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Sample records for actual birth weight

  1. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  2. Birth weight pattern in Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K N; Rao, R S; Sujatha, A

    1994-07-01

    The pattern of birth weight is described among births recorded in rural maternity homes in coastal areas of Udupi taluk in South Kanara district in Karnataka state, India. Literacy of the study area was 78.5%, and female literacy was 73.0%. The mean age at marriage was 21.4 years. Over 90% of mothers received some prenatal care. Contraceptive prevalence was 43%. The study area had six rural maternity homes that each served a population of about 10,000 people. The homes were well equipped with trained nurse-midwives, medical rooms, and equipment, and were connected by roads and telephones with Kasturba Hospital. High risk cases were transported by air to Kasturba Hospital. Birth weight was recorded with a UNICEF infant lever balance scale within one hour of delivery. Between July 1985 and June 1988, 4498 singleton live births were recorded: 2308 (51.3%) boys and 2190 (48.7%) girls. 80% weighed between 2500 and 3400 g. 13.3% were low birth weight of under 2500 g, and 0.4% were very low birth weight of under 1500 g. The mean birth weight was 2823 g: 2850 g for boys and 2765.4 for girls. The mean birth weight increased with maternal age; it also increased with increased parity and increased gestation age. The lowest birth weight of 2767.7 g occurred among first births; the highest of 2897.6 g was among births to women with multiple births. 91.3% were born between 37-40 weeks, and 7.5% were preterm. There were statistically significant differences in the mean birth weights by gender. 9.1% of births were to teenagers, and 69% of mothers were 20-29 years old. 30% of births were first births, and 51% were second and third births. The small family norm appeared to be accepted by this study population. PMID:7890348

  3. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  4. Maternal nutrition and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Martorell, R; Gonzalez-cossio, T

    1987-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) babies (2500 gm or less at birth) are more likely to die and suffer sequelae. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) babies also weight the same, but they are born at 37 weeks or over. Small for gestational age (SGA) is a related term used for babies weighing less than expected. 20.6 million LBW babies were born in 1979, most of then in developing countries. In the US, 12.1% of nonwhites vs. 6% of whites had LBW babies in 1980 (50% of infant deaths were attributed to LBWs). A study in Guatemala showed that LBWs accounted for 88% of neonatal deaths. 15-21% of the US decline in neonatal mortality since the 1960s was due to birth weight distribution. 50% of the decline in Alabama was attributable to improved obstetrical care from 1970 to 1980. 12,000 Finnish children were followed up for 14 years, and those born with weights below the mean had significantly higher mortality than normal weight children. The saving of very LBW babies by medical technology has raised ethical questions, as many have mental and physical retardation and the expenses are enormous. SGAs have smaller stature IUGR/low ponderal index infants had 2.9-5.7 times the mortality of full-term normal infants, and they also had poorer academic progress, but IUGR/adequate ponderal index babies fared even worse. Such afflictions carry across generations, as evidenced by a Seattle study on 748 white women indicating impaired reproductive performance of female infants. Some of the components producing LBW are: maternal genetic, social, cultural, and nutritional factors, smoking, and dieting during pregnancy, wars and famines (e.g., Leningrad and Wuppertal during and after World War II). Anthropometric studies indicate that mothers with greater body size have larger babies, but genetics also play a role here. Intervention studies confirmed the importance of nutrition: in a Mexican study and increase of 180 gm of birth weight and 29.6% reduction of LBW was produced by supplementation

  5. Geographic distribution of unexplained low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, C.J.; Samuhel, M.E.; Glick, B.J.; Welsh, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    Low birth weight, largely in the form of intrauterine growth retardation, has been used in animal studies as a sensitive indicator of adverse reproductive outcomes to suspect toxic agents. Methodological problems have severely curtailed studies of low birth weight for human risk assessment. For white and black births, we explore the use of statistical techniques to adjust for maternal risk factors and to isolate US counties having a significantly elevated rate of unexplained low-birth-weight births in 1979. The data are derived from individual birth certificate information made available by the National Center for Health Statistics. Removing variation due to socioeconomic and other intrinsic factors available on birth certificates, clusters of high-risk counties appear. This paper discusses the methodology used to identify these counties.

  6. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field. PMID:23054892

  7. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  8. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  9. Birth Weight and Subsequent Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Wallace, Robert B; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Robinson, Jennifer G; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wellons, Melissa F; Saftlas, Audrey F; Snetselaar, Linda G; Manson, JoAnn E; Hou, Lifang; Qi, Lihong; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the association between self-reported birth weight and incident cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study cohort, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods 65,850 women reported their birth weight by category (<6 lbs., 6 lbs.–7 lbs. 15 oz., 8 lbs.–9 lbs. 15 oz., and ≥10 lbs.). All self-reported, incident cancers were adjudicated by study staff. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) for associations between birth weight and: 1) all cancer sites combined, 2) gynecologic cancers, and 3) several site-specific cancer sites. Results After adjustments, birth weight was positively associated with the risk of lung cancer (p=0.01), and colon cancer (p=0.04). An inverse trend was observed between birth weight and risk for leukemia (p=0.04). A significant trend was not observed with breast cancer risk (p=0.67); however, women born weighing ≥10 lbs. were less likely to develop breast cancer compared to women born between 6 lbs.–7 lbs. 15 oz (aHR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63, 0.94). Conclusion Birth weight category appears to be significantly associated with the risk of any postmenopausal incident cancer, though the direction of the association varies by cancer type. PMID:25096278

  10. Preconception Stress, Birth Weight, and Birth Weight Disparities among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Hogan, Vijaya K.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Suchindran, Chirayath M.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of preconception acute and chronic stressors on offspring birth weight and racial/ethnic birth weight disparities. Methods We included birth weights for singleton live first (n=3512) and second (n=1901) births to White, Mexican- and other-origin Latina, and Black women reported at Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (2007-2008; ages 24-32). We generated factor scores for preconception acute and chronic stressors from Wave I (1994-1995; ages 11-19) or III (2001-2002; ages 18-26) for the same cohort of women. Results Linear regression models indicated that chronic stressors, but not acute stressors, were inversely associated with birth weight for both first and second births (b= -192; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -270, -113; and b= -180; 95% CI: -315, -45 respectively), and partially explained the disparities in birth weight between the minority racial/ethnic groups and Whites. Conclusions Preconception chronic stressors contribute to restricted birth weight and to racial/ethnic birth weight disparities. PMID:24922164

  11. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Ho; Moon, Joo-Young; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yong-Sung; Lee, Kyung-Suk; Chang, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs) over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. Methods We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960's to 1990's) and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010). The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. Results The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960's and 1970's and 4 to 7% in the 1980's and 1990's. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993), 6.3% (1995), 5.1% (2000), 4.5% (2000), and 3.5% (2010). In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants' were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%), 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%), 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%), 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%), and >6.0 kg (0.0%) in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%), normal (91.0%), and high birth weights (3.6%): an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs) and HBWIs. Conclusion The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs. PMID:22977440

  12. Sonography in Fetal Birth Weight Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Oyekan, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of fetal birth weight is an important factor in the management of high risk pregnancies. The information and knowledge gained through this study, comparing a combination of various fetal parameters using computer assisted analysis, will help the obstetrician to screen the high risk pregnancies, monitor the growth and development,…

  13. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  14. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  15. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight. RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents. CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight. PMID:26398873

  16. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  17. Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P  0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

  18. [Nutrition of low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Dragomir, Cristiana; Florescu, Laura; Stârcea, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    The low birth weight infant's (LBW) nutrition needs special attention. Energy requirements are increased due to a high metabolic rate and a low thermogenesis. Increased protein requirements are, easy to be absorbed (from lacto-serum). Lipids, as important energetic source requires an appropriate content in essential fatty acids and medium chain triglycerides (TGM) which are easy absorbed in absence of lipase and deficit of bile salt secretion. The carbohydrates should be represented by lactose or equivalents like di-, oligo or polysaccharides. The addition of maltodextrin avoid an exaggerate supply and incomplete digestion of lactose. Sodium requirement are increased due to exaggerated loss consequence of renal immaturity. The rapid rate of growth impose the addition of Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Copper, and vitamins, especially Vitamin D, E and Folic acid. The appropriate nutrition of LBW must cover his special needs to maintain the homeostasis and rapid growth. Precise nutrient requirements are, however, difficult to establish. PMID:18677901

  19. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  20. Low birth weight: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During our phylogenetic evolution we have selected genes, the so called thrifty genes, that can help to maximize the amount of energy stored from every consumed calorie. An imbalance in the amount of stored calories can lead to many diseases. In the early 80’s the distinguished English epidemiologist David Barker, formulated a hypothesis suggesting that many events that occur during the intrauterine life and early in infancy can influence the occurrence of many diseases that will develop in adulthood. This theory proposes that under-nutrition and other insult or adverse stimulus in utero and during infancy can permanently change the body’s structure, physiology and metabolism. The lasting or lifelong effects of under-nutrition will depend on the period in the development at which it occurs. The clues that led Barker to his conclusions started to be discovered when he was studying the temporal trends in the incidence of ischemic heart disease in England and Wales. Examining data found in The Hertfordshire records, collected in the beginning of the last century, he found that the rates of mortality by ischemic heart disease was much higher in children born in less affluent counties and mostly in those with low birth weight. After his initial findings a myriad of diseases have been found to be linked to low birth weight and under-nutrition in utero and in the neonatal period. These diseases were then nominated adult diseases with fetal origin. Epidemiological studies that led to these findings suggest that in utero and early postnatal life have critical importance for long-term programming of health and disease, opening unique chances for primary prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:24128325

  1. Paternal factors to the offspring birth weight: the 829 birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cuifang; Huang, Tingting; Cui, Fangfang; Gao, Mengting; Song, Lifang; Wang, Suqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contributions of parental, especially paternal factors to the offspring birth weight. Methods: Eligible 829 live-born, singleton children living in Hubei, China were recruited. Birth weight were measured immediately after birth and information about the parents were collected by face-to-face interview using questionnaire. Association between parental factors and birth weight was evaluated using univariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models. Results: Fathers living in the rural area had offspring with higher risk of low birth weight when compared with fathers who live in the capital city. Maternal lower education, lower gestational weight gain, being primipara and shorter gestational age were risk factors for low birth weight. In addition, Mothers with the history of chronic disease had higher risk to deliver a low birth weight baby. On the contrary, women who increased non-staple food consumption during pregnancy had higher risk to have a macrosomic pregnancy. However, lifestyle factors including diet, exercise, screen time, drinking and smoking from both maternal and paternal exhibited little influence on fetal birth weight. Conclusion: Paternal as well as maternal factors exert influence on the fetal birth weight, although maternal factors make bigger contributions. Compared with socioeconomic and obstetric factors, lifestyle before and during pregnancy has less influence on fetal birth weight, suggested that special attention should be paid to antenatal care for the pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status in rural area. PMID:26379952

  2. Grandmothers’ Smoking in Pregnancy and Grandchildren’s Birth Weight: Comparisons by Grandmother Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether grandmothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy was associated with birth weights in their grandchildren, considering possible birth cohort effects in the grandmothers’ generation. Methods The birth weights of 935 singleton children were compared by grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking status during pregnancy. In 2008, women (n=397) from the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were interviewed about their own birth history, including whether their own mother smoked while pregnant with them, and the birth histories of their offspring. While also accounting for family clustering, linear mixed models were used to evaluate whether birth weight differences in the grandchildren were associated with grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy. Associations were compared among grandmothers born from 1904–1928 versus grandmothers born from 1929–1945 to determine potential birth cohort effects. Results Forty-six (5%) grandchildren had grandmothers and mothers who smoked while pregnant, while 455 (49%) had grandmothers and mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. After adjustment, birth weight was an average of 346 (95% confidence interval: 64 to 628) grams higher in grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both smoked during pregnancy relative to grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both did not smoke during pregnancy, but only among grandmothers who were born from 1929–1945. For grandmothers born from 1904–1928, grandchildren birth weights did not differ by grandmother and mother smoking status. Conclusions Birth weight may be associated with grandmother and mother smoking behaviors during pregnancy, but birth cohort effects should be considered. PMID:24337862

  3. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  4. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  5. INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL CORRELATES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIENER, GERALD

    LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN WERE STUDIED LONGITUDINALLY TO DETERMINE WHETHER--(1) THE RELATIVE INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OF PREMATURE CHILDREN IS STATIC OR CHANGES WITH TIME, (2) A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILD NOT NOTED TO BE IN NEUROLOGICAL DISTRESS COULD HAVE A POOR PROGNOSIS, AND (3) SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS COULD ARISE AS A CONSEQUENCE…

  6. The low-birth-weight infant

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471

  7. Community Income, Smoking, and Birth Weight Disparities in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy Harris; Bruce, Marino A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which community-level income and smoking status were associated with birth-weight disparities in the state of Wisconsin. Data included 1998 and 1999 birth record files with appended census income data for African-American, Latino, and White single births in Wisconsin. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed where the dependent variable included low birth weight (LBW: < 2,500 grams) and very low birth weight (VLBW: < 1,500 grams) relative to normal birth weight. The independent variables included income levels categorized as poor (< $12,499), lower middle ($12,500–34,999), and upper middle to affluent ($35,000 or more) determined by zip code, and smoking status (yes/no). African-American and Latino mothers who lived in poor communities and smoked were almost three times more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) infant than their more affluent, non-smoking counterparts. Community income and smoking status played significant roles in birth weight disparities. PMID:18318327

  8. Care of low birth weight babies in slums.

    PubMed

    Patel, R B

    1989-01-01

    We studied 289 newborn infants from birth till one year of age. Low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) were 52.9%. Boys suffered 9.7 episodes of sickness, and girls 8.6 episodes of sickness. The mean episodes of various sicknesses, and their impact on weight gain, feeding pattern and growth pattern are discussed. Six deaths were observed, of which 4 were among the low birth weight babies. Mortality in babies born less than 2 kg was 44.4% and above 2 kg was less than 1%. PMID:2807450

  9. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  10. Percentage of Infants Born at a Low Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... a risk factor for poor lifetime health outcomes. Data Source: National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) Metrics Calculation: Percent low birth weight equals the percentage of all infants delivered that weigh less than 2,500 grams per specified group. Data is based on 100 percent of birth certificates ...

  11. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  12. Grip strength at four years in relation to birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, R.; Macdonald-Wallis, C.; Kapasi, T.; Sayer, A. A.; Robinson, S.; Godfrey, K.; Cooper, C.; Harvey, N.; Inskip, H.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent positive relationships have been found between birth weight and grip strength in adults but evidence in children is limited. In a prospective general population birth cohort (Southampton Women’s Survey) grip strength and anthropometry (height and weight) were measured in 968 children at age 4 years. Mean (standard deviation (S.D.)) birth weight was 3.48 (0.52) kg. Birth weight, adjusted for sex and gestational age, was positively associated with grip strength (β = 0.22 kg/S.D. increase in adjusted birth weight; 95% CI 0.11, 0.34). The relationship was attenuated after adjustment for current height and weight such that it became non-significant (β = 0.03 kg/S.D. increase in adjusted birth weight; 95% CI −0.08, 0.14), suggesting that body size may be on the causal pathway. Early influences on muscle development appear to impact on grip strength in children as well as adults. PMID:24294479

  13. Child Health USA 2013: Low Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 61 no 8. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2013. ↑ Back to top Graphs This image is described in the Data section. This image is described in the Data ...

  14. Breast cancer risk in opposite-sexed twins: influence of birth weight and co-twin birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Öberg, Sara; Iliadou, Anastasia Nyman; Cnattingius, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Most, but not all, studies report a positive association between birth weight, as an indirect marker of prenatal hormone exposure, and offspring breast cancer risk, particularly premenopausal breast cancer. Females from opposite-sexed twin pairs may also be prenatally exposed to androgens from their twin brothers. A Swedish study of opposite-sexed twins with a small sample size found a very strong positive association between female birth weight and breast cancer risk. In this case-control study, nested within a cohort of female opposite-sexed twins, we included 543 breast cancer case subjects diagnosed in the period from 1972 to 2008 and 2715 matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression estimated the breast cancer risk associated with birth weight and other birth characteristics, including gestational age and co-twin birth weight. All statistical tests were two-sided. There was no association between birth weight (odds ratio = 1.01; 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 1.46) or twin brother's birth weight and risk of breast cancer, which suggests the previously reported strong positive association may have been a chance finding. PMID:24231452

  15. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor. PMID:26754741

  16. Birth Weight, Breast Cancer and the Potential Mediating Hormonal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Thune, Inger; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Malone, Fergal D.; D’Alton, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that woman’s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother’s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. Methods and Findings Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant’s birth weight, mother’s own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3), anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years) 31 women (7.6 %) were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile) had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–5.2; P = 0.012). The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2–5.6; P = 0.021). An infant’s birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother’s serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. Conclusions Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother’s own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression. PMID

  17. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    PubMed

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes. PMID:6505690

  18. Correlation between gestational weight gain and birth weight of the infants.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, I; Sunuwar, L; Bhandary, S; Sharma, P

    2010-06-01

    Birth weight is an important determinant of infant's well being as low birth weight is known to increase the risk adult onset of diseases like type-2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Maternal weight gain is one of the most important independent predictors of infant birth weight. Institute of Medicine of the National Academics, USA has recommended that total weight gain of mothers should be according to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Therefore, this study was conducted to observe the total weight gained by the pregnant women and the correlation between the weights gained by them with the birth weight of their infants. 98 women who delivered full term single baby at Patan hospital were included after taking their verbal consent. The details of the newborn and the history of the pregnant women were taken from the hospital records. The information about the family income, dietary habit, birth spacing and the type of work done by the pregnant women was obtained from the women themselves. The mean weight gain of the mothers was 9.48 (SD = 3.41) kilograms and the mean birth weight of the infants was found to be 2965.66 (SD = 364.37) grams. Multiple Liner Regression Models showed the effect of Gestational weight gain (GWG), Age and Parity on birth weight of the infant. Step-wise multiple regressions gave rise to models that showed effect of GWG and age on birth weight of the infants. This study concluded that gestational weight gain has positive linear relationship (correlation) with the birth weight of infants. PMID:21222408

  19. Use of a simple anthropometric measurement to predict birth weight. WHO Collaborative Study of Birth Weight Surrogates.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Low-birth-weight babies are most at risk of infant mortality. Unfortunately, in many developing countries it is not possible to weigh babies accurately because of the lack of robust scales. This article describes the results of a WHO Collaborative Study to investigate whether birth weight can be predicted accurately using chest circumference and/or arm circumference. The implications of the results for paediatric practice in developing countries are discussed. PMID:8490977

  20. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  1. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  2. Birth weight and childhood obesity: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Y; Ma, J; Wang, Y; Li, W; Katzmarzyk, P T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Johnson, W D; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Church, T S; Zhao, P; Hu, G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the association between the full range of birth weight and the risk of childhood obesity in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between different levels of birth weight and the risk of obesity among children aged 9–11 years in 12 countries. METHODS: A multinational, cross-sectional study of 5141 children aged 9–11 years was conducted in 12 countries. Height and weight were obtained using standardized methods. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary and sleeping were objectively measured using 24-h, waist-worn accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+) monitored for 7 days. Birth weight and other factors (regions, parental education, maternal history of gestational diabetes, children age, gender, breast feeding, gestational age, unhealthy diet scores and healthy diet scores) were collected by parental and children's questionnaires. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the nested nature of the data. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity (BMI z-score>+2 s.d.) was 15.4% for boys and 10.0% for girls. There was a positive association between birth weight and BMI z-scores. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood obesity were significantly higher among children whose birth weights were 3500–3999 g (OR 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.92), and >4000 g (OR 2.08; 95% CI: 1.47–2.93), compared with the reference group (2500–2999 g). The positive association between birth weight and the odds of childhood obesity was seen in girls, whereas a U-shaped association appeared in boys. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of birth weight, defined as birth weight ⩾3500 g, were associated with increased odds of obesity among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries. However, sex differences in the association between birth weight and the risk of obesity need to be considered when planning interventions to reduce

  3. Community perceptions of birth weight in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: implications for care of low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Darmstadt, G L; Kumar, V; Yadav, R; Shearer, J C; Baqui, A H; Awasthi, S; Singh, J V; Mehrotra, H; Srivastava, K; Gupta, A; Sharma, A; Winch, P J; Santosham, M

    2008-12-01

    Effective implementation of interventions targeting low birth weight (LBW) and preterm infants, who contribute 60 to 80% of all neonatal deaths, requires an understanding of local people's perceptions of birth weight. This study was conducted to understand how birth weight is perceived in a low-resource setting, including the etiology, signs and care given to infants of various weights. In this qualitative research study, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with recently delivered women (RDW) and their families, as well as local health stakeholders in a rural North Indian community. Birth weight per se is not considered a determinant of newborn health. Instead, newborns are classified into types, and care is provided based on these types. Classification is based on observable criteria, including feeding, vigor and alertness, and interviewees did not always consider low weight a criterion for weak type. In communities that do not perceive birth weight to be an important determinant of health, public health programmes and practitioners must reframe messages regarding additional care for LBW infants at home and care seeking outside the home in locally relevant ways. PMID:19057569

  4. Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity.

