02-01

    Children's ability to make moral judgements about an act on the basis of aspects of the act rather than on liking and preconceived ideas about the actor was investigated. 85 children of 4 age groups (preschool, Grades 1, 2, and 3, age range 5-9 years) participated. Act/Actor discrimination was investigated with a test consisting of 8 cartoons. In 4, a rabbit was behaving aggressively against a wolf; the other 4 portrayed identical acts with the wolf as aggressor and the rabbit as victim. Participants made moral evaluations of each cartoon. IQ was measured with Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, and the general level of moral development was measured in accord with Piaget's (1932) criteria. Age, IQ, and general moral development correlated with discriminative ability for Act and Actor. In Piagetian terms, children at the heteronomous level were not capable of such discrimination, while children at the autonomous level (above 7 years of age) in general were.

  3. Putting Gino's lesson to work: Actor-network theory, enacted humanity, and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Thomas; Gibson, Barbara E

    2016-02-01

    This article argues that rehabilitation enacts a particular understanding of "the human" throughout therapeutic assessment and treatment. Following Michel Callon and Vololona Rabeharisoa's "Gino's Lesson on Humanity," we suggest that this is not simply a top-down process, but is cultivated in the application and response to biomedical frameworks of human ability, competence, and responsibility. The emergence of the human is at once a materially contingent, moral, and interpersonal process. We begin the article by outlining the basics of the actor-network theory that underpins "Gino's Lesson on Humanity." Next, we elucidate its central thesis regarding how disabled personhood emerges through actor-network interactions. Section "Learning Gino's lesson" draws on two autobiographical examples, examining the emergence of humanity through rehabilitation, particularly assessment measures and the responses to them. We conclude by thinking about how rehabilitation and actor-network theory might take this lesson on humanity seriously.

  4. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  5. [New actors in the fight against HIV/AIDS: overlapping and competition between existing structures].

    PubMed

    Tantchou Yakam, J C

    2008-06-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemia reshaped international relations and the world research landscape. New facilities have been created and new actors have emerged. New institutions has been grafted into the existing health infrastructure resulting in overlapping and sometimes conflicting actions. In this study we analyze this co-existence using the "Centre of Prevention and Voluntary testing of HIV/AIDS" (CPDV) in Cameroon as an example. The purpose is to show that the involvment of new actors in a health systems with multiple dysfunctions creates an environment leading to "straddling". This situation also raises legitimacy issues and leads to competition for position within the existing hierarchies.

  6. Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Muhammad; Zafar, Nazir Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs), as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving a coverage hole, and thus hinders the network operation. This paper presents a Partitioning detection and Connectivity Restoration (PCR) algorithm to tolerate critical actor failure. As part of pre-failure planning, PCR determines critical/non-critical actors based on localized information and designates each critical node with an appropriate backup (preferably non-critical). The pre-designated backup detects the failure of its primary actor and initiates a post-failure recovery process that may involve coordinated multi-actor relocation. To prove the correctness, we construct a formal specification of PCR using Z notation. We model WSAN topology as a dynamic graph and transform PCR to corresponding formal specification using Z notation. Formal specification is analyzed and validated using the Z Eves tool. Moreover, we simulate the specification to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of PCR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of PCR and the results shown that it outperforms contemporary schemes found in the literature.

  7. Pro-GLP-1, a Pro-drug of GLP-1, is neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huinan; Meng, Jingru; Li, Xubo; Zhou, Shimeng; Qu, Di; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Ma, Xue; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2015-04-05

    Pro-Glucagon-like peptide-1 (Pro-GLP-1), a long-lasting GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, was developed using a polymeric pro-drug strategy and its neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke were investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Pro-GLP-1 was injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 7days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery. The neurological deficit score and TTC staining were determined 24h after ischemia. The results demonstrated that Pro-GLP-1 was slowly degraded in the plasma and brain of the mice, and GLP-1 could be detected even 12h after administration. Pro-GLP-1 was significantly neuroprotective in C57BL/6 mice subjected to MCAO. In cultured cortical neurons, treatment with Pro-GLP-1 attenuated apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The neuroprotective effects of Pro-GLP-1 were blocked by a selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist and knockdown of GLP-1 receptor with shRNA. However, Pro-GLP-1 had no effect on blood glucose and insulin levels which indicated that neuroprotection was mediated by the activation of GLP-1 receptor in the brain. Pro-GLP-1 repaired the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased the expression of caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic effect was mediated by the cAMP/PKA and PI3K/Akt pathway. Our research provides evidence that pre-treatment of MCAO mice with Pro-GLP-1 exerts a neuroprotective effect mediated by a blockade of apoptosis and that Pro-GLP-1 might be a potential neuroprotective agent candidate against ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  9. Anchimerically Activatable Antiviral ProTides.

    PubMed

    Okon, Aniekan; Matos de Souza, Marcos Romário; Shah, Rachit; Amorim, Raquel; da Costa, Luciana Jesus; Wagner, Carston R

    2017-09-14

    This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of an anchimerically activated proTide of 2'-C-β-methylguanosine as an inhibitor of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2). The proTide incorporates a chemically cleavable 2-(methylthio)ethyl moiety and a HINT1 hydrolyzable tryptamine phosphoramidate. Inhibition of DENV-2 replication by proTide 6 was 5-fold greater than the parent nucleoside while displaying no apparent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we demonstrate with a HINT1 inhibitor that the anti DENV-2 activity of the proTide correlates with the activity of HINT1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a phosphoramidate based pronucleotide that undergoes an initial nonenzymatic activation step based on anchimeric assistance followed by P-N bond cleavage by HINT1 can be prepared.

  10. Pro Libra Makes the Impossible Happen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Susan Spaeth

    1981-01-01

    Pro Libra Associates, Inc. in South Orange, New Jersey, is a cadre of some 200 carefully screened professionals and clerical workers who perform a variety of library tasks on a contract basis. (Author/LLS)

  11. Collective Protection (ColPro) Field Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-28

    ColPro) systems are designed to provide protection of enclosed personnel and equipment from chemical warfare agent (CWA) and biological or radiological...environmental control unit and a blower equipped with a chemical, biological , and radiological (CBR) filter, which supplies clean air inside the system...ColPro system entry/exit trials. Medical treatment facility Must be staffed with personnel trained and equipped to treat overexposure to

  12. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

    2000-12-01

    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063].

  13. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model: A Model of Bidirectional Effects in Developmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, William L.; Kenny, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) is a model of dyadic relationships that integrates a conceptual view of interdependence with the appropriate statistical techniques for measuring and testing it. In this article we present the APIM as a general, longitudinal model for measuring bidirectional effects in interpersonal relationships. We…

  14. [Quality of health-care according to social actors' frameworks of meaning in Colombia and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gallego, María E; Vázquez-Navarrete, María L; de Moraes-Vanderlei, Lygia

    2010-08-01

    To analyse social actors' frameworks of meaning regarding the definition of health-care quality in Colombia and Brazil. This was a descriptive, interpretative, qualitative study which used focus-groups and individual indepth interviews in two municipalities in Colombia and Brazil. The following social actors were theoretical sampled to represent the variety of views: users and leaders, health-care personnel and policy-makers. Content was analysed with mixed generation of categories and segmentation by country, actors and themes. The frameworks of meaning regarding health-care quality for users and health personnel in both countries revealed coincidences concerning three main topics: structural suitability, technical level and humanisation of care. However, they had differentiated meanings; users from both countries highlighted structural and organisational aspects, together with technical aspects such as resolution level and quality of care. Colombian and Brazilian health-care personnel shared some views but whilst the former highlighted non-bureaucratic and consultation time, the latter singled out the availability of specialised personnel, materials and equipment. Policy-makers' framework of meanings emerge from the legal framework. Features provided by the social actors' frameworks of meaning indicated the need to take them all into consideration as they all pointed out different system weaknesses. They also showed that users valued technical quality more than is generally considered.

  15. Coordination between Governance Actors in Universities: The Role of Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in a public university. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and analyze policy documents as governance tools that allow departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the board, and the management at different university levels. A central finding is that the…

  16. Interactive Theater Experience with 3D Live Captured Actors and Spatial Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    This chapter introduces a new reality interactive theater that combines the 3D Live human capturing system, spatial sound, augmented reality, human-oriented interaction, and ambient intelligence technologies. Actors/Dancers at different places remotely are captured by the 3D Live system and transmitted to the theater place in real time and rendered in 3D form and real size, thus they can play/dance with the local actors/dancers and virtual characters at the same place in real time. Audience interaction is allowed and handled by an Ambient Intelligence (AI) agent to generate new actions for virtual characters and send meaningful interactions to real actors. The spatial sound system provides the real 3D sound and at the same time generates special sound effects such as controlling the sound direction that only allows people in a certain direction to heard it. All these features combined together bring a totally new theater experience to both actors/dancers and audiences, and extend the grammar of the traditional theater.

  17. Seven Consciousness-Expanding Techniques and Their Relevance to Actor Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldshuh, David Mark

    This dissertation explores techniques that assist actors in getting their minds and bodies out of the way through consciousness-expanding. The techniques examined here attempt to promote a permeability, a childlike quality of presence, and are largely drawn from Eastern philosophies. Part one of this dissertation discusses structural integration,…

  18. Why Do Policy Frames Change? Actor-Idea Coevolution in Debates over Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensland, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One shortcoming in the literature on policy framing has been the absence of analytic models through which to explicate change. This paper advances research in this area in three related ways. First, it links policy frames to the actors who employ them. Second, based upon this linkage it proposes two complementary approaches for examining…

  19. Getting Acquainted: Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment and Temperament on Young Children's Peer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament…

  20. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  1. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  2. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  3. Inside the Actors' Studio: Exploring Dietetics Education Practices through Dialogical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ann L.; Gingras, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Two colleagues, Ann and Jacqui, came together, within the safety of an imagined actors' studio, to explore the challenges that Ann faced in planning a new graduate program in public health nutrition. They met before, during, and after program implementation to discuss Ann's experiences, and audio-taped and transcribed the discussions. When all…

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Armed Non State Actors (ANSAs): Strategic Roles and Operational Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This is the Final Report of the Technology Investment Fund (TIF) Project entitled A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Armed Non-state Actors...Cmap. The generic ANSA Cmap is a high-level conceptual framework grounded in both multidisciplinary theory and mixed methods practice that distills our

  5. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  6. Assessing Mediation in Dyadic Data Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledermann, Thomas; Macho, Siegfried; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of mediation in dyadic data is an important issue if researchers are to test process models. Using an extended version of the actor-partner interdependence model the estimation and testing of mediation is complex, especially when dyad members are distinguishable (e.g., heterosexual couples). We show how the complexity of the model…

  7. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  8. Coordination between Governance Actors in Universities: The Role of Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in a public university. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and analyze policy documents as governance tools that allow departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the board, and the management at different university levels. A central finding is that the…

  9. Temporal Effects of Performance on Causal Attributions in Actors and Observers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Fred B.

    Although understanding how causal attributions for performance develop is important to attribution theory, little research has been done on this topic. To explore changes in attributions during task performance for both actors and observers, 90 female undergraduates participated in a procedure in which they received either 80 percent or 20 percent…

  10. Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2014-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration. Participants in…

  11. Public Health Knowledge Utilisation by Policy Actors: An Evaluation Study in Midden-Holland, the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Goede, Joyce; Steenkamer, Betty; Treurniet, Henriëtte; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive report has been prepared on the state of public health and healthcare in the Midden-Holland region of the Netherlands. This study describes the development of the report and the mechanisms behind public health knowledge utilisation by three groups of health policy actors: local authorities, public health professionals and regional…

  12. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  13. Why Do Policy Frames Change? Actor-Idea Coevolution in Debates over Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensland, Brian

    2008-01-01

    One shortcoming in the literature on policy framing has been the absence of analytic models through which to explicate change. This paper advances research in this area in three related ways. First, it links policy frames to the actors who employ them. Second, based upon this linkage it proposes two complementary approaches for examining…

  14. Beyond Dyadic Interdependence: Actor-Oriented Models for Co-Evolving Social Networks and Individual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, William J.; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Actor-oriented models are described as a longitudinal strategy for examining the co-evolution of social networks and individual behaviors. We argue that these models provide advantages over conventional approaches due to their ability to account for inherent dependencies between individuals embedded in a social network (i.e., reciprocity,…

  15. Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance and Perceptions of Group Climate: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining group members' attachment styles and group climate perceptions in the context of the attachment styles and group climate perceptions of the other group members. In the current study, the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine the relationships among (a) a group member's attachment…

  16. Early Social Fear in Relation to Play with an Unfamiliar Peer: Actor and Partner Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal reports of social fear at 24 months and social behaviors with an unfamiliar peer during play at 36 months, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 1999). The APIM model was used to not only replicate previous findings of direct effects of…

  17. Actor Vocal Training for the Habilitation of Speech in Adolescent Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes to speech production in adolescents with hearing impairment following a period of actor vocal training. In addition to vocal parameters, the study also investigated changes to psychosocial factors such as confidence, self-esteem, and anxiety. The group were adolescent users of cochlear implants (mean age at commencement…

  18. Inside the Actors' Studio: Exploring Dietetics Education Practices through Dialogical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ann L.; Gingras, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Two colleagues, Ann and Jacqui, came together, within the safety of an imagined actors' studio, to explore the challenges that Ann faced in planning a new graduate program in public health nutrition. They met before, during, and after program implementation to discuss Ann's experiences, and audio-taped and transcribed the discussions. When all…

  19. Early Social Fear in Relation to Play with an Unfamiliar Peer: Actor and Partner Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal reports of social fear at 24 months and social behaviors with an unfamiliar peer during play at 36 months, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 1999). The APIM model was used to not only replicate previous findings of direct effects of…

  20. Whose Quality? Social Actors in the Interface of Transnational and National Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarinen, Taina

    2008-01-01

    The article analyzes the construction of national reactions to a transnational higher education policy from the point of view of the representation of social actors in policy documents. The data are provided by the so-called Bologna Process, particularly the development of comparable quality assurance systems, and Finnish responses to those…

  1. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  2. Scientific Journals of Universities of Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela: Actors and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study was carried out to identify the roles of actors associated with the publication of scientific journals in Chilean, Colombian, and Venezuelan universities. Twenty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with journal editors, university authorities, and other experts. The categories of analysis included university…

  3. Students' Inventory of Social Actors Concerned by the Controversy Surrounding Cellular Telephones: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The present article scrutinizes the manner with which a group of three postsecondary students (in Quebec, Canada) describe the social actors concerned by the controversy surrounding cellular telephones. The study was conducted on the basis of an ethnographic approach. Participant observation was performed by the researcher for 3 hours during each…

  4. ("Un")Doing Standards in Education with Actor-Network Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent critiques have drawn important attention to the depoliticized consensus and empty promises embedded in network discourses of educational policy. While acceding this critique, this discussion argues that some forms of network analysis--specifically those adopting actor-network theory (ANT) approaches--actually offer useful theoretical…

  5. Case-like Categories in Children: The Actor and Some Related Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braine, Martin D. S.; Wells, Robin S.

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in which nursery school children were taught to identify persons, animals, or objects in pictures that took the nominative, objective, or locative case in sentences about the pictures. Inferences are made about categories in children's thinking including animate, and actor and agent. (CTM)

  6. Toddlers as Both More and Less Competent Social Actors in Finnish Day Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the notion of the competent child has, in the field of Early Childhood Education, become a powerful discourse. In this paradigm, inspired by the sociology of childhood, the child is seen as a competent social actor having agency in his or her life. However, critical comments have been made at both the micro-and macro-level about…

  7. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  8. New Plays from A.C.T.'s Young Conservatory. Volume II. Young Actors Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.

    This collection of new plays for young actors comes from the repertoire of the Young Conservatory, a professional theater training program for young people ages 8 to 18 at the American Conservatory Theater. Each of the five plays in the collection was developed in this way: an outstanding professional playwright is invited to create a new play…

  9. ("un")Doing the Next Generation Science Standards: Climate Change Education Actor-Networks in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colston, Nicole M.; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research investigated how science education communities of practice in Oklahoma engage in translations of climate change education (CCE). Applications of actor-network theory to educational policymaking facilitate this analysis of the spaces of prescription and spaces of negotiation that characterize CCE in Oklahoma. Informed by…

  10. Nonresponse of Secondary Respondents in Multi-Actor Surveys: Determinants, Consequences, and Possible Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-actor survey data are highly valuable for answering questions about family relations, but the collection of such data is complicated by nonresponse among secondary (nonresident) respondents. Little is known, however, about the degree to which nonresponse of secondary respondents is selective and about the degree to which selective…

  11. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  12. [Who is against prevention? A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain].

    PubMed

    Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  13. Beyond Dyadic Interdependence: Actor-Oriented Models for Co-Evolving Social Networks and Individual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, William J.; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Actor-oriented models are described as a longitudinal strategy for examining the co-evolution of social networks and individual behaviors. We argue that these models provide advantages over conventional approaches due to their ability to account for inherent dependencies between individuals embedded in a social network (i.e., reciprocity,…

  14. Getting Acquainted: Actor and Partner Effects of Attachment and Temperament on Young Children's Peer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwain, Nancy L.; Holland, Ashley S.; Engle, Jennifer M.; Ogolsky, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament…

  15. Assessing Mediation in Dyadic Data Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledermann, Thomas; Macho, Siegfried; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of mediation in dyadic data is an important issue if researchers are to test process models. Using an extended version of the actor-partner interdependence model the estimation and testing of mediation is complex, especially when dyad members are distinguishable (e.g., heterosexual couples). We show how the complexity of the model…

  16. Seven Consciousness-Expanding Techniques and Their Relevance to Actor Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldshuh, David Mark

    This dissertation explores techniques that assist actors in getting their minds and bodies out of the way through consciousness-expanding. The techniques examined here attempt to promote a permeability, a childlike quality of presence, and are largely drawn from Eastern philosophies. Part one of this dissertation discusses structural integration,…

  17. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  18. Shaping the midwifery profession in Nepal - Uncovering actors' connections using a Complex Adaptive Systems framework.