    PubMed

    Bobak, M

    2000-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NO(x)) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by all monitors in the district of birth of each infant. Odds ratios of low birth weight (< 2,500 g), prematurity (< 37 weeks of gestation), and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; < 10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age and sex) were estimated by robust logistic regression. The median (and 25th and 75th percentile) trimester exposures were 32 (18, 56) microg/m(3) for SO(2); 72 (55, 87) microg/m(3) for TSP; and 38 (23, 59) microg/m(3) for NO(x). Low birth weight (prevalence 5.2%) and prematurity (prevalence 4.8%) were associated with SO(2) and somewhat less strongly with TSP. IUGR was not associated with any pollutant. The effects on low birth weight and prematurity were marginally stronger for exposures in the first trimester, and were not attenuated at all by adjustment for socioeconomic factors or the month of birth. Adjusted odds ratios of low birth weight were 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.30] and 1.15 (CI, 1.07-1.24) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester; adjusted odds ratios of prematurity were 1.27 (CI, 1.16-1.39) and 1.18 (CI, 1.05-1.31) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester. Low gestational age accounted for the association between SO(2) and low birth weight. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:10656859

  5. Birth weight and postnatal growth of pure-bred kittens.

    PubMed

    Moik, Katja; Kienzle, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    Data on body weight of pure-bred kittens (Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Birman, Persian, Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cat) from birth (n 245) to 12 weeks of age (n 135) were obtained from breeders. Absolute birth weight (in g) was higher in larger breeds than in smaller breeds, whereas relative birth weight (in % of mature female weight) tended to be higher in smaller breeds (Maine Coon 115 g, 2.3 %; Norwegian Forest Cat 106 g, 2.7 %; Birman 97 g, 2.8 %; Siamese 92 g, 2.8 %; Persian 82 g, 3.2 %). Relative birth weight was lower than that described in the literature for colony cats. Relative litter weight was highest in Norwegian Forest Cats (14.6 (SD 1.8) %; n 10) and lowest in Birmans (8.8 (SD 3.1) %, n 7; P < 0.05); the other breeds were in-between (11.9 (SD 2.0) %; n 19). Absolute growth was faster in larger breeds than in smaller breeds. In relation to expected mature weight, there was good agreement with data from colony cats but no clear-cut effect of breed size. There appeared to be a trend to an earlier onset of sexual dimorphism in larger breeds. PMID:22005433

  6. Incense Burning during Pregnancy and Birth Weight and Head Circumference among Term Births: The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le-Yu; Ho, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incense burning for rituals or religious purposes is an important tradition in many countries. However, incense smoke contains particulate matter and gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are potentially harmful to health. Objectives: We analyzed the relationship between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. We also analyzed whether the associations varied by sex and along the distribution of birth outcomes. Methods: We performed ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions analysis on a sample of 15,773 term births (> 37 gestational weeks; 8,216 boys and 7,557 girls) in Taiwan in 2005. The associations were estimated separately for boys and girls as well as for the population as a whole. We controlled extensively for factors that may be correlated with incense burning and birth weight and head circumference, such as parental religion, demographics, and health characteristics, as well as pregnancy-related variables. Results: Findings from fully adjusted OLS regressions indicated that exposure to incense was associated with lower birth weight in boys (–18 g; 95% CI: –36, –0.94) but not girls (1 g; 95% CI: –17, 19; interaction p-value = 0.31). Associations with head circumference were negative for boys (–0.95 mm; 95% CI: –1.8, –0.16) and girls (–0.71 mm; 95% CI: –1.5, 0.11; interaction p-values = 0.73). Quantile regression results suggested that the negative associations were larger among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Conclusions: OLS regressions showed that prenatal incense burning was associated with lower birth weight for boys and smaller head circumference for boys and girls. The associations were more pronounced among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Further research is necessary to confirm whether incense burning has differential effects by sex. Citation: Chen LY, Ho C. 2016. Incense burning during

  7. Severe obesity, gestational weight gain, and adverse birth outcomes123

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Himes, Katherine P; Abrams, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Reevaluate Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines concluded that there were too few data to inform weight-gain guidelines by obesity severity. Therefore, the committee recommended a single range, 5–9 kg at term, for all obese women. Objective: We explored associations between gestational weight gain and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, spontaneous preterm births (sPTBs), and medically indicated preterm births (iPTBs) among obese women who were stratified by severity of obesity. Design: We studied a cohort of singleton, live-born infants without congenital anomalies born to obesity class 1 (prepregnancy body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)]: 30–34.9; n = 3254), class 2 (BMI: 35–39.9; n = 1451), and class 3 (BMI: ≥40; n = 845) mothers. We defined the adequacy of gestational weight gain as the ratio of observed weight gain to IOM-recommended gestational weight gain. Results: The prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain declined, and weight loss increased, as obesity became more severe. Generally, weight loss was associated with an elevated risk of SGA, iPTB, and sPTB, and a high weight gain tended to increase the risk of LGA and iPTB. Weight gains associated with probabilities of SGA and LGA of ≤10% and a minimal risk of iPTB and sPTB were as follows: 9.1–13.5 kg (obesity class 1), 5.0–9 kg (obesity class 2), 2.2 to <5.0 kg (obesity class 3 white women), and <2.2 kg (obesity class 3 black women). Conclusion: These data suggest that the range of gestational weight gain to balance risks of SGA, LGA, sPTB, and iPTB may vary by severity of obesity. PMID:20357043

  8. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on sow colostral IgG concentration, being 5% higher in multiparous females. Sow colostral IgG concentration explained 6% and piglet birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P < 0.05); however, birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on % survival. Piglets with 1,000 mg/dl serum IgG or less (n=24) had a 67% survival; whereas, piglets with IgG concentrations between 2250 to 2500 mg/dl (n=247) had a 91% survival. Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P < 0.05). Piglets weighing 0.9 kg (n = 107) at birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning. PMID:23259926

  9. Salt sensitivity of children with low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giacomo D; Raio, Luigi; Surbek, Daniel; Nelle, Mathias; Frey, Felix J; Mohaupt, Markus G

    2008-10-01

    Compromised intrauterine fetal growth leading to low birth weight (<2500 g) is associated with adulthood renal and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of salt intake on blood pressure (salt sensitivity) in children with low birth weight. White children (n=50; mean age: 11.3+/-2.1 years) born with low (n=35) or normal (n=15) birth weight and being either small or appropriate for gestational age (n=25 in each group) were investigated. The glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the Schwartz formula, and renal size was measured by ultrasound. Salt sensitivity was assigned if mean 24-hour blood pressure increased by >or=3 mm Hg on a high-salt diet as compared with a controlled-salt diet. Baseline office blood pressure was higher and glomerular filtration rate lower in children born with low birth weight as compared with children born at term with appropriate weight (P<0.05). Salt sensitivity was present in 37% and 47% of all of the low birth weight and small for gestational age children, respectively, higher even than healthy young adults from the same region. Kidney length and volume (both P<0.0001) were reduced in low birth weight children. Salt sensitivity inversely correlated with kidney length (r(2)=0.31; P=0.005) but not with glomerular filtration rate. We conclude that a reduced renal mass in growth-restricted children poses a risk for a lower renal function and for increased salt sensitivity. Whether the changes in renal growth are causative or are the consequence of the same abnormal "fetal programming" awaits clarification. PMID:18695145

  10. Relationship between maternal periodontal status and preterm low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Mansi; Khatri, Manish; Kumar, Ashish; Bhatia, Gouri

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, there has been the belief that diseases that affect the mouth, such as periodontal disease, can have an effect on the rest of the body. It is only very recently that scientists and clinicians have begun to provide an increasing body of scientific evidence suggesting that moderate untreated periodontitis may affect an individual systemically, and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Birth weight is affected by multiple factors and is considered as an outcome of a complex multifactorial system. Periodontitis is a remote gram-negative infection that may play a role in low birth weight. Periodontopathic microorganisms and their products have a wide range of effects mediated through host cytokine production in target cells. Many combined animal studies and data supporting plausible biologic mechanisms suggest that periodontal infection has a negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. PMID:24826203

  11. Vitamin A status of low and normal birth weight infants at birth and in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ramesh; Virmani, Deenanath; Jaipal, Munnalal; Gupta, Shuchita; Toteja, G S

    2013-10-01

    Serum retinol levels of low birth weight (LBW; birth weight < 2500 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight ≥ 2500 g) infants were evaluated at birth and 3 months using high performance liquid chromatography. At birth, levels were 13.3 ± 8.2 ug/dL in LBW (n=146) and 14.0 ± 6.2 ug/dL in NBW infants (n = 79; p = 0.51), with 41.1% of LBW and 24.1% of NBW infants having vitamin A deficiency (VAD, < 10 ug/dL; P = 0.01). At follow up, levels were 18.0 ± 9.4 ug/dL in LBW (n = 83) and 20.0 ± 7.3 ug/dL in NBW infants (n = 51; P = 0.19), with 18.1% of LBW and 3.9% of NBW infants having VAD (P = 0.02). PMID:23798634

  12. Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre—pregnancy BMI and socio—economic status in Northern Ghana. Methods The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri—urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37–42 weeks). Mother’s height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions. Results The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37%) but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%). Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18–444) heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682– (-276) lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87–405) and 595g (95% CI 375–815) respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 –(-44) lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg. Conclusion Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting

  13. Low birth weight: impact on women’s health

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose First proposed by Dr. David Barker and now supported by numerous epidemiological and experimental studies, the theory of the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesizes that low birth weight (5.5 pounds or less) indicative of poor fetal growth is associated with an increased risk for chronic, non-communicable disease in later life including hypertension, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. Whether women are at greater risk than men is not clear. Experimental studies that mimic the cause of slow fetal growth are being used to examine the underlying mechanisms that link a poor fetal environment with later chronic disease and investigate how sex and age impact programmed risk. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the current literature related to the impact of low birth weight on women’s health and provide insight into potential mechanisms that program increased risk of chronic disease across the lifespan. Methods A search of PubMed was utilized with key words related to low birth weight, women’s health, female and sex differences; additional terms included blood pressure, hypertension, renal, cardiovascular, obesity, glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, bone health, reproductive senescence, menopause and aging. Findings The major chronic diseases associated with low birth weight include high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, impaired glucose homeostasis and Type 2 Diabetes, impaired bone mass and osteoporosis, and early reproductive aging. Implications Low birth weight increases the risk for chronic disease in men and women. Low birth weight is also associated with increased risk for early menopause. Further studies are needed to fully address the impact of sex and age on the developmental programming of adult health and disease in women across their lifespan. PMID:25064626

  14. High Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14524

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesur, Resul; Rashad, Inas

    2008-01-01

    While the effects of low birth weight have long been explored, those of high birth weight have been essentially ignored. Economists have analyzed the negative effects that low birth weight might have on subsequent school outcomes, while taking into account unobserved characteristics that may be common to families with low birth weight babies and…

  15. Nutritional support of very low birth weight newborns.

    PubMed

    Ditzenberger, Georgia

    2009-06-01

    Nutritional support to promote optimal postnatal growth for very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns less than 1500 g at birth during the initial prolonged hospitalization is a significant issue. This article reviews the concepts involved in the nutritional support of VLBW newborns, including definitions and discussions of growth, optimal postnatal growth, body composition, initial weight loss, growth expectations, growth assessment tools used during the postnatal period, the relation between inadequate nutrition and neurodevelopment, the relation between protein intake and cognitive outcome, postnatal nutrition balance, the potential for programming of future adult-onset chronic conditions, a review of fetal nutritional intake, and current recommendations for nutritional support of VLBW newborns. PMID:19460663

  16. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBW<2500), very low birth weight (VLBW<1500), extremely low birth weight (ELBW<1500) infants are at high risk for growth failure that result in delayed development. Africa is a continent that presents high rates of children born with LBW, VLBW and ELBW particularly sub-Saharan Africa. To review the existing literature that explores the repercussions of LBW, VLBW and ELBW on growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality in African children aged 0-5 years old. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles using Academic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  17. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  18. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. PMID:26245767

  19. Treatment of trichomoniasis in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa does not appear to be associated with low birth weight or preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Elizabeth; Read, Jennifer S; Hoffman, Irving; Valentine, Megan; Aboud, Said; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether treatment of trichomoniasis increases the risk of prematurity. Design Sub-analysis of a randomised trial. Setting We analysed data from HPTN 024, a randomised trial of antenatal and intrapartum antibiotics to reduce chorioamnionitis-related perinatal HIV transmission. Subjects Pregnant women from four sites in Africa. Outcome measures Gestational age at the time of delivery or mean birth weight. Results Of 2 428 women-infant pairs included, 428 (18%) had trichomoniasis at enrolment. There were no differences in infant age or birth weight between women with or without trichomoniasis. By randomisation group, there were no differences in gestational age at birth or birth weight. Of the 428 women diagnosed with trichomoniasis, 365 (83%) received antibiotics and 63 (15%) did not. In analysis of actual use of antibiotics, women with trichomoniasis who received no treatment were more likely to deliver a preterm infant when the symphysis-fundal height was used to estimate gestational age (36% v. 23%; p=0.03), but not when the Ballard score was used (16% v. 21%; p=0.41). There were no differences in mean birth weight between groups. Conclusions In pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, most of whom were HIV-infected, neither trichomoniasis nor its treatment appears to influence the risk of preterm birth or a low-birth-weight infant. PMID:20429491

  20. The Micropremie: Infants with Birth Weight Less than 800 Grams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward

    1996-01-01

    Outcomes for infants with birth weights less than 800 grams, consequences for their families, and implications for primary care providers are considered. Early identification of difficulties, such as disorders of sensory integration and learning disabilities, and early intervention are advocated. Follow-up when the child is school-age is also…

  1. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  2. Prenatal Smoking Exposure, Low Birth Weight, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Prenatal problems are among theorized etiologies for child disruptive behavior problems. A key question concerns whether etiological contributors are shared across the broad range of disruptive psychopathology or are partially or largely distinct. Method: We examined prenatal smoking exposure and low birth weight as risk factors for…

  3. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth-weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of more than 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, the authors investigate whether birth…

  4. Attachment Security in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compared 34 infants of very low birth weight (VLBW) and 40 full-term infants, using Ainsworth's Strange Situation procedure and Waters' Attachment Q-Set. Found that, at 14 months, VLBW infants were more likely than full-term infants to be insecurely attached when rated using the Q-Set but not when using the Strange Situation. (MDM)

  5. Vasopressin for refractory hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Bidegain, Margarita; Greenberg, Rachel; Simmons, Catherine; Dang, Chi; Cotten, C Michael; Smith, P Brian

    2010-09-01

    Intravenous vasopressin at 0.01 to 0.04 units/kg/h increased median mean blood pressure from 26 mm Hg (range 18-44) to 41 mm Hg (range 17-90) by 12 hours of infusion (P=.002) and allowed weaning of catecholamines in a group of extremely low birth weight infants with refractory hypotension. PMID:20727442

  6. Low Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes: Evidence for a Gradient Relationship in an Urban, Poor, African American Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Noonan, Kelly; Martin, Roy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between low birth weight and cognitive outcomes in an urban, poor, prospectively designed African-American birth cohort. Multivariate analyses of the Pathways to Adulthood study, a subset of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal study, compared low birth weight African-American…

  7. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (< 2500 grams) rates were calculated for non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White live singleton births. Concentrated poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW. These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group. PMID:18807774

  8. Assessing exposure metrics for PM and birth weight models.

    PubMed

    Gray, Simone C; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2010-07-01

    The link between air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes is of public health concern due to the relationship between poor pregnancy outcomes and the onset of childhood and adult diseases. As personal exposure measurements are difficult and expensive to obtain, proximate measures of air pollution exposure are traditionally used. We explored how different air pollution exposure metrics affect birth weight regression models. We examined the effect of maternal exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter <10, <2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10), PM(2.5)) on birth weight among infants in North Carolina. We linked maternal residence to the closest monitor during pregnancy for 2000-2002 (n=350,754). County-level averages of air pollution concentrations were estimated for the entire pregnancy and each trimester. For a finer spatially resolved metric, we calculated exposure averages for women living within 20, 10, and 5 km of a monitor. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between exposure and birth weight, adjusting for standard covariates. In the county-level model, an interquartile increase in PM(10) and PM(2.5) during the entire gestational period reduced the birth weight by 5.3 g (95% CI: 3.3-7.4) and 4.6 g (95% CI: 2.3-6.8), respectively. This model also showed a reduction in birth weight for PM(10) (7.1 g, 95% CI: 1.0-13.2) and PM(2.5) (10.4 g, 95% CI: 6.4-14.4) during the third trimester. Proximity models for 20, 10, and 5 km distances showed results similar to the county-level models. County-level models assume that exposure is spatially homogeneous over a larger surface area than proximity models. Sensitivity analysis showed that at varying spatial resolutions, there is still a stable and negative association between air pollution and birth weight, despite North Carolina's consistent attainment of federal air quality standards. PMID:19773814

  9. Parent and family outcomes following very preterm or very low birth weight birth: a review.

    PubMed

    Treyvaud, Karli

    2014-04-01

    Parents and the family environment have a pronounced influence on child development. For children at increased risk such as those born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW), parent and family functioning can influence the child's level of risk or resilience. This review describes parent and family outcomes after VPT/VLBW birth, specifically parental mental health, parenting stress and the impact of the child on the family. Factors associated with these outcomes are examined, as well as the specific outcomes for fathers. Overall the influence of VPT/VLBW birth on parents and the family appears to be more pronounced in early childhood, with less influence seen by the time of adolescence. Emerging evidence suggests that fathers experience high rates of psychological distress in the first months after VPT birth. Whereas characteristics of the VPT/VLBW child are strongly associated with parent and family outcomes, parent and social factors are also important influences. PMID:24252709

  10. Heifers with low antral follicle counts have low birth weights and produce progeny with low birth weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated that heifers with increased numbers of ovarian antral follicle count (AFC) have improved hormonal profiles and improved fertility. Interestingly, heifers with low AFC had lower birth weights, suggesting that genes influencing growth and development also influence the devel...

  11. Heifers with low antral follicle counts have low birth weights and produce progeny with low birth weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated that heifers with increased numbers of ovarian antral follicle counts (AFC) have improved hormonal profiles and improved fertility. Interestingly, heifers with low AFC had lower birth weights, suggesting that genes influencing growth and development also influence the deve...

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Preconception Stressful Life Events, and Infant Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Park, Hyojun; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Mandell, Kara; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Zarak, Dakota

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine whether the effects of preconception stressful life events (PSLEs) on birth weight differed by neighborhood disadvantage. Methods We drew our data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001–2002; n = 9300). We created a neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI) using county-level data from the 2000 US Census. We grouped the NDI into tertiles that represented advantaged, middle advantaged, and disadvantaged neighborhoods. Stratified multinomial logistic regressions estimated the effect of PSLEs on birth weight, controlling for confounders. Results We found a gradient in the relationship between women's exposure to PSLEs and having a very low birth weight (VLBW) infant by NDI tertile; the association was strongest in disadvantaged neighborhoods (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 2.53), followed by middle (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.93) and advantaged (AOR = 1.29; 95% CI = 0.91, 1.82) neighborhoods. We observed a similar gradient for women with chronic conditions and among minority mothers. Conclusions Women who experienced PSLEs, who had chronic conditions, or were racial/ethnic minorities had the greatest risk of having VLBW infants if they lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods; this suggests exacerbation of risk within disadvantaged environments. Interventions to reduce rates of VLBW should focus on reducing the deleterious effects of stressors and on improving neighborhood conditions. PMID:25790423

  13. Control Systems Engineering for Optimizing a Prenatal Weight Gain Intervention to Regulate Infant Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Dong, Yuwen; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used dynamical systems modeling to describe how a prenatal behavioral intervention that adapts to the needs of each pregnant woman may help manage gestational weight gain and alter the obesogenic intrauterine environment to regulate infant birth weight. Methods. This approach relies on integrating mechanistic energy balance, theory of planned behavior, and self-regulation models to describe how internal processes can be impacted by intervention dosages, and reinforce positive outcomes (e.g., healthy eating and physical activity) to moderate gestational weight gain and affect birth weight. Results. A simulated hypothetical case study from MATLAB with Simulink showed how, in response to our adaptive intervention, self-regulation helps adjust perceived behavioral control. This, in turn, changes the woman’s intention and behavior with respect to healthy eating and physical activity during pregnancy, affecting gestational weight gain and infant birth weight. Conclusions. This article demonstrates the potential for real-world applications of an adaptive intervention to manage gestational weight gain and moderate infant birth weight. This model could be expanded to examine the long-term sustainable impacts of an intervention that varies according to the participant’s needs on maternal postpartum weight retention and child postnatal eating behavior. PMID:24832411

  14. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI. PMID:27013353

  15. Birth weight: a major determinant of child survival.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The problems of maternal malnutrition, low birthweight, and infant mortality and morbidity were investigated in a prospective study (1981-85) involving 7586 pregnant women (3197 from urban areas and 4389 from rural areas) in India. The mothers were followed until their infants were 1 year of age. There were 6879 live births among these women and 208 still births (a rate of 29.3/1000 deliveries). The perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates were 65.3/1000, 57.7/1000, and 94.5/1000, respectively. 90% of these deaths involved infants with a birthweight below 2000 grams. Overall, 39% of infants studied were classified as low birthweight (under 2500 grams). Factors associated with low birthweight included maternal age below 19 years or over 35 years, maternal weight below 40 kg, maternal height below 145 cm, weight gain during pregnancy of under 5 kg, an interpregnancy interval less than 24 months, hemoglobin less than 8 grams%, and maternal illiteracy. Moderate to severe morbidity (neonatalas phyxia) was found in 10% of the births in this series. Breastfeeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 77% of rural births and 13% of urban births; 30% of infants in both settings were given a bottle within the 1st week of life. 98% of rural mothers and 85% of urban mothers did not utilize available maternal-child health services in the postpartum period. Reducing the incidence of low birthweight births through primary health care interventions such as screening, food supplementation, adequate prenatal care, and correction of maternal nutritional deficiencies is the best strategy for improving infant survival in India. In the interim period, adequate health care must be made available to low birthweight infants and proper feeding practices should be promoted. PMID:3440594

  16. Neonatal mortality of low-birth-weight infants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Yasmin, S.; Osrin, D.; Paul, E.; Costello, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the role of low birth weight (LBW) in neonatal mortality in a periurban setting in Bangladesh. METHODS: LBW neonates were recruited prospectively and followed up at one month of age. The cohort of neonates were recruited after delivery in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and 776 were successfully followed up either at home or, in the event of early death, in hospital. FINDINGS: The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) for these infants was 133 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval: 110-159). The corresponding NMRs (and confidence intervals) for early and late neonates were 112 (91-136) and 21 (12-33) per thousand live births, respectively. The NMR for infants born after fewer than 32 weeks of gestation was 769 (563-910); and was 780 (640-885) for infants whose birth weights were under 1500 g. Eighty-four per cent of neonatal deaths occurred in the first seven days; half within 48 hours. Preterm delivery was implicated in three-quarters of neonatal deaths, but was associated with only one-third of LBW neonates. CONCLUSION: Policy-relevant findings were: that LBW approximately doubles the NMR in a periurban setting in Bangladesh; that neonatal mortality tends to occur early; and that preterm delivery is the most important contributor to the NMR. The group of infants most likely to benefit from improvements in low-cost essential care for the newborn accounted for almost 61% of neonatal mortalities in the cohort. PMID:11477963

  17. Cord Blood Insulin Levels: It's Correlation with Gender, Birth Weight and Placental Weight in Term Newborns.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Afzal; Mysore Srikantiah, Rukmini; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Ajay Manjrekar, Poornima; Hegde, Anupama

    2016-10-01

    The cause of more insulin resistance in female than males are still unknown. To know the cause from early life, normal values of relevant parameters are required. So, aim of this study was to determine the reference levels of glucose and insulin in cord blood of term newborns and to examine their effects on gender, placental and birth weight of term newborns. In cross sectional study 60 consecutive term newborns were included from constituent hospitals. Placental and birth weights were measured and cord blood was collected for estimation of serum insulin and plasma glucose. Plasma glucose estimation was done by auto analyzer (GOD-POD method) and serum insulin analysis was done using Insulin ELISA Kit. After analysis, mean ± 2SD used for estimating cord blood insulin and glucose levels, which were 10.1 ± 7.8 μIU/mL and 67.8 ± 33.8 mg/dL respectively. Correlation of insulin with both birth weight and placental weight were r = 0.359 and 0.41 respectively; p < 0.001. Interestingly we found higher insulin levels in females as compared to male newborns in spite of having lower birth weight in them. In conclusion this study reported the levels of insulin and glucose in cord blood of term newborns. Incidentally, this is the first study as per our knowledge to report significant correlation between cord blood insulin, glucose with birth weight, placental weight and gender in south India. Female newborns had higher insulin levels than males, despite lesser birth weight can be attributed to intrinsic insulin resistance in them. PMID:27605744

  18. Relation Between Birth Weight and Weight and Height at Age Two in Children Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Gayle; Weiner, Steven J.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Reddy, Uma M.; Mercer, Brian M.; Varner, Michael W.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Iams, Jay D.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Ramin, Susan M.; Malone, Fergal D.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Dinsmoor, Mara J.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Caritis, Steve N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between fetal growth and weight at two years in infants born preterm using a customized approach for birth weight. Study Design This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter trial that included a two year follow up of children born prematurely. Customized birth weight percentiles were calculated using the Gardosi model for a US population, and the relation between customized percentile and weight and height at two years (adjusted for gender using z score) was determined using regression analysis and by comparing z scores for children with birth weight <10th versus ≥10th percentile. Results Weight z score at two years was significantly lower in the <10th versus ≥10th percentile group (median [IQR]: −0.66 [−1.58, −0.01] vs −0.23 [−1.05, 0.55]; p<0.001), and remained after adjusting for maternal education (p<0.001). A similar relationship was noted for height z score between groups. (median [IQR]: −0.56 [−1.29, 0.19] vs −0.24 [−0.99, 0.37]; p<0.001). Positive relationships between customized birth weight percentile and weight and height at two years were noted (p<0.001 for both), but were not strong (R2= 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions Customized birth weight percentile is a minor determinant of weight at two years among children born preterm. PMID:25730133

  19. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight <750 g, 64 with birth weight 750-1499 g, and 67 term-born controls. Growth modeling of raw scores from mean ages 7-14 years revealed persistent VLBW sequelae. Even when adjusting for IQ, the <750 g group scored more poorly than the term-born group on measures of language processing, verbal list learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. PMID:15012835

  20. Evaluation of aldosterone excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Abdel Mohsen, Abdel Hakeem; Taha, Gamal; Kamel, Bothina A; Maksood, Mohamed Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Data about aldosterone production and excretion in the neonatal period are still few and controversial. Our objectives are to assess urinary aldosterone excretion (UAE) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and to identify clinical and biochemical variables that may influence this excretion. Thirty VLBW infants (14 males and 16 females), their gestational age <32 weeks and body weight <1500 g, were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded, within the first 72 h of life and urine and blood samples were collected for the measurement of urinary aldosterone and serum potassium, sodium, and chloride. The mean UAE value was 0.176 ± 0.05 μg/24 h and the mean absolute UAE was 1906 ± 271 pg/mL. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between UAE and gestational age and birth weight; also, infants with respiratory distress syndrome had higher urinary aldosterone levels than infants without respiratory distress. Only plasma sodium was a significant independent factor that negatively influenced UAE on linear regression analysis. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of VLBW infants seems to be able, even immediately after birth, to respond to variations of plasma sodium concentrations; measurement of UAE constitutes an interesting method to determine aldosterone production in VLBW infants. PMID:27424689