    PubMed

    Bogren, Malin Upper; Berg, Marie; Edgren, Lars; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wigert, Helena

    2016-12-01

    To explore how actors connect in a system aiming at promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession in Nepal. A qualitative explorative study based on the framework of Complex Adaptive Systems. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 key people representing eight different organisations (actors) promoting the development of the midwifery profession. The actors' connections can be described with a complex set of facilitators for and barriers to promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession. The identified facilitators for this establishment in Nepal are (1) a common goal and (2) a desire to collaborate, whilst the barriers are (1) different political interests and priorities, (2) competing interests of the nursing profession and societal views, (3) divergent academic opinions on a midwifery profession, and (4) insufficient communication. The results also showed that Nepalese society cannot distinguish between nursing and midwifery and that the public support for a midwifery profession was hence minimal. The move of midwifery from an occupation to a profession in Nepal is an on-going, challenging process. The study indicates the importance of understanding the motivations of, and barriers perceived by, actors that can promote or obstruct the establishment of the midwifery profession. It also points to the importance of informing the wider public about the role and responsibility of an autonomous midwifery profession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Mission for Business Schools: The Development of Actor-Network Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidle, C. Clinton; Warzynski, Chester C

    2003-01-01

    The lesson of actor-network theory is that to effect desired change, leaders must understand their place in the network and deploy strategies that forge new relationships and strengthen existing connections between individuals, groups, and other entities--both human and nonhuman. In this article, the authors use the Roy H. Park Leadership Fellows…

  20. Opportunity or Affection? Participation of Respondents' Partners in a Multi-Actor Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Multi-actor studies are particularly suited for partner and family research, as they capture relationships beyond the conventional restraint of the household. Previous research on partner participation in the German Family Panel indicates higher participation of cohabiting and married partners compared to those living apart together. The present…

  1. Students' Inventory of Social Actors Concerned by the Controversy Surrounding Cellular Telephones: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The present article scrutinizes the manner with which a group of three postsecondary students (in Quebec, Canada) describe the social actors concerned by the controversy surrounding cellular telephones. The study was conducted on the basis of an ethnographic approach. Participant observation was performed by the researcher for 3 hours during each…

  2. The Rise of the Video-Recorder Teacher: The Sociomaterial Construction of an Educational Actor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrotta, Carlo; Czerniewicz, Laura; Beetham, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on actor-network theory and on the sociology of cultural consumption to examine the phenomenon of corporate Massive Open Online Courses. Through an analysis of texts available in the public domain, the paper argues that over a short period (between 2012 and 2013) digitisation technology became associated with the emergence of a…

  3. ("un")Doing the Next Generation Science Standards: Climate Change Education Actor-Networks in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colston, Nicole M.; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research investigated how science education communities of practice in Oklahoma engage in translations of climate change education (CCE). Applications of actor-network theory to educational policymaking facilitate this analysis of the spaces of prescription and spaces of negotiation that characterize CCE in Oklahoma. Informed by…

  4. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  5. Developing Integrated Rural Tourism: Actor Practices in the English/Welsh Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Gunjan; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines community attitudes and distinctive practices that shape local responses to integrated rural tourism (IRT) development in the lagging rural region of the English/Welsh border area. The focus is on how actors acquire attributes as a result of their relations with others and how these assumed identities are performed in, by and…

  6. Actor Vocal Training for the Habilitation of Speech in Adolescent Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes to speech production in adolescents with hearing impairment following a period of actor vocal training. In addition to vocal parameters, the study also investigated changes to psychosocial factors such as confidence, self-esteem, and anxiety. The group were adolescent users of cochlear implants (mean age at commencement…

  7. Movement Actors in the Education Bureaucracy: The Figured World of Activity Based Learning in Tamil Nadu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niesz, Tricia; Krishnamurthy, Ramchandar

    2014-01-01

    Tamil Nadu has gained international recognition for reforming its government school classrooms into active, child-centered learning environments. Our exploration of the history of the Activity Based Learning movement suggests that this reform was achieved by social movement actors serving in and through the state's administration. Participants in…

  8. Implications for Students Role Character Development When the Teacher Becomes an Actor in the Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Debi

    A case study explored the implications for secondary school acting students in developing character in a role when the theater teacher assumes the role of actor in a student production. Two of Albuquerque, New Mexico's 11 public high schools co-produced "Romeo and Juliet." Pre- and posttests of student perceptions of acting and character…

  9. Reading Theatre, Parents as Actors: Movie Production in a Family Literacy Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Grace; Dolejs, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the family literacy workshop "Reading Theatre, Parents as Actors: Movie production in a Family Literacy Workshop" is to empower and motivate parents to learn various storytelling strategies through theatrical production experiences and apply them at home. This is a theory-based family literacy practice supported by McClelland's…

  10. The Role of Key Actors in School Governance: An Italian Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvioni, Daniela; Gandini, Giuseppina; Franzoni, Simona; Gennari, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The greater awareness of the role of key actors in the school governance processes and the need to expect a "new leader" in the increasing school complexity are essential conditions to reform the schools from within, so as to provide them with skills related to globalisation, improvement to the educational quality, strengthening of…

  11. Dealing with Actors and Compliance in Intervention Operations in a Non-permissive Hybrid Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    social classes, urban and rural populations, and economic and political institutions. Hence, not only political actors, but also businesses, media...before the conflict. They include government, ethnic, tribal, clan or community groups, social classes, urban and rural populations, and economic...before the conflict. They include government, ethnic, tribal, clan or community groups, social classes, urban and rural populations, and economic and

  12. Developing Integrated Rural Tourism: Actor Practices in the English/Welsh Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Gunjan; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines community attitudes and distinctive practices that shape local responses to integrated rural tourism (IRT) development in the lagging rural region of the English/Welsh border area. The focus is on how actors acquire attributes as a result of their relations with others and how these assumed identities are performed in, by and…

  13. ("Un")Doing Standards in Education with Actor-Network Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent critiques have drawn important attention to the depoliticized consensus and empty promises embedded in network discourses of educational policy. While acceding this critique, this discussion argues that some forms of network analysis--specifically those adopting actor-network theory (ANT) approaches--actually offer useful theoretical…

  14. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated.

  15. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  16. Ex-couples' unwanted pursuit behavior: an actor-partner interdependence model approach.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Olivia; Loeys, Tom; Buysse, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Unwanted pursuit behavior (UPB) refers to a wide range of repeated, unwanted, and privacy-violating intrusions that are inflicted to pursue an intimate or romantic relationship. These behaviors most often occur when partners end their romantic entanglements. Despite the fact that UPB is grounded in relationships, psychological explanations for post-breakup UPB perpetration have been restricted to actor effects assessed in samples of separated individuals. For that reason, the present study aimed to identify feasible partner effects that additionally explain UPB perpetration using a Flemish sample of 46 heterosexual divorced couples, beginning with the notion of interdependence. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we explored actor, partner, and gender main and interaction effects of anxious attachment, satisfaction, alternatives, investments, and conflict in the previous marriage on the perpetration of post-divorce UPBs. The significant Partner × Gender interactions of anxious attachment and satisfaction, Actor × Partner interactions of anxious attachment and quality of alternatives, and the marginally significant partner effect of relational conflict underline the important role of the dyad in studying UPB perpetration. These findings shed new light on the nature of UPB perpetration that go beyond the individual and support the use of a systemic approach in clinical practices.

  17. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A; Tizado, E Jorge; Pacheco, Pablo

    2014-10-28

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000-7,000 km(2). We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km(2)) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km(2)) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (<100 ha). In addition, forests in areas dominated by smallholders tend to be less fragmented and less degraded. However, although annual deforestation rates fell during this period by 68-85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies.

  18. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A.; Tizado, E. Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000–7,000 km2. We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km2) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km2) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (<100 ha). In addition, forests in areas dominated by smallholders tend to be less fragmented and less degraded. However, although annual deforestation rates fell during this period by 68–85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies. PMID:25313087

  19. Action observers implicitly expect actors to act goal-coherently, even if they do not: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hrkać, Mari; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-05-01

    Actions observed in everyday life normally consist of one person performing sequences of goal-directed actions. The present fMRI study tested the hypotheses that observers are influenced by the actor's identity, even when this information is task-irrelevant, and that this information shapes their expectation on subsequent actions of the same actor. Participants watched short video clips of action steps that either pertained to a common action with an overarching goal or not, and were performed by either one or by varying actors (2 × 2 design). Independent of goal coherence, actor coherence elicited activation in dorsolateral and ventromedial frontal cortex, together pointing to a spontaneous attempt to integrate all actions performed by one actor. Interestingly, watching an actor performing unrelated actions elicited additional activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting a search in semantic memory in an attempt to construct an overarching goal that can reconcile the disparate action steps with a coherent intention. Post-experimental surveys indicate that these processes occur mostly unconsciously. Findings strongly suggest a spontaneous expectation bias toward actor-related episodes in action observers, and hence to the immense impact of actor information on action observation.

  20. Marital Relationship Quality and Couples' Cognitive Stimulation Practices toward Their Infants: Actor and Partner Effects of White and Hispanic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Wilhelm, Mari S.; Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores actor and partner effects on mothers' and fathers' cognitive stimulation within an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). This model allows us to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' practices are impacted not only by their own experiences but also by their partners' experiences. The APIM treats the couple as the…

  1. Marital Relationship Quality and Couples' Cognitive Stimulation Practices toward Their Infants: Actor and Partner Effects of White and Hispanic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Wilhelm, Mari S.; Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores actor and partner effects on mothers' and fathers' cognitive stimulation within an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). This model allows us to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' practices are impacted not only by their own experiences but also by their partners' experiences. The APIM treats the couple as the…

  2. Side Effects: An Analysis of Mind the Gap's "Boo" and the Reception of Theatre Involving Learning Disabled Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrave, Matt

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses Mind the Gap's Boo, a re-imagining of Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird", which features a cast of learning disabled actors. It is concerned with the public reception of the work, particularly the "effect" of an all-disabled cast. What are the consequences, both ethical and aesthetic, for these actors to tell this story on…

  3. Side Effects: An Analysis of Mind the Gap's "Boo" and the Reception of Theatre Involving Learning Disabled Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrave, Matt

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses Mind the Gap's Boo, a re-imagining of Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird", which features a cast of learning disabled actors. It is concerned with the public reception of the work, particularly the "effect" of an all-disabled cast. What are the consequences, both ethical and aesthetic, for these actors to tell this story on…

  4. From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle and Beyond: The Influence of Policy Actors in the Federal Higher Education Rulemaking Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natow, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    The federal higher education rulemaking process develops policies that can profoundly affect college students, higher education institutions, and other actors in the higher education policy community. But little has been researched about the influence that different types of actors have on higher education rulemaking. By analyzing interviews with…

  5. Teachers as Language-Policy Actors: Contending with the Erasure of Lesser-Used Languages in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of an ethnographic study of the Voro-language revitalization in Estonia, this article explores the way teachers function as policy actors in the broader context of the school. As policy actors, the language teachers' appropriation of regional-language policy helps simultaneously to reproduce and challenge existing ideologies in the…

  6. 19 CFR 141.85 - Pro forma invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro forma invoice. 141.85 Section 141.85 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.85 Pro forma invoice. A pro forma invoice submitted in accordance with any provision of this chapter shall be in substantially the following form: Pro Forma Invoice...

  7. Actor modelling and its contribution to the development of integrative strategies for management of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Titz, Alexandra; Döll, Petra

    2009-02-01

    Widespread presence of human pharmaceuticals in water resources across the globe is documented. While some, but certainly not enough, research on the occurrence, fate and effect of pharmaceuticals in water resources has been carried out, a holistic risk management strategy is missing. The transdisciplinary research project "start" aimed to develop an integrative strategy by the participation of experts representing key actors in the problem field "pharmaceuticals in drinking water". In this paper, we describe a novel modelling method, actor modelling with the semi-quantitative software DANA (Dynamic Actor Network Analysis), and its application in support of identifying an integrative risk management strategy. Based on the individual perceptions of different actors, the approach allows the identification of optimal strategies. Actors' perceptions were elicited by participatory model building and interviews, and were then modelled in perception graphs. Actor modelling indicated that an integrative strategy that targets environmentally-responsible prescription, therapy, and disposal of pharmaceuticals on one hand, and the development of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals on the other hand, will likely be most effective for reducing the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water (at least in Germany where the study was performed). However, unlike most other actors, the pharmaceutical industry itself does not perceive that the production of environmentally-friendly pharmaceuticals is an action that helps to achieve its goals, but contends that continued development of highly active pharmaceutical ingredients will help to reduce the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle. Investment in advanced waste or drinking water treatment is opposed by both the wastewater treatment company and the drinking water supplier, and is not mentioned as appropriate by the other actors. According to our experience, actor modelling is a useful method to suggest effective

  8. Induction of systemic disease resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana by the cyclodipeptides cyclo (l-Pro-l-Pro) and cyclo (d-Pro-d-Pro).

    PubMed

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Hongyue; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodipeptides, formed from two amino acids by cyclodehydration, are produced naturally by many organisms, and are known to possess a large number of biological activities. In this study, we found that cyclo (l-Pro-l-Pro) and cyclo (d-Pro-d-Pro) (where Pro is proline) could induce defence responses and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Treatment with the two cyclodipeptides led to a reduction in disease severity by Phytophthora nicotianae and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infections compared with controls. Both cyclopeptides triggered stomatal closure, induced reactive oxygen species production and stimulated cytosolic calcium ion and nitric oxide production in guard cells. In addition, the application of cyclodipeptides significantly up-regulated the expression of the plant defence gene PR-1a and the PR-1a protein, and increased cellular salicylic acid (SA) levels. These results suggest that the SA-dependent defence pathway is involved in cyclodipeptide-mediated pathogen resistance in N. benthamiana. We report the systemic resistance induced by cyclodipeptides, which sheds light on the potential of cyclodipeptides for the control of plant diseases. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Placental expression of proBNP/NT-proBNP and plasma levels of NT-proBNP in early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Junus, Katja; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Anders; Olovsson, Matts

    2014-09-01

    Levels of plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. In this study, the possibility that the placenta produces and releases proBNP/NT-proBNP was explored. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP in early- and late-onset preeclampsia were also measured. Placental proBNP mRNA in early-onset preeclampsia (n = 7), late-onset preeclampsia (n = 8), and controls of similar gestational age (n = 10) was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. ProBNP/NT-proBNP protein was studied in placental samples with immunohistochemistry (n = 8) and tissue culture (n = 2). Plasma levels of NT-proBNP were measured in early-onset preeclampsia (n = 18), late-onset preeclampsia (n = 20), and relevant controls (n = 36). Transcripts of proBNP mRNA were found in 20 out of 25 samples, there were no differences in expression between the groups. ProBNP/NT-proBNP protein was observed in maternal spiral arteries and in syncytiotrophoblasts in all placental samples. After placental tissue culture, there were measurable amounts of NT-proBNP in the culture media. Women with both early- (365 [14-9815] pg/ml) and late-onset preeclampsia (176 [33-2547] pg/ml) had higher levels of NT-proBNP than their controls (P < 0.001). There was a tendency toward higher levels of NT-proBNP in women with early-onset preeclampsia than in women with late-onset preeclampsia (P = 0.057). The results indicate possible placental production and release of proBNP/NT-proBNP into the maternal circulation. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford

  11. A climate game based on a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Hasselmann, K.

    2003-04-01

    In November 2002 a special exhibition on climate issues opened in the German Museum for Science and Techniques ('Deutsches Museum') in Munich. Within this exposition we present an interactive game in which visitors control future climate policy by adopting the role of either the government, a CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of a global company or a typical private household of an industrialized country. The players endeavor to maintain a sustainable climate in the future (global goal) while pursuing their own individual welfare goals. Task of the exhibition visitor is to combine the personal interests of the actor he is adopting with the global goal. The individual goal of government is maintain economic growth while avoiding conflicts due to inter-regional or societal inequalities. The CEO seeks to maximize total profits (business earnings). The goal of households is to maximize wages and interest earnings. The evolution of the economic system and climate is governed by the decisions of the actors. Government sets economic side conditions in terms of carbon taxes, subsidies for R&D or market infusion support for climate-friendly technologies, and transfers development aid to less advanced regions. The CEOs decide how much to invest in a number of alternative investment options and in which region. Households influences the economy by their purchasing and savings decisions. The model considers four regions, three real actors (mentioned above) and two different goods (climate-adverse and a climate-friendly). We introduce four different kinds of energy (coal, oil/gas, nuclear, renewable). A World Bank handles money flows. At different points in time the actors can cooperate with other actors in order to reach the global goal Stochastic elements regarding future technology and future climate are included. A touch-screen monitor with user friendly interface is used to present animations and videos. An animated climate scientist uses a climate simulator to compute future

  12. Actor-network theory: a tool to support ethical analysis of commercial genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Williams-Jones, Bryn; Graham, Janice E

    2003-12-01

    Social, ethical and policy analysis of the issues arising from gene patenting and commercial genetic testing is enhanced by the application of science and technology studies, and Actor-Network Theory (ANT) in particular. We suggest the potential for transferring ANT's flexible nature to an applied heuristic methodology for gathering empirical information and for analysing the complex networks involved in the development of genetic technologies. Three concepts are explored in this paper--actor-networks, translation, and drift--and applied to the case of Myriad Genetics and their commercial BRACAnalysis genetic susceptibility test for hereditary breast cancer. Treating this test as an active participant in socio-technical networks clarifies the extent to which it interacts with, shapes and is shaped by people, other technologies, and institutions. Such an understanding enables more sophisticated and nuanced technology assessment, academic analysis, as well as public debate about the social, ethical and policy implications of the commercialization of new genetic technologies.

  13. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    PubMed

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-09-05

    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives.

  14. Daily Associations Among Self-control, Heavy Episodic Drinking, and Relationship Functioning: An Examination of Actor and Partner Effects

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. Greater partner-specific anger was generally reported on days of congruent actor and partner depletion, particularly on days of high partner depletion. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict. PMID:24700558

  15. #Proana: Pro-Eating Disorder Socialization on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Lee, Hedwig; McCormick, Tyler; Moreno, Megan A

    2016-06-01

    Pro-eating disorder (ED) online movements support engagement with ED lifestyles and are associated with negative health consequences for adolescents with EDs. Twitter is a popular social media site among adolescents that provides a unique setting for Pro-ED content to be publicly exchanged. The purpose of this study was to investigate Pro-ED Twitter profiles' references to EDs and how their social connections (followers) reference EDs. A purposeful sample of 45 Pro-ED profiles was selected from Twitter. Profile information, all tweets, and a random sample of 100 of their followers' profile information were collected for content analysis using the Twitter Application Programming Interface. A codebook based on ED screening guidelines was applied to evaluate ED references. For each Pro-ED profile, proportion of tweets with ED references and proportion of followers with ED references in their own profile were evaluated. In total, our 45 Pro-ED profiles generated 4,245 tweets for analysis. A median of 36.4% of profiles' tweets contained ED references. Pro-ED profiles had a median of 173 followers, and a median of 44.5% of followers had ED references. Pro-ED profiles with more tweets with ED references also tended to have more followers with ED references (β = .37, p < .01). Findings suggest that profiles which self-identify as Pro-ED express disordered eating patterns through tweets and have an audience of followers, many of whom also reference ED in their own profiles. ED socialization on Twitter might provide social support, but in the Pro-ED context this activity might also reinforce an ED identity. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Transitions From Violence to Politics: Conditions for the Politicization of Violent Non-State Actors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    give up their arms and work toward their aims politically rather than violently and what conditions encouraged them to do so? The answer to this...VIOLENCE TO POLITICS: CONDITIONS FOR THE POLITICIZATION OF VIOLENT NON-STATE ACTORS by Brian Hanrahan David C. Woody December 2015...REPORT DATE December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRANSITIONS FROM VIOLENCE TO POLITICS: CONDITIONS

  17. Virtual actors and avatars in a flexible user-determined-scenario environment

    SciTech Connect

    Shawver, D.M.

    1997-02-01

    VRaptor, a VR system for situational training that uses trainer-defined scenarios is described. The trainee is represented by an avatar; the rest of the virtual world is populated by virtual actors, which are under the control of trainer-defined scripts. The scripts allow reactive behaviors, but the trainer can control the overall scenario. This type of training system may be very useful in supplementing physical training.

  18. Forest biodiversity monitoring for REDD+: a case study of actors' views in Peru.

    PubMed

    Entenmann, Steffen K; Kaphegyi, Thomas A M; Schmitt, Christine B

    2014-02-01

    The climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Integrating biodiversity monitoring into REDD+ facilitates compliance with the safeguards stipulated by the UNFCCC to exclude environmental risks. Interviews with actors engaged in REDD+ implementation and biodiversity conservation at the national and sub-national level in Peru (n = 30) and a literature review (n = 58) were conducted to pinpoint constraints and opportunities for monitoring effects of REDD+ management interventions on biodiversity, and to identify relevant biodiversity data and indicators. It was found that particularly sub-national actors, who were frequently involved in REDD+ pilot projects, acknowledge the availability of biodiversity data. Actors at both the national and sub-national levels, however, criticized data gaps and data being scattered across biodiversity research organizations. Most of the literature reviewed (78 %) included indicators on the state of certain biodiversity aspects, especially mammals. Indicators for pressure on biodiversity, impacts on environmental functions, or policy responses to environmental threats were addressed less frequently (31, 21, and 10 %, respectively). Integrating biodiversity concerns in carbon monitoring schemes was considered to have potential, although few specific examples were identified. The involvement of biodiversity research organizations in sub-national REDD+ activities enhances monitoring capacities. It is discussed how improvements in collaboration among actors from the project to the national level could facilitate the evaluation of existing information at the national level. Monitoring changes in ecosystem services may increase the ecological and socioeconomic viability of REDD+.

  19. The Empathy Enigma: Does It Still Exist? Comparison of Empathy Using Students and Standardized Actors.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is at the heart of all nurse-patient interactions. Yet empathy often declines during students' nursing education. Nurse educators are challenged to find ways to offset this decline. A mixed-methods research design was used to assess whether an educational intervention using standardized actors influenced nursing student empathy. The results suggest that the educational intervention holds potential for improving empathy in nursing students.

  20. Taking data seriously: the value of actor-network theory in rethinking patient experience data

    PubMed Central

    Zoccatelli, Giulia; Adams, Mary; Allen, Davina; Brearley, Sally; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Robert, Glenn; Donetto, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Hospitals are awash with patient experience data, much of it collected with the ostensible purpose of improving the quality of patient care. However, there has been comparatively little consideration of the nature and capacities of data itself. Using insights from actor-network theory, we propose that paying attention to patient experience data as having agency in particular hospital interactions allows us to better trace how and in what circumstances data lead (or fail to lead) to quality improvement. PMID:28429970

  1. Modelling the Impact of Human Actors on Groundwater Resources under Conditions of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, R.; Reichenau, T. G.; Krimly, T.; Dabbert, S.; Schneider, K.; Mauser, W.; Hennicker, R.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources, activities of human actors and climate change are related in many different and complex ways because of the existence of and strong interactions between various influencing factors, including those that are natural-environmental and socio-economic. The GLOWA-Danube research cooperation has developed the integrated simulation system DANUBIA to simulate water-related influences of global change in different spatial and temporal contexts. DANUBIA is a modular system comprised of 17 dynamically-coupled, process-based model components and a framework which controls the interaction of these components with respect to space and time. This contribution describes approaches and capabilities of DANUBIA with regard to the simulation of global change effects on human decisions in water related fields with a focus on agriculture and groundwater. In agriculture, market prices and legislation can be equally or even more important than water availability in determining farmers' behavior and thus in determining the agricultural impact on water resources quantity and quality. The DANUBIA simulation framework and the associated DeepActor-framework for simulation of decision-making by human actors are presented together with the model components which are most relevant to the interactions between agriculture and groundwater. The approach for developing combination climate and socio-economic scenarios is explained. Exemplary scenario results are shown for the Upper Danube Catchment in Southern Germany. References Barthel, R., Janisch, S., N. Schwarz, A. Trifkovic, D. Nickel, C. Schulz, W. Mauser (2008): An integrated modelling framework for simulating regional-scale actor responses to global change in the water domain. Environmental Modelling and Software, 23, 1095-1121 (doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2008.02.004) Barthel, R., Reichenau T., Krimly, T., Dabbert, S., Schneider, K., Mauser, W. (2012) Integrated modeling of climate change impacts on agriculture and groundwater

  2. Social health insurance without corporate actors: changes in self-regulation in Germany, Poland and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The actor-director and patient-therapist relationships: a process comparison.

    PubMed

    Weiner, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the actor and director, like that between the patient and psychotherapist, relies on intense emotional involvement. Both demand sensitivity, reciprocity, and a deep understanding of human behavior. Because dramatic action is created through continuous conflict between characters, actors must explore not only their actions, but also the reactions of those with whom they are in relationship. The process of therapy is equally interdependent. Through the relationship, therapists provide a context in which their patients can work through their conflicts. As in the rehearsal process, actions are explored in a supportive environment. This paper has presented a process comparison of the actor-director and patient-therapist relationships by proposing that both are art forms that rely on the skill of a trusted facilitator. Some of the techniques explored include: empathic attunement, emotional recall, transference, overcoming performance obstacles, improvisation, risk-taking, the pleasure principle, and creating a sense of family through new object relations. Like therapists, directors never forget that their work cannot be performed alone; it depends on interaction with the most delicate of phenomena: the human soul.

  4. Experiential learning in nursing consultation education via clinical simulation with actors: action research.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Saionara Nunes; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Martini, Jussara Gue; Caravaca-Morera, Jaime Alonso; Bernardi, Mariely Carmelina

    2015-02-01

    This was an action research study conducted during an undergraduate nursing course. The objective was to propose and implement experiential learning for nursing consultation education using clinical simulation with actors. The 4 steps of action research were followed: planning, action, observation and reflection. Three nursing undergraduate students participated in the study. Data were collected in May and July 2013 via participant comments and interviews and were analyzed in accordance with the operative proposal for qualitative data analysis. Planning included constructing and validating the clinical guides, selecting and training the actors, organizing and preparing the scenario and the issuing invitations to the participants. The action was carried out according to Kolb's (1984) 4 stages of learning cycles: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experimentation. Clinical simulation involves different subjects' participation in all stages, and action research is a method that enables the clinical stimulation to be implemented. It must be guided by clear learning objectives and by a critical pedagogy that encourages critical thinking in students. Using actors and a real scenario facilitated psychological fidelity, and debriefing was the key moment of the reflective process that facilitated the integral training of students through experiential learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The new face of terrorism in Turkey: actor unknown political murders.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Sadik

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the temporal and spatial trends in actor unknown political murders in Turkey. A total of 1852 cases, defined as actor unknown political murders, occurred in Turkey between 1975 and 2006, with the peak years being 1980 and 1994. Three different time frames could be defined: 1975-1993, 1994-1999, and 2000-2006. During the first period, cases were common all over Turkey, but during the second and third periods, they were more frequent in metropolitan areas and in the southeast. Incidents occurring during the first period could be attributed to the struggle between right- and left-wing supporters, while most murders occurring during the second and third periods seem to have been related to Kurdish separatism. Although the most crucial factor in preventing actor unknown political murders is a politically stable atmosphere, forensics can also play an important role. Turkey needs to improve its forensic services to bring them in line with international standards, namely the Minnesota Protocol.

  6. [Barriers and opportunities for social participation in health: the main social actors' perceptions].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gallego, María E; Vázquez-Navarrete, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Analysing barriers to and opportunities for user involvement as perceived by the social actors involved in implementing Colombian policy regarding social participation in health. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out in the Colombian towns of Tuluá and Palmira between 2000 and 2001. There were 10 focus groups having 260 users and leaders. Semi-structured individual interviews were given to health personnel (36) and policy-makers (3). Narrative content, mixed categories and data segmentation by informants and topics were then analysed. Users and leaders considered their own lack of knowledge, apathy and fear of revenge as barriers for participation. However, there were institutional factors such as lack of institutional transparency, limited receptiveness and responsiveness regarding participation. These opinions were shared by policy-makers. Most health personnel identified users' knowledge and attitudes as barriers for participation; few mentioned any institutional barriers such as the behaviour of personnel, institutional opacity and the lack of resources for fostering work in the community. Opportunities for participation were described in terms of suitable and possible scenarios. Users perceived their great ability to achieve change through their direct participation appeared to them as presenting an important opportunity. Users' and leaders' perceptions of the current barriers and opportunities seemed to show that they are critical of their own reality and constitute important potential actors for becoming key interlocutors with institutions and the state. A similar attitude would be necessary on the part of institutional actors to build a real and permanent participatory culture.

  7. Finding The Most Important Actor in Online Crowd by Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliana, I.; Santosa, P. I.; Setiawan, N. A.; Sukirman

    2017-02-01

    Billion of people create trillions of connections through social media every single day. The increasing use of social media has led to dramatic changes in the of way science, government, healthcare, entertainment and enterprise operate. Large-scale participation in Technology-Mediated Social Participation (TMSP) system has opened up incredible new opportunities to deploy online crowd. This descriptive-correlational research used social network analysis (SNA) on data gathered from Fanpage Facebook of Greenpeace Indonesia related to important critical issues, the bushfires in 2015. SNA identifies relations on each member by sociometrics parameter such as three centrality (degree, closeness and betweenesse) for measuring and finding the most important actor in the online community. This paper use Fruchterman Rein-gold algorithm to visualize the online community in a graph, while Clauset-Newman-Moore is a technique to identify groups in community. As the result found 3735 vertices related to actors, 6927 edges as relation, 14 main actors in size order and 22 groups in Greenpeace Indonesia online community. This research contributes to organize some information for Greenpeace Indonesia managing their potency in online community to identify human behaviour.

  8. Humanoids Learning to Walk: A Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value. PMID:23675345

  9. Creating Inquiry Between Technology Developers and Civil Society Actors: Learning from Experiences Around Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Lotte

    2016-06-01

    Engaging civil society actors as knowledgeable dialogue partners in the development and governance of emerging technologies is a new challenge. The starting point of this paper is the observation that the design and orchestration of current organized interaction events shows limitations, particularly in the articulation of issues and in learning how to address the indeterminacies that go with emerging technologies. This paper uses Dewey's notion of 'publics' and 'reflective inquiry' to outline ways of doing better and to develop requirements for a more productive involvement of civil society actors. By studying four novel spaces for interaction in the domain of nanotechnology, this paper examines whether and how elements of Dewey's thought are visible and under what conditions. One of the main findings is that, in our society, special efforts are needed in order for technology developers and civil society actors to engage in a joint inquiry on emerging nanotechnology. Third persons, like social scientists and philosophers, play a role in this respect in addition to external input such as empirically informed scenarios and somewhat protected spaces.

  10. Humanoids Learning to Walk: A Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value.

  11. Application of actor level social characteristic indicator selection for the precursory detection of bullies in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Holly M.; Fields, Jeremy; Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a national problem for families, courts, schools, and the economy. Social, educational, and professional lives of victims are affected. Early detection of bullies mitigates destructive effects of bullying. Our previous research found, given specific characteristics of an actor, actor logics can be developed utilizing input from natural language processing and graph analysis. Given similar characteristics of cyberbullies, in this paper, we create specific actor logics and apply these to a select social media dataset for the purpose of rapid identification of cyberbullying.

  12. A Pro-Family Income Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Allan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which doubled the personal exemption, increased the eligibility ceiling for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and reduced marginal income-tax rates. Compares the Act with the Acts of 1948 and 1969. Outlines criteria for a pro-family income tax policy. (BJV)

  13. Pocahontas: Problematizing the Pro-Social.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy; Reese, Debbie

    The Disney film "Pocahontas" appears to be an attempt to respond to growing cultural diversity, calls for multiculturalism, and strong female role models in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the film, examining how Disney's claims to the creation of positive, pro-social representations of women and Native Americans in…

  14. A Pro-Family Income Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Allan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which doubled the personal exemption, increased the eligibility ceiling for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and reduced marginal income-tax rates. Compares the Act with the Acts of 1948 and 1969. Outlines criteria for a pro-family income tax policy. (BJV)

  15. Pro-Am Collaboration and the AAVSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A.

    2006-04-01

    Professionals need to be aware that there is a valuable resource available and waiting to be used -- the amateur astronomy community. We give some examples of how pro-am collaborations have worked in the past, indicate the advantages and disadvantages of such collaborations, and suggest methods by which a professional can find and work effectively with amateur astronomers.

  16. Pro-inflammatory mechanisms in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Chong, Deborah L W; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is characterised by a hyper-inflammatory response due to microbial infection. We here review our current understanding of host mechanisms employed to mediate this hyper-inflammatory response, drawing together current knowledge pertaining to pathogen recognition and host pro-inflammatory response. Recognition of microbial derived ligands by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key step in initiating pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Examples of PRRs linked to the aetiology of sepsis include Toll-like, C-type lectin, RIG-1-like and also Nod-like receptors, which are involved in the formation of the inflammasome, crucial for the maturation of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacterial superantigens have evolved to exploit host MHC class II and T cell receptors (normally considered part of the adaptive immune response) as innate PRRs to propagate a so-called 'cytokine storm', while synergy between different microbial ligands and host-derived alarmins can augment the inflammatory response still further through as yet poorly understood interactions. The host pro-inflammatory response results in the characteristic features of inflammation: rubor, calor, dolor, and tumor. We will review herein the key mediators of inflammation in sepsis, identifying their overlapping and intersecting roles in vascular changes in tone, endothelial permeability, coagulation and contact activation, leukocyte mobilisation and activation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  18. Opponent actor learning (OpAL): modeling interactive effects of striatal dopamine on reinforcement learning and choice incentive.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The striatal dopaminergic system has been implicated in reinforcement learning (RL), motor performance, and incentive motivation. Various computational models have been proposed to account for each of these effects individually, but a formal analysis of their interactions is lacking. Here we present a novel algorithmic model expanding the classical actor-critic architecture to include fundamental interactive properties of neural circuit models, incorporating both incentive and learning effects into a single theoretical framework. The standard actor is replaced by a dual opponent actor system representing distinct striatal populations, which come to differentially specialize in discriminating positive and negative action values. Dopamine modulates the degree to which each actor component contributes to both learning and choice discriminations. In contrast to standard frameworks, this model simultaneously captures documented effects of dopamine on both learning and choice incentive-and their interactions-across a variety of studies, including probabilistic RL, effort-based choice, and motor skill learning. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Actor-Partner Effects of Male Couples Substance Use with Sex and Engagement in Condomless Anal Sex.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Pan, Yue; Feaster, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have examined actor-partner effects about male couples' substance use with sex. Dyadic data from 361 male couples were used to examine these effects regarding engagement in condomless anal sex (CAS) by type of partner and substance. Couples with one or both partners reported using marijuana, amyl nitrates, party drugs, and/or stimulants with sex in their relationship was positively associated with them having had CAS. Actor-partner effects for stimulant use with sex with the main partner were associated with CAS with a casual MSM partner. Only an actor effect for stimulant use with sex with a casual MSM partner was associated with CAS with that partner type, and an actor effect for marijuana use with sex for both partner types was associated with CAS with both partner types. These findings illuminate the need for further inquiry about male couples' substance use with sex for HIV prevention.

  20. Crystal structure of the collagen triple helix model [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3).

    PubMed

    Berisio, Rita; Vitagliano, Luigi; Mazzarella, Lelio; Zagari, Adriana

    2002-02-01

    The first report of the full-length structure of the collagen-like polypeptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3) is given. This structure was obtained from crystals grown in a microgravity environment, which diffracted up to 1.3 A, using synchrotron radiation. The final model, which was refined to an R(factor) of 0.18, is the highest-resolution description of a collagen triple helix reported to date. This structure provides clues regarding a series of aspects related to collagen triple helix structure and assembly. The strict dependence of proline puckering on the position inside the Pro-Pro-Gly triplets and the correlation between backbone and side chain dihedral angles support the propensity-based mechanism of triple helix stabilization/destabilization induced by hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the analysis of [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3) packing, which is governed by electrostatic interactions, suggests that charges may act as locking features in the axial organization of triple helices in the collagen fibrils.

  1. Daily associations among self-control, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship functioning: an examination of actor and partner effects.

    PubMed

    Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict.

  2. Actors and intentions in the development process of a mobile phone platform for self-management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ranerup, Agneta; Hallberg, Inger

    2014-06-24

    Aim: The aim of this study was to enhance the knowledge regarding actors and intentions in the development process of a mobile phone platform for self-management of hypertension. Methods: Our research approach was a 14-month longitudinal "real-time ethnography" method of description and analysis. Data were collected through focus groups with patients and providers, patient interviews, and design meetings with researchers and experts. The analysis was informed by the concepts of actors and inscriptions in actor-network theory (ANT). Results: Our study showed that laypersons, scientific actors, as well as technology itself, might influence development processes of support for self-management of hypertension. The intentions were inscribed into the technology design as well as the models of learning and treatment. Conclusions: The study highlighted important aspects of how actors and intentions feature in the development of the mobile phone platform to support self-management of hypertension. The study indicated the multifacetedness of the participating actors, including the prominent role of technology. The concrete results of such processes included questions in the self-report system, learning and treatment models.

  3. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  4. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  5. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  6. The pro-oxidant activity of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    Aluminum, a non-redox-active metal is, nevertheless, a pro-oxidant both in in vitro preparations and in vivo. It facilitates both superoxide- and iron-driven biological oxidation by mechanisms that remain to be resolved. More than 10 years ago Fridovich and colleagues suggested that the facilitation of superoxide-driven biological oxidation by aluminum was due to an interaction between the metal and the superoxide radical anion (Free Radic. Biol. Med. 13: 79-81; 1992). This thesis has been examined herein and it is concluded that much, if not all, of the pro-oxidant activity of aluminum might be explained by the formation of an aluminum superoxide semireduced radical ion.

  7. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  8. The PRO nurse: advocate for quality care.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M; Maichele, J

    1993-01-01

    Since the inception of the Social Security Amendments of 1983, nurses have assumed expanded roles in ensuring the monitoring of the quality of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. This unique area of nursing practice offers new challenges and employment opportunities for the nurse as a patient advocate. Nurses who are interested in this role may contact state PRO directors or watch for specific recruitment advertisements in nursing magazines.

  9. Pro-Life nurses uniting for service.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, K

    1994-01-01

    The Missouri Pro-Life Nurses claim that nurses have lost the ethical basis of their profession. Nurses need to reexamine their attitudes at a time when 1 in 5 physician-members of the American Society of Internal Medicine admits to deliberately helping a patient end his or her life, and when many physicians and nurses favor euthanasia and abortion. Former Georgia nurse Joseph Dewey Akin was sentenced in October 1992 to life imprisonment for injecting Robert Price, a quadriplegic, with a lethal dose of lidocaine. Hospice nurse Darlene Leon of California is on trial for injecting 17 of her patients with lethal doses of morphine. A nurse from Georgia was indicted on one count of aggravated assault for attempting to kill her 87-year-old patient with an injection of potassium. Georgia nurse Jenny Serbes was charged with murder in the death of her husband with a lethal injection of insulin. The fierce argument about abortion and euthanasia now raging in America is this century's civil war. 20 years ago, in an effort to combat this tide, the National Association of Pro-Life Nurses (NAPN) was started, and its 1000 members want to demonstrate positive concern for all human life. NAPN attempts to educate nurses and the health care community on the legal and medical aspects of the ethical issues facing the profession. In October 1993 the first meeting of Illinois Pro-Life Nurses was held in suburban Chicago. The nurse-patient relationship can be viewed as a contract. Implicit in this relationship is the understanding that the nurse will do no harm. If the relationship is broken, the foundation on which nursing and medicine rest is shaken. Pro-life nursing organizations are trying to steer the nursing profession back on the right course.

  10. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  11. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    PubMed

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage.

  12. Actor groups, related needs, and challenges at the climate downscaling interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Ole; Benestad, Rasmus; Diamando, Vlachogannis; Heike, Hübener; Kanamaru, Hideki; Pagé, Christian; Margarida Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro; Maraun, Douglas; Kreienkamp, Frank; Christodoulides, Paul; Fischer, Andreas; Szabo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    At the climate downscaling interface, numerous downscaling techniques and different philosophies compete on being the best method in their specific terms. Thereby, it remains unclear to what extent and for which purpose these downscaling techniques are valid or even the most appropriate choice. A common validation framework that compares all the different available methods was missing so far. The initiative VALUE closes this gap with such a common validation framework. An essential part of a validation framework for downscaling techniques is the definition of appropriate validation measures. The selection of validation measures should consider the needs of the stakeholder: some might need a temporal or spatial average of a certain variable, others might need temporal or spatial distributions of some variables, still others might need extremes for the variables of interest or even inter-variable dependencies. Hence, a close interaction of climate data providers and climate data users is necessary. Thus, the challenge in formulating a common validation framework mirrors also the challenges between the climate data providers and the impact assessment community. This poster elaborates the issues and challenges at the downscaling interface as it is seen within the VALUE community. It suggests three different actor groups: one group consisting of the climate data providers, the other two groups being climate data users (impact modellers and societal users). Hence, the downscaling interface faces classical transdisciplinary challenges. We depict a graphical illustration of actors involved and their interactions. In addition, we identified four different types of issues that need to be considered: i.e. data based, knowledge based, communication based, and structural issues. They all may, individually or jointly, hinder an optimal exchange of data and information between the actor groups at the downscaling interface. Finally, some possible ways to tackle these issues are

  13. Performance evaluation of a simulated data-flow computer with low-resolution actors

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudiot, J.L.; Ercegovac, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    In the ambition to go beyond a single-processor architecture, to enhance programmability, and to take advantage of the power brought by VLSI devices, data-flow systems and languages were devised. Indeed, due to their functional semantics, these languages offer promise in the area of multiprocessor systems design and will possibly enable the development of computers comprising large numbers of processors with a corresponding increase in performance. Several important design problems have to be surmounted and are described here. The authors thus present a ''variable-resolution'' scheme, where the level of primitives can be selected so that the overhead due to the data-flow mode of operation is reduced. A deterministic simulation of a data-flow machine with a variable number of processing elements was undertaken and is described here. The tests were performed using various program structures such as directed acyclic graphs, vector operations, and array handling. The performance results observed confirm the advantage of actors with variable size and indicate the presence of a trade-off between overhead control and the need to control parallelism in the program. The authors also look at some of the communication issues and examine the effect of several interconnection networks (dual counter-rotating rings, daisy chain, and optimal double loop network) on the performance. It is shown how increasing communication costs induce a performance degradation that can be masked when the size of the basic data-flow actor is increased. The associative memory cycle time is also changed with similar conclusions. Finally, the lower-resolution scheme is applied to the array handling case; the observations confirm the advantage of a more complex actor at the array level.