  1. Iron stores in low and normal birth weight infants at birth and in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ramesh; Virmani, Deenanath; Jaipal, Munnalal; Gupta, Shuchita; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Bhatia, Sunita; Agarwal, Anand; Devgan, Veena; Gupta, Nandita; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2014-03-01

    Serum ferritin levels of low birth weight (LBW; BW < 2,500 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; BW ≥ 2,500 g) infants were evaluated at birth and at 3 mo using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. At birth, levels were 318.6 (31.0-829.5) ng/mL in LBW (n = 217) and 366.2 (122.4-858.5) ng/mL in NBW infants (n = 116; p < 0.01), with 1.4 % of LBW and none of the NBW infants having levels <12 ng/mL (p = 0.20). At follow up, levels were 66.9 (4.5-567.7) ng/mL in LBW (n = 126) and 126.2 (6.8-553.7) ng/mL in NBW infants (n = 76; p = 0.27), with 11.9 % of LBW and 11.8 % of NBW infants having levels <12 ng/mL (p = 0.80). PMID:23979924

  2. Cytokines and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Carlo, Waldemar A.; McDonald, Scott A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Das, Abhik; Schendel, Diana; Thorsen, Poul; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M.; Oh, William; Laptook, Abbot R.; Duara, Shahnaz; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Donovan, Edward F.; Korones, Sheldon B.; Stevenson, David K.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Finer, Neil N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Wright, Linda L.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if selected pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/mediators of inflammation reported to be related to development of cerebral palsy predict neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight infants. Study design Infants with birth weights ≤ 1000 g (n=1067) had blood samples collected at birth and on days 3±1, 7±1, 14±3, and 21±3 to examine the association between cytokines and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The analyses were focused on five cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, RANTES, and IL-2) reported to be most predictive of CP in term and late preterm infants. Results IL-8 was higher on days 0–4 and subsequently in infants who developed CP compared with infants who did not develop CP in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Other cytokines (IL-12, IL-17, TNF-β, SIL-rα, MIP-1β) were found to be altered on days 0–4 in infants who developed CP. Conclusions CP in former preterm infants may, in part, have a late perinatal and/or early neonatal inflammatory origin. PMID:21798559

  3. Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Shenkin, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight-cognitive ability association. We…

  4. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  5. Persisting Behavior Problems in Extremely Low Birth Weight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992–1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8 to 14 years. Method Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 weeks) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cut-offs for clinical disorder. Results The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p’s<0.01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p< 0.01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Conclusions ELBW adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood. PMID:25741950

  6. Preventing admission hypothermia in very low birth weight neonates.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia, temperature < 36.5°C, is a major contributor to neonatal mortality and morbidity. hypothermia of preterm infants remains a challenge in the NiCU for many reasons. preterm very low birth weight (VlBW) infants, those infants born <1,500 g, are prone to very rapid heat losses through mechanisms of convection, evaporation, conduction, and radiation. this article reviews current research to reduce and prevent mortality and morbidity from hypothermia in preterm VlBW infants by implementing interventions in the delivery room to minimize heat loss and maintain core body temperatures. PMID:24816875

  7. Birth of a very low birth weight preterm infant and the intention to breastfeed 'naturally'.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Linda

    2008-03-01

    An interpretive phenomenological study involving 17 Australian parents was undertaken to explore parents' experiences of breastfeeding very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants from birth to 12 months of age. Data were collected from 45 individual interviews held with both mothers and fathers, which were then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. From this study, the analysis identified the following themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breastmilk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. The discussion presented here presents the theme of the intention to breastfeed 'naturally'. This study found that all of the participant women decided to breastfeed well before the preterm birth, and despite the birth of a VLBW preterm infant continued to expect the breastfeeding experience to be normal regardless of the difference of the postpartum experience. It is without doubt that for these parents the pro-breastfeeding rhetoric is powerfully influential and thus successful in promoting breastfeeding. Furthermore, all participants expected breastfeeding to be 'natural' and satisfying. There is disparity between parents' expectations of breastfeeding 'naturally' and the commonplace reality of long-term breast expression and uncertain at-breast feeding outcomes. How the parents came to make the decision to breastfeed their unborn child -- including the situations and experiences that have influenced their decision making -- and how the preterm birth and the dominant cultures subsequently affected that decision will be discussed. The findings have implications for midwifery education and maternity care professionals who support parents making feeding decisions early in pregnancy and those striving to breastfeed preterm infants. PMID:18162451

  8. Periodontitis: A risk for delivery of premature labor and low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Saini, Sugandha R

    2010-07-01

    Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth and is caused by specific microorganisms or group of specific microorganisms. The association of periodontal infection with organ systems like cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and respiratory system makes periodontal infection a complex multiphase disease. Inflamed periodontal tissues produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which may have systemic effects on the host. Low birth weight, defined as birth weight less than 2,500 g, continues to be a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Research suggests that the bacteria that cause inflammation in the gums can actually get into the bloodstream and target the fetus, potentially leading to premature labor and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. One reasonable mechanism begins with deleterious effects of endotoxins released from Gram-negative bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. Hence periodontal disease appears to be an independent risk factor for PLBW and there is a need to expand preventive measures for pregnant women in harmonization with the gynecological and dental professions. PMID:22096335

  9. Periodontitis: A risk for delivery of premature labor and low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Saini, Sugandha R

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth and is caused by specific microorganisms or a group of specific microorganisms. Association of periodontal infection with organ systems like cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and respiratory system makes periodontal infection a complex multiphase disease. Inflamed periodontal tissues produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which may have systemic effects on the host. Low birth weight, defined as birth weight less than 2500 g, continues to be a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Research suggests that the bacteria that cause inflammation in the gums can actually get into the bloodstream and target the fetus, potentially leading to premature labor and low birth weight (PLBW) babies. One reasonable mechanism for this is the deleterious effect of endotoxin released from gram-negative bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. Hence, periodontal disease appears to be an independent risk factor for PLBW and there is a need to expand preventive measures for pregnant women in coordination with the gynecological and dental professions. PMID:22470234

  10. The Impact of Extremes in Outdoor Temperature and Sunshine Exposure on Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Poeran, Jashvant; Birnie, Erwin; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2016-01-01

    Following the "fetal origins of adult disease" hypothesis, environmental determinants of birth weight regained interest. The authors applied a detailed spatial-time exposure model for climatological factors thought to affect fetal growth: seasonality, temperature, and sunshine. Daily climatological data (29 stations) were linked to 1,460,401 term births with an individual exposure matrix for each pregnancy. Linear regression was utilized to determine effects of climatological factors on individual birth weight and existing spatial variations in birth weight. In The Netherlands substantial regional climatological differences exist. Summer was associated with significantly reduced birth weight (16-19 g). Minimum and maximum temperatures were significantly associated with increased and reduced birth weight, respectively. Spatial birth weight differences ranged from -11 to +25 g, with lowest birth weights in inland areas. The authors demonstrate birth weight to be associated with climatological factors; negative birth weight effects of maximum temperature exposure confirm results from animal studies. Consequently, a climate footprint is visible in the spatial birth weight differences. PMID:26867297

  11. Validation of the global reference for fetal weight and birth weight percentiles.

    PubMed

    Badade, Anirudh B; Bhide, Amar; Satoskar, Purnima; Wadekar, Darshan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference curves fit the population in India and to validate the reference curves. The data were retrieved retrospectively from the records of women registration for antenatal care at a charitable maternity hospital in Mumbai, India. All pregnancies were dated on CRL obtained before 14 weeks. Births before 34(th) week were excluded. The expected frequencies of birth weights below the 1(st), 5(th), 10(th), 50(th), 90(th), 95(th) and 99(th) centiles from three reference ranges were compared with observed frequencies. It was found that the WHO generic reference adapted to India significantly underpredicted the birth weights and that the Hadlock reference ranges significantly overpredicted the birth weights. The use of generic reference adapted to Sri Lanka showed a better fit to the observed data. We concluded that global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference ranges do not fit all the population in India and the charts need validation. Reference charts modified on the basis of data for Sri Lankan population show a better fit to the observed data, and therefore are more appropriate for use in clinical practice in South India. PMID:24347860

  12. Delayed Prenatal Care and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hueston, William J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Davis, Lucy; Sturgill, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Assessed whether the timing of prenatal care related to low birth weight delivery, adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. Data on births to white and African American women showed no benefits for early initiation of prenatal care in reducing the risk of low birth weight.(SM)

  13. Longitudinal Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, E. M.; Northam, E.; Doyle, L. W.; Callanan, C.; Anderson, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk and protective factors for adult psychiatric disorders in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,501 g) survivors. 79 of 154 (51%) VLBW subjects recruited at birth were assessed in early adulthood (24-27 years). Participants were screened for a psychiatric disorder; those elevated were…

  14. Evaluation of growth in very low birth weight preterm babies

    PubMed Central

    Yeşinel, Serdar; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Yeşinel, Seda; Yıldız, Hayrettin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate physical growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm babies at a mean age of three years and to investigate the factors which affected growth. Material and Methods: The factors including maternal problems, prenatal problems, early neonatal problems, nutrition, familial socioeconomical status and presence of chronic disease which affected catch-up growth in terms of height and weight in VLBW infants followed up in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital were examined. The target height formula was used in assessment of growht in height and the contribution of genetic properties was investigated. The points of the subjects on the growth curve were plotted according to the Percentile Curve of the Turkish Children prepared by Neyzi et al. The states of the subjects with and without intrauterine growth retardation (were compared. The study was intitiated after obtaining approval from the ethics committeee of our hospital (100/25.10.2005). Results: One hundred and seventeen preterm babies (57 females and 60 males) with a mean adjusted age of 35.8±2.39 80 of whom were appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 28 of whom were symmetrical (small gestational age) SGA and 9 of whom were asymmetrical SGA were included in the study. The mean gestational age (GA) was found to be 31±2.16 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was found to be 1271±226 g. The mean current height was found to be 92.06±4.90 cm. The mean weight was found to be 12.98±1.94 kg. The mean target height was calculated to be 163.66±8.1 cm (157.20 cm for the girls and 170.20 cm for the boys). It was found that 15 preterm babies (12.8%) could not achieve the target height (girls: 6%, boys: 6.8%). The risk factors related with failure to achieve target height were found to include ventilator treatment, presence of chronic disease, advanced stage intracranial bleeding (ICB), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, absence of breastfeeding, failure to sit at

  15. Surgery and Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Morriss, Frank H.; Saha, Shampa; Bell, Edward F.; Colaizy, Tarah T.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Hintz, Susan R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Vohr, Betty R.; Hamrick, Shannon E. G.; Pappas, Athina; Jones, Patrick M.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Reduced death and neurodevelopmental impairment among infants is a goal of perinatal medicine. OBJECTIVE To assess the association between surgery during the initial hospitalization and death or neurodevelopmental impairment of very low birth weight infants. DESIGN Retrospective cohort analysis of patients enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Generic Database from 1998–2009 and evaluated at 18–22 months’ corrected age. SETTING 22 academic neonatal intensive care units. PARTICIPANTS Inclusion criteria were: birth weight 401–1500 g; survival to 12 hours; available for follow-up. Some conditions were excluded. 12 111 infants were included in analyses, 87% of those eligible. EXPOSURES Surgical procedures; surgery also classified by expected anesthesia type as major (general anesthesia) or minor surgery (non-general anesthesia). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Multivariable logistic regression analyses planned a priori were performed for the primary outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and for the secondary outcome of neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed as planned for the adjusted means of Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index for patients born before 2006. RESULTS There were 2186 major, 784 minor and 9141 no surgery patients. The risk-adjusted odds ratio of death or neurodevelopmental impairment for all surgery patients compared with those who had no surgery was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08–1.55). For patients who had major surgery compared with those who had no surgery the risk-adjusted odds ratio of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24–1.87). Patients classified as having minor surgery had no increased adjusted risk. Among survivors who had major surgery compared with those who had no surgery

  16. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Muurinen, Mari; Wirta, Sara Bruce; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Andersson, Sture; Kere, Juha; Kajantie, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development. Methods We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2) locus (IGF2/H19) in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) – IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0) and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2) – were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects. Results At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference −0.017 (95% CI; −0.028, −0.005), P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups. Conclusions Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality. PMID:23840686

  17. Birth weight and cognitive function in early adulthood: the Australian Aboriginal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, M S; Mann, K D; Singh, G; Sayers, S M

    2014-06-01

    It has been suggested that in addition to genetic factors, fetal and post-natal growth influence cognition in early adulthood. However, most studies have been in developed populations, so it is unclear if the same findings would be seen in other, less developed, settings, and have used testing tools not applicable to an Australia Aboriginal population. This study investigated the relationships between cognitive function in early adulthood and birth weight and contemporary height. Simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT) and working memory (WM) were assessed using the CogState battery. A significant association was seen between birth weight and SRT in early adulthood, but not with the other two cognitive measures. Urban dwellers had significantly shorter SRT and CRT than their remote counterparts. Contemporary body mass index and maternal age were associated with CRT. Only fetal growth restriction was associated with WM, with greater WM in those with restricted growth. No associations were seen with contemporary height. These results suggest that fetal growth may be more important than the factors influencing post-natal growth in terms of cognition in early adulthood in this population, but that the associations may be inconsistent between cognitive outcomes. Further research is required to identify whether similar associations are seen in other, similar, populations and to assess why differences in cognitive outcome measures are seen. PMID:24901664

  18. Birth weight, domestic violence, coping, social support, and mental health of young Iranian mothers in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Mozhdeh Nasseh Lotf; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Nygren, Lennart; Nojomi, Marzieh; Richter, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of birth weight with sociodemographic variables, domestic violence, ways of coping, social support, and general mental health of Iranian mothers. Six hundred mothers aged 15 to 29 years participated between June 2009 and November 2010. t-Test, analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression were used. The results showed that there was no significant association between birth weight and general mental health of the mothers. Prenatal care visits, the mothers' history of having children with low birth weight (LBW), and weight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight. The women who reported physical abuse during pregnancy had infants with lower birth weight. Satisfaction with social support and use of positive reappraisal were significantly associated with higher birth weight. In conclusion, a high quality of prenatal care and screening of pregnant women are recommended. Social environments good enough during pregnancy have protective effects against LBW. PMID:23817159

  19. [Neurological development disorders in very low birth weight newborns].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Dieppa, F; Soriano-Puig, J A; Roca-Molina, M; Dueñas-Gómez, E

    1992-04-01

    Thirty very low birth weight newborns (less than 1,500 g) were evaluated at term from the neurological point of view, and were followed-up during the first 2 years of life by a multidisciplinary team, in order to detect long term sequelaes. There were 3 patients with major neurological disorders, and one third presented minor alterations. Neurological evaluation at term was a good sequelae predictor. No significative differences were found in perinatal variables: birthweight, gestational age, Apgar's score, ventilotherapy and with presence of intraventricular hemorrhage when normal outcome prematures were compared with those with neurological disorders. Blindness or deafness were not detected. It's important to continue the follow-up study up to the school age. PMID:1305391

  20. Kluyvera ascorbata sepsis in an extremely low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D; Dasi, T; Murki, S; Oleti, T P

    2015-01-01

    Kluyvera ascorbata belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family and is a gram negative micro-organism. This bacteria is usually considered a commensal, however it can cause significant infections rarely. This organism is usually resistant to most commonly used antibiotics used as first line in neonatal units. Antimicrobial agents active against Kluyvera strains include third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. We report a case of an extremely low birth weight male infant who presented on day 4 of life with clinical features of sepsis, multi-organ dysfunction, shock and pulmonary haemorrhage. Neonatal sepsis was associated with marked elevation of C-reactive protein and a falling platelet count. Infant expired on day 5 of life in spite of aggressive supportive care and treatment with meropenem. with growth of Kluyvera ascorbataon blood culture. PMID:26068354

  1. Patent ductus arteriosus in infants of low birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D R; Cook, D H; Izukawa, T; Olley, P M; Swyer, P R; Rowe, R D

    1980-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 239 neonates of low birth weight (less than 2500 g) referred to the Hospital for Sick Children in a 21/2-year period. The respiratory distress syndrome was present in 77% of the group and congestive heart failure in 50%. Spontaneous closure of the defect was more frequent in those without congestive heart failure. In 48 patients whose heart failure could not be controlled by other medical therapy indomethacin was given, and in 20 (42%) it was judged successful. Surgical ligation of the ductus was performed at a median age of 30 days in 33 infants who either failed to respond to indomethacin or in whom its use was contraindicated; there were no intraoperative deaths, but 11 (33%) of the infants died 4 days to 6 months after the operation. PMID:7448679

  2. Low birth weight and obesity: causal or casual casual association?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Adolfo Monteiro; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the conceptual foundations that explain how events occurring during intrauterine life may influence body development, emphasizing the interrelation between low birth weight and risk of obesity throughout life. Data sources: Google Scholar, Library Scientific Electronic Online (SciELO), EBSCO, Scopus, and PubMed were the databases. “Catch-up growth”, “life course health”, “disease”, “child”, “development”, “early life”, “perinatal programming”, “epigenetics”, “breastfeeding”, “small baby syndrome”, “phenotype”, “micronutrients”, “maternal nutrition”, “obesity”, and “adolescence” were isolated or associated keywords for locating reviews and epidemiological, intervention and experimental studies published between 1934 and 2014, with complete texts in Portuguese and English. Duplicate articles, editorials and reviews were excluded, as well as approaches of diseases different from obesity. Data synthesis: Within 47 selected articles among 538 eligible ones, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the epigenetic mechanisms and the development plasticity were identified as fundamental factors to explain the mechanisms involved in health and disease throughout life. They admit the possibility that both cardiometabolic events and obesity originate from intrauterine nutritional deficiency, which, associated with a food supply that is excessive to the metabolic needs of the organism in early life stages, causes endocrine changes. However, there may be phenotypic reprogramming for low birth weight newborns from adequate nutritional supply, thus overcoming a restrictive intrauterine environment. Therefore, catch-up growth may indicate recovery from intrauterine constraint, which is associated with short-term benefits or harms in adulthood. Conclusions: Depending on the nutritional adequacy in the first years of life, developmental plasticity may lead to phenotype reprogramming and reduce the risk of

  3. Maternal Early Life Risk Factors for Offspring Birth Weight: Findings from the Add Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Elaine; Rue, Tessa; Guo, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pathways that link mothers’ early life socioeconomic status (SES) and mothers’ experience of childhood maltreatment with birth weight among their later born offspring. Data were drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of school-aged respondents, initially enrolled during adolescence in Wave I (1994–1995) and Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and followed-up in adulthood in Wave III (2001–2002). Data on offspring birth weight were obtained from nulliparous females (N=1,897) who had given birth between Waves II and III. Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine the extent to which early life maternal risk predicted offspring birth weight, and demonstrated that maternal childhood SES and maternal childhood maltreatment predicted offspring birth weight through several mediated pathways. First, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Second, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Third, adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Fourth, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. Finally, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify maternal childhood maltreatment as an early life risk factor for offspring birth weight among a nationally representative sample of young women, and to demonstrate the mechanisms that link childhood SES and maltreatment to offspring birth weight. These findings

  4. EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT AND ADULT HEALTH IN RATS PRENATALLY EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low fetal weight is a sensitive indicator of developmental toxicity in animal studies. While low birth weight may be permanent or transitory, the long-term effects of low birth weight on adult health have not been elucidated. Previous research has shown in humans an inverse rela...

  5. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX AND WEIGHT GAIN WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN EASTERN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367

  6. Short communication: Comparison of 2 methods of assessing calf birth weights in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Long, N M; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2012-12-01

    The collection of calf birth weight on US dairies is not a common practice. Calf birth weight was collected on 3 dairies (2 Holstein herds and 1 Jersey herd) over a 6-wk period. All calf birth weights were collected less than 2h after birth. A total of 872 calves were weighed by a spring scale and their weight was also estimated using a hoof circumference tape, with both weights and sex recorded. The general linear models procedure (PROC GLM; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used to estimate least squares means for spring scale birth weight along with sex of the calf and dairy. Calf spring scale versus hoof circumference-estimated birth weight was compared using the regression procedure (PROC REG; SAS Institute Inc.). Calf birth weight was also broken down into increments, and spring scale versus hoof circumference-estimated birth weight was compared by t-test. Bull calves had a heavier birth weight compared with heifer calves [36.7±0.4 kg (n=450) vs. 34.6±0.4 kg (n=422), respectively]. The dairy on which calves were born had a significant effect on calf birth weight [dairy 1: 36.8±0.4 kg (n=204); dairy 2: 39.5±0.2 kg (n=463); dairy 3: 25.9±0.4 kg (n=205)]. When the spring scale calf birth weight was linearly regressed by hoof circumference-estimated birth weight, a significant relationship was observed, with an R(2) value of 0.91. For calves weighing less than 31.3 kg, the hoof circumference tape overestimated calf birth weight compared with the spring scale. However, for calves that weighed between 31.3 and 44.9 kg, no significant difference was observed between spring scale and hoof circumference tape-estimated birth weight. For calves weighing greater than 44.9 kg, the hoof circumference tape underestimated birth weight compared with the spring scale. Collection of calf BW by spring scale or estimated by hoof circumference tape appeared to be comparable for most calves because most calves weighed between 31 and 45 kg, but caution should be used for calves

  7. Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Arreola, Laura P; Constantino-Casas, Patricia; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Villa-Barragán, Juan Pablo; Rendón-Macías, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem linked to lack of equity in populations. Despite efforts to decrease the proportion of newborns with LBW, success has been quite limited. In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. Methods The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related to LBW adjusted by demographic, reproductive and health services variables in Mexico City. A case-control study was carried out in three hospitals with gynaecological and obstetrics services in Mexico City during the first half of 1996. During the recruiting period all children with LBW (cases), defined as newborns weighing <2500 grams, were matched with children born on the same day to control for time of birth. Upon arrival at the hospital for delivery, women were interviewed to determine if they met our inclusion criteria. Women with a history of chronic conditions and those with twin or multiple pregnancies were excluded. Variables with clinical and statistical significance were included in a multivariate model (logistic regression). Results We found that low socioeconomic level was the most important risk factor for LBW and was independent of other factors, including those related to reproduction and nutrition, smoking, morbidity during pregnancy, accessibility to health services and prenatal care (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.19, 6.03). Conclusion We found that socioeconomic factors are relevant to LBW. However further research should be done in different population groups as well as developing precise ways of measuring socioeconomic factors and their role in reproductive health. PMID:15745443

  8. Weight Growth Velocity and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Hidehiko; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Kono, Yumi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess whether weight growth velocity (WGV) predicts neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Methods Subjects were infants who weighed 501–1000 g at birth and were included in the cohort of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan (2003–2007). Patel’s exponential model (EM) method was used to calculate WGV between birth and discharge. Assessment of predictions of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was performed at 3 years of age based on the WGV score, which was categorized by per one increase in WGV. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results In the 2961 ELBWIs assessed, the median WGV was 10.5 g/kg/day (interquartile, 9.4–11.9). With the categorical approach, the adjusted odds ratios for death or NDI with WGV scores of 6 and 7 were 2.41 (95%CI, 1.60–3.62) and 1.81 (95%CI, 1.18–2.75), respectively, relative to the reference WGV score of 10. WGV scores ≥8 did not predict death or NDI. Conclusions WGV scores <8 were significant predictors suggesting that values of WGV during hospitalization in a NICU are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes. Further investigations is necessary to determine whether additional nutritional support may improve low WGV in ELBWIs. PMID:26402326

  9. Monitoring low birth weight: an evaluation of international estimates and an updated estimation procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Ann K.; Wardlaw, Tessa

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To critically examine the data used to produce estimates of the proportion of infants with low birth weight in developing countries and to describe biases in these data. To assess the effect of adjustment procedures on the estimates and propose a modified estimation procedure for international reporting purposes. METHODS: Mothers' reports about their recent births in 62 nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 1990 and 2000 were analysed. The proportion of infants weighed at birth, characteristics of those weighed, extent of misreporting, and mothers' subjective assessments of their children's size at birth were examined. FINDINGS: In many developing countries the majority of infants were not weighed at birth. Those who were weighed were more likely to have mothers who live in urban areas and are educated, and to be born in a medical facility with assistance from medically trained personnel. Birth weights reported by mothers are "heaped" on multiples of 500 grams. CONCLUSION: Current survey-based estimates of the prevalence of low birth weight are biased substantially downwards. Two adjustments to reported data are recommended: a weighting procedure that combines reported birth weights with mothers' assessment of the child's size at birth, and categorization of one-quarter of the infants reported to have a birth weight of exactly 2500 grams as having low birth weight. Averaged over all surveys, these procedures increased the proportion classified as having low birth weight by 25%. We also recommend that the proportion of infants not weighed at birth be routinely reported. Efforts are needed to increase the weighing of newborns and the recording of their weights. PMID:15798841

  10. Birth weight- and fetal weight-growth restriction: impact on neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Streimish, Iris G.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl C.K.; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The newborn classified as growth-restricted on birth weight curves, but not on fetal weight curves, is classified prenatally as small for gestational age (SGA), but postnatally as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Aims To see (1) to what extent the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months corrected age differed among three groups of infants (those identified as SGA based on birth weight curves (B-SGA), those identified as SGA based on fetal weight curves only (F-SGA), and the referent group of infants considered AGA, (2) if girls and boys were equally affected by growth restriction, and (3) to what extent neurosensory limitations influenced what we found. Study design Observational cohort of births before the 28 week of gestation. Outcome measures: Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Results B-SGA, but not F-SGA girls were at an increased risk of a PDI < 70 (OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.3) compared to AGA girls. B-SGA and F-SGA boys were not at greater risk of low developmental indices than AGA boys. Neurosensory limitations diminished associations among girls of B-SGA with low MDI, and among boys B-SGA and F-SGA with PDI < 70. Conclusions Only girls with the most severe growth restriction were at increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at 24 months corrected age in the total sample. Neurosensory limitations appear to interfere with assessing growth restriction effects in both girls and boys born preterm. PMID:22732241

  11. The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in Full-Term Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Mao, Lili; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from low birth weight (LBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) full-term neonates (gestational age 37 w0d–41 w6d) consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric measurements were measured and 16S ribosomal DNAamplicon high-throughput sequencing were utilized to define bacteria within placenta tissues. It showed that birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, and placenta weight were significantly lower in LBW than NBW neonates (p < 0.05). The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (p < 0.05) and the estimators of community richness (Chao) indexes (p < 0.05) showed a significantly lower diversity in LBW than NBW neonates. There were significant variations in the composition of placenta microbiota between the LBW and NBW neonates at the phylum and genus level. Furthermore, it indicated that Lactobacillus percentage was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.541, p = 0.025). In conclusion, our present study for the first time detected the relationship between birth weight and placental microbiome profile in full-term neonates. It is novel in showing that the placental microbiome varies in association with low birth weight in full-term neonates. PMID:26287241

  12. Offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine undernutrition: a comparison within sibships.

    PubMed

    Lumey, L H; Stein, A D

    1997-11-15

    The authors examined the effects of maternal intrauterine undernutrition on offspring birth weights in a cohort of women born between August 1944 and April 1946 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This period included the Dutch Hunger Winter, a war-induced famine. Undernutrition was defined separately for each trimester of pregnancy as an average supply of less than 1,000 calories per day from government food rations. For maximum control of potential maternal confounding factors related to offspring birth weight, the authors performed a within-family analysis, including 437 families with two siblings and 107 families with three siblings born between 1960 and 1985. As in other studies of the famine, maternal birth weight itself was decreased after third trimester intrauterine exposure but not after first trimester exposure. The expected increase in offspring birth weights with increasing birth order was not seen after maternal intrauterine exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this group, second born infants weighed, on average, 252 g less at birth than their firstborn siblings (95% confidence interval (CI) -419 to -85), and thirdborn infants weighed 419 g less (95% CI -926 to 87), even after adjustment for trimester of maternal intrauterine exposure, maternal birth weight, smoking during pregnancy, and sex of infants in the sibling pairs. Additional adjustment for the birth weight of the elder sibling did not materially change this abnormal pattern. There were no abnormal patterns in offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine exposure in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study outcomes could not be explained by other selected determinants of birth weight, by lack of control for socioeconomic status, or by loss to follow-up of the 1944-1946 birth cohort. This study suggests that there may be long-term biologic effects, even into the next generation, of maternal intrauterine undernutrition which do not correspond to the effects on the

  13. Associations of birth weight, linear growth and relative weight gain throughout life with abdominal fat depots in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo de França, G V; Lucia Rolfe, E De; Horta, B L; Gigante, D P; Yudkin, J S; Ong, K K; Victora, C G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported on associations of size at birth and early growth with general and central obesity; however, few have examined the potential effects of birth weight and postnatal growth on separate abdominal fat compartments. We investigated the effects of size at birth, linear growth and relative weight gain from birth to adulthood on visceral (VFT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAFT) fat thicknesses at age 30 years. Methods: A total of 2663 participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study had complete information on ultrasound measures of abdominal fat at age 30 years, and anthropometric measurements for at least five visits (0/2/4/23/30 years). We estimated weight and height Z-score changes, conditional relative weight gain and conditional height at several ages. Results: In both men and women, VFT and SAFT showed positive associations with conditional relative weight gain during all age periods beyond 2 years and birth, respectively (all P⩽0.01). Women born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) had greater VFT than other women (difference=0.15 s.d., 95% CI: 0.01–0.29), and they showed a stronger positive influence of infant weight gain 0–2 years on VFT (IUGR: β=0.17 s.d., 95% CI: 0.05–0.29; non-IUGR: β=0.01 s.d., 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.06; Pinteraction=0.02). Stunting at 2 years was associated with lower SAFT but not VFT, and it modified the influence of weight gain 2–4 years on SAFT in both sexes (both Pinteraction<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings reinforce the advantages of being born with an appropriate birth weight, and the hazards of rapid postnatal gains in weight relative to linear growth, particularly after the critical window of the first 1000 days. PMID:26395747

  14. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Adriana C; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Fortner, Kimberly; Overcash, Francine; Henry, Nikki; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity. PMID:23861689

  15. Birth-weight charts and immigrant populations: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Sørbye, Ingvil K; Wanigaratne, Susitha

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing body of literature focusing on differences in newborn size between different population subgroups defined by racial, ethnic, and immigration status. The interpretation of these differences as pathological or as merely reflecting normal variability is not straightforward and may have consequences for the provision of obstetric and neonatal care to minority populations. In this review, we critically assess some methodological issues affecting the assessment of newborn size and their potential implications for minority populations. In particular, we discuss the pros and cons of different types of newborn birth-weight (BW) charts (i.e., single local population-based references, minority-specific references, and a single international standard) to determine abnormal newborn size, with emphasis on immigrant populations. We conclude that size alone is not enough to inform clinical decisions and that all newborn size charts should be used as screening tools, not as diagnostic tools. Parental minority status may be regarded as a marker and used to further inquire about individual risk factors, particularly among immigrants who may not have a complete medical history in the new country. Finally, we outline areas for further research and recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:26453476

  16. Ecthyma gangrenosum in a premature low-birth-weight newborn.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Kumar, A

    2011-12-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum is a well-recognised cutaneous infection in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. It is commonly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia. Classic lesions of ecthyma gangrenosum comprise deep ulcers with ecchymotic, gangrenous centres, bright red areolae and typical raised, purplish, indurated, rolled-out edges. We report ecthyma gangrenosum in a premature low-birth-weight neonate, delivered at home to a third gravida mother with history of chorioamnionitis. He was admitted to a private hospital on third day of life, with a diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis and received multiple antibiotics over next 22 days. The infant was referred to the paediatrics emergency department of Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University in a condition of shock, pneumonitis and generalised sepsis. Two gangrenous ulcers with gray-black eschar were present, one over the neck and another over the back. He was diagnosed as a case of neonatal sepsis with ecthyma gangrenosum. Blood culture revealed growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, sensitive only to imipenem. The infant died the day following admission. PMID:22240885

  17. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Melvin D.; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. Methods. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (< 2500 g) and postneonatal mortality (28–364 days) by state and month from 1980 through 2011. All models included state and year fixed effects as well as state-specific covariates. Results. Across all models, a dollar increase in the minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. Conclusions. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year. PMID:27310355

  18. Associations of Gestational Weight Gain with Preterm Birth among Underweight and Normal Weight Women

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Bulkley, Joanna; Callaghan, William M.; Bruce, F. Carol; Staab, Jenny; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Berg, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies report increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) among underweight and normal weight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG). However, most studies examined GWG over gestational periods that differ by term and preterm which may have biased associations because GWG rate changes over the course of pregnancy. Furthermore, few studies have specifically examined the amount and pattern of GWG early in pregnancy as a predictor of PTB. Within one integrated health care delivery system, we examined 12,526 singleton pregnancies between 2000 and 2008 among women with a body mass index <25 kg/m2, who began prenatal care in the first trimester and delivered a live-birth >28 weeks gestation. Using self-reported pregravid weight and serial measured antenatal weights, we estimated GWG and the area under the GWG curve (AUC; an index of pattern of GWG) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (≤28 weeks). Using logistic regression adjusted for covariates, we examined associations between each GWG measure, categorized into quartiles, and PTB (<37 weeks gestation). We additionally examined associations according to the reason for PTB by developing a novel algorithm using diagnoses and procedure codes. Low GWG in the first and second trimesters was not associated with PTB [aOR 1.11, (95 % CI 0.90, 1.38) with GWG <8.2 kg by 28 weeks compared to pregnancies with GWG >12.9]. Similarly, pattern of GWG was not associated with PTB. Our findings do not support an association between GWG in the first and second trimester and PTB among underweight and normal weight women. PMID:25652068

  19. Effects of Maternal and Infant Characteristics on Birth Weight and Gestation Length in a Colony of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques. PMID:19149417

  20. Large effects on birth weight follow inheritance pattern consistent with gametic imprinting and X chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) records of 28,638 Brangus and Simbrah calves (12,295 of which were produced by embryo transfer) were provided by a private seedstock breeder. The objectives were to determine the genetic mechanism(s) responsible for previously observed 12.3 and 6.9 kg differences in birth weight b...

  1. Relationships Between Birth Weight and Selected Social, Environmental, and Medical Care Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 46 small geographic areas, birth weight statistics were related to variables of income, home maintenance, medical and dental care, and aid to dependent children. It was suggested that birth weight statistics may be more effective than infant mortality statistics for many purposes where death data are now used. (EH)

  2. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  3. Evidence for a Causal Association of Low Birth Weight and Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with attention problems (AP) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The etiology of this association is unclear. We investigate whether there is a causal influence of birth weight (BW) on AP and whether the BW effect is mediated by catch-up growth (CUG) in low-BW children. Method:…

  4. The Medium Term Schooling and Health Effects of Low Birth Weight: Evidence from Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that low birth weight is linked to infant mortality as well as longer term outcomes. This paper examines the medium term outcomes that may link low birth weight to adult disadvantage using a national longitudinal sample with a large sample of siblings (Add Health). Results show strong effects on several educational outcomes,…

  5. The relationship between prenatal health behavior advice and low birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Sable, M R; Herman, A A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the study were (a) to examine the relationship between the health behavior advice recommended by the Public Health Service Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care and the risk of low birth weight and (b) to describe the type and frequency of health behavior advice offered to a group of pregnant women. METHODS: The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/Missouri Maternal and Infant Health Survey, a follow-back survey of women who had delivered very low birth weight infants and of matched control subjects who had delivered moderately low birth weight and normal birth weight infants. Frequency distributions for different types of prenatal health behavior advice were examined for the 2205 participants, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether there was a relationship between birth weight and receiving the advice recommended by the Expert Panel. RESULTS: Only 10.4% of mothers reported receiving all seven types of health behavior advice recommended by the Expert Panel. Women who did not receive all seven types of advice were 1.5 times more likely to deliver a very low birth weight infant than a normal birth weight infant. CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between health education and birth weight. PMID:9258298

  6. Sex Differences in the Pathway from Low Birth Weight to Inattention/Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Lucia, Victoria C.; Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Inattention/hyperactivity is a childhood outcome of low birth weight. However, the mechanisms by which low birth weight leads to inattention/hyperactivity are unclear. This study examined arousal, activation, motor speed, and motor coordination as possible mechanisms, attending to sex differences. 823 children (400 males) from Detroit and…

  7. Changes in Birth Weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Feng, Qiong; Larson, Charles P.; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China. Methods We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28–41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA) and large (LGA) for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups. Results The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, −25 g; 95% CI, −30 to −19). The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (−6 g from 2002 to 2012) after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28–31 weeks), while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories. Conclusions Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age. PMID:25531295

  8. Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Malawi: Bayesian Geo-Additive Modelling.

    PubMed

    Ngwira, Alfred; Stanley, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Studies on factors of low birth weight in Malawi have neglected the flexible approach of using smooth functions for some covariates in models. Such flexible approach reveals detailed relationship of covariates with the response. The study aimed at investigating risk factors of low birth weight in Malawi by assuming a flexible approach for continuous covariates and geographical random effect. A Bayesian geo-additive model for birth weight in kilograms and size of the child at birth (less than average or average and higher) with district as a spatial effect using the 2010 Malawi demographic and health survey data was adopted. A Gaussian model for birth weight in kilograms and a binary logistic model for the binary outcome (size of child at birth) were fitted. Continuous covariates were modelled by the penalized (p) splines and spatial effects were smoothed by the two dimensional p-spline. The study found that child birth order, mother weight and height are significant predictors of birth weight. Secondary education for mother, birth order categories 2-3 and 4-5, wealth index of richer family and mother height were significant predictors of child size at birth. The area associated with low birth weight was Chitipa and areas with increased risk to less than average size at birth were Chitipa and Mchinji. The study found support for the flexible modelling of some covariates that clearly have nonlinear influences. Nevertheless there is no strong support for inclusion of geographical spatial analysis. The spatial patterns though point to the influence of omitted variables with some spatial structure or possibly epidemiological processes that account for this spatial structure and the maps generated could be used for targeting development efforts at a glance. PMID:26114866

  9. The Relationship of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour with Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ruifrok, Anneloes E.; Althuizen, Ellen; Oostdam, Nicolette; van Mechelen, Willem; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relationship of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour with gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth weight. Design. Combined data from two prospective studies: (1) nulliparous pregnant women without BMI restrictions and (2) overweight and obese pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes. Methods. Daily PA and sedentary behaviour were measured with an accelerometer around 15 and at 32–35 weeks of gestation. The association between time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and in sedentary activities with GWG and birth weight was determined. Main outcome measures were GWG between 15 and 32 weeks of gestation, average GWG per week, and birth weight. Results. We studied 111 women. Early in pregnancy, 32% of women spent ≥30 minutes/day in at least moderate PA versus 12% in late pregnancy. No significant associations were found between time spent in MVPA or sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. Conclusions. We found no relation between MVPA and sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. The small percentage of women meeting the recommended levels of PA indicates the need to inform and support pregnant women to maintain regular PA, as there seems to be no adverse effect on birth weight and maintaining PA increases overall health. PMID:25309754

  10. Association between HIV in pregnancy and antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors and low birth weight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, P J; Smit, R; Stevens, M; Sever, J L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of low birth weight infants born to HIV seropositive women and to demonstrate any effects of antiretroviral therapy on birth weight. METHODS: Retrospective review of all obstetrical medical records from January 1, 1995 through June 30, 1998 to identify HIV seropositive women. We evaluated their antiretroviral therapy, CD4 counts, and birth weights of their newborns. We conducted detailed review of the clinical and laboratory findings for the HIV-infected untreated patients, women who received ZDV antepartum alone, and those who received PIs as part of antiretroviral treatment. RESULTS: The frequency of low birth weight infants was significantly increased in HIV seropositive compared to HIV seronegative parturients. Low birth weight infants were more frequent among HIV infected women with lower CD4 counts but the association was not statistically significant. Women who received no antepartum treatment, antepartum only ZDV, and those treated with PIs had significantly more low birth weight infants than did comparison groups. HIV seropositive women also had high frequencies of several obstetrical risk factors for low birth weight infants. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a significantly increased frequency of low birth weight infants among HIV infected women and especially the subgroups of infected women who received no antepartum treatment, antepartum ZDV only, and those treated with PIs. This association, however, may be related to the presence of many other preterm obstetrical risk factors noted in this study. Increasing numbers of HIV seropositive women are being treated with PIs according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines. If PIs are a cause of low birth weight infants, women taking these drugs may have incremental risk of low birth weight. PMID:10805364

  11. Examining the relationship between temperature, rainfall and low birth weight in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shradhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  12. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD. PMID:25346392

  13. Paternal occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and birth outcomes of offspring: birth weight, preterm delivery, and birth defects.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Christina C; Schnorr, Teresa M; Whelan, Elizabeth A; Deddens, James A; Dankovic, David A; Piacitelli, Laurie A; Sweeney, Marie H; Connally, L Barbara

    2004-10-01

    Agent Orange is a phenoxy herbicide that was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We studied pregnancy outcomes among wives of male chemical workers who were highly exposed to chemicals contaminated with TCDD and among wives of nonexposed neighborhood referents. For exposed pregnancies, we estimated serum TCDD concentration at the time of conception using a pharmacokinetic model. The mean TCDD concentration for workers' births was 254 pg/g lipid (range, 3-16,340 pg/g). The mean referent concentration of 6 pg/g was assigned to pregnancies fathered by workers before exposure. A total of 1,117 live singleton births of 217 referent wives and 176 worker wives were included. Only full-term births were included in the birth weight analysis (greater than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation). Mean birth weight among full-term babies was similar among referents' babies (n = 604), preexposure workers' babies (n = 221), and exposed workers' babies (n = 292) (3,420, 3,347, and 3,442 g, respectively). Neither continuous nor categorical TCDD concentration had an effect on birth weight for term infants after adjustment for infant sex, mother's education, parity, prenatal cigarette smoking, and gestation length. An analysis to estimate potential direct exposure of the wives during periods of workers' exposure yielded a nonstatistically significant increase in infant birth weight of 130 g in the highest exposure group (TCDD concentration > 254 pg/g) compared with referents (p = 0.09). Mothers' reports of preterm delivery showed a somewhat protective association with paternal TCDD (log) concentration (odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1). We also include descriptive information on reported birth defects. Because the estimated TCDD concentrations in this population were much higher than in other studies, the results indicate that TCDD is unlikely to increase the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery through a paternal mechanism. Key words

  14. Association between air pollution and low birth weight: a community-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Ding, H; Ryan, L; Xu, X

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between maternal exposure to air pollution during periods of pregnancy (entire and specific periods) and birth weight was investigated in a well-defined cohort. Between 1988 and 1991, all pregnant women living in four residential areas of Beijing were registered and followed from early pregnancy until delivery. Information on individual mothers and infants was collected. Daily air pollution data were obtained independently. The sample for analysis included 74,671 first-parity live births were gestational age 37-44 weeks. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the effects of air pollution on birth weight and low birth weight (< 2,500 g), adjusting for gestational age, residence, year of birth, maternal age, and infant gender. There was a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particles (TSP) during the third trimester of pregnancy and infant birth weight. The adjusted odds ratio for low birth weight was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06-1.16) for each 100 micrograms/m3 increase in SO2 and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.05-1.14) for each 100 micrograms/m3 increase in TSP. The estimated reduction in birth weight was 7.3 g and 6.9 g for each 100 micrograms/m3 increase in SO2 and in TSP, respectively. The birth weight distribution of the high-exposure group was more skewed toward the left tail (i.e., with higher proportion of births < 2,500 g) than that of the low-exposure group. Although the effects of other unmeasured risk factors cannot be excluded with certainty, our data suggests that TSP and SO2, or a more complex pollution mixture associated with these pollutants, contribute to an excess risk of low birth weight in the Beijing population. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9222137

  15. Outcomes Following Candiduria in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.; Tan, Sylvia; Gantz, Marie G.; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Stoll, Barbara J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Auten, Kathy J.; Miller, Nancy A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Cotten, C. Michael; Smith, P. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background. Candidiasis carries a significant risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW; <1000 g). We sought to determine the impact of candiduria in ELBW preterm infants. Methods. Our study was a secondary analysis of the Neonatal Research Network study Early Diagnosis of Nosocomial Candidiasis. Follow-up assessments included Bayley Scales of Infant Development examinations at 18–22 months of corrected age. Risk factors were compared between groups using exact tests and general linear modeling. Death, NDI, and death or NDI were compared using generalized linear mixed modeling. Results. Of 1515 infants enrolled, 34 (2.2%) had candiduria only. Candida was isolated from blood only (69 of 1515 [4.6%]), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) only (2 of 1515 [0.1%]), other sterile site only (not urine, blood, or CSF; 4 of 1515 [0.3%]), or multiple sources (28 of 1515 [2%]). Eleven infants had the same Candida species isolated in blood and urine within 3 days; 3 (27%) had a positive urine culture result first. Most urine isolates were Candida albicans (21 of 34 [62%]) or Candida parapsilosis (7 of 34 [29%]). Rate of death or NDI was greater among those with candiduria (50%) than among those with suspected but not proven infection (32%; odds ratio, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.2–5.3]) after adjustment. No difference in death and death or NDI was noted between infants with candiduria and those with candidemia. Conclusions. These findings provide compelling evidence that ELBW infants with candiduria are at substantial risk of death or NDI. Candiduria in ELBW preterm infants should prompt a systemic evaluation (blood, CSF, and abdominal ultrasound) for disseminated Candida infection and warrants treatment. PMID:22144537

  16. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Methods Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). Results One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW. PMID:23740400

  17. Contextual Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Ansah, Evelyn; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA. Methods Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana. Results Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01–2.01; P-value <0.05) while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29–3.61; P-value <0.01). In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57–0.96; P-value <0.05). Conclusion This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants. PMID:25360709

  18. Birth weight reduction associated with residence near a hazardous waste landfill.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M; Bove, F

    1997-01-01

    We examined the relationship between birth weight and mother's residence near a hazardous waste landfill. Twenty-five years of birth certificates (1961-1985) were collected for four towns. Births were grouped into five 5-year periods corresponding to hypothesized exposure periods (1971-1975 having the greatest potential for exposure). From 1971 to 1975, term births (37-44 weeks gestation) to parents living closest to the landfill (Area 1A) had a statistically significant lower average birth weight (192 g) and a statistically significant higher proportion of low birth weight [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1-12.3] than the control population. Average term birth weights in Area 1A rebounded by about 332 g after 1975. Parallel results were found for all births (gestational age > 27 weeks) in Area 1A during 1971-1975. Area 1A infants had twice the risk of prematurity (OR = 2.1; 95 CI, 1.0-4.4) during 1971-1975 compared to the control group. The results indicate a significant impact to infants born to residents living near the landfill during the period postulated as having the greatest potential for exposure. The magnitude of the effect is in the range of birth weight reduction due to cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9347901

  19. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    PubMed

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (p<0.05). Biochemical effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation. PMID:20639832

  20. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth

  1. Relationships between fetal biometry, maternal factors and birth weight of purebred domestic cat kittens.

    PubMed

    Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size. PMID:21820718

  2. Association between In Utero arsenic exposure, placental gene expression, and infant birth weight: a US birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies and animal models suggest that in utero arsenic exposure affects fetal health, with a negative association between maternal arsenic ingestion and infant birth weight often observed. However, the molecular mechanisms for this association remain elusive. In the present study, we aimed to increase our understanding of the impact of low-dose arsenic exposure on fetal health by identifying possible arsenic-associated fetal tissue biomarkers in a cohort of pregnant women exposed to arsenic at low levels. Methods Arsenic concentrations were determined from the urine samples of a cohort of 133 pregnant women from New Hampshire. Placental tissue samples collected from enrollees were homogenized and profiled for gene expression across a panel of candidate genes, including known arsenic regulated targets and genes involved in arsenic transport, metabolism, or disease susceptibility. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to examine the relationship of candidate gene expression with arsenic exposure or with birth weight of the baby. Results Placental expression of the arsenic transporter AQP9 was positively associated with maternal urinary arsenic levels during pregnancy (coefficient estimate: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.05 – 0.45). Placental expression of AQP9 related to expression of the phospholipase ENPP2 which was positively associated with infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.47). A structural equation model indicated that these genes may mediate arsenic’s effect on infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: -0.009; 95% confidence interval: -0.032 – -0.001; 10,000 replications for bootstrapping). Conclusions We identified the expression of AQP9 as a potential fetal biomarker for arsenic exposure. Further, we identified a positive association between the placental expression of phospholipase ENPP2 and infant birth weight. These findings suggest a path by which arsenic may affect

  3. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  4. Prenatal Ambient Air Pollution, Placental Mitochondrial DNA Content, and Birth Weight in the INMA (Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (Belgium) Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Diana B.P.; Casas, Maribel; Vilahur, Nadia; Begiristain, Haizea; Bustamante, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fierens, Frans; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Iñiguez, Carmen; Janssen, Bram G.; Lefebvre, Wouter; Llop, Sabrina; Olea, Nicolás; Pedersen, Marie; Pieters, Nicky; Santa Marina, Loreto; Souto, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondria are sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may represent a biologically relevant intermediate outcome in mechanisms linking air pollution and fetal growth restriction. Objective: We investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and birth weight. Methods: We used data from two independent European cohorts: INMA (n = 376; Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (n = 550; Belgium). Relative placental mtDNA content was determined as the ratio of two mitochondrial genes (MT-ND1 and MTF3212/R3319) to two control genes (RPLP0 and ACTB). Effect estimates for individual cohorts and the pooled data set were calculated using multiple linear regression and mixed models. We also performed a mediation analysis. Results: Pooled estimates indicated that a 10-μg/m3 increment in average NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with a 4.9% decrease in placental mtDNA content (95% CI: –9.3, –0.3%) and a 48-g decrease (95% CI: –87, –9 g) in birth weight. However, the association with birth weight was significant for INMA (–66 g; 95% CI: –111, –23 g) but not for ENVIRONAGE (–20 g; 95% CI: –101, 62 g). Placental mtDNA content was associated with significantly higher mean birth weight (pooled analysis, interquartile range increase: 140 g; 95% CI: 43, 237 g). Mediation analysis estimates, which were derived for the INMA cohort only, suggested that 10% (95% CI: 6.6, 13.0 g) of the association between prenatal NO2 and birth weight was mediated by changes in placental mtDNA content. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mtDNA content can be one of the potential mediators of the association between prenatal air pollution exposure and birth weight. Citation: Clemente DB, Casas M, Vilahur N, Begiristain H, Bustamante M, Carsin AE, Fernández MF, Fierens F, Gyselaers W, Iñiguez C, Janssen BG

  5. Birth Weight, Physical Morbidity, and Mortality: A Population-based Sibling-Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Class, Quetzal A.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the “developmental origins of health and disease” hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  6. Birth weight, physical morbidity, and mortality: a population-based sibling-comparison study.