  14. Formation of the actor's/speaker's formant: a study applying spectrum analysis and computer modeling.

    PubMed

    Leino, Timo; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Radolf, Vojtěch

    2011-03-01

    A strong peak between 3 and 4 kHz in the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) of speech has been found to be one correlate of a good male speaking voice, for example, among actors. The actor's or speaker's formant (resembling the singer's formant) can be established by certain vocal training. This study investigates the origin of the speaker's formant. The immediate effects of a vocal exercise series on speaking voice were studied in a Finnish male actor, who is an experienced teacher of the exercises. They consist of nasal vowel syllable strings and words containing nasals. Before and after a 30-minute exercising, the subject (1) read aloud at three loudness levels and (2) phonated the Finnish vowels at habitual level. Formant frequencies were estimated from spectra of the vowel samples. LTAS was made and equivalent sound level (L(eq)) was measured for the text samples. Formant frequencies were used as the input for a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model. After the exercise, the peak at 3.5 kHz in the LTAS of the reading samples was stronger, although L(eq) was the same as before, suggesting a level-independent resonance change. Reading samples after exercising were evaluated to sound better in voice quality than before exercising. The strong peak at 3.5 kHz was present in all vowels, and it was mainly formed by clustering of F₄ and F₅. A 1D model-based optimization suggested that this kind of a formant cluster could be best established by simultaneously narrowing the epilaryngeal tube, widening the pharynx and narrowing the front of the oral cavity. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people’s actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  16. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals.

  17. ProUCL version 4.00.04 Documentation Downloads

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ProUCL Version 4.00.04 is an upgrade of ProUCL Version 4.0 (EPA, 2007). ProUCL 4.00.02 contains statistical methods to address various environmental issues for both full data sets without nondetects and for data sets with NDs (also known as left-censored d

  18. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the Internal...

  3. Multinational Experiment 7: A Process for Deterring and Influencing Actors in Space, v1.01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    6.4.2), Present-bias (6.4.4), Omni-balancing (6.4.6), Rubicon Theory (6.4.7), Organisational Model (6.5), Politics Model (6.6) UNCLASSIFIED Page...threats originating internally, as opposed to external threats. 6.4.7 Rubicon Theory explains a difference between decision making processes before...Effort shifts to carrying out the chosen course of action. Rubicon theory proposes that once actors have selected a course of action changing that

  4. The legal highs problem in the Polish printed media--actors, claims, and its hidden meanings.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Katarzyna; Bujalski, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of a qualitative analysis of press articles focused on legal highs in Poland. The aim of analysis was the identification of all social actors involved in the media discourse, the arguments used, and the claims made in the frame of social, political, economical, legal, and moral issues. This analysis covered two major daily newspapers--Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita and two weeklies--Polityka and Newsweek. Articles were collected during a systematic analysis covering the complete number of issues starting from 2008 to 2011. As a result, a base of 386 articles was developed. The study was founded by the statutory budget.

  5. c[D-pro-Pro-D-pro-N-methyl-Ala] adopts a rigid conformation that serves as a scaffold to mimic reverse-turns.

    PubMed

    Arbor, Sage; Kao, Jeff; Wu, Yun; Marshall, Garland R

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptides (CTPs) such as tentoxin (Halloin et al., Plant Physiol 1970, 45, 310-314; Saad, Phytopathology 1970, 60, 415-418), ampicidin (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147), HC-toxin (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447), and trapoxin (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328; Itazaki et al., J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1990, 43, 1524-1532) have a wide range of biological activity and potential use ranging from herbicides (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447; Judson, J Agric Food Chem 1987, 35, 451-456) to therapeutics (Loiseau, Biopolymers 2003, 69, 363-385) for malaria (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147) and cancer (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328). To elucidate scaffolds that have few low-energy conformations and could serve as semirigid reverse-turn mimetics, the flexibility of CTPs was determined computationally. Four analogs of cyclic tetraproline c[Pro-pro-Pro-pro] with alternating L- and D-prolines, namely c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala], c[pip-Pro-pip-Pro], c[pro-Pip-pro-Pro], and c[Ala-Pro-pip-Pro] were synthesized and characterized by NOESY NMR. Both molecular mechanics and Density Functional Theory quantum calculations found these head-to-tail CTPs to be constrained to one or two relatively stable conformations. NMR structures, while not always yielding the same lowest energy conformation as expected by in silico predictions, confirmed only one or two highly populated solution conformations for all four peptides examined. c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala] was shown to have a single all trans-amide bond conformation from both in silico predictions and NMR characterization, and to be a reverse-turn mimetic by overlapping four Calpha-Cbeta bonds with those for approximately 6.5% (Tran, J Comput Aided Mol Des 2005, 19, 551-566) of reverse-turns in the Protein Data Bank PDB with a RMSD of 0.57 A.

  6. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expert users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.

  7. [Problem mapping by state and federal actors for maternal health attention].

    PubMed

    Rouvier, Mariel; González-Block, Miguel A; Becerril-Montekio, Víctor; Sesia, Paola; Duarte, María Beatriz; Flores-Collins, Estrella

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics of problems in the health system that present barriers to maternal care, according to their representation and rating by officials in different positions and social contexts. Workshops were held with state health system officials from Mexican states with high maternal mortality (Mexico, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Veracruz) as well as with federal officials. A total of 99 health system problems were identified. Using concept mapping, 94 officials rated problems according to importance and feasibility; they were grouped into issues. Data was analyzed according to state/federal levels and the responsibilities of participants. The association was measured between responsibility profile/social context and priority issues. The issues of highest priority for maternal health care are infrastructure, personnel hiring and financial resources. The importance of certain issues depends on context and, to an extent, on the actors' responsibilities. There is consensus among actors to address the principal maternal health problems in Mexico. Important differences correspond to context. The usefulness of concept mapping to analyze problems was demonstrated.

  8. Interprofessional collaboration in primary health care: a review of facilitators and barriers perceived by involved actors.

    PubMed

    Supper, I; Catala, O; Lustman, M; Chemla, C; Bourgueil, Y; Letrilliart, L

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiological transition calls for redefining the roles of the various professionals involved in primary health care towards greater collaboration. We aimed to identify facilitators of, and barriers to, interprofessional collaboration in primary health care as perceived by the actors involved, other than nurses. Systematic review using synthetic thematic analysis of qualitative research. Articles were retrieved from Medline, Web of science, Psychinfo and The Cochrane library up to July 2013. Quality and relevance of the studies were assessed according to the Dixon-Woods criteria. The following stakeholders were targeted: general practitioners, pharmacists, mental health workers, midwives, physiotherapists, social workers and receptionists. Forty-four articles were included. The principal facilitator of interprofessional collaboration in primary care was the different actors' common interest in collaboration, perceiving opportunities to improve quality of care and to develop new professional fields. The main barriers were the challenges of definition and awareness of one another's roles and competences, shared information, confidentiality and responsibility, team building and interprofessional training, long-term funding and joint monitoring. Interprofessional organization and training based on appropriate models should support collaboration development. The active participation of the patient is required to go beyond professional boundaries and hierarchies. Multidisciplinary research projects are recommended. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Real-time reinforcement learning by sequential Actor-Critics and experience replay.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyński, Paweł

    2009-12-01

    Actor-Critics constitute an important class of reinforcement learning algorithms that can deal with continuous actions and states in an easy and natural way. This paper shows how these algorithms can be augmented by the technique of experience replay without degrading their convergence properties, by appropriately estimating the policy change direction. This is achieved by truncated importance sampling applied to the recorded past experiences. It is formally shown that the resulting estimation bias is bounded and asymptotically vanishes, which allows the experience replay-augmented algorithm to preserve the convergence properties of the original algorithm. The technique of experience replay makes it possible to utilize the available computational power to reduce the required number of interactions with the environment considerably, which is essential for real-world applications. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that the combination of experience replay and Actor-Critics yields extremely fast learning algorithms that achieve successful policies for non-trivial control tasks in considerably short time. Namely, the policies for the cart-pole swing-up [Doya, K. (2000). Reinforcement learning in continuous time and space. Neural Computation, 12(1), 219-245] are obtained after as little as 20 min of the cart-pole time and the policy for Half-Cheetah (a walking 6-degree-of-freedom robot) is obtained after four hours of Half-Cheetah time.

  10. Graphic methods for interpreting longitudinal dyadic patterns from repeated-measures actor-partner interdependence models.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicholas S; Baucom, Katherine J W; Bourne, Stacia; Butner, Jonathan; Crenshaw, Alexander O; Hogan, Jasara N; Imel, Zac E; Wiltshire, Travis J; Baucom, Brian R W

    2017-08-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor-partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce an interdependent pattern that emerges over time. Additionally, positive within-person, or actor, effects are commonly misinterpreted as indicating growth from one time point to the next when they actually represent decline. We suggest that change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and vector field diagrams (VFDs) can be used to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial in making VFDs using multilevel modeling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Value importance and value congruence as determinants of trust in health policy actors.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Susan M; Ponting, J Rick

    2003-09-01

    The paper examines levels and determinants of trust in a health care system and in key actors in the health policy community. Talcott Parsons theorizes that the sharing of common values is a necessary condition for interpersonal trust to exist; this paper tests that notion at the level of systemic (institutional) trust. The paper reports findings of a 1999 survey of 493 randomly selected residents of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It uses multiple regression analysis to identify the determinants of three different types of trust-generalized systemic trust, fiduciary trust, and generalized trust in particular actors' input to health system changes. Among the numerous independent variables, special attention is devoted to the degree of congruence or incongruence between the importance which respondents attach to one of the values enunciated in the Canada Health Act-namely, 'accessibility' (equal access to quality health care)-and the importance which respondents believe is attached to that value by the Regional Health Authority and by the Premier of the province. Both value importance and value congruence on equal accessibility are found to be important factors explaining variation in all three types of trust. In explaining levels of trust in the Premier on the issue of health care system reform, congruence on equal accessibility proved to be even more important than such factors as political partisanship, political cynicism, and personal experience as a patient in the health care system. Findings also suggest that there is an emotional component to systemic trust.

  12. The actor-critic learning is behind the matching law: matching versus optimal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yutaka; Fukai, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make a correct choice of behavior from various options is crucial for animals' survival. The neural basis for the choice of behavior has been attracting growing attention in research on biological and artificial neural systems. Alternative choice tasks with variable ratio (VR) and variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement have often been employed in studying decision making by animals and humans. In the VR schedule task, alternative choices are reinforced with different probabilities, and subjects learn to select the behavioral response rewarded more frequently. In the VI schedule task, alternative choices are reinforced at different average intervals independent of the choice frequencies, and the choice behavior follows the so-called matching law. The two policies appear robustly in subjects' choice of behavior, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that these seemingly different policies can appear from a common computational algorithm known as actor-critic learning. We present experimentally testable variations of the VI schedule in which the matching behavior gives only a suboptimal solution to decision making and show that the actor-critic system exhibits the matching behavior in the steady state of the learning even when the matching behavior is suboptimal. However, it is found that the matching behavior can earn approximately the same reward as the optimal one in many practical situations.

  13. Amnesia in an actor: Learning and re-learning of play passages despite severe autobiographical amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael D; Morton, John

    2015-06-01

    We describe the case of an accomplished actor, whom we term AB, who suffered severe amnesia following a cardiac arrest and hypoxic brain damage, affecting medial temporal and thalamic structures. His performance on standard episodic memory tests, and on measures of retrograde amnesia, including autobiographical memory, was severely impaired. When presented with passages from plays he had not appeared in, AB showed a severe impairment at the first learning trial, but thereafter showed a 'normal' learning curve for this semantically and syntactically complex material. On being presented with passages from plays he had performed in the past, AB did not show any recognition of them whatsoever, as one might expect from his severe episodic memory impairment. However, AB showed a striking benefit (savings score) in relearning passages he had previously performed, compared with new passages, despite not having any autobiographical recall of having performed the relearned passages before. Moreover, although his initial recall performance in learning these passages was impaired compared with healthy control actors of similar age and experience, AB demonstrated the same incremental learning rate on subsequent learning trials of the passages as did the controls. We conclude that, although severely impaired at the first learning trial (on both 'new' and 'old' passages), AB was able to employ his long-established semantic and procedural skills to attempt the task, and that thereafter he showed a 'normal' rate of incremental learning from a lower baseline.

  14. [Change management: An analysis of actors; perceptions about technical assistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Iyeti, Alain; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Technical assistance (TA) is a common component of health system strengthening interventions. This type of intervention is too often designed and evaluated according to a logic that fails to take into account social complexity. Actors' perceptions are one element of this complexity. This article presents a study conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo designed to identify perceptions concerning two types of technical support providers for health system strengthening: long-term technical assistants (agents of development agencies) and provincial technical advisors (agents of the Ministry of Health). Interviews were conducted with an innovative tool inspired by the principles of systems thinking. Interviewees were actors involved in a TA intervention in the province of Bandundu. Their expectations regarding TA providers were identified in terms of personal characteristics (knowledge, know-how and interpersonal skills), roles, and styles of interaction for capacity building ("interventionist/ prescriptive axes"). Interviewees emphasized the importance of mutual learning and the quality of interactions, which depends on TA provider's interpersonal skills and mutual willingness. Perceptions of TA provider's characteristics tend to be similar, but several differences were observed concerning the expectations about the roles of TAs, and the style that should be adopted for capacity building. Ignoring these differences in expectations may be a threat to the effectiveness of TA.

  15. An Actor-Critic architecture and simulator for goal-directed Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Babak; Principe, Jose C; Sanchez, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The Perception-Action Cycle (PAC) is a central component of goal-directed behavior because it links internal percepts with external outcomes in the environment. Using inspiration from the PAC, we are developing a Brain-Machine Interface control architecture that utilizes both motor commands and goal information directly from the brain to navigate to novel targets in an environment. An Actor-Critic algorithm was selected for decoding the neural motor commands because it is a PAC-based computational framework where the perception component is implemented in the critic structure and the actor is responsible for taking actions. We develop in this work a biologically realistic simulator to analyze the performance of the decoder in terms of convergence and target acquisition. Experience from the simulator will guide parameter selection and assist in understanding the architecture before animal experiments. By varying the signal to noise ratio of the neural input and error signal, we were able to demonstrate how the learning rate and initial conditions affect a motor control target selection task. In this framework, the naïve decoder was able to reach targets in the presence of noise in the error signal and neural motor command with 98% accuracy.

  16. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  17. How do laryngeal and respiratory functions contribute to differentiate actors/actresses and untrained voices?

    PubMed

    Master, Suely; Guzman, Marco; Azócar, Maria Josefina; Muñoz, Daniel; Bortnem, Cori

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to compare actors/actresses's voices and vocally trained subjects through aerodynamic and electroglottographic (EGG) analyses. We hypothesized that glottal and breathing functions would reflect technical and physiological differences between vocally trained and untrained subjects. Forty participants with normal voices participated in this study (20 professional theater actors and 20 untrained participants). In each group, 10 male and 10 female subjects were assessed. All participants underwent aerodynamic and EGG assessment of voice. From the Phonatory Aerodynamic System, three protocols were used: comfortable sustained phonation with EGG, voice efficiency with EGG, and running speech. Contact quotient was calculated from EGG. All phonatory tasks were produced at three different loudness levels. Mean sound pressure level and fundamental frequency were also assessed. Univariate, multivariate, and correlation statistical analyses were performed. Main differences between vocally trained and untrained participants were found in the following variables: mean sound pressure level, phonatory airflow, subglottic pressure, inspiratory airflow duration, inspiratory airflow, and inspiratory volume. These variables were greater for trained participants. Mean pitch was found to be lower for trained voices. The glottal source seemed to have a weak contribution when differentiating the training status in speaking voice. More prominent changes between vocally trained and untrained participants are demonstrated in respiratory-related variables. These findings may be related to better management of breathing function (better breath support). Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    PubMed

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  19. Actor-critic-based optimal tracking for partially unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    PubMed

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a partially model-free adaptive optimal control solution to the deterministic nonlinear discrete-time (DT) tracking control problem in the presence of input constraints. The tracking error dynamics and reference trajectory dynamics are first combined to form an augmented system. Then, a new discounted performance function based on the augmented system is presented for the optimal nonlinear tracking problem. In contrast to the standard solution, which finds the feedforward and feedback terms of the control input separately, the minimization of the proposed discounted performance function gives both feedback and feedforward parts of the control input simultaneously. This enables us to encode the input constraints into the optimization problem using a nonquadratic performance function. The DT tracking Bellman equation and tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) are derived. An actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm is used to learn the solution to the tracking HJB equation online without requiring knowledge of the system drift dynamics. That is, two neural networks (NNs), namely, actor NN and critic NN, are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Early social fear in relation to play with an unfamiliar peer: Actor and partner effects.

    PubMed

    Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Fox, Nathan A; Henderson, Heather A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between maternal reports of social fear at 24 months and social behaviors with an unfamiliar peer during play at 36 months, using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 1999). The APIM model was used to not only replicate previous findings of direct effects of early social fear on children's own social behavior (i.e., actor effects), but also to extend these findings by examining whether children's early social fear relates to an unfamiliar peer's behavior at 36 months (i.e., partner effects). Results revealed that social fear was associated with lower levels of children's own social engagement as well as less social engagement and dysregulated behavior in their play partners. These findings show that toddlers' social interactive behaviors are interdependent and reflect unique contributions of both the individual and their social partner's characteristics. In contrast, social fear was associated with children's own social wariness with the unfamiliar peer, but not their play partners' wariness. We discuss findings in terms of the influence of early social fear on young children's interpersonal environments and the potential role of these altered environments in supporting continuity of social fear and wariness over time.

  1. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide, suggesting activity-dependent regulation of its extracellular levels. Exposure of BDNF pro-peptide to mature hippocampal neurons in culture dramatically reduced dendritic spine density. This effect was mediated by caspase-3, as revealed by studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown. BDNF pro-peptide also increased the number of ‘elongated' mitochondria and cytosolic cytochrome c, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-3 pathway. These results, along with BDNF pro-peptide effects recently reported on growth cones and long-term depression (LTD), suggest that BDNF pro-peptide is a negative regulator of neuronal structure and function. PMID:27310873

  2. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-06-16

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide, suggesting activity-dependent regulation of its extracellular levels. Exposure of BDNF pro-peptide to mature hippocampal neurons in culture dramatically reduced dendritic spine density. This effect was mediated by caspase-3, as revealed by studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown. BDNF pro-peptide also increased the number of 'elongated' mitochondria and cytosolic cytochrome c, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-3 pathway. These results, along with BDNF pro-peptide effects recently reported on growth cones and long-term depression (LTD), suggest that BDNF pro-peptide is a negative regulator of neuronal structure and function.