    PubMed

    Class, Quetzal A; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2014-03-01

    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  7. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury and LCPUFA in relation to birth weight

    PubMed Central

    van Wijngaarden, E; Harrington, D; Kobrosly, R; Thurston, SW; O’Hara, T; McSorley, EM; Myers, GJ; Watson, GE; Shamlaye, CF; Strain, JJ; Davidson, PW

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive regarding the impact of co-exposure to long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and methyl mercury (MeHg) from fish consumption during pregnancy on measures of fetal development. Objectives We evaluated the association between birth weight and prenatal maternal LCPUFA status and MeHg exposure in the Republic of Seychelles. Methods We measured LCPUFA in maternal whole blood collected at 28 weeks of gestation and following delivery, and MeHg in maternal hair obtained at delivery. There were 230 births with complete data on birth weight and covariates. Multiple linear regression models controlled for infant sex, gestational age, maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, intrapartum weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal socioeconomic status, parity, gestational diabetes, and alcohol use during pregnancy. Results The average birth weight was 3,252 g (range 1654–4450) and the average gestational age was 39 weeks (range 34–41). Prenatal MeHg exposure and maternal LCPUFA status were not associated with birth weight. Infant sex and length of gestation were the only predictors, with male sex and increased gestational age consistently associated with greater birth weight. Conclusions These findings do not support a relationship between prenatal exposure to LCPUFA and/or MeHg from fish consumption and birth weight. PMID:24525104

  8. Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

    2010-08-01

    To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

  9. Low birth weight of Vietnamese infants is related to their mother's dioxin and glucocorticoid levels.

    PubMed

    Van Tung, Dao; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Manh, Ho Dung; Nhu, Dang Duc; Okamoto, Rie; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Ngoc, Pham Thien; Van Toan, Ngo; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Son, Le Ke

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between dioxin congeners in maternal breast milk and maternal glucocorticoid levels with newborn birth weight after nearly 45 years of use of herbicides in the Vietnam War. The study subjects comprised 58 mother-infant pairs in a region with high dioxin levels in the soil (hotspot) and 62 pairs from a control region. Dioxin levels in maternal breast milk were measured by HRGC-HRMS. Salivary glucocorticoid levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Dioxin congener levels in mothers from the hotspot were found to be two to fivefold higher than those in mothers from the control region. Birth weight was inversely correlated with 2,3,7,8-TeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF congener levels. The rate of newborns whose birth weight was less than 2500 g was threefold higher in the hotspot (12 %) than in the control region (4 %). Salivary glucocorticoid levels in mothers with low birth weight infants were significantly higher than those in the normal birth weight group. Low birth weight of Vietnamese newborns in a hotspot for dioxin levels is related to some dioxin congener levels and high glucocorticoid levels in mothers. This finding in mother-infant pairs suggests that excess maternal glucocorticoid levels are related to dioxin burden and they result in low birth weight. PMID:26898930

  10. Race Disparities and Decreasing Birth Weight: Are All Babies Getting Smaller?

    PubMed

    Catov, Janet M; Lee, MinJae; Roberts, James M; Xu, Jia; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2016-01-01

    The mean infant birth weight in the United States increased for decades, but it might now be decreasing. Given race disparities in fetal growth, we explored race-specific trends in birth weight at Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1997 to 2011. Among singleton births delivered at 37-41 weeks (n = 70,607), we evaluated the proportions who were small for gestational age and large for gestational age and changes in mean birth weights over time. Results were stratified by maternal race/ethnicity. Since 1997, the number of infants born small for their gestational ages increased (8.7%-9.9%), whereas the number born large for their gestational ages decreased (8.9%-7.7%). After adjustment for gestational week at birth, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy conditions, birth weight decreased by 2.20 g per year (P < 0.0001). Decreases were greater for spontaneous births. Reductions were significantly greater in infants born to African-American women than in those born to white women (-3.78 vs. -1.88 per year; P for interaction = 0.010). Quantile regression models indicated that birth weight decreased across the entire distribution, but reductions among infants born to African-American women were limited to those in the upper quartile after accounting for maternal factors. Limiting the analysis to low-risk women eliminated birth weight reductions. Birth weight has decreased in recent years, and reductions were greater in infants born to African-American women. These trends might be explained by accumulation of risk factors such as hypertension and prepregnancy obesity that disproportionately affect African-American women. Our results raise the possibility of worsening race disparities in fetal growth. PMID:26667251

  11. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  12. A correlation analysis of Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape-determined pediatric weight with actual pediatric weight in India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepak Geetaprasad; Kole, Tamorish; Nagpal, Rahul; Smith, Jeffery Paul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape indicates standardized, pre-calculated medication doses, dose delivery volumes, and equipment sizes using color-coded zones based on height-weight correlations. The present study attempted to provide more evidence on the effectiveness of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape by comparing the tape-estimated weights with actual weights. We hypothesized that the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape would overestimate weights in Indian children aged<10 years, leading to inaccurate dosing and equipment sizing in the emergency setting. METHODS: This prospective study of pediatric patients aged <10 years who were divided into three groups based on actual body weight: <10 kg, 10–18 kg, and >18 kg. We calculated the percentage difference between the Broselow-predicted weight and the measured weight as a measure of tape bias. Concordant results were those with a mean percent difference within 3%. Standard deviation was measured to determine precision. Accuracy was determined as color-coded zone prediction and measured weight concordance, including the percentage overestimation by 1–2 zones. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio of the patients was 1.3:1. Total agreement between color-coding was 63.18% (κ=0.582). The Broselow™ color-coded zone agreement was 74.8% in the <10 kg group, 61.24% in the 10–18 kg group, and 53.42% in the >18 kg group. CONCLUSIONS: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape showed good evidence for being more reliable in children of the <10 kg and 10–18 kg groups. However, as pediatric weight increased, predictive reliability decreased. This raises concerns over the use of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape in Indian children because body weight was overestimated in those weighing >18 kg. PMID:27006737

  13. Birth weight and school-age disabilities: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Avchen, R N; Scott, K G; Mason, C A

    2001-11-15

    Mortality rates have declined for low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants. Yet, the consequences of survival for these children may be adverse developmental outcomes. Few studies to date have examined school-age outcomes for these children. The participants in this study represented a population-based cohort of Florida children who were born between 1982 and 1984 and who were receiving a public school education in 1996-1997. Linkage methodology was used to establish a cohort of 267,213 children aged 12-15 years with both birth certificate and school records. Birth weights were stratified into 500-g increments beginning with birth weight decreased for all birth weight strata of birth weights may better portray a more accurate estimate of risk for infants born at extremes than the conventional definition of <2,500 g. PMID:11700243

  14. Effect of increase in birth weight in a newborn on hip ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Orak, Mehmet M; Karaman, Ozgur; Gursoy, Tugba; Cagirmaz, Talat; Oltulu, Ismail; Muratli, Hasan H

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to the pressure experienced by higher birth weight babies during the intrauterine period might cause hip dysplasia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of birth weight in newborns on hip ultrasonography when the paternal and maternal risk factors are excluded. A total of 701 babies born at 38-42 gestational weeks were included in the study. Hip ultrasonography was performed within 7 days following birth using the Graf technique in the babies without risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Images obtained were controlled with respect to conformity to the Graf method and angular measurements were performed. According to the α and β angle values obtained, type 1A and 1B hips were categorized as mature; type 2A hips were categorized as immature; and type 2C, D, 3A, 3B, and 4 hips were categorized as pathological hips. The results obtained were analyzed for the effect of birth weight on the angular values and hip typing. The birth weight of the babies was 338,488 ± 48,241 g (2030-6124 g). It was determined that the birth weight had no effect on the values of α and β angles in the male babies (P=0.21, 0.76). It was determined that increasing birth weight decreased the α angle value (P=0.001) and caused no difference in the β angle value (P=0.057) in the female babies. It was found that birth weight had no effect on hip typing in both female and male babies (P=0.060, 0.22). Increases in birth weights caused decreases in ultrasonographic α angles only in female babies. PMID:26196367

  15. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, minority status and living in a household headed by a single mother further worsen the disadvantages associated with a very low birth weight. Nor could the disadvantages associated with very low birth weight be accounted for by controls for other risk factors or buffering statuses and behaviors. Among all children (including those of very low birth weight) poverty, reliance on Medicaid and other government sources for health insurance, a history of risky behaviors, and inadequate prenatal care are the major risk factors for developmental delays, limitations in function, and impairment at birth. State program benefit levels have no obvious effects on child outcomes, taking into account participation in individual programs. An important finding in light of TANF is that maternal work, the use of child care, and the form and cost of child care did not influence developmental delay, limitation in function, or impairment, the outcomes that we were able to measure during the first 3 years of life. TANF eligibility requirements, however, may increase difficulty in obtaining prenatal and other medical services for mothers and children in need--factors shown here to be related strongly to increased risk of low birth weight and developmental delays, limitations, and impairments. Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure are fundamental factors in early child development and function. Minority status, poverty, and single-parent households greatly increase the likelihood that a mother will engage in risky behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use) during pregnancy and receive inadequate prenatal care. Risky behaviors and inadequate prenatal care are

  16. Plastic Bags for Prevention of Hypothermia in Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Leadford, Alicia E.; Warren, Jamie B.; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Salas, Ariel A.; Schelonka, Robert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resource-limited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. METHODS: Infants at 26 to 36 weeks’ gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization–defined normal range (36.5–37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. RESULTS: A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16–2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P < .001). Hyperthermia (>38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a low-cost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings. PMID:23733796

  17. Longitudinal analysis of DNA methylation associated with birth weight and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Suderman, Matthew; Gaunt, Tom R.; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ring, Susan M.; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational age (GA) and birth weight have been implicated in the determination of long-term health. It has been hypothesized that changes in DNA methylation may mediate these long-term effects. We obtained DNA methylation profiles from cord blood and peripheral blood at ages 7 and 17 in the same children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Repeated-measures data were used to investigate changes in birth-related methylation during childhood and adolescence. Ten developmental phenotypes (e.g. height) were analysed to identify possible mediation of health effects by DNA methylation. In cord blood, methylation at 224 CpG sites was found to be associated with GA and 23 CpG sites with birth weight. Methylation changed in the majority of these sites over time, but neither birth characteristic was strongly associated with methylation at age 7 or 17 (using a conservative correction for multiple testing of P < 1.03 × 10–7), suggesting resolution of differential methylation by early childhood. Associations were observed between birth weight-associated CpG sites and phenotypic characteristics in childhood. One strong association involved birth weight, methylation of a CpG site proximal to the NFIX locus and bone mineral density at age 17. Analysis of serial methylation from birth to adolescence provided evidence for a lack of persistence of methylation differences beyond early childhood. Sites associated with birth weight were linked to developmental genes and have methylation levels which are associated with developmental phenotypes. Replication and interrogation of causal relationships are needed to substantiate whether methylation differences at birth influence the association between birth weight and development. PMID:25869828

  18. Effects of Gestational Age, Birth Weight, and Hypoxemia on Pharmacokinetics of Amikacin in Serum of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Martin G.; Roberts, Robert J.; Mirhij, Najwa J.

    1977-01-01

    The serum pharmacokinetics of amikacin were studied in 36 infants treated for suspected bacterial infection. A prolonged serum half-life was associated with the related variables of birth at an early gestational age, low birth weight, and hypoxemia. A postnatal age effect was not apparent when hypoxemic infants were excluded. PMID:879747

  19. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  20. Birth Weight, Math and Reading Achievement Growth: A Multilevel between-Sibling, between-Families Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2009-01-01

    We used multilevel covariance structure analysis to study the relationship between birth weight, family context and youth math and reading comprehension growth from approximately ages 5 through 14 within and between families. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample, we examined the relationship between birth weight…

  1. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  2. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and Low Birth Weight in Connecticut and Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Background Several studies have examined whether air pollution affects birth weight; however results vary and many studies were focused on Southern California or were conducted outside of the United States. Objectives We investigated maternal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10, < 2.5 μm (PM10, PM2.5), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide and birth weight for 358,504 births in Massachusetts and Connecticut from 1999 to 2002. Methods Analysis included logistic models for low birth weight (< 2,500 g) and linear models with birth weight as a continuous variable. Exposure was assigned as the average county-level concentration over gestation and each trimester based on mother’s residence. We adjusted for gestational length, prenatal care, type of delivery, child’s sex, birth order, weather, year, and mother’s race, education, marital status, age, and tobacco use. Results An interquartile increase in gestational exposure to NO2, CO, PM10, and PM2.5 lowered birth weight by 8.9 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.0–10.8], 16.2 g (95% CI, 12.6–19.7), 8.2 g (95% CI, 5.3–11.1), and 14.7 g (95% CI, 12.3–17.1), respectively. Lower birth weight was associated with exposure in the third trimester for PM10, the first and third trimesters for CO, the first trimester for NO2 and SO2, and the second and third trimesters for PM2.5. Effect estimates for PM2.5 were higher for infants of black mothers than those of white mothers. Conclusions Results indicate that exposure to air pollution, even at low levels, may increase risk of low birth weight, particularly for some segments of the population. PMID:17637932

  4. Birth Weight and Social Trust in Adulthood: Evidence for Early Calibration of Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress. PMID:26381505

  5. Understanding heterogeneity in the effects of birth weight on adult cognition and wages.

    PubMed

    Justin Cook, C; Fletcher, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    A large economics literature has shown long term impacts of birth weight on adult outcomes, including IQ and earnings that are often robust to sibling or twin fixed effects. We examine potential mechanisms underlying these effects by incorporating findings from the genetics and neuroscience literatures. We use a sample of siblings combined with an "orchids and dandelions hypothesis", where the IQ of genetic dandelions is not affected by in utero nutrition variation but genetic orchids thrive under advantageous conditions and wilt in poor conditions. Indeed, using variation in three candidate genes related to neuroplasticity (APOE, BDNF, and COMT), we find substantial heterogeneity in the associations between birth weight and adult outcomes, where part of the population (i.e., "dandelions") is not affected by birth weight variation. Our results help uncover why birth weight affects adult outcomes. PMID:25770970

  6. Fetal Cardiac Responding: A Correlate of Birth Weight and Neonatal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emory, Eugene K.; Noonan, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores whether an empirical classification of healthy fetuses as fetal heart rate accelerators or decelerators would predict birth weight and neonatal behavior scored with the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. (Author/RH)

  7. The effect of vigorous exercise during pregnancy on birth-weight.

    PubMed

    Bell, R J; Palma, S M; Lumley, J M

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on birth-weight of continuing a programme of vigorous exercise into late pregnancy. 'Potential exercisers' were women who had been doing vigorous exercise prior to pregnancy and intended to continue exercising during pregnancy. Controls were healthy pregnant women who did not do regular vigorous exercise. Both groups kept 2, 7-day food +/- exercise diaries at 25 and 35 weeks. The primary outcome variable was birth-weight. Women who continued doing at least 30 minutes of vigorous exercise at least 3 times weekly at 25 weeks and either maintained this minimum level or had delivered by 35 weeks were classified as 'exercisers'. Women doing more than 4 sessions of vigorous exercise weekly at 25 weeks had babies whose mean birth-weight was 315 g lower than the mean birth-weight of babies born to controls. PMID:7771999

  8. Understanding Heterogeneity in the Effects of Birth Weight on Adult Cognition and Wages

    PubMed Central

    Cook, C. Justin; Fletcher, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    A large economics literature has shown long term impacts of birth weight on adult outcomes, including IQ and earnings that are often robust to sibling or twin fixed effects. We examine potential mechanisms underlying these effects by incorporating findings from the genetics and neuroscience literatures. We use a sample of siblings combined with an “orchids and dandelions hypothesis”, where the IQ of genetic dandelions is not affected by in utero nutrition variation but genetic orchids thrive under advantageous conditions and wilt in poor conditions. Indeed, using variation in three candidate genes related to neuroplasticity (APOE, BDNF, and COMT), we find substantial heterogeneity in the associations between birth weight and adult outcomes, where part of the population (i.e., “dandelions”) is not affected by birth weight variation. Our results help uncover why birth weight affects adult outcomes. PMID:25770970

  9. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alyssa J.; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies. PMID:24362545

  10. Season of birth is associated with birth weight, pubertal timing, adult body size and educational attainment: a UK Biobank study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth, a marker of in utero vitamin D exposure, has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Using a dataset of ∼450,000 participants from the UK Biobank study, we aimed to assess the impact of this seasonality on birth weight, age at menarche, adult height and body mass index (BMI). Birth weight, age at menarche and height, but not BMI, were highly significantly associated with season of birth. Individuals born in summer (June–July–August) had higher mean birth weight (P = 8 × 10−10), later pubertal development (P = 1.1 × 10−45) and taller adult height (P = 6.5 × 10−9) compared to those born in all other seasons. Concordantly, those born in winter (December–January–February) showed directionally opposite differences in these outcomes. A secondary comparison of the extreme differences between months revealed higher odds ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for low birth weight in February vs. September (1.23 [1.15–1.32], P = 4.4 × 10−10), for early puberty in September vs. July (1.22 [1.16–1.28], P = 7.3 × 10−15) and for short stature in December vs. June (1.09 [1.03–1.17], P = 0.006). The above associations were also seen with total hours of sunshine during the second trimester, but not during the first three months after birth. Additional associations were observed with educational attainment; individuals born in autumn vs. summer were more likely to continue in education post age 16 years (P = 1.1 × 10−91) or attain a degree-level qualification (P = 4 × 10−7). However, unlike other outcomes, an abrupt difference was seen between those born in August vs. September, which flank the start of the school year. Our findings provide support for the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, refining and extending the impact that season of birth has on childhood growth and development. Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero vitamin

  11. Characterization of the role of microRNA-517a expression in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Song, G Y; Song, W W; Han, Y; Wang, D; Na, Q

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of the placenta-specific microRNA miR-517a in maternal serum and in placental tissue from low birth weight newborns and try to detect the effects of miR-517a expression on invasion potential of trophoblasts. Placental tissue and maternal serum were collected from both low birth weight newborns (n = 10) and normal birth weight newborns (n = 20). Expression of miR-517a was assessed in placenta and serum samples by real-time qRT-PCR. In addition, human trophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells were transfected with a miR-517a 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide or a negative control RNA, and invasion was measured using transwell migration assays. Expression of miR-517a was significantly increased in placentas from low birth weight newborns (61.79 ± 23.06) in comparison with those of normal birth weight newborns (5.01 ± 1.97; P < 0.05). The expression of miR-517a was also increased in maternal serum isolated from the low birth weight newborn (25.78 ± 8.69) compared with the normal birth weight newborn (3.21 ± 1.07; P < 0.05). Overexpression of miR-517a significantly inhibited invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells (P < 0.05). These data indicate that miR-517a overexpression could potentially lead to low birth weight, likely through the inhibition of trophoblast invasion. PMID:24924231

  12. [Correction of the mean birth weight calculated from a frequency distribution (Japan, single births, 1969-88)].

    PubMed

    Doi, T; Sone, T; Matsuda, S; Kahyo, H

    1993-02-01

    Recently the mean birth weight (MBW) of Japan is on the decrease. This phenomenon started in 1976 and continues up to the present as of 1988. Various factors accounting for this phenomenon have been considered and discussed by several researchers. They were interested in social, cultural and economic factors as well as factors influencing community health status. Although the above factors seem to be important, one problem connected with calculation of MBW is worth discussing. The MBW was calculated from a frequency distribution because of a limitation of the source material. The accuracy of calculation of statistics from a frequency distribution depends on the assumption that few frequencies fall on boundaries, but birth weight measurements are apt to fall on figures having 0 at the end because of the properties of weighing scales. Suppose that the exact weight of an infant is 2996g. If his weight is read to the nearest figure having 0 at the end by rounding, it is recorded as 3000g on the birth certificate. Then, in a frequency distribution whose class interval is 500g, his weight is treated as 3250g in calculation of the mean. But some improvements of the methods of weighing, for example, utilization of a scale displaying a digital value of weight may result in a greater chance that his weight is recorded as 2996g. Then, in the same frequency distribution, his weight is treated as 2750g in calculation of the mean. Therefore, an improvement of the method of weighing produces the phenomenon that MBW decreases even if all the original birth weights did not change. Exact relative frequency, recorded as just 2500g, that is mentioned secondarily in the Vital Statistics of Japan has been decreasing consistently since 1969. This year is the oldest in the above source having frequency distributions of single birth infants. This fact shows that methods of weighing have been improved as the years pass. In this paper we tried to correct MBW by using the relative frequency

  13. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  14. Gestational diabetes - metabolic risks of adult women with respect to birth weight.

    PubMed

    Vejrazkova, D; Lukasova, P; Vankova, M; Bradnova, O; Vacinova, G; Vcelak, J; Cirmanova, V; Andelova, K; Krejci, H; Bendlova, B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are connected with birth weight. Low and high birth weight is associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the association between birth weight and anthropometric as well as biochemical components of MetS in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in comparison with control women. In part of the GDM group, we re-evaluated metabolic changes over 5-8 years. Anthropometry, blood pressure, glucose metabolism during the 3-h oGTT, lipid profile, uric acid, thyroid hormones, and liver enzymes were assessed. From the analyzed components of MetS in adult women we proved the association of low birth weight (birth weight <25th percentile) with glucose processing, in particular among women with a history of GDM. Low birth weight GDM women revealed significantly higher postchallenge insulin secretion and lower peripheral insulin sensitivity. Re-examinations indicate this association persists long after delivery. PMID:26680474

  15. Hyperglycemia is a predictor of mortality and morbidity in low birth weight newborn.

    PubMed

    Banik, S K; Baki, M A; Sarker, S; Rahat, F; Akhter, S; Nahar, N

    2014-07-01

    Early onset of hyperglycemia is common among low birth weight neonates. Increased risk for death and major morbidities has been observed among hyperglycemic low birth weight infants. This prospective observational study was done to find out hyperglycemia as a predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in the low birth weight sick newborn and was conducted among the hospitalized newborn of Special Care Baby Unit (SCABU), BIRDEM hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2009 to December 2009. A total of 198 LBW neonates were included in this study. One third (30.8%) LBW neonates were found hyperglycemic. The mean gestational age was 33.2±3.6 weeks and mean birth weight was 1535.8±780gm in the hyperglycemic neonates. In this study, highest prevalence of hyperglycemia was observed in birth weight <1000gm (38.46%) and in gestational age ≤28 weeks (46.15%). Apnoea, confirmed sepsis and suspected sepsis, confirmed necrotizing enterocollitis (NEC) and neonatal jaundice showed statistically significant association with hyperglycemia than that of non hyperglycemic group. Mortality of neonates in hyperglycemic group was higher (31.15%) than that of non hyperglycemic neonates (10.22%) and the difference in mortality between two groups were found statistically significant (p<0.002). From this study it can be concluded that hyperglycemia in early neonatal period is related to increased morbidity and mortality in low birth weight newborn. PMID:25178599

  16. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  17. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  18. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Arun K; Bhatta, Dharma N

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1). The mean (standard deviation) age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18) years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9), and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5) of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6) of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74), vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36), and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39) were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables. Conclusion Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The proportion of low-birth-weight babies was high in hospital delivery, and ethnicities, Hindu religion, education, nonformal employment, food habit, rest during pregnancy, and type of delivery were found to influence the birth weight. Hence, it is important to strengthen health education services at the

  19. Infant birth weight and third trimester maternal plasma markers of vascular integrity: the MIREC study

    PubMed Central

    Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Vincent, Renaud; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Blais, Erica; Blank, Katrin; Das, Dharani; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Cakmak, Sabit; Fisher, Mandy; Arbuckle, Tye; Fraser, William

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is paucity of information on mechanisms constituting adverse birth outcomes. We assessed here the relationship between vascular integrity and adverse birth effects. Methods and results: Third trimester maternal plasma (n = 144) from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Study (MIREC) was analysed for vascular, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers by HPLC-fluorescence, protein array and EIA method. Analysis of the <25th and >75th percentile birth weight subgroups revealed markers associated with birth weight (ETs, MMP-9, VEGF, and 8-isoPGF-2α) and gestational age (ET-1, MMP-2, and VEGF). Conclusions: Mechanistic insights into adverse birth outcome pathways can be achieved by integrating information on multiple biomarkers, physiology using systems biology approach. PMID:26900787

  20. Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Fetal Susceptibility to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ladinig, Andrea; Foxcroft, George; Ashley, Carolyn; Lunney, Joan K.; Plastow, Graham; Harding, John C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing). The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection. PMID:25275491

  1. Prepregnancy body size, gestational weight gain, and risk of preterm birth in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Heffner, Linda J.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the risk of preterm birth in relation to prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference, adult weight gain, and gestational weight gain among African-American women. Methods Using prospective data from the Black Women's Health Study, we assessed the association between maternal anthropometric factors and preterm birth among 7,841 singletons born to women ages 21–44 in 1995–2003. We compared mothers of infants born three or more weeks early (597 spontaneous preterm births (SPTB); 517 medically-indicated preterm births (MPTB)) with mothers of 6,727 term infants. We used generalized estimating equation models to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounders. Results Women with prepregnancy BMI <18 were at increased risk of SPTB and MPTB relative to normal weight women (BMI 20–24), and obese women (BMI ≥30) were at increased risk of MPTB. There were modest positive associations between waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, and both preterm birth subtypes. Adult weight gain was also positively related to both preterm birth subtypes. Associations with SPTB were generally stronger for gestations of <32 weeks. Low gestational weight gain (<0.5 lbs/week) was associated with an increased risk of SPTB among normal weight and obese women. High gestational weight gain (≥1.5 lbs/week) was associated with increased risk of SPTB among overweight (BMI 25–29) and obese women. Conclusion Our data suggest that prepregnancy adiposity (overall and central), prepregnancy weight gain, and gestational weight gain influence risk of preterm birth among African-American women. PMID:20124904

  2. Mutations in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hattersley, A T; Beards, F; Ballantyne, E; Appleton, M; Harvey, R; Ellard, S

    1998-07-01

    Low birth weight and fetal thinness have been associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and insulin resistance in childhood and adulthood. It has been proposed that this association results from fetal programming in response to the intrauterine environment. An alternative explanation is that the same genetic influences alter both intrauterine growth and adult glucose tolerance. Fetal insulin secretion in response to maternal glycaemia plays a key role in fetal growth, and adult insulin secretion is a primary determinant of glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that a defect in the sensing of glucose by the pancreas, caused by a heterozygous mutation in the glucokinase gene, could reduce fetal growth and birth weight in addition to causing hyperglycaemia after birth. In 58 offspring, where one parent has a glucokinase mutation, the inheritance of a glucokinase mutation by the fetus resulted in a mean reduction of birth weight of 533 g (P=0.002). In 19 of 21 sibpairs discordant for the presence of a glucokinase mutation, the child with the mutation had a lower birth weight, with a mean difference of 521 g (P=0.0002). Maternal hyperglycaemia due to a glucokinase mutation resulted in a mean increase in birth weight of 601 g (P=0.001). The effects of maternal and fetal glucokinase mutations on birth weight were additive. We propose that these changes in birth weight reflect changes in fetal insulin secretion which are influenced directly by the fetal genotype and indirectly, through maternal hyperglycaemia, by the maternal genotype. This observation suggests that variation in fetal growth could be used in the assessment of the role of genes which modify either insulin secretion or insulin action. PMID:9662401

  3. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  4. Birth Weight, Birth Length, and Gestational Age as Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions in a US Sample

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    The “fetal origins” hypothesis suggests that fetal conditions not only affect birth characteristics such as birth weight and gestational age, but also have lifelong health implications. Despite widespread interest in this hypothesis, few methodological advances have been proposed to improve the measurement and modeling of fetal conditions. A Statistics in Medicine paper by Bollen, Noble, and Adair examined favorable fetal growth conditions (FFGC) as a latent variable. Their study of Filipino children from Cebu provided evidence consistent with treating FFGC as a latent variable that largely mediates the effects of mother’s characteristics on birth weight, birth length, and gestational age. This innovative method may have widespread utility, but only if the model applies equally well across diverse settings. Our study assesses whether the FFGC model of Cebu replicates and generalizes to a very different population of children from North Carolina (N = 705) and Pennsylvania (N = 494). Using a series of structural equation models, we find that key features of the Cebu analysis replicate and generalize while we also highlight differences between these studies. Our results support treating fetal conditions as a latent variable when researchers test the fetal origins hypothesis. In addition to contributing to the substantive literature on measuring fetal conditions, we also discuss the meaning and challenges involved in replicating prior research. PMID:27097023

  5. An interaction between NDE1 and high birth weight increases schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wegelius, Asko; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tomppo, Liisa; Lehto, Ulriika; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina; Hennah, William

    2015-12-15

    Pre- and perinatal environmental factors have been shown to increase schizophrenia risk particularly when combined with genetic liability. The investigation of specific gene environment interactions in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has gained momentum. We used multivariate GEE regression modeling to investigate the interaction between genes of the DISC1 pathway and birth weight, in relation to schizophrenia susceptibility in a Finnish schizophrenia family cohort. The study sample consisted of 457 subjects with both genotype and birth weight information. Gender and place of birth were adjusted for in the models. We found a significant interaction between birth weight and two NDE1 markers in relation to increased schizophrenia risk: a four SNP haplotype spanning NDE1 (b=1.26, SE=0.5, p=0.012) and one of its constituent SNPs rs4781678 (b=1.33, SE=0.51, p=0.010). Specifically, high birth weight (>4000g) was associated with increased schizophrenia risk among subjects homozygous for the previously identified risk alleles. The study was based on a family study sample with high genetic loading for schizophrenia and thus our findings cannot directly be generalized as representing the general population. Our results suggest that the functions mediated by NDE1 during the early stages of neurodevelopment are susceptible to the additional disruptive effects of pre- and perinatal environmental factors associated with high birth weight, augmenting schizophrenia susceptibility. PMID:26350705

  6. Growth mixture modeling of academic achievement in children of varying birth weight risk.

    PubMed

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Charak, David; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry

    2009-07-01

    The extremes of birth weight and preterm birth are known to result in a host of adverse outcomes, yet studies to date largely have used cross-sectional designs and variable-centered methods to understand long-term sequelae. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) that utilizes an integrated person- and variable-centered approach was applied to identify latent classes of achievement from a cohort of school-age children born at varying birth weights. GMM analyses revealed 2 latent achievement classes for calculation, problem-solving, and decoding abilities. The classes differed substantively and persistently in proficiency and in growth trajectories. Birth weight was a robust predictor of class membership for the 2 mathematics achievement outcomes and a marginal predictor of class membership for decoding. Neither visuospatial-motor skills nor environmental risk at study entry added to class prediction for any of the achievement skills. Among children born preterm, neonatal medical variables predicted class membership uniquely beyond birth weight. More generally, GMM is useful in revealing coherence in the developmental patterns of academic achievement in children of varying weight at birth and is well suited to investigations of sources of heterogeneity. PMID:19586210

  7. Incidence and correlates of low birth weight at a referral hospital in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Zeleke, Berihun Megabiaw; Zelalem, Meseret; Mohammed, Nuru

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight at birth is a good indicator of the newborn's chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (LBW) babies are significantly at risk of death, contributing to the high perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Hence, this study aims to assess the incidence and associated factors of low birth weight (LBW) in Gondar University Hospital deliveries. Methods A cross-sectional study, conducted on 305 live births from May 1- July 30, 2010. Information on independent variables was collected from the mothers just before discharge using a structured interview questionnaire. Neonatal weight was measured using standard beam balance. Both interviews and weight measurements were done by two trained midwives. Gestational age was determined by last normal menstrual period and/or ultrasound examinations. Results The mean and standard deviations of the birth weights were 2976 ±476 grams. Incidence of LBW (birth weight <2500 grams) was 17.1% (95%CI 13.3%, 21.6%). LBW was associated with first delivery (AOR=2.85), lack of antenatal care follow up (AOR= 5.68) or infrequent visits and being HIV positive (AOR=3.22). More female newborns were with low birth weight than males though the difference was not significant after controlling for potential confounders in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion There is a high incidence of LBW. Efforts should to enhance national antenatal care utilization in general, and particularly in Gondar, should be encouraged as its absence is closely associated with LBW. PMID:22826729

  8. Maternal Hemoglobin Levels during Pregnancy and their Association with Birth Weight of Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam Tabrizi, F; Barjasteh, S

    2015-01-01

    Back ground Anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight, and other adverse outcomes Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted on 1405 Iranian pregnant women who delivered during 2015. Blood was collected from all the subjects to measure the hemoglobin (Hb) during 16-19 weeks, 22-24 weeks, and 34-36 weeks of gestation. According to the level of hemoglobin, it is divided into 4 groups. Group 1; Hb > 10.1 gm/100ml (control group), Group 2; Hb= 8.1-10 gm/100ml (mild anemia) Group 3; Hb= 6.5-8 gm/100ml (moderate anemia) Group 4; Hb <6.5 gm/100ml (severe anemia). After delivery, the neonates were weighted within 24 hours after birth. Maternal hemoglobin and birth weights were compared. Results The anemia prevalence was 20.2% (Hb<10g/dl). Out of them, 16.2 % hadmoderate anemia (Hb=6.5-8 g/dl) and 83.8% had mild anemia (Hb=8.1-10 g/dl). Severe anemia did not detect in pregnant women. The hemoglobin levels in non anemic group showed a drop in the second trimester. Pregnant women with hemoglobin less than 10 g/dl, considered as anemic gave birth to neonates with birth weight of 2.6kg, while pregnant women with higher hemoglobin level (>10 g/dl), considered as normal gave birth to heavier and normal babies (3.3 kg). The severity of anemia during three trimesters was closely associated with birth weight of newborns. Conclusion The low hemoglobin values during three trimesters of pregnancy were associated with low birth weight in Iran. The anemia can lead to intra uterine growth retardation. PMID:26985354

  9. Pre-gravid oral contraceptive use in relation to birth weight: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Elizabeth E; Hahn, Kristen A; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Riis, Anders H; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J; Wise, Lauren A

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association between pregravid oral contraceptive (OC) use and birth weight, and findings have been conflicting. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5921 pregnancy planners in Denmark to evaluate recency, duration, and type of OC used before conception in relation to infant birth weight. Participants completed online questionnaires and reported detailed information on contraceptive history and covariates at baseline. Participants completed bimonthly follow-up questionnaires to update their pregnancy status for up to 12 months or until conception occurred. Birth weight data were ascertained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry for 4046 live births delivered by study participants between 2008 and 2010. We used multivariable linear and log-binomial regression analyses to control for confounding. Mean birth weight was higher among women who had used OCs within 0-1 months (mean difference = 97 g, CI 26, 168) or 2-6 months (mean difference = 40 g, CI -5, 85) before conception, compared with more than 12 months before conception. Mean birth weight was lower among women who had used OCs for long durations (mean difference comparing ≥12 with <4 years of OC use = -85 g, CI -158, -11). Our findings indicate that pregravid OC use within 6 months of conception may be associated with a small increase in birth weight, but that long duration of use may have the opposite effect. Results were stronger among male infants, among 2nd and 4th generation OC users, and among users of OCs with a higher estrogen dose. PMID:26076921

  10. Associations between maternal anthropometric characteristics and infant birth weight in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Sormeh; Ashrafzadeh, Sepideh; Hafizi, Ali; Naseh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the (1) normal ranges of anthropometric and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, homeostatic model assessment for insulin sensitivity, and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) for Iranian pregnant women and their newborns and (2) associations between maternal anthropometric and metabolic values and infants’ birth weights among Iranian women. Methods: Anthropometric and metabolic values of 163 singleton non-diabetic pregnant women in Tehran, Iran (2014) were collected before and during pregnancy and at delivery. Linear regression, multivariable regression, and Student t tests were used to evaluate correlations between birth weight and maternal variables. Results: Linear regression modeling suggested that maternal serum glucose (p = 0.2777) and age (p = 0.6752) were not associated with birth weight. Meanwhile, maternal weight and body mass index before pregnancy (p = 0.0006 and 0.0204, respectively), weight at delivery (p = 0.0036), maternal height (p = 0.0118), and gestational age (p = 0.0016) were positively associated with birth weight, while serum insulin (p = 0.0300) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (p = 0.0334) were negatively associated with infant’s birth weight. Using multivariate modeling, we identified severalconfounders: parity (multipara mothers delivered heavier babies compared to first-time mothers) explained as much as 24% of variation in birth weight (p = 0.005), maternal height explained 20.7% (p = 0.014), gestational age accounted for 19.7% (p = 0.027), and maternal body mass index explained 19.1% (p = 0.023) of the variation in the infant’s birth weight. Maternal serum insulin and infant’s sex were not observed to be associated with birth weight (p = 0.342 and 0.669, respectively) in the overall model. Conclusion: Overweight/obese women may experience higher incidence of

  11. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions. PMID:27510390

  12. Sex Differences in the Association Between Birth Weight and Adult Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using a cohort of 113,801 men and 109,298 women, born 1936-1983, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, Denmark. During 5.6 million person-years of follow-up, 7,750 men and 4,736 women had a diagnosis of adult type 2 diabetes (30 years of age or older) obtained from national registers. When birth weights between 3.251 and 3.750 kg were used as the reference group for each sex separately, women with birth weights in the categories of 2.000 to 2.750 kg and 4.751 to 5.500 kg had hazard ratios [HRs] of type 2 diabetes of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.34-1.59) and 1.56 (1.20-2.04), respectively, whereas men had HRs of 1.20 (1.12-1.30) and 0.93 (0.76-1.15). Thus, sex modified the association, with stronger risk estimates of type 2 diabetes in women at both low and high birth weights compared with men (P = 0.001). In conclusion, birth weight is more strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in women than in men. Future search for sex-specific causal mechanisms may provide new insights into the early origins of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26253610

  13. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate

    PubMed Central

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E.; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. AIM: This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. RESULTS: We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.

  14. Metals content in placentas from moderate cigarette consumers: correlation with newborn birth weight.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Muñoz, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Llanos, Miguel

    2005-06-01

    Cigarette consumption during pregnancy produces deleterious effects in both, mother and fetus, some of them due to the presence of toxic elements in cigarette smoke, such as cadmium. Placenta constitutes a dual-purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. The main objective of this study was to establish a correlation between placental concentration and distribution of some metal elements and birth weight of neonates delivered by mothers, who were either moderate smokers or nonsmokers. Forty nonsmoking and moderate smoking pregnant women paired per age, parity, weight, height and body mass index were selected. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption during pregnancy and urine cotinine concentration before delivery. Placental metal concentrations were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry (copper and cadmium) and neutron activation analysis (zinc and iron). Newborns from smokers had lower birth weights compared to infants from nonsmokers. Birth weights were correlated with placental cadmium concentrations in both, smokers and nonsmokers. Placental zinc and cadmium of smokers were mainly located at the maternal side and their levels were higher than those found in nonsmoker's placentas. In addition, all metal nutrient/pollutant ratios were decreased in the smoker group. In this first study performed in our region, we found that moderate smoking mothers deliver neonates with decreased birth weight and highly correlated to placental cadmium concentration. Decreased metal nutrient/pollutant ratios, a condition here found in smokers, may indicate a placental dysfunction, contributing to impair birth weight. PMID:15984568

  15. Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lampi, Katja M.; Lehtonen, Liisa; Tran, Phuong Lien; Suominen, Auli; Lehti, Venla; Banerjee, P. Nina; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between birth weight, gestational age, small for gestational age (SGA), and three most common autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subtypes. Study design In this population-based case-control study conducted in Finland, 4713 cases born between 1987 and 2005 with ICD-diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD, were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Four controls, individually matched on sex, date of birth, and place of birth, were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for each case. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether birth weight and gestational age information predicted ASD after controlling for maternal age, parity, smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric history, as well as for infant’s major congenital anomalies. Results Very low (<1500g) and moderately low (<2500g) birth weight, very low gestational age (less than 32 weeks), and SGA increased risk of childhood autism (adjusted OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.4–6.5; 1.57, 1.1–2.3; 2.51, 1.3–5.0 and 1.72, 1.1–2.6, respectively). Very low and moderately low birth weight, very low gestational age, and SGA were also associated with increase in PDD risk (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.9–6.3; 1.81, 1.4–2.4; 2.46, 1.4–2.3 and 2.24, 1.7–3.0, respectively). No associations were found between the perinatal characteristics and Asperger syndrome. The increased risks persisted after controlling for selected potential confounders. Conclusions The finding that low birth weight, prematurity and SGA were related to childhood autism and PDD but not to Asperger syndrome suggests that prenatal factors related to these exposures may differ for these ASD subtypes, which may have preventive implications. PMID:22677565

  16. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Term Birth Weight in New York, New York

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, David A.; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Carr, Jessie L.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008–2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m3 increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth. PMID:24218031

  17. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    PubMed

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth. PMID:24218031

  18. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Birth Weight: A Genetically-Informed Approach Comparing Multiple Raters.

    PubMed

    Knopik, Valerie S; Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H C; Smith, Taylor F; Heath, Andrew C

    2016-05-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is a significant public health concern with adverse consequences to the health and well-being of the fetus. There is considerable debate about the best method of assessing SDP, including birth/medical records, timeline follow-back approaches, multiple reporters, and biological verification (e.g., cotinine). This is particularly salient for genetically-informed approaches where it is not always possible or practical to do a prospective study starting during the prenatal period when concurrent biological specimen samples can be collected with ease. In a sample of families (N = 173) specifically selected for sibling pairs discordant for prenatal smoking exposure, we: (1) compare rates of agreement across different types of report-maternal report of SDP, paternal report of maternal SDP, and SDP contained on birth records from the Department of Vital Statistics; (2) examine whether SDP is predictive of birth weight outcomes using our best SDP report as identified via step (1); and (3) use a sibling-comparison approach that controls for genetic and familial influences that siblings share in order to assess the effects of SDP on birth weight. Results show high agreement between reporters and support the utility of retrospective report of SDP. Further, we replicate a causal association between SDP and birth weight, wherein SDP results in reduced birth weight even when accounting for genetic and familial confounding factors via a sibling comparison approach. PMID:26494459

  19. Risk factors of low birth weight at three hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Omer A M; Ahmed, Haidar A; Ibrahim, Alaa M F; Mahmood, Enas A A; Abdu-Allah, Tasneem O A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of women who give birth to low birth weight (LBW) children and to study the association of the different risk factors with LBW in three of large hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan. This was a cross sectional study of 381 women. Three groups: 151, 130 and 100 women, who gave birth to live children, were selected from Alsuadi Teaching Hospital, Khartoum Teaching Hospital and Alribat University Hospital, respectively. Data were collected through structured interviews and the birth weights were recorded as measured by midwives. Uni-Multi variate analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 19. Permissions were taken from hospital administration and the participants before the conduction of the research. 13% of live born children were of low birth weight. The main risk factors for low birth weight in the study were the lack of adequate education (OR= 1.9) gestational age (OR= 5.5), type of pregnancy (OR= 9.6), presence of hypertension (OR= 3.6), renal disease (OR= 2.1), bleeding during pregnancy (OR= 6.1) and presence of moderate or severe anemia (OR= 3.19). While Adequacy of antenatal care (ANC) visits, presence of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy, smoking and malaria in the first three trimesters, presence of previous children and spacing were all found to be statistically not significant risk factors. Many of the risk factors are modifiable and can be prevented by improvement of the health care during pregnancy. PMID:27493401

  20. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  1. Differentially Methylated Genomic Regions in Birth-Weight Discordant Twin Pairs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mubo; Baumbach, Jan; Vandin, Fabio; Röttger, Richard; Barbosa, Eudes; Dong, Mingchui; Frost, Morten; Christiansen, Lene; Tan, Qihua

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition during critical growth phases may alter the structural and physiologic development of vital organs thus "programming" the susceptibility to adult-onset diseases and disease-related health conditions. Epigenome-wide association studies have been performed in birth-weight discordant twin pairs to find evidence for such "programming" effects, but no significant results emerged. We further investigated this issue using a new computational approach: Instead of probing single genomic sites for significant alterations in epigenetic marks, we scan for differentially methylated genomic regions. Whole genome DNA methylation levels were measured in whole blood from 150 pairs of adult identical twins discordant for birth-weight. Intrapair differential DNA methylation was associated with qualitative (large or small) and quantitative (percentage) birth-weight discordance at each genomic site using regression models adjusting for age and sex. Based on the regression results, genomic regions with consistent alteration patterns of DNA methylation were located and tested for significant robustness using computational permutation tests. This yielded an interesting genomic region on chromosome 1, which is significantly differentially methylated for quantitative birth-weight discordance. The region covers two genes (TYW3 and CRYZ) both reportedly associated with metabolism. We conclude that prenatal conditions for birth-weight discordance may result in persistent epigenetic modifications potentially affecting even adult health. PMID:26831219

  2. Autonomic Functioning in Young Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic functioning is altered in infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g), but we know little about how such alterations manifest in adulthood. We examined associations between birth weight and resting heart rate (R-R interval), high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) heart rate variability, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, in 60 participants (ages 22-26) born at ELBW and free of major neurosensory impairment, and 79 controls born at normal birth weight (NBW; >2500 g). HF in the smallest-born ELBW participants was significantly lower than in NBW controls. In both groups, greater birth weight was associated with higher HF. Among ELBW survivors, lower birth weight predicted faster heart rate and higher DBP, but neither heart rate nor DBP appeared to be well-coordinated with baroreflex activity (LF), the principal mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. Adult autonomic regulation may be significantly altered in those born extremely preterm. PMID:27335960