  3. Actor coalitions and implementation in strategic delta planning: Opening the Haringvliet sluices in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermoolen, Myrthe; Hermans, Leon

    2016-04-01

    The sustained development of urbanizing deltas is influenced by natural and societal processes. These processes are characterized by their long time span, in which conflicting interests of different stakeholders have to be reconciled. Reaching consent between actors is a challenge itself, but maintaining this consent throughout different stages of strategic planning - from advocacy and agenda setting to implementation - over these long periods of time is even more difficult. The implementation stage still includes many different actors involved, some of which are different than the ones who agreed before, due to both the long run of the strategic delta planning, and to a shift of tasks and responsibilities. Thus, implementation of strategic plans often features delays, deviations of agreed plans and unintended outcomes. A key question therefore is how coalition dynamics in (pre-)planning stages influence and are influenced by the coalition dynamics during implementation. The different stages in strategic planning are often studied from either a plan formulation or an implementation perspective, but the connection between the two proves an important bottleneck for strategic planning in deltas. For instance, many building with nature solutions are still in their pilot-phase, and their upscaling can profit from lessons concerning past implementation efforts. The proposed contribution will use the case of the management of the Dutch Haringvliet sluices and the decision ('Kierbesluit') in 2000 to put these sluices ajar, to study the link between the different strategic delta planning stages and the role of the formation and change of actor coalitions herein. With the completion of the Haringvliet dam with outlet sluices in 1970, the Haringvliet estuary of the rivers Rhine and Meuse was closed off from the sea, creating a fresh water lake. This was done to make the Dutch Southwest delta safe from flooding, and had positive effects for agricultural water supply and

  4. (Pro)renin and (pro)renin receptor expression during kidney development in neonates.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tomomasa; Urushihara, Maki; Saijo, Takahiko; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kagami, Shoji

    2017-02-01

    Although a recent study demonstrated that the (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was highly expressed in the developing kidney during the mouse embryonic development, the mechanism by which (P)RR supports renal development in humans is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the plasma levels of (pro)renin and soluble (P)RR (s(P)RR) in cord blood and neonates as well as (P)RR expression in human kidney tissues. Samples were collected from 57 preterm and 67 full-term human neonates. (Pro)renin and s(P)RR levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Additionally, we performed an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of kidney tissues from neonates and minor glomerular abnormalities in order to assess (P)RR expression in the kidney. Plasma (pro)renin and s(P)RR levels in cord blood were significantly higher in preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. Four weeks after birth, these differences were no longer evident for either plasma (pro)renin or s(P)RR levels between the two groups. Importantly, plasma (pro)renin and s(P)RR levels in cord blood were inversely correlated with gestational age. Furthermore, IHC indicated that renal expression levels of (P)RR in neonates were stronger than those in minor glomerular abnormalities. (P)RR may play a pivotal role in prenatal renal development in humans. What is Known: • Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has several pathophysiologic functions not only in blood pressure regulation but also in pediatric renal disease. • Renal RAS activation plays a key role of renal development during gestation. What is New : • Plasma (pro)renin and soluble (pro)renin receptor (s(P)RR) levels in cord blood were significantly higher in preterm neonates than in full-term neonates. • Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney tissue indicated that renal expression levels of (P)RR in neonates were stronger than in minor glomerular abnormalities.

  5. Photoelectron spectrum of PrO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2015-08-01

    The photoelectron (PE) spectrum of PrO- exhibits a short 835 ± 20 cm-1 vibrational progression of doublets (210 ± 30 cm-1 splitting) assigned to transitions from the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s2 Ω = 4 anion ground state to the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 3.5 and 4.5 neutral states. This assignment is analogous to that of the recently reported PE spectrum of CeO-, though the 82 cm-1 splitting between the 4f [2F2.5] σ6s Ω = 2 and Ω = 3 CeO neutral states could not be resolved [Ray et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064305 (2015)]. The origin of the transition to the Ω = 3.5 neutral ground state is 0.96 ± 0.01 eV, which is the adiabatic electron affinity of PrO. Density functional theory calculations on the anion and neutral molecules support the assignment. The appearance of multiple, irregularly spaced and low-intensity features observed ca. 1 eV above the ground state cannot be reconciled with low-lying electronic states of PrO that are accessible via one-electron detachment. However, neutral states correlated with the 4f2 [3H4] 5d superconfiguration are predicted to be approximately 1 eV above the 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 3.5 neutral ground state, leading to the assignment of these features to shake-up transitions to the excited neutral states. Based on tentative hot band transition assignments, the term energy of the previously unobserved 4f2 [3H4] σ6s Ω = 2.5 neutral state is determined to be 1840 ± 110 cm-1.

  6. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  7. Adiponectinemia controls pro-angiogenic cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Eren, Philippe; Camus, Stéphane; Matrone, Gianfranco; Ebrahimian, Téni G; François, Delphine; Tedgui, Alain; Sébastien Silvestre, Jean; Blanc-Brude, Olivier P

    2009-11-01

    Angiogenic cell therapy with the transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) or bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC) receives considerable attention as an approach to revascularize ischemic tissues. Adiponectin is a circulating hormone produced by the apM1 gene in adipocytes. Adiponectin modulates lipid metabolism and obesity, and it was recently found to promote physiological angiogenesis in response to ischemia. Patients with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors or myocardial infarction may benefit from progenitor cell therapy, but they display depressed adiponectinemia. We hypothesized that adiponectin stimulation of transplanted cells is critical for their pro-angiogenic function. We aimed to establish whether adiponectinemia in the cell donor or in the cell recipient determines the success of pro-angiogenic cell therapy. In vitro, we found that conditioned media derived from wild-type adipocytes (adipo-CM) or purified adiponectin strongly enhanced BM-MNC survival and proliferation and stimulated EPC differentiation, whereas adipo-CM from apM1-/- adipocytes was one-half less effective. On the other hand, wild-type and apM1-/- BM-MNC displayed similar resistance to apoptosis and proliferation rates. In vivo, wild-type, and apM1-/- BM-MNC induced similar angiogenic reactions in wild-type ischemic hindlimbs. In contrast, wild-type BM-MNC had much diminished effects in apM1-/- ischemic hindlimbs. We concluded that adiponectin enhances BM-MNC survival and proliferation, and adiponectinemia in the cell therapy recipient is essential for the pro-angiogenic benefits of cell therapy. These observations imply that progenitor cell transplantation might only induce angiogenesis in patients with high adiponectinemia.

  8. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    PubMed

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements.

  9. A design and application of a multi-agent system for simulation of multi-actor spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Ligtenberg, Arend; Wachowicz, Monica; Bregt, Arnold K; Beulens, Adrie; Kettenis, Dirk L

    2004-08-01

    Multi-agent Systems (MAS) offer a conceptual approach to include multi-actor decision making into models of land use change. The main goal is to explore the use of MAS to simulate spatial scenarios based on modelling multi-actor decision-making within a spatial planning process. We demonstrate MAS that consists of agents representing organizations and interest groups involved in an urban allocation problem during a land use planning process. The multi-actor based decision-making is modelled by generating beliefs and preferences of actors about the location of and relation between spatial objects. This allows each agent to confront these beliefs and preferences with it's own desires and with that of other agents. The MAS loosely resembles belief, desire and intentions architecture. Based on a case study for a hypothetical land use planning situation in a study area in the Netherlands we discuss the potential and limitations of the MAS to build models that enable spatial planners to include the 'actor factor' in their analysis and design of spatial scenarios. In addition, our experiments revealed the need for further research on the representation of spatial objects and reasoning, learning and communication about allocation problems using MAS.

  10. The Establishment of Marine Protected Areas in Senegal: Untangling the Interactions Between International Institutions and National Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Gianluca; Brans, Marleen; Dème, Moustapha; Failler, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    International institutions, understood as sets of rules contained in international agreements, are aimed at orienting national governments towards specific policy options. Nevertheless, they can determine a change in national policies and practices only if states are willing and capable of incorporating international obligations into their national legislations and ensuring their application and enforcement in areas that follow completely under national jurisdiction. The establishment of marine protected areas promoted by international agreements as a tool for the protection of marine resources represents an interesting case for revealing the complex interactions between international institutions and national actors. Particularly, the establishment of these areas in Senegal shows the salience of domestic constellations of actors who may support or undercut national commitments to international regimes: political elites, bureaucracies, the general public and target groups. By anchoring the empirical analysis to an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, the article explains how dynamic constellations of actors can distort the penetration of international objectives in the national policy framework. Different constellations of national actors can indeed bend international institutions at different moments: during the formulation of a new law in line with international obligations; in the definition of its implementation framework; and in the enforcement of national policies.

  11. Visions of the Future - the Changing Role of Actors in Data-Intensive Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, L.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Around the world scientific disciplines are increasingly facing the challenge of a burgeoning volume of research data. This data avalanche consists of a stream of information generated from sensors and scientific instruments, digital recordings, social-science surveys or drawn from the World Wide Web. All areas of the scientific economy are affected by this rapid growth in data, from the logging of digs in Archaeology, telescope data with observations of distant galaxies in Astrophysics or data from polls and surveys in the Social Sciences. The challenge for science is not only to process the data through analysis, reduction and visualization, but also to set up infrastructures for provisioning and storing the data. The rise of new technologies and developments also poses new challenges for the actors in the area of research data infrastructures. Libraries, as one of the actors, enable access to digital media and support the publication of research data and its long-term archiving. Digital media and research data, however, introduce new aspects into the libraries' range of activities. How are we to imagine the library of the future? The library as an interface to the computer centers? Will library and computer center fuse into a new service unit? What role will scientific publishers play in future? Currently the traditional form of publication still carry greater weight - articles for conferences and journals. But will this still be the case in future? New forms of publication are already making their presence felt. The tasks of the computer centers may also change. Yesterday their remit was provisioning of rapid hardware, whereas now everything revolves around the topic of data and services. Finally, how about the researchers themselves? Not such a long time ago, Geoscience was not necessarily seen as linked to Computer Science. Nowadays, modern Geoscience relies heavily on IT and its techniques. Thus, in how far will the profile of the modern geoscientist change

  12. Health system performance assessment landscape at the EU level: a structured synthesis of actors and actions.

    PubMed

    Perić, Nataša; Hofmarcher-Holzhacker, Maria M; Simon, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Many policy makers and other stakeholders in the EU have expressed interest in better understanding the performance of their own health systems to identify opportunities for improvement in effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Health system performance assessment (HSPA) has received considerable attention at EU level as an instrument to improve transparency and accountability. This is equally important for population health and sustainable health spending. The goal of this paper is to synthesise and map the current state and developments in the field of HSPA relevant in the EU context and by this aid the navigation in the growing HSPA system, understand the available tools and identify opportunities for improvement. Structured synthesis of the literature on initiatives in the field of HSPA at EU level was carried out. Key literature was identified by a focused review performed between October 2015 and June 2016 on websites of key institutions including the EU, OECD and WHO and Google engine. We used six predefined criteria for identifying key literature. Identified initiatives were classified according to analytical and conceptual output or whether a guiding or advisory role was resumed. A visual map of the relationships between the different actions and actors involved in HSPA was developed. In addition, expert opinion was sought to refine the map. We identified a total of 64 relevant initiatives and their relationships in the field of HSPA. These include institutions such as the European Commission (73%), European Council (8%), OECD (9%) and WHO-EUR (9%). 24 initiatives produced analytical outputs, four developed conceptual outputs and six had a guiding role. The role of the EU in HSPA and collaboration with other key actors have intensified considerably since the adoption of the EU Health Strategy in 2013. The EU HSPA landscape is complex with seemingly few streamlining activities. Knowledge transfer and exchange of expertise are key to HSPA. While cooperation

  13. Autophagy and the (Pro)renin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Binger, Katrina J; Muller, Dominik N

    2013-10-21

    The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a newly reported member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS); a hormonal cascade responsible for regulating blood pressure. Originally, identification of PRR was heralded as the next drug target of the RAS, of which such therapies would have increased benefits against target-organ damage and hypertension. However, in the years since its discovery, several conditional knockout mouse models of PRR have demonstrated an essential role for this receptor unrelated to the RAS and blood pressure. Specific deletion of PRR in podocytes or cardiomyocytes resulted in the rapid onset of organ failure and subsequently animal mortality after only a matter of weeks. In both cell types, loss of PRR resulted in the intracellular accumulation of autophagosomes and misfolded proteins, indicating a disturbance in autophagy. In light of the fact that the majority of PRR is located intracellularly, this molecular function appears to be more relevant than its ability to bind to high, non-physiological concentrations of (pro)renin. This review will focus on the role of PRR in autophagy and its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Understanding the link between PRR, autophagy and how its loss results in cell death will be essential for deciphering its role in physiology and pathology.

  14. Pro-neurotrophins, sortilin, and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gary R; Nykjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling is important in the development and functional maintenance of nociceptors, but it also plays a central role in initiating and sustaining heat and mechanical hyperalgesia following inflammation. NGF signaling in pain has traditionally been thought of as primarily engaging the classic high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA to initiate sensitization events. However, the discovery that secreted proforms of nerve NGF have biological functions distinct from the processed mature factors raised the possibility that these proneurotrophins (proNTs) may have distinct function in painful conditions. ProNTs engage a novel receptor system that is distinct from that of mature neurotrophins, consisting of sortilin, a type I membrane protein belonging to the VPS10p family, and its co-receptor, the classic low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Here, we review how this new receptor system may itself function with or independently of the classic TrkA system in regulating inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:24494677

  15. In a moral dilemma, choose the one you love: Impartial actors are seen as less moral than partial ones.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jamie S

    2017-09-01

    Although impartiality and concern for the greater good are lauded by utilitarian philosophies, it was predicted that when values conflict, those who acted impartially rather than partially would be viewed as less moral. Across four studies, using life-or-death scenarios and more mundane ones, support for the idea that relationship obligations are important in moral attribution was found. In Studies 1-3, participants rated an impartial actor as less morally good and his or her action as less moral compared to a partial actor. Experimental and correlational evidence showed the effect was driven by inferences about an actor's capacity for empathy and compassion. In Study 4, the relationship obligation hypothesis was refined. The data suggested that violations of relationship obligations are perceived as moral as long as strong alternative justifications sanction them. Discussion centres on the importance of relationships in understanding moral attributions. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. HPV vaccine introduction at the local level in a developing country: attitudes and criteria among key actors.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Marion; Wiesner, Carolina; Cortés, Claudia; Trujillo, Lina María

    2010-05-01

    In most developing countries, HPV vaccines have been licensed but there are no national policy recommendations, nor is it clear how decisions on the introduction of this new vaccine are made. Decentralization processes in many Latin American countries favor decision-making at the local level. Through a qualitative study we explored knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and the criteria that influence decision-making among local health actors in four regions of Colombia. We conducted a total of 14 in-depths interviews with different actors; for the analysis we performed content analysis. Results indicate that decision-making on the HPV vaccine at the local level has mainly been driven by pressure from local political actors, in a setting where there is low technical knowledge of the vaccine. This increases the risk of initiatives that may foster inequity. Local decisions and initiatives need to be strengthened technically and supported by national-level decisions, guidelines and follow-up.

  17. How large are actor and partner effects of personality on relationship satisfaction? The importance of controlling for shared method variance.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich

    2013-10-01

    Previous research suggests that the personality of a relationship partner predicts not only the individual's own satisfaction with the relationship but also the partner's satisfaction. Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, the present research tested whether actor and partner effects of personality are biased when the same method (e.g., self-report) is used for the assessment of personality and relationship satisfaction and, consequently, shared method variance is not controlled for. Data came from 186 couples, of whom both partners provided self- and partner reports on the Big Five personality traits. Depending on the research design, actor effects were larger than partner effects (when using only self-reports), smaller than partner effects (when using only partner reports), or of about the same size as partner effects (when using self- and partner reports). The findings attest to the importance of controlling for shared method variance in dyadic data analysis.

  18. Actor-Network Theory and methodology: Just what does it mean to say that nonhumans have agency?

    PubMed

    Sayes, Edwin

    2014-02-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a controversial social theory. In no respect is this more so than the role it 'gives' to nonhumans: nonhumans have agency, as Latour provocatively puts it. This article aims to interrogate the multiple layers of this declaration to understand what it means to assert with Actor-Network Theory that nonhumans exercise agency. The article surveys a wide corpus of statements by the position's leading figures and emphasizes the wider methodological framework in which these statements are embedded. With this work done, readers will then be better placed to reject or accept the Actor-Network position - understanding more precisely what exactly it is at stake in this decision.

  19. Elevation of (Pro)Renin and (Pro)Renin Receptor in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Jessica; Reyes, Michelle; Allen, Steven R; Jones, Richard O; Beeram, Madhava R; Kuehl, Thomas J; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir

    2015-10-01

    Preeclampsia (preE), a syndrome of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema, has many elusive triggers. The renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in preE pathogenesis. In this study, we test the hypothesis that (pro)renin levels are increased in preE patients and that levels of (pro)renin and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) are elevated in a rat model of preE. We recruited 30 preE and 43 normal pregnant consenting patients. We used normally pregnant rats (NP, n = 10) and pregnant rats receiving weekly injections of desoxycorticosterone acetate and whose drinking water was replaced with 0.9% saline (preE, n = 10). Plasma and placental levels of (pro)renin were assayed by ELISA. Placental and kidney (P)RR was measured both by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The mean plasma (pro)renin of 27.1±5.2 in preE patients differs from that in patients without preE: 14.8±5.2 ng Ang I/ml/hour (P < 0.0001). In rats, both plasma (NP: 22.7±4.3 and preE: 49.2±10.0 ng Ang I/ml/hour) and placental (NP: 152±24 and preE: 302±39 ng/g tissue) levels of (pro)renin were higher (P < 0.001) in preE compared to NP rats. (P)RR expression was greater (P < 0.05) in placental tissue of preE rats, while kidney (P)RR expression was similar. Elevated levels of circulating (pro)renin have been observed in preE patients and in a rat model of preE. We also found the increased expression of placental (P)RR in preE rats. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is an increasingly influential, but still deeply contested, approach to understand humans and their interactions with inanimate objects. We argue that health services research, and in particular evaluations of complex IT systems in health service organisations, may benefit from being informed by Actor-Network Theory perspectives. Discussion Despite some limitations, an Actor-Network Theory-based approach is conceptually useful in helping to appreciate the complexity of reality (including the complexity of organisations) and the active role of technology in this context. This can prove helpful in understanding how social effects are generated as a result of associations between different actors in a network. Of central importance in this respect is that Actor-Network Theory provides a lens through which to view the role of technology in shaping social processes. Attention to this shaping role can contribute to a more holistic appreciation of the complexity of technology introduction in healthcare settings. It can also prove practically useful in providing a theoretically informed approach to sampling (by drawing on informants that are related to the technology in question) and analysis (by providing a conceptual tool and vocabulary that can form the basis for interpretations). We draw on existing empirical work in this area and our ongoing work investigating the integration of electronic health record systems introduced as part of England's National Programme for Information Technology to illustrate salient points. Summary Actor-Network Theory needs to be used pragmatically with an appreciation of its shortcomings. Our experiences suggest it can be helpful in investigating technology implementations in healthcare settings. PMID:21040575

  1. How a co-actor's task affects monitoring of own errors: evidence from a social event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Ellen R A; Miedl, Stephan F; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    Efficient flexible behavior requires continuous monitoring of performance for possible deviations from the intended goal of an action. This also holds for joint action. When jointly performing a task, one needs to not only know the other's goals and intentions but also generate behavioral adjustments that are dependent on the other person's task. Previous studies have shown that in joint action people not only represent their own task but also the task of their co-actor. The current study investigated whether these so-called shared representations affect error monitoring as reflected in the response-locked error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) following own errors. Sixteen pairs of participants performed a social go/no-go task, while EEG and behavioral data were obtained. Responses were compatible or incompatible relative to the go/no-go action of the co-actor. Erroneous responses on no-go stimuli were examined. The results demonstrated increased Ne/ERN amplitudes and longer reaction times following errors on compatible compared to incompatible no-go stimuli. Thus, Ne/ERNs were larger after errors on trials that did not require a response from the co-actor either compared to errors on trials that did require a response from the co-actor. As the task of the other person is the only difference between these two types of errors, these findings show that people also represent their co-actor's task during error monitoring in joint action. An extension of existing models on performance monitoring in individual action is put forward to explain the current findings in joint action. Importantly, we propose that inclusion of a co-actor's task in performance monitoring may facilitate adaptive behavior in social interactions enabling fast anticipatory and corrective actions.