  3. A study of determinants of low birth weight in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoneim, I

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the role of women's work as a possible determinant (among others) of low birth weight in the population of women followed in a Primary Health Care (PHC) center in Abha, Southern Saudi Arabia. All antenatal care files for all deliveries in the preceding 5 years were studied and the relevant data from 7067 files were collected and analyzed. Low birth weight was significantly higher in working mothers (odds ratio=1.31), adolescent mothers (odds ratio= 2.56), and low parity mothers (OR= 1.28). Anemia of the mother contributed an odds ratio of 1.23 for low birth weight baby and inadequate antenatal care (less than 3 visits during pregnancy) had an odds ratio of 1.9. Female babies were significantly more prone to low birth weight (odds ratio 1.34). It is suggested that further evaluation of women's work conditions to detect and remedy stressful conditions especially during pregnancies, health education and better antenatal care may prevent a good proportion of low birth weight deliveries. PMID:15565933

  4. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  5. Executive Functions of Six-Year-Old Boys with Normal Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions. PMID:22558470

  6. Are Early-Life Socioeconomic Conditions Directly Related to Birth Outcomes? Grandmaternal Education, Grandchild Birth Weight, and Associated Bias Analyses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Grandmaternal education may be related to grandchild birth weight (GBW) through maternal early-life development; however, conventional regression models may be endogenously confounded. Alternative models employing explicit structural assumptions may provide incrementally clearer evidence. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1995-2009; 1,681 mother-child pairs) to estimate "direct effects" of grandmaternal educational level (less than high school, high school diploma or equivalent, or college degree) at the time of the mother's birth on GBW, adjusted for maternal life-course factors: maltreatment as a child, education and income as an adult, prepregnancy overweight, and prenatal smoking. Using conventional and marginal structural model (MSM) approaches, we estimated 54-g (95% confidence interval: -14.0, 122.1) and 87-g (95% confidence interval: 10.9, 162.5) higher GBWs per increase in educational level, respectively. The MSM allowed simultaneous mediation by and adjustment for prepregnancy overweight. Estimates were insensitive to alternate structural assumptions and mediator parameterizations. Bias analysis suggested that a single unmeasured confounder would have to have a strong influence on GBW (approximately 150 g) or be greatly imbalanced across exposure groups (approximately 25%) to completely explain the findings. Coupling an MSM with sensitivity analyses provides some evidence that maternal early-life socioeconomic environment is directly associated with offspring birth weight. PMID:26283086

  7. Birth weight, infant mortality, and race: twin comparisons and genetic/environmental inputs.

    PubMed

    Conley, Dalton; Strully, Kate W

    2012-12-01

    Genetic and environmental inputs may shape population health disparities in varying ways. In this article, we use unique variation involved in twin births to attempt to untangle how genetic and prenatal environmental variation may make different contributions to infant health among white and black populations in the United States. Using twin fixed effects models and data from the 1995-1997 Matched Multiple Birth Dataset we compare birth weight-mortality associations across twin sex composition, zygosity, and race. Findings reveal suggestive differences between fraternal and imputed identical twin estimates for white and black twin pairs. PMID:23083893

  8. Comparison of motor development of low birth weight (LBW) infants with and without using mechanical ventilation and normal birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Sepideh; Aliabadi, Faranak

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine whether using mechanical ventilation in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) influences motor development of low birth weight (LBW) infants and to compare their motor development with normal birth weight (NBW) infants at the age of 8 to 12 months using Peabody Developmental Motor Scale 2 (PDMS-2). Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 70 LBW infants in two groups, mechanical ventilation (MV) group, n=35 and without mechanical ventilation (WMV) group, n=35 and 40 healthy NBW infants matched with LBW group for age. Motor quotients were determined using PDMS-2 and compared in all groups using ANOVA statistical method and SPSS version 17. Results: Comparison of the mean developmental motor quotient (DMQ) of both MV and WMV groups showed significant differences with NBW group (p< 0.05). Also, significant difference was found between the gross DMQ of MV group and WMV group (p< 0.05). Moreover, in MV group, both gross and fine motor quotients were considered as below average (16.12%). In WMV group, the gross motor quotient was considered as average (49.51%) and the fine motor quotient was considered as below average (16.12%). Conclusion: It seems that LBW infants have poor fine motor outcomes. The gross motor outcomes, on the other hand, will be significantly more influenced by using mechanical ventilation. In addition, more differences seem to be related to lower birth weight. Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants are more prone to developmental difficulties than LBW infants with the history of using mechanical ventilation especially in fine motor development. PMID:26913264

  9. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and... weight basis, or whenever the weight of feed is a factor in determining payment or settlement to a... on the basis of the actual weight of the livestock, live poultry, and/or feed shown on the...

  10. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and... weight basis, or whenever the weight of feed is a factor in determining payment or settlement to a... on the basis of the actual weight of the livestock, live poultry, and/or feed shown on the...

  11. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and... weight basis, or whenever the weight of feed is a factor in determining payment or settlement to a... on the basis of the actual weight of the livestock, live poultry, and/or feed shown on the...

  12. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and account for the picked up or returned feed weight. (Approved by the Office of Management and... weight basis, or whenever the weight of feed is a factor in determining payment or settlement to a... on the basis of the actual weight of the livestock, live poultry, and/or feed shown on the...

  13. Cost of care and social consequences of very low birth weight infants without premature- related morbidities in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Maria Caterina; Gugiatti, Attilio; Fattore, Giovanni; Gerzeli, Simone; Barbieri, Dario; Zanini, Rinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to estimate the cost that is borne by the Italian National Health Service, families, and social security due to very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) without prematurity-related morbidities up to the age of 18 months. We followed up on 150 VLBWIs and 145 comparable full-term infants (FTIs) who were born in one of 25 different neonatal intensive care units upon discharge from the hospital and at six and 18 months of age. The average length of the primary hospitalisation of the VLBWIs was 59.7 days (SD 21.6 days), with a total cost of €20,502 (SD €8409), compared with three days (SD 0.4 days) with a total cost of €907 (SD €304) for the FTIs. The total societal cost of the VLBWIs for the first 18 months of life was €58,098 (SD €21,625), while the corresponding figure for FTIs was €24,209 (SD €15,557). Among VLBWIs, both low birth weight and gestational age were correlated with the length of hospitalisation after birth (r(2) = 0.61 and r(2) = 0.57, respectively; p values < 0.0005). Our findings highlight that the existing DRGs and tariffs inadequately reflect the actual costs for Italian National Health Service. PMID:26286526

  14. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Amin, N; Abel, R; Sampathkumar, V

    1993-01-01

    Maternal factors comprising of social, obstetric and anthropometric are found to influence LBW. The present study had found association between obstetric risk factors like age of the mother, parity and gravida with LBW. Similar association was also observed between maternal height, and maternal weight with LBW. However, social factors were not found to be associated with LBW. This could probably be due to RUHSA's intervention which requires a further inquiry. PMID:8244503

  15. Transplacental transfer of antiretroviral drugs and newborn birth weight in HIV-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Jelena; Nicastri, Emanuele; Anceschi, Maurizio M; Ascenzi, Paolo; Signore, Fabrizio; Pisani, Giuseppe; Vallone, Cristina; Mattia, Elisabetta; Notari, Stefania; Tempestilli, Massimo; Pucillo, Leopoldo P; Narciso, Pasquale

    2009-11-01

    Although it is well known that antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) across the placenta in different extents, few data are available concerning the impact of the transplacental passage of ARVs on newborn outcome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the transplacental diffusion of ARVs and the clinical assessment of the newborn. Mother and cord lopinavir, nelfinavir, atazanavir and nevirapine plasma levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Newborn gestational age, weight, and Apgar score were recorded. Cord-to-mother ratio (C:M) was calculated to estimate the placental passage of ARVs. Preterm birth was defined as delivery at <37 weeks of gestation and low birth weight was defined as a birth weight of <2500g. Twenty-six HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled. Nevirapine presented the highest C:M ratio (0.60 +/- 0.19), the C:M ratio of nelfinavir and atazanavir was 0.37 +/- 0.38 and 0.20 +/- 0.14, respectively. The lopinavir level in the cord was undetectable. The observed prevalence rate of neonatal low birth weight and preterm delivery was 19,2% (n = 5) and 15.4% (n = 4), respectively. A significant linear regression analysis was reported between the C:M ratio and newborn birth weight (p = 0.01). Although the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in preventing mother-to-child transmission is indisputable, these data indicate a pharmacological rationale to the association between birth weight and highly active antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. PMID:19929798

  16. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Tim J.; Springett, Anna L.; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome‐specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989–2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30–42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK‐WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th–90th centile: 2,115–3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100–3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK‐WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26407756

  17. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  18. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  19. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  20. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (<=24 years) and older (>=40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sheng; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Jinzhu; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Jing; Lu, Yuan; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW) or presence of absence of macrosomia), and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China. Methods From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles) of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample. Results For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM’s recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations. Conclusions A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We

  2. Pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain: where is the tipping point for preterm birth?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity in pregnant women is a major problem affecting both the mother and her offspring. Literature on the effect of obesity on preterm birth is inconsistent and few studies have investigated the influence of weight gain during pregnancy. This study examined the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy on preterm birth. Methods Data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) on 45,824 pregnant women with singleton, live-born infants with no sever congenital anomalies was analyzed. Primary outcome variables included preterm (< 37 weeks of gestation), categorized into spontaneous preterm with and without premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and indicated preterm. Maternal BMI was categorized into underweight (BMI < 18.50), normal weight (BMI =1 8.50 – 24.99), overweight (BMI = 25.00 – 29.99), and obese (BMI ≥ 30.00). Multinomial regression analysis was conducted and OR and 95% CI were calculated. Results The rate of spontaneous preterm birth with PROM among overweight women decreased with increasing weight gain but increased among women who had excessive weight gain. Similarly, a U-shaped rate of spontaneous preterm birth with and without PROM was observed in obese women. Gaining less weight was protective of spontaneous preterm with and without PROM among overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women. Among underweight women, gaining < 7 kg or 9.5-12.7 kg was associated with increased odds of indicated preterm birth. Appreciable differences were also observed in the association between pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and the subtypes of preterm births among African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Conclusion Reduced weight gain during pregnancy among overweight and obese women is associated with reduced spontaneous preterm birth with and without PROM. Health care professionals and public health workers should be aware of this risk and adhere to the 2009 IOM guideline that

  3. Impact of piglet birth weight, birth order, and litter size on subsequent growth performance, carcass quality, muscle composition, and eating quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, A D; Aalhus, J L; Williams, N H; Patience, J F

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P < 0.05), but had no effect on within litter variability or carcass quality (P > 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P < 0.05). Birth weight had limited effects on carcass quality, weight of primal cuts, objective quality, and overall palatability of the meat at the same slaughter weight (P > 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight

  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and infant birth weight: A within-family analysis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, the high prevalence of unhealthy preconception body weight and inappropriate gestational weight gain among pregnant women is an important public health concern. However, the relationship among pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and newborn birth weight has not been well established. This study uses a very large dataset of sibling births and a within-family design to thoroughly address this issue. The baseline analysis controlling for mother fixed effects indicates maternal preconception overweight, preconception obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain significantly increase the risk of having a high birth weight baby, respectively, by 1.3, 3 and 3.9 percentage points, while underweight before pregnancy and inadequate gestational weight gain increase the low birth weight incidence by 1.4 and 2 percentage points. The benchmark results are robust in a variety of sensitivity checks. Since poor birth outcomes especially high birth weight and low birth weight have lasting adverse impacts on one's health, education, and socio-economic outcomes later in life, the findings of this research suggest promoting healthy weight among women before pregnancy and preventing inappropriate weight gain during pregnancy can generate significant intergenerational benefits. PMID:25863988

  5. Effects of wildfire disaster exposure on male birth weight in an Australian population

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, M. H.; Behie, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Maternal stress can depress birth weight and gestational age, with potential health effects. A growing number of studies examine the effect of maternal stress caused by environmental disasters on birth outcomes. These changes may indicate an adaptive response. In this study, we examine the effects of maternal exposure to wildfire on birth weight and gestational age, hypothesising that maternal stress will negatively influence these measures. Methodology: Using data from the Australian Capital Territory, we employed Analysis of Variance to examine the influence of the 2003 Canberra wildfires on the weight of babies born to mothers resident in fire-affected regions, while considering the role of other factors. Results: We found that male infants born in the most severely fire-affected area had significantly higher average birth weights than their less exposed peers and were also heavier than males born in the same areas in non-fire years. Higher average weights were attributable to an increase in the number of macrosomic infants. There was no significant effect on the weight of female infants or on gestational age for either sex. Conclusions and implications: Our findings indicate heightened environmental responsivity in the male cohort. We find that elevated maternal stress acted to accelerate the growth of male fetuses, potentially through an elevation of maternal blood glucose levels. Like previous studies, our work finds effects of disaster exposure and suggests that fetal growth patterns respond to maternal signals. However, the direction of the change in birth weight is opposite to that of many earlier studies. PMID:26574560

  6. Heritable environmental variance causes nonlinear relationships between traits: application to birth weight and stillbirth of pigs.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Herman A; Hill, William G; Knol, Egbert F

    2015-04-01

    There is recent evidence from laboratory experiments and analysis of livestock populations that not only the phenotype itself, but also its environmental variance, is under genetic control. Little is known about the relationships between the environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of other traits, however. A genetic covariance between these is expected to lead to nonlinearity between them, for example between birth weight and survival of piglets, where animals of extreme weights have lower survival. The objectives were to derive this nonlinear relationship analytically using multiple regression and apply it to data on piglet birth weight and survival. This study provides a framework to study such nonlinear relationships caused by genetic covariance of environmental variance of one trait and the mean of the other. It is shown that positions of phenotypic and genetic optima may differ and that genetic relationships are likely to be more curvilinear than phenotypic relationships, dependent mainly on the environmental correlation between these traits. Genetic correlations may change if the population means change relative to the optimal phenotypes. Data of piglet birth weight and survival show that the presence of nonlinearity can be partly explained by the genetic covariance between environmental variance of birth weight and survival. The framework developed can be used to assess effects of artificial and natural selection on means and variances of traits and the statistical method presented can be used to estimate trade-offs between environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of others. PMID:25631318

  7. Heritable Environmental Variance Causes Nonlinear Relationships Between Traits: Application to Birth Weight and Stillbirth of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Herman A.; Hill, William G.; Knol, Egbert F.

    2015-01-01

    There is recent evidence from laboratory experiments and analysis of livestock populations that not only the phenotype itself, but also its environmental variance, is under genetic control. Little is known about the relationships between the environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of other traits, however. A genetic covariance between these is expected to lead to nonlinearity between them, for example between birth weight and survival of piglets, where animals of extreme weights have lower survival. The objectives were to derive this nonlinear relationship analytically using multiple regression and apply it to data on piglet birth weight and survival. This study provides a framework to study such nonlinear relationships caused by genetic covariance of environmental variance of one trait and the mean of the other. It is shown that positions of phenotypic and genetic optima may differ and that genetic relationships are likely to be more curvilinear than phenotypic relationships, dependent mainly on the environmental correlation between these traits. Genetic correlations may change if the population means change relative to the optimal phenotypes. Data of piglet birth weight and survival show that the presence of nonlinearity can be partly explained by the genetic covariance between environmental variance of birth weight and survival. The framework developed can be used to assess effects of artificial and natural selection on means and variances of traits and the statistical method presented can be used to estimate trade-offs between environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of others. PMID:25631318

  8. Preschool performance of children with normal intelligence who were very low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Klein, N; Hack, M; Gallagher, J; Fanaroff, A A

    1985-03-01

    Children who were very low-birth-weight infants (less than 1,500 g), beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care, are now of school age. To evaluate their school performance 80 children born in 1976 who had very low-birth-weight (mean birth weight 1.2 kg, mean gestational age 30 weeks) were examined at age 5 years. Sixty-five children were neurologically intact and had normal IQ (greater than or equal to 85) on the Stanford-Binet; five children were neurologically abnormal and ten had IQ below 85. Of the 65 children with normal intelligence and no neurologic impairments, 46 were single births and enrolled in preschool. These 46 children were matched by race, sex, and family background with classmate control children who had been born at full term. Outcome measurements included the Slosson Intelligence Test, the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (including subscales of Picture Vocabulary, Spatial Relations, Memory for Sentences, Visual Auditory Learning, Quantitative Concepts, and Blending) and the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. No significant differences in IQ were found between children who were very low-birth-weight infants and control children; however, children who were very low-birth-weight infants performed significantly less well on the Spatial Relations subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson and on the Visual-Motor Integration test. Similar results were found for nine sets of twins and their control children. Recognition of these perceptual and visual-motor problems may permit appropriate early remedial intervention and prevent the compounding of these difficulties. PMID:4038798

  9. Socioeconomic Gradients and Low Birth-Weight: Empirical and Policy Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Brian Karl

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) gradients emerge in health outcomes as early as birth and to examine the magnitude, potential sources, and explanations of any observed SES gradients. Data Sources The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey conducted in 1988. Study Design A multinomial logistic regression of trichotomized birth-weight categories was conducted for normal birth-weight (2,500–5,500 grams), low birth-weight (LBWT; <2,500 grams), and heavy birth-weight (>5,500 grams). Key variables included income, education, occupational grade, state-level income inequality, and length of participation in Women-Infants-Children (WIC) for pregnant mothers. Principal Findings A socioeconomic gradient for low birth-weight was discovered for an adjusted household income measure, net of all covariates in the unrestricted models. A gross effect of maternal education was explained by maternal smoking behaviors, while no effect of occupational grade was observed, net of household income. There were no significant state-level income inequality effects (Gini coefficient) for any of the models. In addition, participation in WIC was discovered to substantially flatten income gradients for short-term participants and virtually eliminate an income gradient among long-term participants. Conclusions Although a materialist explanation for early-life SES gradients seems the most plausible (vis-à-vis psychosocial and occupational explanations), more research is needed to discover potential interventions. In addition, the notion of a monotonic gradient in which income is salutary across the full range of the distribution is challenged by these data such that income may cease to be beneficial after a given threshold. Finally, the success of WIC participation in flattening SES gradients argues for either: (a) the experimental efficacy of WIC, or (b) the biasing selection characteristics of WIC participants; either conclusion suggests that interventions or

  10. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  11. Perfluorinated Compounds in Relation to Birth Weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Kristina W.; Haug, Line S.; Baird, Donna D.; Becher, Georg; Hoppin, Jane A.; Skjaerven, Rolv; Thomsen, Cathrine; Eggesbo, Merete; Travlos, Gregory; Wilson, Ralph; Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid are perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) widely distributed in the environment. Previous studies of PFCs and birth weight are equivocal. The authors examined this association in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), using data from 901 women enrolled from 2003 to 2004 and selected for a prior case-based study of PFCs and subfecundity. Maternal plasma samples were obtained around 17 weeks of gestation. Outcomes included birth weight z scores, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and large for gestational age. The adjusted birth weight z scores were slightly lower among infants born to mothers in the highest quartiles of PFCs compared with infants born to mothers in the lowest quartiles: for perfluorooctane sulfonate, β = −0.18 (95% confidence interval: −0.41, 0.05) and, for perfluorooctanoic acid, β = −0.21 (95% confidence interval: −0.45, 0.04). No clear evidence of an association with small for gestational age or large for gestational age was observed. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were each associated with decreased adjusted odds of preterm birth, although the cell counts were small. Whether some of the associations suggested by these findings may be due to a noncausal pharmacokinetic mechanism remains unclear. PMID:22517810

  12. Meconium-related ileus in very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants: immediate and one-year postoperative outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Soo-Hong; Byun, Shin-Yun; Han, Young-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose One of the major causes of bowel obstruction in extremely premature infants is a meconium obstruction. However, there are many challenges not only in the recognition and diagnosis, but also in the management of meconium obstruction. This study aimed to find perioperative clinical features and determine the postoperative course of meconium-related ileus in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of premature infants (n = 11, VLBW infnats; n = 16, ELBW infants) with a meconium-related ileus who underwent operation for intractable ileus between January 2009 and May 2013. Results The average duration of conservative management was longer and postnatal age was older in ELBW infants than VLBW infants: 19.9 days vs. 11.5 days and 34.9 days vs. 19.2 days. The immediate postoperative course (day that beginning feeding and full feeding) was not significantly different based on birth weight, but the ELBW infants had slightly higher mortality. At 12 months of corrected age after operation, both average body weight and average height was below 10th percentile for growth in most infants (61.1%). Conclusion There was a slightly high mortality in the ELBW infants, but two groups did not experience significant differences in the immediate postoperative course of meconium-related ileus. Nevertheless, considering their growth patterns, it is necessary to do a close follow-up and more aggressive nutritional management to achieve optimal growth and development in both patient groups. PMID:26366385

  13. Paternal Lifelong Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight Rates: Relevance to the African-American Women's Birth Outcome Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To determine the relation of paternal lifelong socioeconomic position (SEP) to the racial disparity in low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW) rates. Methods Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of infants (1989-1991) and their parents (1956-1976) with appended U.S. census income data. The neighborhood incomes of father's place of residence at the time of his birth and at the time of his infant's birth were used to measure of lifelong SEP. Population attributable risk (PAR) percentages were calculated to estimate the percentage of LBW infants attributable to paternal low SEP. Results In Cook County, infants (n = 10,168) born to fathers with a lifelong high SEP had a LBW rate of 3.7 %. LBW rates rose among infants born to fathers with early-life (n = 7224), adulthood (n = 2913), or lifelong (n = 7288) low SEP: 5.2, 6.9, and 9.3 %, respectively. The adjusted (controlling for maternal demographic characteristics) OR of LBW for fathers with an early-life, adulthood, or lifelong low (compared to lifelong high) SEP equaled 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 1.5 (1.3, 1.9), and 2.0 (1.7, 2.3), respectively. The PAR percentages of LBW for paternal low SEP were 40 and 9 % among African-American and White mothers, respectively. Among fathers with a lifelong high SEP, the adjusted OR of LBW for African-American (compared to White) mothers was 1.1 (0.7, 1.7). Conclusions Low paternal SEP is a novel risk factor for infant LBW independent of maternal demographic characteristics. This phenomenon is particularly relevant to the African-American women's birth outcome disadvantage. PMID:27000848

  14. Penile length, digit length, and anogenital distance according to birth weight in newborn male infants

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Young; Lim, Gina; Oh, Ki Won; Ryu, Dong Soo; Park, Seonghun; Jeon, Jong Chul; Cheon, Sang Hyeon; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Park, Sejun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anogential distance (AGD) and the 2:4 digit length ratio appear to provide a reliable guide to fetal androgen exposure. We intended to investigate the current status of penile size and the relationship between penile length and AGD or digit length according to birth weight in Korean newborn infants. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and February 2014, among a total of 78 newborn male infants, 55 infants were prospectively included in this study. Newborn male infants with a gestational age of 38 to 42 weeks and birth weight>2.5 kg were assigned to the NW group (n=24) and those with a gestational age<38 weeks and birth weight<2.5 kg were assigned to the LW group (n=31). Penile size and other variables were compared between the two groups. Results Stretched penile length of the NW group was 3.3±0.2 cm, which did not differ significantly from that reported in 1987. All parameters including height, weight, penile length, testicular size, AGD, and digit length were significantly lower in the LW group than in the NW group. However, there were no significant differences in AGD ratio or 2:4 digit length ratio between the two groups. Conclusions The penile length of newborn infants has not changed over the last quarter century in Korea. With normal penile appearance, the AGD ratio and 2:4 digit length ratio are consistent irrespective of birth weight, whereas AGD, digit length, and penile length are significantly smaller in newborns with low birth weight. PMID:25763130

  15. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  16. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Methods In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. Results In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. Conclusions It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. PMID:26678603

  17. Exposure to coarse particulate matter during gestation and birth weight in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Ebisu, Keita; Berman, Jesse D; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have explored the relationship between coarse particles (PM10-2.5) and adverse birth outcomes. We examined associations between gestational exposure of PM10-2.5 and birth weight. U.S. birth certificates data (1999-2007) were acquired for 8,017,865 births. Gestational and trimester exposures of PM10-2.5 were estimated using co-located PM10 and PM2.5 monitors ≤35km from the population-weighted centroid of mothers' residential counties. A linear regression model was applied, adjusted by potential confounders. As sensitivity analyses, we explored alternative PM10-2.5 estimations, adjustment for PM2.5, and stratification by regions. Gestational exposure to PM10-2.5 was associated with 6.6g (95% Confidence Interval: 5.9, 7.2) lower birth weight per interquartile range increase (7.8μg/m(3)) in PM10-2.5 exposures. All three trimesters showed associations. Under different exposure methods for PM10-2.5, associations remained consistent but with different magnitudes. Results were robust after adjusting for PM2.5, and regional analyses showed associations in all four regions with larger estimates in the South. Our results suggest that PM10-2.5 is associated with birth weight in addition to PM2.5. Regional heterogeneity may reflect differences in population, measurement error, region-specific emission pattern, or different chemical composition within PM10-2.5. Most countries do not set health-based standards for PM10-2.5, but our findings indicate potentially important health effects of PM10-2.5. PMID:27324566

  18. The Psycho-Educational Outcomes of Children with Very Low Birth Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandieson, Robert; Gorodzinsky, Fabian

    1998-01-01

    Reviews recent long-term outcome studies concerning the psycho-educational functioning of children who were born with very low birth weight (2.20 to 3.31 pounds). Findings indicate that these children develop without problems in some, but not all, areas. The areas most consistently affected were neuro-motor and mathematics. (Author/CR)

  19. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6,834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in t...