  2. Uncovering the most effective active ingredients of antismoking public service announcements: The role of actor and message characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Craig S.; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined whether the appeal of actors (i.e., their likeability and attractiveness) used in antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) interacts with adolescents’ risk of future smoking to predict adolescents’ smoking resistance self-efficacy and whether the antismoking messages in the PSAs further moderate this relationship. Methods: We used a 2 (future smoking risk: low, high) × 2 (actor appeal: low, high) × 3 (PSA antismoking message: tobacco industry manipulation, short-term smoking effects, long-term smoking effects) study design. A diverse sample of 110 adolescents (aged 11–17 years), with varying levels of experience with smoking, rated their smoking resistance self-efficacy after viewing each of the PSAs in each design cell. Results: Overall, PSAs that used long-term smoking effects messages were associated with the strongest smoking resistance self-efficacy, followed in turn by PSAs that used short-term smoking effects messages and by tobacco industry manipulation messages. We found a significant interaction of actor appeal and PSA antismoking message. The use of more appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy only in long-term smoking effects PSAs. The use of less appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy for tobacco industry manipulation PSAs and short-term smoking effects PSAs. Future smoking risk did not moderate any of these findings. Discussion: Antismoking PSAs that emphasize long-term smoking effects are most strongly associated with increased smoking resistance self-efficacy. The effect of these PSAs can be strengthened by using actors whom adolescents perceive to be appealing. PMID:19372574

  3. Uncovering the most effective active ingredients of antismoking public service announcements: the role of actor and message characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Fryer, Craig S; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah

    2009-05-01

    This study examined whether the appeal of actors (i.e., their likeability and attractiveness) used in antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) interacts with adolescents' risk of future smoking to predict adolescents' smoking resistance self-efficacy and whether the antismoking messages in the PSAs further moderate this relationship. We used a 2 (future smoking risk: low, high) x 2 (actor appeal: low, high) x 3 (PSA antismoking message: tobacco industry manipulation, short-term smoking effects, long-term smoking effects) study design. A diverse sample of 110 adolescents (aged 11-17 years), with varying levels of experience with smoking, rated their smoking resistance self-efficacy after viewing each of the PSAs in each design cell. Overall, PSAs that used long-term smoking effects messages were associated with the strongest smoking resistance self-efficacy, followed in turn by PSAs that used short-term smoking effects messages and by tobacco industry manipulation messages. We found a significant interaction of actor appeal and PSA antismoking message. The use of more appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy only in long-term smoking effects PSAs. The use of less appealing actors was associated with stronger smoking resistance self-efficacy for tobacco industry manipulation PSAs and short-term smoking effects PSAs. Future smoking risk did not moderate any of these findings. Antismoking PSAs that emphasize long-term smoking effects are most strongly associated with increased smoking resistance self-efficacy. The effect of these PSAs can be strengthened by using actors whom adolescents perceive to be appealing.

  4. Actor-Network Theory and its role in understanding the implementation of information technology developments in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Worth, Allison; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is an increasingly influential, but still deeply contested, approach to understand humans and their interactions with inanimate objects. We argue that health services research, and in particular evaluations of complex IT systems in health service organisations, may benefit from being informed by Actor-Network Theory perspectives. Despite some limitations, an Actor-Network Theory-based approach is conceptually useful in helping to appreciate the complexity of reality (including the complexity of organisations) and the active role of technology in this context. This can prove helpful in understanding how social effects are generated as a result of associations between different actors in a network. Of central importance in this respect is that Actor-Network Theory provides a lens through which to view the role of technology in shaping social processes. Attention to this shaping role can contribute to a more holistic appreciation of the complexity of technology introduction in healthcare settings. It can also prove practically useful in providing a theoretically informed approach to sampling (by drawing on informants that are related to the technology in question) and analysis (by providing a conceptual tool and vocabulary that can form the basis for interpretations). We draw on existing empirical work in this area and our ongoing work investigating the integration of electronic health record systems introduced as part of England's National Programme for Information Technology to illustrate salient points. Actor-Network Theory needs to be used pragmatically with an appreciation of its shortcomings. Our experiences suggest it can be helpful in investigating technology implementations in healthcare settings.

  5. [The prevention of voice disorders in the actor: protocol and follow-up nine months of professional theater].

    PubMed

    Ormezzano, Y; Delale, A; Lamy-Simonian, A

    2011-01-01

    In July 2009, at the beginning of this work, 26 theses addressing professional principles of voice were listed in the database of SUDOC (Système Universitaire de Documentation): 9 related to voices of teachers (about 900,000* professionals in France), 14 theses relating to singers (7500** professionals), and only 3 about the voice of actors (20 000*** professional actors in France in 2006). The latter pertaining to concerning rookie actors (sensibilisation vocale auprès du comédien débutant Bichet, Linda, Bordeaux II, 2006), the mechanical larynx (étude des mécanismes laryngés dans la voix projetée: cas particulier des comédiennes Guerin, Mélanie, Paris VI, 2009), vocal fatigue (Fatigue vocale après une tâche d'utilisation prolongée de la voix chez le comédien Canaan Baggioni, Brigitte, Aix-Marseille II, 2009). Professional actors are plentiful; their training in vocal technique is very heterogeneous, or non-existent: it is not a prerequisite to have a degree to work as an actor! This lack of vocal technique is associated with risk factors specific to the acting profession: numerous travels in air-conditioned vehicles, unsuitable workplaces; dusty or poorly heated, irregular working patterns, excessive demands from directors... All this makes the actors highly susceptible to voice disorders. The protocol for the prevention of voice disorders presented here is holistic and ecological. This work also examines the effectiveness of such a preventive protocol aimed at theatre comedians.

  6. Actor-partner effects of demographic and relationship factors associated with HIV risk within gay male couples.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Champeau, Donna; Harvey, S Marie

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has investigated the association of relationship factors and dynamics with sexual behaviors and HIV risk among gay male couples. However, few studies with gay male couples have used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework to examine whether factors influence an individual and his partner's sexual risk behaviors. None of these studies analyzed whether relationship factors had influenced the sexual risk behaviors of both partners within the couple. Our cross-sectional study used dyadic data from 142 gay male couples to assess actor-partner effects of relationship commitment, trust, and investment in one's sexual agreement for HIV risk. Multilevel modeling was used to examine which actor-partner effects of these factors were predictive of individuals and their partners having had UAI within and outside the relationship. Results indicated that participants' likelihood of having had UAI within and outside of the relationship significantly decreased with: (1) actor effects of value in and commitment to a sexual agreement, and quality of alternatives to the relationship and (2) partner effects of participant's age, dependability of trust, quality of alternatives to the relationship, and investment of relationship commitment. No significant actor-partner effects were detected for having had UAI within the relationship. Our findings suggest that future HIV prevention strategies should take into account how relationship factors influence an individual and his main partners' sexual risk behaviors and in turn, the couple's risk for HIV. However, more research is needed to examine how actor-partner effects of relationship factors influence a variety of sexual risk behaviors within gay male couples.

  7. An actor-partner interdependence model of spousal criticism and depression.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A

    2010-08-01

    Although perceived criticism is relational, most theory and research concerns only relatives' criticism toward patients and not the converse. With a sample of 33 depressed patients and their spouses, we take a fully relational approach to criticism by testing an actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Patient intended criticism was especially strongly associated with depressive symptoms for wives, whereas patient perceived criticism was especially negatively related to depressive symptoms for husbands. Nondepressed partner intended criticism was positively related to patient depressive symptoms, but nondepressed wife perceived criticism was negatively related to husband depressive symptoms. The importance of including patient intended and partner perceived criticism as well as examining sex differences in models of criticism and depression are discussed.

  8. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    PubMed

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense.

  9. Testing crossover effects in an actor-partner interdependence model among Chinese dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Cheung, Fanny M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. From actors to agents to persons: the development of character representation in young children's narratives.

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou, Ageliki; Richner, Elizabeth S

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed a puzzling discrepancy in existing research about when children achieve and manifest a mentalistic conception of the person. Narrative research suggests that children do not represent characters as mental agents until middle childhood, whereas social cognition research places this understanding at around 4 years. Using a theoretically informed typology, 617 stories were analyzed composed by 30 children participating in a storytelling and story-acting practice integrated into their preschool curriculum. Results indicated that children's representation of characters shifted from almost exclusively physical and external portrayals of "actors" at 3 to increasing inclusion of "agents" with rudimentary mental states at 4 and of "persons" with mental representational capacities by 5. The developmental trajectories of boys and girls differed somewhat.

  11. Interdependence theory and the actor-partner interdependence model: where theory and method converge.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Robert E; Knee, C Raymond

    2012-11-01

    This work describes an application of the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) that allows researchers to test hypotheses in terms of interdependence theory (IT). The authors' goal is to move beyond the obvious similarities of these two frameworks by providing a detailed conceptual integration. This analysis demonstrates that aspects of APIM analysis reveal a useful perspective on interdependence not explicitly articulated by IT. They also expand on ideas presented by Kenny and Ledermann by exploring the relationship between their ratio parameter k and IT, and introducing two additional ratios (h and c) also suggested by IT. A complete worked example of APIM analysis from the perspective of IT, along with a SAS MACRO that produces confidence intervals for k, h, and c, is provided.

  12. Impedance learning for robotic contact tasks using natural actor-critic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungchan; Park, Jooyoung; Park, Shinsuk; Kang, Sungchul

    2010-04-01

    Compared with their robotic counterparts, humans excel at various tasks by using their ability to adaptively modulate arm impedance parameters. This ability allows us to successfully perform contact tasks even in uncertain environments. This paper considers a learning strategy of motor skill for robotic contact tasks based on a human motor control theory and machine learning schemes. Our robot learning method employs impedance control based on the equilibrium point control theory and reinforcement learning to determine the impedance parameters for contact tasks. A recursive least-square filter-based episodic natural actor-critic algorithm is used to find the optimal impedance parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed method was tested through dynamic simulations of various contact tasks. The simulation results demonstrated that the proposed method optimizes the performance of the contact tasks in uncertain conditions of the environment.

  13. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children’s Acquiescence to False Suggestions

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Kyndra C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children’s accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children’s age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts. PMID:26955204

  14. Industry Actors, Think Tanks, and Alcohol Policy in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Corporate actors seek to influence alcohol policies through various means, including attempts to shape the evidential content of policy debates. In this case study, we examined how SABMiller engaged the think tank Demos to produce reports on binge drinking, which were heavily promoted among policymakers at crucial stages in the development of the UK government’s 2012 alcohol strategy. One key report coincided with other SABMiller-funded publications, advocating measures to enhance parenting as an alternative to minimum unit pricing. In this instance, the perceived independence of an influential think tank was used to promote industry interests in tactics similar to those of transnational tobacco corporations. This approach is in keeping with other alcohol industry efforts to marginalize the peer-reviewed literature. PMID:24922137

  15. Virtual communication about psychiatric intensive care units: Social actor representatives claim space on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2016-09-07

    Psychiatric intensive care units (PICU) provide care for those with the worst phases of mental illness. What defines a PICU is often decided locally at hospitals. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe a contemporary discourse on how PICU are socially constructed from virtual discussions. An explorative and descriptive study design was applied for this qualitative inquiry using discourse methodology. The data were collected in Twitter's search string and consists of 215 Twitter postings. A framework of social actor representatives that form the discourse was established and presented in three categories: (i) hospital and agencies communicating about PICU; (ii) health-care professionals communicating about PICU; and (iii) service users and relatives communicating about PICU. Hospitals, agencies, and health-care professionals hold great power and responsibility for informing the public about PICU. Transparent and informative tweets could turn the mystery of PICU into more specific, positive portrayals.

  16. Mind attributions about moral actors: intentionality is greater given coherent cues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jamie S; Trafimow, David

    2015-06-01

    Attributions about intentionality and the capacity for agency were explored from coherence perspectives. Coherence perspectives suggest that social perceivers use information about an actor's motives, traits, and the outcomes of action to create meaningful explanations of action. According to the typecasting theory, intentionality and agency attributions should be related and predicted by one's role in a moral dyad. Across four studies, with different operational definitions of moral dyads and agency, we found evidence in favour of coherence perspectives. Social perceivers relied on mental states, character, and behavioural cues to make intentionality judgments. Further, intentionality attributions about behaviours were unrelated to inferences about agency. The discussion centres on the importance of coherent explanation in moral judgment. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. [There is a life after stroke: five courage histories and a desperate actor].

    PubMed

    Montes-Santiago, J

    2010-03-01

    Stroke is a terrible disease conditioning in an important manner the lives of patients. Recovery is, often, very laborious. The cases of six well-known artists who suffered it are presented and also their efforts to defeat it. Patobiographic data of the painters C.F. Friedrich, L. Krasner and C. Close, poet and artist G. Apollinaire, the film director and cartoonist F. Fellini and actor K. Douglas are discussed. The vital changes introduced by a such process, the strength to recover and the post-stroke artwork production are commented. The artists' premorbid personality influenced notably the recovery. These artists faced to the disease and with their masterpieces also bequeathed to the posterity their examples of courage. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions is shaped by expertise: evidence from professional actors

    PubMed Central

    Conson, Massimiliano; Ponari, Marta; Monteforte, Eva; Ricciato, Giusy; Sarà, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Can reading others' emotional states be shaped by expertise? We assessed processing of emotional facial expressions in professional actors trained either to voluntary activate mimicry to reproduce character's emotions (as foreseen by the “Mimic Method”), or to infer others' inner states from reading the emotional context (as foreseen by “Stanislavski Method”). In explicit recognition of facial expressions (Experiment 1), the two experimental groups differed from each other and from a control group with no acting experience: the Mimic group was more accurate, whereas the Stanislavski group was slower. Neither acting experience, instead, influenced implicit processing of emotional faces (Experiment 2). We argue that expertise can selectively influence explicit recognition of others' facial expressions, depending on the kind of “emotional expertise”. PMID:23825467

  19. Explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions is shaped by expertise: evidence from professional actors.

    PubMed

    Conson, Massimiliano; Ponari, Marta; Monteforte, Eva; Ricciato, Giusy; Sarà, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Can reading others' emotional states be shaped by expertise? We assessed processing of emotional facial expressions in professional actors trained either to voluntary activate mimicry to reproduce character's emotions (as foreseen by the "Mimic Method"), or to infer others' inner states from reading the emotional context (as foreseen by "Stanislavski Method"). In explicit recognition of facial expressions (Experiment 1), the two experimental groups differed from each other and from a control group with no acting experience: the Mimic group was more accurate, whereas the Stanislavski group was slower. Neither acting experience, instead, influenced implicit processing of emotional faces (Experiment 2). We argue that expertise can selectively influence explicit recognition of others' facial expressions, depending on the kind of "emotional expertise".

  20. Ensuring Mobility-Supporting Environments for an Aging Population: Critical Actors and Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Kochtitzky, Chris S.; Freeland, Amy L.; Yen, Irene H.

    2011-01-01

    Successful aging takes on an array of attributes, including optimal health and community participation. Research indicates that (1) persons with disabilities, including age-related disabilities, report frequent barriers to community participation, including unsuitable building design (43%), transportation (32%), and sidewalks/curbs (31%), and (2) many seniors report an inability to cross roads safely near their homes. This paper attempts to define mobility-related elements that contribute to optimal health and quality of life, within the context of successful aging. It then examines the impacts of community design on individual mobility, delving into which traditional and nontraditional actors—including architects, urban planners, transportation engineers, occupational therapists, and housing authorities—play critical roles in ensuring that community environments serve as facilitators (rather than barriers) to mobility. As America ages, mobility challenges for seniors will only increase unless both traditional aging specialists and many nontraditional actors make a concerted effort to address the challenges. PMID:21766029

  1. [Qualitative assessment of the relationship of social actors with madness in a substitutive mental health service].

    PubMed

    Mielke, Fernanda Barreto; Olschowsky, Agnes; de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; Wetzel, Christine; Kantorski, Luciane Prado

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate qualitatively the relationship between social actors and the madness. It was based in experiences produced in a Psychosocial Care Center in the Southern Brazilian context. This is a clipping from an evaluative and qualitative study. Was utilized the Fourth Generation Evaluation as a theoretical-philosophical framework. The methodological device applied was a adapted version of the Hermeneutic-dialectic circle. The statements haunt deinstitutionalization as a paradigm of mental health care, highlighting the need to combat the vices born of crystallized and exclusionary conduct, the typical model asylum. However, we can still see in practice a mixture of models, responsible for enhanced and innovative practices, and other crystallized and exclusive. Hopefully he can discuss the daily life of them, opening the way for understanding best madness, crazy and their relationships.

  2. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS

    PubMed Central

    SKELCHER, CHRIS; SMITH, STEVEN RATHGEB

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity – segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences. PMID:26640298

  3. Free-viewpoint video of human actors using multiple handheld Kinects.

    PubMed

    Ye, Genzhi; Liu, Yebin; Deng, Yue; Hasler, Nils; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai; Theobalt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We present an algorithm for creating free-viewpoint video of interacting humans using three handheld Kinect cameras. Our method reconstructs deforming surface geometry and temporal varying texture of humans through estimation of human poses and camera poses for every time step of the RGBZ video. Skeletal configurations and camera poses are found by solving a joint energy minimization problem, which optimizes the alignment of RGBZ data from all cameras, as well as the alignment of human shape templates to the Kinect data. The energy function is based on a combination of geometric correspondence finding, implicit scene segmentation, and correspondence finding using image features. Finally, texture recovery is achieved through jointly optimization on spatio-temporal RGB data using matrix completion. As opposed to previous methods, our algorithm succeeds on free-viewpoint video of human actors under general uncontrolled indoor scenes with potentially dynamic background, and it succeeds even if the cameras are moving.

  4. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS.

    PubMed

    Skelcher, Chris; Smith, Steven Rathgeb

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity - segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences.

  5. Performance evaluation of a simulated data-flow computer with low-resolution actors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaudiot, J. L.; Ercegovac, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Basic problems related to the exploitation of parallelism in a program include sequencing of the instructions and communication of the data. It is pointed out that the data-flow approach offers an elegant solution to the sequencing problem, since all data dependencies are automatically handled and only instructions with ready input sets are activated. It is shown that a change in the level of subcomputations (actors) affects communications costs. The concept of variable resolution is discussed, and the testbed environment is examined. Attention is given to the architecture of the processing elements, the communication network, and the simulators. A description of the analytical model is also provided. Simulation and results are discussed, taking into account test programs and allocation, the variation of the number of processing elements, the variation of the resolution in directed acyclic graphs, performance in processing loops, and array handling.

  6. Rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal actor-partner effects in adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Norona, Jerika C; Roberson, Patricia N E; Welsh, Deborah P

    2016-08-01

    The present study utilizes the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the longitudinal relationship between rejection sensitivity and one's own and one's partner's depressive symptoms. The sample included adolescent romantic couples from the U.S. (N = 198 adolescents; 50% girls; 90.2% Caucasian) whose rejection sensitivity at Time 1 and depressive symptoms approximately one year later (Time 2) were assessed. Additionally, aggressive behaviors and maintenance behaviors that commonly associated with rejection sensitivity (e.g., self-silencing) are explored as mediators. Results indicate that boyfriends' rejection sensitivity at Time 1 predicted girlfriends' depressive symptoms at Time 2. Additionally, girls' rejection sensitivity predicted their own and their boyfriends' self-silencing. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Trait hostility is associated with systemic inflammation in married couples: an actor-partner analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Uchino, Bert N; Bosch, Jos A; Kent, Robert G

    2014-10-01

    Trait anger and hostility predict the development of coronary heart disease, and systemic inflammation may partly mediate this association. In a sample of 94 middle-aged and older married couples, we replicate research showing a within individuals (i.e., actor effect) association of trait hostility with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). As a novel extension of that research, the present study also examined the association of individuals' trait hostility with their partners' hsCRP (i.e., partner effect). Controlling for potential confounds, trait hostility, measured with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, was significantly associated with both participants' own hsCRP, b=.0528 (SE=.0196), p=.008 and their partners' levels b=.0473 (SE=.0194), p=.016. Hence, the inflammatory correlates of trait hostility occur not only within individuals but between them, as well. The effects of unhealthy personality traits may extend to intimate partners and possibly other social network members.

  8. Multirate parallel distributed compensation of a cluster in wireless sensor and actor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-xi; Huang, Ling-yun; Zhang, Hao; Hua, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stabilisation problem for one of the clusters with bounded multiple random time delays and packet dropouts in wireless sensor and actor networks is investigated in this paper. A new multirate switching model is constructed to describe the feature of this single input multiple output linear system. According to the difficulty of controller design under multi-constraints in multirate switching model, this model can be converted to a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. By designing a multirate parallel distributed compensation, a sufficient condition is established to ensure this closed-loop fuzzy control system to be globally exponentially stable. The solution of the multirate parallel distributed compensation gains can be obtained by solving an auxiliary convex optimisation problem. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show, compared with solving switching controller, multirate parallel distributed compensation can be obtained easily. Furthermore, it has stronger robust stability than arbitrary switching controller and single-rate parallel distributed compensation under the same conditions.

  9. Reusing models of actors and services in smart homecare to improve sustainability.

    PubMed

    Walderhaug, Ståle; Stav, Erlend; Mikalsen, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Industrial countries are faced with a growing elderly population. Homecare systems with assistive smart house technology enable elderly to live independently at home. Development of such smart home care systems is complex and expensive and there is no common reference model that can facilitate service reuse. This paper proposes reusable actor and service models based on a model-driven development process where end user organizations and domain healthcare experts from four European countries have been involved. The models, specified using UML can be reused actively as assets in the system design and development process and can reduce development costs, and improve interoperability and sustainability of systems. The models are being evaluated in the European IST project MPOWER.

  10. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Lindström, Lars; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2013-12-01

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women's reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar's management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

  11. Uneasy allies: pro-choice physicians, feminist health activists and the struggle for abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Joffe, C E; Weitz, T A; Stacey, C L

    2004-09-01

    Abortion represents a particularly interesting subject for a social movements analysis of healthcare issues because of the involvement of both feminist pro-choice activists and a segment of the medical profession. Although both groups have long shared the same general goal of legal abortion, the alliance has over time been an uneasy one, and in many ways a contradictory one. This paper traces points of convergence as well as points of contention between the two groups, specifically: highlighting the tensions between the feminist view of abortion as a women-centred service, with a limited, 'technical' role for the physicians, and the abortion-providing physicians' logic of further medicalization/professional upgrading of abortion services as a response to the longstanding marginality and stigmatisation of abortion providers. Only by noting the evolving relationships between these two crucial sets of actors can one fully understand the contemporary abortion rights movement. We conclude by speculating about similar patterns in medical/lay relationships in other health social movements where 'dissident doctors' and lay activists are similarly seeking recognition for medical services that are controversial.

  12. iSAW: Integrating Structure, Actors, and Water to study socio-hydro-ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Armstrong, Andrea; Baker, Michelle A.; Bedingfield, Sean; Betts, David; Buahin, Caleb; Buchert, Martin; Crowl, Todd; Dupont, R. Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Flint, Courtney; Grant, Jacqualine; Hinners, Sarah; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Jones, Amber S.; Licon, Carlos; Null, Sarah E.; Odame, Augustina; Pataki, Diane E.; Rosenberg, David; Runburg, Madlyn; Stoker, Philip; Strong, Courtenay

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization, climate, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Although water systems are complex, a need exists for a generalized representation of these systems to identify important components and linkages to guide scientific inquiry and aid water management. We developed an integrated Structure-Actor-Water framework (iSAW) to facilitate the understanding of and transitions to sustainable water systems. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research that could address management challenges across scales (e.g., plot to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, transitioning, and urban landscapes). The framework was designed to be generalizable across all human-environment systems, yet with sufficient detail and flexibility to be customized to specific cases. iSAW includes three major components: structure (natural, built, and social), actors (individual and organizational), and water (quality and quantity). Key linkages among these components include: (1) ecological/hydrologic processes, (2) ecosystem/geomorphic feedbacks, (3) planning, design, and policy, (4) perceptions, information, and experience, (5) resource access and risk, and (6) operational water use and management. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of the iSAW framework by applying it to two research and management problems: understanding urban water supply and demand in a changing climate and expanding use of green storm water infrastructure in a semi-arid environment. The applications demonstrate that a generalized conceptual model can identify important components and linkages in complex and diverse water systems and facilitate communication about those systems among researchers from diverse disciplines.

  13. Reinforcement learning using a continuous time actor-critic framework with spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2013-04-01

    Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD) learning of Doya (2000) to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.

  14. Reinforcement Learning Using a Continuous Time Actor-Critic Framework with Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2013-01-01

    Animals repeat rewarded behaviors, but the physiological basis of reward-based learning has only been partially elucidated. On one hand, experimental evidence shows that the neuromodulator dopamine carries information about rewards and affects synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the theory of reinforcement learning provides a framework for reward-based learning. Recent models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity have made first steps towards bridging the gap between the two approaches, but faced two problems. First, reinforcement learning is typically formulated in a discrete framework, ill-adapted to the description of natural situations. Second, biologically plausible models of reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity require precise calculation of the reward prediction error, yet it remains to be shown how this can be computed by neurons. Here we propose a solution to these problems by extending the continuous temporal difference (TD) learning of Doya (2000) to the case of spiking neurons in an actor-critic network operating in continuous time, and with continuous state and action representations. In our model, the critic learns to predict expected future rewards in real time. Its activity, together with actual rewards, conditions the delivery of a neuromodulatory TD signal to itself and to the actor, which is responsible for action choice. In simulations, we show that such an architecture can solve a Morris water-maze-like navigation task, in a number of trials consistent with reported animal performance. We also use our model to solve the acrobot and the cartpole problems, two complex motor control tasks. Our model provides a plausible way of computing reward prediction error in the brain. Moreover, the analytically derived learning rule is consistent with experimental evidence for dopamine-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity. PMID:23592970

  15. Integrating Water, Actors, and Structure to Study Socio-Hydro-Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. L.; Armstrong, A.; Baker, M. A.; Bedingfield, S.; Betts, D.; Buahin, C. A.; Buchert, M.; Crowl, T.; Dupont, R.; Endter-Wada, J.; Flint, C.; Grant, J.; Hinners, S.; Horns, D.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson-Smith, D.; Jones, A. S.; Licon, C.; Null, S. E.; Odame, A.; Pataki, D. E.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Runburg, M.; Stoker, P.; Strong, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, climate uncertainty, and ecosystem change represent major challenges for managing water resources. Water systems and the forces acting upon them are complex, and there is a need to understand and generically represent the most important system components and linkages. We developed a framework to facilitate understanding of water systems including potential vulnerabilities and opportunities for sustainability. Our goal was to produce an interdisciplinary framework for water resources research to address water issues across scales (e.g., city to region) and domains (e.g., water supply and quality, urban and transitioning landscapes). An interdisciplinary project (iUTAH - innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) with a large (N=~100), diverse team having expertise spanning the hydrologic, biological, ecological, engineering, social, planning, and policy sciences motivated the development of this framework. The framework was developed through review of the literature, meetings with individual researchers, and workshops with participants. The Structure-Water-Actor Framework (SWAF) includes three main components: water (quality and quantity), structure (natural, built, and social), and actors (individual and organizational). Key linkages include: 1) ecological and hydrological processes, 2) ecosystem and geomorphic change, 3) planning, design, and policy, 4) perceptions, information, and experience, 5) resource access, and 6) operational water use and management. Our expansive view of structure includes natural, built, and social components, allowing us to examine a broad set of tools and levers for water managers and decision-makers to affect system sustainability and understand system outcomes. We validate the SWAF and illustrate its flexibility to generate insights for three research and management problems: green stormwater infrastructure in an arid environment, regional water supply and demand, and urban river restoration

  16. Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process.

    PubMed

    Etiaba, Enyi; Uguru, Nkoli; Ebenso, Bassey; Russo, Giuliano; Ezumah, Nkoli; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-05-06

    In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio

  17. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org.

  18. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted.

  19. Enhancements to Demilitarization Process Maps Program (ProMap)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-14

    map tool, ProMap, was improved by implementing new features, and sharing data with MIDAS and AMDIT databases. Specifically, process efficiency was...main effort of Task 1 was to add a new feature in ProMap to directly access the AMDIT information. As the maps are constructed, and later viewed...Figure 3 below illustrates the new feature (noted with red ellipse). Figure 3: Typical Process Map in ProMap with Part or NSN Number Notice Web

  20. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Atte; Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-11-12

    Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader's activity as a video commentator, and uploader's physical location by country. The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more positive feedback and comments than pro-anorexia videos

  1. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. Objective The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Methods Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader’s activity as a video commentator, and uploader’s physical location by country. Results The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Conclusions Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more

  2. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality-inequality aversion and efficiency-as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently.

  3. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality—inequality aversion and efficiency—as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  4. Pro Computers and the Quality of Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, George Ross

    1984-01-01

    The PRO program constitutes a role reversal for peer review because of the DRG system. When price per diagnosis is fixed, only quality can vary. Meager funding forces the PRO to rely on computer data, but the data set contains little that is useful in assessing quality. Furthermore, the PRO must depend on fiscal intermediaries, planning organizations and state welfare agencies to provide the data, check it for accuracy, and supply it in a timely fashion. Since the other organizations have been either indifferent or hostile to the peer review process, the PRO data program has more to do with organizational politics than with computers.

  5. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  6. Autophagy as a pro-death pathway.

    PubMed

    Denton, Donna; Xu, Tianqi; Kumar, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved catabolic process of autophagy involves the degradation of cytoplasmic components through lysosomal enzymes. Basal levels of autophagy maintain cellular homeostasis and under stress conditions high levels of autophagy are induced. It is often under such stress conditions that high levels of autophagy and cell death have been observed, leading to the idea that autophagy may act as an executioner of cell death. However the notion of autophagy as a cell death mechanism has been controversial and remains mechanistically undefined. There is now growing evidence that in specific contexts autophagy can indeed facilitate cell death. The pro-death role of autophagy is however complicated due to the extensive cross-talk between different signalling pathways. This review summarises the examples of where autophagy acts as a means of cell death and discusses the association of autophagy with the different cell death pathways.

  7. Antithrombotic Protective Effects of Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro Peptide during Emotional Stress Provoked by Forced Swimming Test in Rats.

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation was enhanced and all factors (total, enzyme, and non-enzyme) of the fibrinolytic system were suppressed in rats in 60 min after forced swimming test. Argininecontaining tetrapeptide glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro administered prior to this test activated fibrinolysis and prevented hypercoagulation. Administration of this peptide in 5 min after swimming test also enhanced anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and antithrombotic activity of the blood. Therefore, glyproline Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro exerted both preventive and curative effects on the hemostasis system and prevented enhancement of blood coagulation provoked by emotional stress modeled by forced swimming test.

  8. Two states of the triple helix in the thermal transition of the collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10.

    PubMed

    Kai, T; Uchiyama, S; Nishi, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Tomiyama, T

    2004-08-01

    The collagen model peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 is known to fold into a triple helix in solution. So far, the triple helix has been considered to exist as a single state. However, our previous study of (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 in solution has indicated the presence of two different states of the triple helix, a lower (HL) and a higher temperature state (HH). In the present study, these triple-helical states were investigated in more detail by NMR. Complete stereospecific assignments of the methylene protons of the proline residues were accomplished by the use of NOESY and TOCSY spectra. The temperature dependence of the 1H chemical shifts showed that the HL-to-HH thermal transition can be attributed to a conformational change of the first proline (Pro1) residues of the (Pro-Pro-Gly) triplets. Since TOCSY spectra with a 10 ms mixing-time confirmed a down puckering of these Pro residues in the HL state, but interconverting down and up puckerings in the HH state, the HL-to-HH thermal transition corresponds to conformational changes of the pyrrolidine rings of the Pro1 residues from an uniform down puckering to a more flexible state. The results confirm that thermal unfolding of the triple helix proceeds through the intermediate HH state.

  9. Exploring Actor-Partner Interdependence in Family Therapy: Whose View (Parent or Adolescent) Best Predicts Treatment Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Shaffer, Katharine S.

    2012-01-01

    Predictions of family therapy outcome consistently vary depending on which client rates the alliance. We used the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) to test the interdependence of parents' and adolescents' ratings of alliance, session depth/value, and improvement-so-far after Sessions 3, 6, and 9. Initial analyses…

  10. Actor-Centered Social Work: Re-visioning "Person-in-Environment" through a Critical Theory Lens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondrat, Mary Ellen

    2002-01-01

    This article revisions the relationship between person and social environment through the lens of critical theory. Emphasizing distinctively human characteristics, arguments define human actors as coconstructors of their social environments. Although human behavior is shaped by society and its structures, those very structures are recursively…

  11. Learning about a Fish from an ANT: Actor Network Theory and Science Education in the Postgenomic Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by…

  12. Beyond the Player: A User-Centered Approach to Analyzing Digital Games and Players Using Actor-Network Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Aaron Chia Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The paper uses actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the sociotechnical networks of three groups of adolescents who played online games in different physical and social contexts. These include: an internet café, which allowed the players to be co-present; a personal laptop, which gave the player more control over how he played; and at home through…

  13. A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a "reshaping" function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal "reshaping" functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good "reshaping" function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion.

  14. Understanding the Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Evidence from the Global Partnership for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menashy, Francine

    2016-01-01

    The study detailed in this paper examines the growing role of non-state actors in the transnational policy-making landscape through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)--a partnership of donor and developing country governments, multilateral organizations, civil society, private companies and foundations, dedicated to…

  15. The Seductive Power of an Innovation: Enrolling Non-Conventional Actors in a Drip Irrigation Community in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benouniche, Maya; Errahj, Mostafa; Kuper, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the motivations of non-conventional innovation actors to engage in innovation processes, how their involvement changed the technology and their own social-professional status, and to analyze their role in the diffusion of the innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We studied the innovation process of…

  16. If You Get Better, Will I? An Actor-Partner Analysis of the Mutual Influence of Group Therapy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquin, Jill D.; Kivlighan, D. Martin, III; Drogosz, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of group psychotherapy has been empirically studied and supported over several decades; however, there remains much to understand regarding the specific factors contributing to effective group psychotherapy. The current study uses Kashy and Kenny's (2000) actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to examine the relationship…

  17. A novel approach to locomotion learning: Actor-Critic architecture using central pattern generators and dynamic motor primitives

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an architecture of a bio-inspired controller that addresses the problem of learning different locomotion gaits for different robot morphologies. The modeling objective is split into two: baseline motion modeling and dynamics adaptation. Baseline motion modeling aims to achieve fundamental functions of a certain type of locomotion and dynamics adaptation provides a “reshaping” function for adapting the baseline motion to desired motion. Based on this assumption, a three-layer architecture is developed using central pattern generators (CPGs, a bio-inspired locomotor center for the baseline motion) and dynamic motor primitives (DMPs, a model with universal “reshaping” functions). In this article, we use this architecture with the actor-critic algorithms for finding a good “reshaping” function. In order to demonstrate the learning power of the actor-critic based architecture, we tested it on two experiments: (1) learning to crawl on a humanoid and, (2) learning to gallop on a puppy robot. Two types of actor-critic algorithms (policy search and policy gradient) are compared in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different actor-critic based learning algorithms for different morphologies. Finally, based on the analysis of the experimental results, a generic view/architecture for locomotion learning is discussed in the conclusion. PMID:25324773

  18. A Changed Language of Education with New Actors and Solutions: The Authorization of Promotion and Prevention Programmes in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Andreas; Englund, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how changes in the language of Swedish education policy have opened up a new social perception of education, in which space has been created for new actors, models and solutions in terms of managing activities in schools. Specifically, it seeks to illustrate how various "promotion" and "prevention…

  19. Power and Dependence between the Core and Rural Communities: Participating with Major Actors in Solving Local Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinth, Robert L.; Alexander, Archibald

    1990-01-01

    Community development practitioners in rural areas need to develop strategies for coping with rural dependence on core organizations such as multinational corporations and national governments. Rural communities should discuss issues, join forces with other communities, interact with core actors, and find ways to be more self-reliant. (SK)

  20. Learning about a Fish from an ANT: Actor Network Theory and Science Education in the Postgenomic Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by…

  1. Thinking Management and Leadership within Colleges and Schools Somewhat Differently: A Practice-Based, Actor-Network Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne; Perillo, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the significance of materiality for management and leadership in education using resources provided by actor-network theory (ANT). Espousing the idea that human interactions are mediated by material objects and that these objects participate in the production of practices, ANT affords thinking management and leadership in a…

  2. Expectations as a key to understanding actor strategies in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Björn; Alkemade, Floortje; Weber, K. Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Due to its environmental impact, the mobility system is increasingly under pressure. The challenges to cope with climate change, air quality, depleting fossil resources imply the need for a transition of the current mobility system towards a more sustainable one. Expectations and visions have been identified as crucial in the guidance of such transitions, and more specifically of actor strategies. Still, it remained unclear why the actors involved in transition activities appear to change their strategies frequently and suddenly. The empirical analysis of the expectations and strategies of three actors in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology indicates that changing actor strategies can be explained by rather volatile expectations related to different levels. Our case studies of the strategies of two large car manufacturers and the German government demonstrate that the car manufacturers refer strongly to expectations about the future regime, while expectations related to the socio-technical landscape level appear to be crucial for the strategy of the German government. PMID:24850974

  3. A Changed Language of Education with New Actors and Solutions: The Authorization of Promotion and Prevention Programmes in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Andreas; Englund, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how changes in the language of Swedish education policy have opened up a new social perception of education, in which space has been created for new actors, models and solutions in terms of managing activities in schools. Specifically, it seeks to illustrate how various "promotion" and "prevention…

  4. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation.

  5. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ChemInformatics Libraries (FutureToxII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from ove...

  6. The Seductive Power of an Innovation: Enrolling Non-Conventional Actors in a Drip Irrigation Community in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benouniche, Maya; Errahj, Mostafa; Kuper, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the motivations of non-conventional innovation actors to engage in innovation processes, how their involvement changed the technology and their own social-professional status, and to analyze their role in the diffusion of the innovation. Design/methodology/approach: We studied the innovation process of…

  7. Actor-Centered Social Work: Re-visioning "Person-in-Environment" through a Critical Theory Lens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondrat, Mary Ellen

    2002-01-01

    This article revisions the relationship between person and social environment through the lens of critical theory. Emphasizing distinctively human characteristics, arguments define human actors as coconstructors of their social environments. Although human behavior is shaped by society and its structures, those very structures are recursively…

  8. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ChemInformatics Libraries (FutureToxII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from ove...

  9. A Study of the Effects of Authoritarian and Democratic Directing Styles on Actors Who are Cognitively Complex and Cognitively Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Barbara Fulton; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of cognitive complexity and directorial style on changes in actors' perceptions of self-worth and in their cognitive complexity and effects on their attitudes toward a particular theatrical task. Authoritarian and democratic directorial styles were examined. Subjects, 32 members…

  10. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological…

  11. Understanding the Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Evidence from the Global Partnership for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menashy, Francine

    2016-01-01

    The study detailed in this paper examines the growing role of non-state actors in the transnational policy-making landscape through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)--a partnership of donor and developing country governments, multilateral organizations, civil society, private companies and foundations, dedicated to…

  12. Project CHOICE. #59. A Career Unit for Grades 5 and 6. Actors and Actresses. (Fine Arts and Humanities Career Cluster).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This teaching unit, Actors and Actresses, is one in a series of curriculum guides developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking 5th and 6th grade elementary classroom experiences with the world of work. These eight lessons review some of…

  13. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological…

  14. The Externals of Character: The Work that Needs To Be Done To Make an Actor's Actions Effective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Presents an exercise to guide student actors through the process of building a character by identifying the story and conflict, finding and playing actions that serve the story and define character, selecting and using props, choosing costume and make-up that will help reveal character, and choosing a physicality and voice consistent with the…

  15. Thinking Management and Leadership within Colleges and Schools Somewhat Differently: A Practice-Based, Actor-Network Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne; Perillo, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the significance of materiality for management and leadership in education using resources provided by actor-network theory (ANT). Espousing the idea that human interactions are mediated by material objects and that these objects participate in the production of practices, ANT affords thinking management and leadership in a…

  16. The Pursuit of Memory: Examining Art Teaching and Pedagogical Practices through Hannah Arendt's Actor-Spectator Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mun Yee

    2011-01-01

    Memories of our schooling and teaching experiences shape our curriculum and pedagogical decision-making process in art education when we become teachers and teacher educators. In this paper, using Hannah Arendt's Actor-Spectator Theory, I engage in retrospective critical introspection of my practices as an art teacher and curriculum developer in…

  17. Expectations as a key to understanding actor strategies in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen vehicles.

    PubMed

    Budde, Björn; Alkemade, Floortje; Weber, K Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Due to its environmental impact, the mobility system is increasingly under pressure. The challenges to cope with climate change, air quality, depleting fossil resources imply the need for a transition of the current mobility system towards a more sustainable one. Expectations and visions have been identified as crucial in the guidance of such transitions, and more specifically of actor strategies. Still, it remained unclear why the actors involved in transition activities appear to change their strategies frequently and suddenly. The empirical analysis of the expectations and strategies of three actors in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology indicates that changing actor strategies can be explained by rather volatile expectations related to different levels. Our case studies of the strategies of two large car manufacturers and the German government demonstrate that the car manufacturers refer strongly to expectations about the future regime, while expectations related to the socio-technical landscape level appear to be crucial for the strategy of the German government.

  18. Colombian Lay People's Willingness to Forgive Different Actors of the Armed Conflict: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Lopez, Wilson; Pineda Marin, Claudia; Murcia Leon, Maria Camila; Perilla Garzon, Diana Carolina; Mullet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study examined lay people's willingness to forgive acts that were committed by actors of the armed conflicts in Colombia. The participants (100 persons living in Bogota) were shown vignettes describing cases in which a member of the guerilla or a member of the former paramilitary forces asks for forgiveness to a victim's family, and were…

  19. High-resolution structures of collagen-like peptides [(Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Xaa-Yaa-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4]: implications for triple-helix hydration and Hyp(X) puckering.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Kenji; Hongo, Chizuru; Wu, Guanghan; Mizuno, Kazunori; Noguchi, Keiichi; Ebisuzaki, Shutoku; Tanaka, Yuji; Nishino, Norikazu; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2009-05-01

    Structures of (Pro-Pro-Gly)4-Xaa-Yaa-Gly-(Pro-Pro-Gly)4 (ppg9-XYG) where (Xaa, Yaa)=(Pro, Hyp), (Hyp, Pro) or (Hyp, Hyp) were analyzed at high resolution using synchrotron radiation. Molecular and crystal structures of these peptides are very similar to those of the (Pro-Pro-Gly)9 peptide. The results obtained in this study, together with those obtained from related compounds, indicated the puckering propensity of the Hyp in the X position: (1) Hyp(X) residues involved in the Hyp(X):Pro(Y) stacking pairs prefer the down-puckering conformation, as in ppg9-OPG, and ppg9-OOG; (2) Hyp(X) residues involved in the Hyp(X):Hyp(Y) stacking pairs prefer the up-puckering conformation if there is no specific reason to adopt the down-puckering conformation. Water molecules in these peptide crystals are classified into two groups, the 1st and 2nd hydration waters. Water molecules in the 1st hydration group have direct hydrogen bonds with peptide oxygen atoms, whereas those in the 2nd hydration group do not. Compared with globular proteins, the number of water molecules in the 2nd hydration shell of the ppg9-XYG peptides is very large, likely due to the unique rod-like molecular structure of collagen model peptides. In the collagen helix, the amino acid residues in the X and Y positions must protrude outside of the triple helix, which forces even the hydrophobic side chains, such as Pro, to be exposed to the surrounding water molecules. Therefore, most of the waters in the 2nd hydration shell are covering hydrophobic Pro side chains by forming clathrate structures.

  20. Contribution of marital conflict to marital quality in short and long-term marriages: An actor-partner interdependence model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Saadat, Hassan; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Zade, Nima Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In the field of family research, previous studies have made great strides toward understanding the relationship between marital conflict and quality. However, they have only studied couples in short-term marriages. Therefore, much remains to be unraveled with regard to long-term marriages. We aimed investigate the comparative contribution of aspects of marital conflict to marital quality in short-and long-term marriages in Iranian families. Materials and Methods: Using random clustered sampling, 400 dyads in intact first marriages were surveyed across eight provinces of Iran. Complete surveys for both husbands and wives were returned for 162 households (couple's response rate: 40.5%). Survey measures included demographics questionnaire, Barati and Sanai's Marital Conflict Questionnaire and Blum and Mehrabian's Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the actor-partner interdependence model of marital conflict-marital quality. Results: Generalized additive models were incorporated to define what constitutes short-and long-term marriages. Based on the models regressed, duration ≤ 10 years was defined as short-term, whereas duration ≥ 25 years was labeled long-term. In short-term marriages (n = 44), decreased sexual relations, increased daily hassles and sidedness in relations with parents were negatively associated with marital quality in both actor and actor-to-partner paths. In long-term married couples (n = 46), only increased daily hassles (P < 0.001) and disagreement over financial affairs (P = 0.005) contributed to actor paths and only sidedness in relationships with parents showed significant negative association to marital quality in actor-to-partner paths. Conclusions: Different themes of conflict contribute to the diminished level of marital quality in early and late stages of the marriage. Conflicts over sex, relationship with extended family and daily hassles are emphasized in the early years of

  1. Contribution of marital conflict to marital quality in short and long-term marriages: An actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Saadat, Hassan; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Zade, Nima Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    In the field of family research, previous studies have made great strides toward understanding the relationship between marital conflict and quality. However, they have only studied couples in short-term marriages. Therefore, much remains to be unraveled with regard to long-term marriages. We aimed investigate the comparative contribution of aspects of marital conflict to marital quality in short-and long-term marriages in Iranian families. Using random clustered sampling, 400 dyads in intact first marriages were surveyed across eight provinces of Iran. Complete surveys for both husbands and wives were returned for 162 households (couple's response rate: 40.5%). Survey measures included demographics questionnaire, Barati and Sanai's Marital Conflict Questionnaire and Blum and Mehrabian's Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the actor-partner interdependence model of marital conflict-marital quality. Generalized additive models were incorporated to define what constitutes short-and long-term marriages. Based on the models regressed, duration ≤ 10 years was defined as short-term, whereas duration ≥ 25 years was labeled long-term. In short-term marriages (n = 44), decreased sexual relations, increased daily hassles and sidedness in relations with parents were negatively associated with marital quality in both actor and actor-to-partner paths. In long-term married couples (n = 46), only increased daily hassles (P < 0.001) and disagreement over financial affairs (P = 0.005) contributed to actor paths and only sidedness in relationships with parents showed significant negative association to marital quality in actor-to-partner paths. Different themes of conflict contribute to the diminished level of marital quality in early and late stages of the marriage. Conflicts over sex, relationship with extended family and daily hassles are emphasized in the early years of marriage, while in later years; dispute over money and

  2. Posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors and their husbands based on the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lee, MyoSuk; Kim, Kyunghee; Lim, Changwon; Kim, Ji-Su

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to verify actor and partner effects, by examining the effects of self-esteem, relationship quality, and subjective distress on posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors and their spouses, and involved a structural analysis of descriptive cause-and-effect relationships to verify the suitability of the actor-partner interdependence model. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from breast cancer survivors and their spouses at outpatient centers, wards, and patient meetings in 4 general hospitals in Seoul between April 13 and September 20, 2015. Data for 336 individuals (168 couples) were analyzed. The suitability of the hypothetical model was assessed via SPSS Win 21.0 and AMOS 21.0. Actor and partner effects on posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors and their spouses were examined. Self-esteem, relationship quality, and subjective distress exerted significant actor effects, and subjective distress exerted a significant partner effect on posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors. Relationship quality and support exerted significant actor effects, and self-esteem, relationship quality, and subjective distress exerted significant partner effects on posttraumatic growth in spouses. Posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors was influenced by not only relationship quality and spouses' self- esteem but also subjective distress; therefore, solidarity between breast cancer survivors and their spouses was important and should be maintained to provide healthy relationship support and enhance posttraumatic growth. Further, health care providers should include spouses in health-related education and involve them in interventions and family support programs for couples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pro-ELT; A Teacher Training Blended Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshtehardi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Pro-ELT is a blended teacher training course. The aim of Pro-ELT is to strengthen English teaching and learning through a blended training approach that includes; quality face to face delivery, supported distance learning and integrated proficiency and methodology training. It delivers quality language teaching and teacher development courses to…

  4. Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)

  5. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  6. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  7. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  8. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... amount that would otherwise be paid by the insurer under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability...

  9. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  10. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  11. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  12. The Limits of Quid Pro Quo Coupe Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

    1975-01-01

    The strategy of quid pro quo negotiation as it is applied to couple therapy and taught as a problem solving method to couples with unsatisfactory relationships is examined and the theoretical basis for the clinical application of quid pro quo and its potentials as a therapeutic tool presented. (Author)

  13. The PRO Instructional Strategy in the Construction of Scientific Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an instructional strategy called Premise-Reasoning-Outcome (PRO) designed to support students in the construction of scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, the PRO strategy involves identifying three components of a scientific explanation: (i) premise--an accepted…

  14. German cockroach frass proteases cleave pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Valerie S; Page, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, secreted as pro-MMP-9, is cleaved by serine proteases at the N-terminus to generate active MMP-9. Pro-MMP-9 has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with asthma. Because many inhaled aeroallergens contain active proteases, the authors sought to determine whether German cockroach (GC) fecal remnants (frass) and house dust mite (HDM) were able to cleave pro-MMP-9. Treatment of recombinant human (rh) pro-MMP-9 with GC frass resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cleavage. This was abrogated by pretreating frass with an inhibitor of serine, but not cysteine protease activity. GC frass also induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9 from primary human neutrophils dependent on the active serine proteases in GC frass. HDM was less potent at cleaving pro-MMP-9. Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a naturally occurring protease inhibitor, attenuated GC frass-induced cleavage of pro-MMP-9. A1AT partially inactivated the serine protease activity in GC frass, while GC frass cleaved A1AT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These data suggest that GC frass-derived serine proteases could regulate the activity of MMP-9 and that A1AT may play an important role in modulating GC frass activity in vivo. These data suggest a mechanism by which inhalation of GC frass could regulate airway remodeling through the activation of pro-MMP-9.

  15. Enhancing Civic Consciousness through Student Pro Bono in Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2017-01-01

    A key aim of encouraging law students to participate in student pro bono, a form of experiential learning in legal education, is to develop their commitment to volunteer lawyering after graduation. This paper examines student pro bono in legal education in Australia and the United States. A critical review of the current approaches to student pro…

  16. The PRO Instructional Strategy in the Construction of Scientific Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an instructional strategy called Premise-Reasoning-Outcome (PRO) designed to support students in the construction of scientific explanations. Informed by the philosophy of science and linguistic studies of science, the PRO strategy involves identifying three components of a scientific explanation: (i) premise--an accepted…

  17. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability under... estimates that aggregate insured losses may exceed the cap on annual liability for a Program Year, then...

  18. Legal Understanding of "Quid Pro Quo" Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…

  19. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro rata...

  20. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  1. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  2. Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)

  3. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  4. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  5. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  6. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  7. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension.

  8. Energy consumption of ProTaper Next X1 after glide path with PathFiles and ProGlider.

    PubMed

    Berutti, Elio; Alovisi, Mario; Pastorelli, Michele Angelo; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Scotti, Nicola; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    Instrument failure caused by excessive torsional stress can be controlled by creating a manual or mechanical glide path. The ProGlider single-file system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) was recently introduced to perform a mechanical glide path. This study was designed to compare the effect of a glide path performed with PathFiles (Dentsply Maillefer) and ProGlider on torque, time, and pecking motion required for ProTaper Next X1 (Dentsply Maillefer) to reach the full working length in simulated root canals. Forty Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. Twenty were prepared with a mechanical glide path using PathFiles 1 and 2 (the PathFile group), and 20 were prepared with a mechanical glide path using a ProGlider single file (the ProGlider group). All samples were shaped with ProTaper Next X1 driven by an endodontic motor connected to a digital wattmeter. The required torque for root canal instrumentation was analyzed by evaluating the electrical power consumption of the endodontic engine. Electric power consumption (mW/h), elapsed time (seconds), and number of pecking motions required to reach the full working length with ProTaper Next X1 were calculated. Differences among groups were analyzed with the parametric Student t test for independent data (P < .05). Elapsed time and electric power consumption were significantly different between groups (P = .0001 for both). ProGlider appears to perform more efficiently than PathFiles in decreasing electric power consumption of ProTaper Next X1 to reach the full working length. This study confirmed the ability of ProGlider to reduce stress in ProTaper Next X1 during shaping through a glide path and preliminary middle and coronal preflaring. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of the (Pro)renin Receptor Antagonist PRO20 Attenuates Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt–Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N.; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J.; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C.; Feng, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT1 receptor–dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  10. ProDy: protein dynamics inferred from theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Ahmet; Meireles, Lidio M; Bahar, Ivet

    2011-06-01

    We developed a Python package, ProDy, for structure-based analysis of protein dynamics. ProDy allows for quantitative characterization of structural variations in heterogeneous datasets of structures experimentally resolved for a given biomolecular system, and for comparison of these variations with the theoretically predicted equilibrium dynamics. Datasets include structural ensembles for a given family or subfamily of proteins, their mutants and sequence homologues, in the presence/absence of their substrates, ligands or inhibitors. Numerous helper functions enable comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical data, and visualization of the principal changes in conformations that are accessible in different functional states. ProDy application programming interface (API) has been designed so that users can easily extend the software and implement new methods. ProDy is open source and freely available under GNU General Public License from http://www.csb.pitt.edu/ProDy/.

  11. Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

  12. Vicious and Virtuous Cycles and the Role of External Non-government Actors in Community Forestry in Oaxaca and Michoacán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barsimantov, James A

    2010-02-01

    Community forestry offers potential for socioeconomic benefits while maintaining ecosystem services. In Mexico, government and donor efforts to develop this sector focus on issues within forest communities. Often overlooked are effects of external non-government actors (NGOs and foresters) as links or barriers between communities and funding, capacity building, and technical support. To analyze the role of these actors, I analyze household survey and interview data from 11 communities with varying levels of vertical integration of forestry production in states with divergent records of community forestry, Oaxaca and Michoacán. Results suggest that strong community governance is necessary but not sufficient for vertical integration, and strong interactions with non-government actors are critical. These actors, operating within the existing framework of government regulations, have a range of incentives for engaging communities. Availability of these actors motivated by concern for community capacity instead of timber income may be a determinant of community forestry development.

  13. CD47 update: a multifaceted actor in the tumour microenvironment of potential therapeutic interest.

    PubMed

    Sick, E; Jeanne, A; Schneider, C; Dedieu, S; Takeda, K; Martiny, L

    2012-12-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitous 50 kDa five-spanning membrane receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. This receptor, also known as integrin-associated protein, mediates cell-to-cell communication by ligation to transmembrane signal-regulatory proteins SIRPα and SIRPγ and interacts with integrins. CD47 is also implicated in cell-extracellular matrix interactions via ligation with thrombospondins. Furthermore, CD47 is involved in many and diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion and migration. It also plays a key role in many immune and cardiovascular responses. Thus, this multifaceted receptor might be a central actor in the tumour microenvironment. Solid tumours are composed of not only cancer cells that actively proliferate but also other cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts that make up the tumour microenvironment. Tumour cell proliferation is strongly sustained by continuous sprouting of new vessels, which also represents a gate for metastasis. Moreover, infiltration of inflammatory cells is observed in most neoplasms. Much evidence has accumulated indicating that infiltrating leukocytes promote cancer progression. Given its ubiquitous expression on all the different cell types that compose the tumour microenvironment, targeting CD47 could represent an original therapeutic strategy in the field of oncology. We present a current overview of the biological effects associated with CD47 on cancer cells and stromal cells.

  14. [Government health planning in the state of Bahia, Brazil: political actors, social interaction and institutional learning].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Washington Luiz Abreu de; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the process of government planning in health in the state of Bahia in the 2007-2010 period based on the formulation of the State Health Plan. The benchmark adopted involved adaptation of the theoretical model of the cycle of public policy, including analysis of context, characterization of the actors involved, operations conducted in decision making and the strategic means used. The production of information was through the analysis of documents organized in institutional portfolios and records of the planning process in the organization studied. The analysis of results reveals that the political game included "concessions" and "negotiations" regarding changes in the management and organization of the health system, highlighting the discussion on the problems facing the state management of the Unified Health System (SUS) during the period, and the search for alternatives and solutions to these problems. It also reveals the institutional learning acquired, involving managers and technicians who broadened and reinforced their capacity to analyze and formulate proposals around the government agenda.

  15. A Comprehensive Response: The Role of Nonstate Actors in the Global Plan.

    PubMed

    Vitillo, Robert J; Merico, Francesca; Levine, Anna S; Buonocore, Taylor

    2017-05-01

    Nonstate actors-especially faith-based organizations, other nongovernmental organizations, groups of people living with HIV and AIDS, and private sector organizations-have been deeply committed to supporting governments reach the goals of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). This article highlights the role and contributions of select faith-based organizations and some private sector and philanthropic partners, as well as the work of other organizations. The success and impact of the Global Plan was in no small part a result of large-scale country-led collaboration in the provision of health care and implementation of programs. As the world grapples with meeting the ambitious United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS targets to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030-at a time when it also faces many other emerging health crises-the lessons learned from the Global Plan in harnessing the strengths of nonstate partners are the ones that should be replicated, enhanced, and taken to scale.

  16. An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  17. Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of attention for developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    DENNIS, MAUREEN; SINOPOLI, KATIA J.; FLETCHER, JACK M.; SCHACHAR, RUSSELL

    2008-01-01

    This review proposes a new taxonomy of automatic and controlled attention. The taxonomy distinguishes among the role of the attendee (puppet and robot, critic and actor), the attention process (stimulus orienting vs. response control), and the attention operation (activation vs. inhibition vs. adjustment), and identifies cognitive phenotypes by which attention is overtly expressed. We apply the taxonomy to four childhood attention disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, spina bifida meningomyelocele, traumatic brain injury, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Variations in attention are related to specific brain regions that support normal attention processes when intact, and produce disordered attention when impaired. The taxonomy explains group differences in behavioral inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, as well as medication response. We also discuss issues relevant to theories of the cognitive and neural architecture of attention: functional dissociations within and between automatic and controlled attention; the relative importance of type of brain damage and developmental timing to attention profile; cognitive-energetic models of attention and white matter damage; temporal processing deficits, attention deficits and cerebellar damage; and the issue of cognitive phenotypes as candidate endophenotypes. PMID:18764966

  18. The proof is in the pudding: putting Actor-Network-Theory to work in medical education.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Alan

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes valid evidence from medical education research is typically grounded in the scientific paradigm of proof through experiment. Here, explanation through single meaning is privileged over exploration of multiple presentations of phenomena--short, interpretation eclipses appreciation. This approach is challenged as reductive by naturalistic qualitative methods such as rich ethnographic field reports, presented as narratives. Contemporary ethnographic approaches have entered medical education by a back door--disguised as a stable of 'social learning theories'. Communities of Practice theory, Activity Theory and Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) all serve as research practices forming identifiable contemporary ethnographies. 'Evidence' is conceived as exploratory rather than explanatory, through baroque descriptions of innovations in learning organizations, including medicine. ANT is then both a theory of innovation in organizations and an ethnographic method, where practice and theory coincide. ANT is interested primarily not in epistemologies, but in how a phenomenon such as an 'illness' is conceived across differing practices as multiple ontologies (experienced meanings), each meaning generated and suspended within a particular network of effects. How such networks are initiated and developed has significance for rethinking the nature of 'evidence', restoring faith in the value of a good story.

  19. Efficient Actor-Critic Algorithm with Hierarchical Model Learning and Planning

    PubMed Central

    Fu, QiMing

    2016-01-01

    To improve the convergence rate and the sample efficiency, two efficient learning methods AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP (AC-HMLP with ℓ 2-regularization) are proposed by combining actor-critic algorithm with hierarchical model learning and planning. The hierarchical models consisting of the local and the global models, which are learned at the same time during learning of the value function and the policy, are approximated by local linear regression (LLR) and linear function approximation (LFA), respectively. Both the local model and the global model are applied to generate samples for planning; the former is used only if the state-prediction error does not surpass the threshold at each time step, while the latter is utilized at the end of each episode. The purpose of taking both models is to improve the sample efficiency and accelerate the convergence rate of the whole algorithm through fully utilizing the local and global information. Experimentally, AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP are compared with three representative algorithms on two Reinforcement Learning (RL) benchmark problems. The results demonstrate that they perform best in terms of convergence rate and sample efficiency. PMID:27795704

  20. Activity level DNA evidence evaluation: On propositions addressing the actor or the activity.

    PubMed

    Kokshoorn, Bas; Blankers, Bart J; de Zoete, Jacob; Berger, Charles E H

    2017-09-01

    More often than not, the source of DNA traces found at a crime scene is not disputed, but the activity or timing of events that resulted in their transfer is. As a consequence, practitioners are increasingly asked to assign a value to DNA evidence given propositions about activities provided by prosecution and defense counsel. Given that the dispute concerns the nature of the activity that took place or the identity of the actor that carried out the activity, several factors will determine how to formulate the propositions. Determining factors are (1) whether defense claims the crime never took place, (2) whether defense claims someone other than the accused (either an unknown individual or a known person) performed the criminal activity, and (3) whether it is claimed and disputed that the suspect performed an alternative, legitimate activity or has a relation to the victim, the object, or the scene of crime that implies a legitimate interaction. Addressing such propositions using Bayesian networks, we demonstrate the effects of the various proposition sets on the evaluation of the evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.