  20. A Guide to Care and Management of Very Low Birth Weight Infants. A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl J., Ed.

    The 14 articles, which make up the bulk of this book provide an interdisciplinary guide to the management of very low birth weight infants. Following an introduction, the first section, titled "Family Considerations," presents three papers discussing, respectively, parent-infant interaction, cultural variables in pediatric care, and parents'…

  1. Medicaid prenatal program reducing rates of low birth weight, infant mortality.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Medicaid prenatal program reduces low birth weight and infant mortality: Christiana Care Health System in Wilmington, DE, rejects the free baby stroller and gift certificate approach to motivating members and instead employs peer moms in the community to mentor pregnant Medicaid members and help them make life-long health improvements. PMID:10175564

  2. Maternal Tactile Stimulation and the Neurodevelopment of Low Birth Weight Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Sandra J.; Wilson, Peggy; Morrison, Delmont

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of early maternal touch to the neurodevelopmental status of low birth weight (LBW) infants. One hundred and eight LBW infants and their mothers were videotaped during a typical feeding when the infant was 3 months old. This tape was used to analyze both the mother's touch and other facets…

  3. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  4. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  5. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mend...

  6. Increased levels of phthalates in very low birth weight infants with septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Strømmen, Kenneth; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Blakstad, Elin Wahl; Moltu, Sissel Jennifer; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Almaas, Astrid Nylander; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Thomsen, Cathrine; Nakstad, Britt; Brække, Kristin; Rønnestad, Arild Erlend; Drevon, Christian André; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight infants (VLBW; birth weight<1500g) are exposed to potentially harmful phthalates from medical devices during their hospital stay. We measured urinary phthalate concentrations among hospitalized VLBW infants participating in a nutritional study. Possible associations between different phthalates and birth weight (BW), septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were evaluated. Forty-six VLBW infants were enrolled in this randomized controlled nutritional study. The intervention group (n=24) received increased quantities of energy, protein, fat, essential fatty acids and vitamin A, as compared to the control group (n=22). The concentrations of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites were measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, at 3 time points during the first 5weeks of life. During this study, the levels of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites decreased, whereas an increasing trend was seen regarding metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP). Significantly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were seen in infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with late onset septicemia or BPD. A significant positive correlation between the duration of respiratory support and DEHP metabolites was observed (p≤0.01) at 2.9weeks of age. Birth weight was negatively associated with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with septicemia or BPD experienced prolonged exposure from medical equipment containing phthalates, with subsequent higher levels of phthalate metabolites detected. Clinical Trial Registration no.: NCT01103219. PMID:26922148

  7. Neuro-Cognitive Performance of Very Preterm or Very Low Birth Weight Adults at 26 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit Madzwamuse, Suna; Baumann, Nicole; Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children born very preterm (VP <32 weeks gestation) and/or with very low birth weight (VBLW <1500 g; subsequently VP/VLBW) have been previously reported to have more cognitive impairment and specific executive functioning problems than term children; however, it remains unclear whether these problems persist into adulthood. This…

  8. Chronic kidney disease: Low birth weight and the global burden of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Carolyn L; Moxey-Mims, Marva

    2016-04-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and intrauterine growth restriction are major contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. A Norwegian registry study has confirmed that LBW is associated with an increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease by 40 years of age, which could not be explained by familial factors. PMID:26898625

  9. Calcium absorption in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of early bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on calcium (Ca) metabolism and growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A dual-tracer, stable isotope method was used to assess Ca absorption in VLBW infants. Infants with early BPD received energy-dense feedi...

  10. Use of a truss to maintain inguinal hernia reduction in a very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, J W; Schick, J B; Sherman, M; Reagan, Y; Hanks, G; Weitzman, J J

    1995-01-01

    Trusses are not usually used in management of inguinal hernia of the very low birth weight infant. A potential benefit of this therapy is maintenance of hernia reduction, thus delaying operative repair until the infant is larger and healthier. We designed a safe and effective truss with supplies found in most neonatal intensive care units. PMID:7595774

  11. The relationship between low birth weight and exposure to inhalable particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Romão, Rodrigo; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pinheiro, Patricia Matias; Braga, Alfésio Luiz Ferreira; Martins, Lourdes Conceição

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a global public health problem. The adverse effects of air pollution are strongly associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and, to a lesser extent, with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study analyzes the relationship between exposure to PM10 and low birth weight in the city of Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil. We included babies born to mothers resident in Santo André between 2000 and 2006. Data on daily PM₁₀ levels was obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. We performed descriptive analysis and logistic regressions. The prevalence rate of low birth weight was 5.9%. There was a dose-response relationship between PM₁₀ concentrations and low birth weight. Exposure to the highest quartile of PM₁₀ (37,50µg/m³) in the third trimester of pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight by 26% (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.14-1.40) when compared to the first quartile. The same effect was observed in the remaining trimesters. This effect was observed for ambient particle concentrations that met the current air quality standards. PMID:23778542

  12. The influence of erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 status on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Relton, Caroline L; Pearce, Mark S; Parker, Louise

    2005-05-01

    The extent to which maternal folate and vitamin B12 modulate infant birth weight is unclear. The present study investigated mothers in early gestation (mean 11.5 (sd 5.8) weeks) and neonates, at delivery. Erythrocyte (RBC) folate (mothers: n 683; neonates: n 614) and vitamin B12 (mothers: n 534; neonates: n 614) were measured. Data on smoking habits were available for 44 % of pregnancies (n 443). The relationship between vitamin levels and birth weight standardized for gender and gestational age was investigated, using linear regression and adjusting for possible confounding variables (maternal age, parity). Results are presented as standardized regression coefficients (b). Increasing maternal age was associated with elevated RBC folate (b 0.11 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.15), P<0.001; n 674) and smoking was associated with a decrease in maternal RBC folate (b -1.38 (95 % CI -1.92, -0.86), P=0.001; n 319). Neonatal RBC folate was predicted by maternal RBC folate (b 0.08 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.11), P=0.001; n 315) and maternal vitamin B12 (b 0.08 (95 % CI 0.01, 0.16), P=0.02; n 252). Smoking influenced maternal vitamin B12 status (b -0.88 (95 % CI -1.49, -0.27), P=0.005; n 231). Using univariate regression, smoking significantly influenced infant birth weight (b -2.15 (95 % CI -3.24, -1.04), P<0.001; n 437). However, the effect of smoking on birth weight was statistically non-significant when considered in a multivariate regression model, leaving maternal RBC folate as the only significant predictor of birth weight (b 0.25 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.42), P=0.005; n 145). These findings suggest that maternal folate status is an important determinant of infant birth weight. The combined effects of smoking and reduced RBC status on birth weight require further investigation. PMID:15975157

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  16. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and...

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.103 - How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How are the charges calculated when a carrier charges a minimum weight, but the actual weight of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage is less than the minimum weight charged? 302-7.103 Section 302-7.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  18. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were seen within 72 hr of delivery, and data were collected on the type of household fuel used, fire type, and socioeconomic and other confounding factors. Smoking among women in the study community was negligible. Children born to mothers habitually cooking on open fires (n = 861) had the lowest mean birth weight of 2,819 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 2,790-2,848]; those using a chimney stove (n = 490) had an intermediate mean of 2,863 g (95% CI, 2,824-2,902); and those using the cleanest fuels (electricity or gas, n = 365) had the highest mean of 2,948 g (95% CI, 2,898-2,998) (p< 0.0001). The percentage of low birth weights (< 500 g) in these three groups was 19.9% (open fire), 16.8% (chimney stove), and 16.0% (electricity/gas), (trend (p = 0.08). Confounding factors were strongly associated with fuel type, but after adjustment wood users still had a birth weight 63 g lower (p = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.4-126). This is the first report of an association between biofuel use and reduced birth weight in a human population. Although there is potential for residual confounding despite adjustment, the better-documented evidence on passive smoking and a feasible mechanism through carbon monoxide exposure suggest this association may be real. Because two-thirds of households in developing countries still rely on biofuels and women of childbearing age perform most cooking tasks, the attributable risk arising from this association, if confirmed, could be substantial. PMID:11781172

  19. Interrelationships between Cd, Zn and birth weight in neonates of women who smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, B.R.; Kuhnert, P.M.; Groh-Margo, S.; Webster, S.; Erhard, P.

    1986-03-05

    A study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased cadmium level in pregnant women who smoke alters the metabolism of zinc in the maternal-fetal unit, and that this altered Zn metabolism may contribute to lower birth weight infants. One hundred-thirty mother/infant pairs were studied. Maternal whole blood and placental Cd were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry; maternal and fetal plasma, red blood cell and placental Zn by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Maternal plasma thiocyanate (SCN) levels were used as an index of smoking status. Zn intake was estimated by diet history in a subgroup of 34 patients. The data were analyzed using t-tests, correlation and stepwise multiple regression techniques. No differences in Zn intake were found between pregnant women who smoked and those who did not. The average daily intake of Zn was 10.2 +/- 5 mg; this is less than the RDA for Zn during pregnancy. The data show that there are significant positive correlations between SCN levels and levels of whole blood Cd, placental Cd, and placental Zn. Cord vein samples from infants of mothers who smoked had decreased red blood cell Zn. This was particularly true in nulliparous patients. In all patients, maternal whole blood Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight and cord vein red blood cell Zn was positively related to birth weight. The results support the hypothesis of a Cd-Zn interaction in pregnant women who smoke. Additional findings suggest an effect of parity on the interaction between Cd and Zn. Placental Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight in nulliparous patients (n=21). In multiparous patients (n=109) placental Zn was inversely related to birth weight. In patients with parity 2 or greater (n=54), placental Cd was directly predictive of placental Zn. These results may reflect a less favorable Zn nutritional status with increasing parity.

  20. Selected Preconception Health Indicators and Birth Weight Disparities in a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hussey, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    Background This analysis explored the effect of timing, sequencing, and change in preconception health across adolescence and young adulthood on racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight in a diverse national cohort of young adult women. Methods Data came from Waves I (1994–1995), III (2001–2002), and IV (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Eligibility was restricted to all singleton live births to female non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-origin Latina, or Asian/Pacific Islander participants (n=3014) occurring between the Wave III (ages 18–26 years) and IV (ages 24–32 years) interviews. Birth weight was categorized into low (<2500 grams), normal (2500–4000 grams), and macrosomic (>4000 grams). Preconception health indicators were cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, overweight or obesity, and inadequate physical activity, measured in adolescence (Wave I, ages 11–19 years) and early adulthood (Wave III) and combined into 4-category variables to capture the timing and sequencing of exposure. Findings Measures of preconception health did not explain the Black-White disparity in low birth weight, which increased after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR]=2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33–3.53) and effect modification by overweight/obesity (OR=3.58, 95%CI: 1.65–7.78). A positive association between adult-onset overweight/obesity and macrosomia was modified by race (OR=3.83, 95%CI: 1.02–14.36 for Black women). Conclusions This longitudinal analysis provides new evidence on preconception health and racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight. Specifically, it indicates that interventions focused on prevention of overweight/obesity and maintenance of healthy weight during the transition to adulthood, especially among Black females, may be warranted. PMID:24439952

  1. Postnatal weight gain in very low birth weight infants in Beijing and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zong-Hua; Gao, Peng-Fen; Bai, Hua; Li, Yao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    AIM To analyze the low weight gain (WG) from birth to 4 and 6wk of life to predict the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm babies. METHODS Three hundred and three newborns with VLBW were analyzed. Body weight measurements were recorded weekly. In all patients, the proportion of the WG was defined as the preterm weight measured at the 4th and 6th weeks of life minus the birth weight (BW) divided by the BW. Other risk factors for ROP were also analyzed. RESULTS Mean gestational age and mean BW of the whole cohort were 29.56±1.44wk and 1270.58±176.18g respectively. WG proportion at 4wk postnatal age (18.89%±13.58%) were significantly lower in infants with ROP (P=0.003). WG proportion at 6wk was not different between ROP and no ROP group (42.48%±20.36% vs 46.43%±15.65% P=0.118). When all the other risk factors significant for ROP were included in the logistic regression poor WG did not arise as an independent risk factor. Area under the ROC curve was 0.591 (95%CI: 0.515-0.666; P=0.016). For ROP, the best discriminative cutoff of 18.06% of the proportional WG at the 4th week over the BW, sensitivity and specificity values were 67.3% and 50.0% respectively. CONCLUSION Low WG proportion in the first 4wk of life is maybe an additional predictor of ROP in very low BW infants. Preterm babies with low BW and low WG proportion should be followed closely for ROP. PMID:26682174

  2. Association of Prenatal Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Infant Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Sjödin, Andreas; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of persistent compounds that have been used as flame retardants in vehicles, household furnishings, and consumer electronics. This study examined whether concentrations of PBDEs in maternal serum during pregnancy were associated with infant birth weight, length, head circumference, and length of gestation. Participants were pregnant women (n = 286) enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Study, a longitudinal cohort study of low-income, predominantly Mexican families living in the Salinas Valley, California. Blood samples were collected near the 26th week of pregnancy in 1999–2000, and concentrations of 10 PBDE congeners (BDE-17, -28, -47, -66, -85, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) were measured. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the association of lipid-adjusted, log10-transformed PBDE concentrations and birth outcome. In adjusted analyses, negative associations with birth weight were seen with BDE-47 (β = −115 g, 95% confidence interval (CI): −229, −2), BDE-99 (β = −114 g, 95% CI: −225, −4), and BDE-100 (β = −122 g, 95% CI: −235, −9). These findings were diminished slightly and were no longer statistically significant when maternal weight gain was included in the models. PBDE congeners were not associated with birth length, head circumference, or gestational duration. PMID:21878423

  3. Area-level socioeconomic deprivation, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and term birth weight in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Bobb, Jennifer F; Ito, Kazuhiko; Elston, Beth; Savitz, David A; Ross, Zev; Matte, Thomas D; Johnson, Sarah; Dominici, Francesca; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have linked air pollution with adverse birth outcomes, but relatively few have examined differential associations across the socioeconomic gradient. To evaluate interaction effects of gestational nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and area-level socioeconomic deprivation on fetal growth, we used: (1) highly spatially-resolved air pollution data from the New York City Community Air Survey (NYCCAS); and (2) spatially-stratified principle component analysis of census variables previously associated with birth outcomes to define area-level deprivation. New York City (NYC) hospital birth records for years 2008-2010 were restricted to full-term, singleton births to non-smoking mothers (n=243,853). We used generalized additive mixed models to examine the potentially non-linear interaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and deprivation categories on birth weight (and estimated linear associations, for comparison), adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics and sensitivity testing adjustment for co-pollutant exposures. Estimated NO2 exposures were highest, and most varying, among mothers residing in the most-affluent census tracts, and lowest among mothers residing in mid-range deprivation tracts. In non-linear models, we found an inverse association between NO2 and birth weight in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas (p-values<0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but no association in the mid-range of deprivation (p=0.8). Likewise, in linear models, a 10 ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a decrease in birth weight among mothers in the least-deprived and most-deprived areas of -16.2g (95% CI: -21.9 to -10.5) and -11.0 g (95% CI: -22.8 to 0.9), respectively, and a non-significant change in the mid-range areas [β=0.5 g (95% CI: -7.7 to 8.7)]. Linear slopes in the most- and least-deprived quartiles differed from the mid-range (reference group) (p-values<0.001 and 0.09, respectively). The complex patterning in air pollution exposure and deprivation

  4. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  5. Relationships of birth weight traits with age at first estrus and number of ovulations in Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for increased litter size has resulted in greater within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and a reduction in litter average birth weight; believed to be associated with intrauterine growth restriction as a result of limitations in uterine capacity. This leads to increased preweaning...

  6. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, <1000 g birth weight) despite current practices of vitamin and mineral supplementation. Few data are available evaluating the usual course of markers of mineral status in this population. Our objectives in this study w...

  7. The Mediating Effects of Verbal Skills in the Relationship between Low Birth Weight and Childhood Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaske, Jamie; Newsome, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal risk factors, such as low birth weight, have been linked to higher levels of aggressive and destructive behaviours during childhood. Although low birth weight is associated with childhood externalizing behaviour, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain open to empirical investigation. The current study extends the…

  8. Vagal Regulation of Heart Rate in the Prediction of Developmental Outcome for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…

  9. Rickets and osteopenia are more common in infants <600g birth weight than those 600-1000g

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, <1000g birth weight) despite current nutritional practices. To determine the incidence of osteopenia and rickets in ELBW infants. We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 200...

  10. Gluconeogenesis is not regulated by either glucose or insulin in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 11 hou...

  11. Necrotizing Enterocolitis among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Young Ah; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Kim, So Young

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency and remains a major cause of mortality for very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) requiring surgery. To date, there have been no large-scale studies evaluating the incidence, associated clinical factors and outcomes of NEC for VLBWI in Korea. The 2,326 VLBWI of a total 2,386 Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) cohort born with a birth weight below 1,500 g between January 2013 to June 2014 were included in this analysis. The overall incidence of NEC (stage ≥ 2) among VLBWI in Korea was 6.8%; 149 infants had NEC stage ≥ 2 and 2,177 infants did not have NEC. Surgery was performed for 77 (53%) of the infants in the NEC group. NEC was related to lower gestational age (GA) and birth weight (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that NEC was consistently related to hypotension within one week after birth (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.9). With respect to outcome, the NEC group had longer times to reach 100 mL/kg/day feeding (P < 0.001), longer TPN duration (P < 0.001) and hospitalization (P = 0.031) and higher PVL (P < 0.001) and mortality rate (P < 0.001). When the medical and surgical NEC groups were compared, GA was significantly lower and PDA was more found in the surgical NEC group. The overall incidence of NEC in Korea is similar to that of other multicenter studies. In addition to GA and birth weight, hypotension within a week of life is significantly related to NEC. PMID:26566361

  12. Necrotizing Enterocolitis among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Young Ah; Kim, Ee-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency and remains a major cause of mortality for very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) requiring surgery. To date, there have been no large-scale studies evaluating the incidence, associated clinical factors and outcomes of NEC for VLBWI in Korea. The 2,326 VLBWI of a total 2,386 Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) cohort born with a birth weight below 1,500 g between January 2013 to June 2014 were included in this analysis. The overall incidence of NEC (stage ≥ 2) among VLBWI in Korea was 6.8%; 149 infants had NEC stage ≥ 2 and 2,177 infants did not have NEC. Surgery was performed for 77 (53%) of the infants in the NEC group. NEC was related to lower gestational age (GA) and birth weight (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that NEC was consistently related to hypotension within one week after birth (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.9). With respect to outcome, the NEC group had longer times to reach 100 mL/kg/day feeding (P < 0.001), longer TPN duration (P < 0.001) and hospitalization (P = 0.031) and higher PVL (P < 0.001) and mortality rate (P < 0.001). When the medical and surgical NEC groups were compared, GA was significantly lower and PDA was more found in the surgical NEC group. The overall incidence of NEC in Korea is similar to that of other multicenter studies. In addition to GA and birth weight, hypotension within a week of life is significantly related to NEC. PMID:26566361

  13. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:25231606

  14. Validity of birth certificate-derived maternal weight data in twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Abrams, Barbara; Siminerio, Lara; Lash, Timothy L

    2016-07-01

    Birth certificates are an important source of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) data for surveillance and aetiologic studies, but little is known about their validity in twin pregnancies. Twins experience high rates of adverse perinatal outcomes that have been associated with BMI and GWG in singletons. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of birth certificate-derived pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG compared with medical record-derived data in a sample of 186 twin pregnancies at a teaching hospital in Pennsylvania (2003-2010). Twelve strata were created by simultaneous stratification on pre-pregnancy BMI (underweight, normal weight/overweight, obese class 1, obese classes 2 and 3) and GWG (<20th, 20-80th, >80th percentile). The agreement of birth certificate-derived pre-pregnancy BMI category with medical record BMI category was lowest among underweight mothers [75% (95% confidence interval 51-91%) ] and highest among normal/overweight [97% (90-99%) ] and obese classes 2 and 3 mothers [97% (85-99%) ]. Agreement for GWG category from the birth certificate varied from 57% (41-70%) for GWG >80th percentile to 80% (65-91%) and 82% (72-89%) for GWG <20th and 20th-80th percentiles, respectively. The misclassification of BMI and GWG was primarily due to error in pre-pregnancy weight rather than weight at delivery or height. Agreement proportions for twins were not meaningfully different from the proportions in a comparable sample of singleton pregnancies. These data suggest that birth certificate-based BMI and GWG data are prone to error in twin pregnancies. Those who use these data should conduct internal validation studies and adjust their results using bias analyses. PMID:25522306

  15. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmeyer, Rodrigo L.; Farias, Lucas; Mendonça, Taís; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Procianoy, Renato S.; Silveira, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight ≤1,500 g and gestational age ≤32 weeks) admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination) in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7±1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7±222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9±4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.0035). The mean intraocular pressure (P10–P90) decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.52–22.16) at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28–18.92) at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9±4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased. PMID:23184197

  16. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight after In Utero Exposure to Antiretrovirals Initiated during Pregnancy in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Njom Nlend, Anne Esther; Nga Motazé, Annie; Moyo Tetang, Suzie; Zeudja, Cécile; Ngantcha, Marcus; Tejiokem, Mathurin

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on birth outcomes remain controversial. Objective To assess the impact of antenatal exposure to ART on the occurrence of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Methods A cross-sectional study conducted at the Essos Hospital Center in Yaounde from 2008 to 2011 among HIV vertically exposed infants with two distinct maternal antiretroviral experiences: monotherapy group (Zidovudine, ZDV) and the combination ART group (cART). Mothers already receiving cART before pregnancy were ineligible. In both groups, events of PTB (<37 weeks) and LBW (<2,500g) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression; with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Of the 760 infants, 481 were born from cART-exposed mothers against 279 from maternal-ZDV. Median maternal CD4 count was 378 [interquartile range (IQR): 253–535] cells/mm3. Median duration of ART at onset of delivery was 13 [IQR: 10–17] weeks. In the cART-group, 64.9% (312/481) of mothers were exposed to Zidovudine/Lamuvidine/Nevirapine and only 2% (9/481) were on protease inhibitor-based regimens. Events of PTB were not significantly higher in the cART-group compared to the ZDV-group (10.2% vs. 6.4% respectively, p = 0.08), while onsets of LBW were significantly found in the cART-group compared to ZDV-group (11.6% vs. 7.2% respectively, p = 0.05). Other factors (parity, maternal age at delivery or CD4 cell count) were not associated with PTB. Conclusion cART, initiated during pregnancy, would be an independent factor of LBW. In the era of option B+ (lifelong ART to all HIV-pregnant women), further studies would guide towards measures limiting onsets of LBW. PMID:26999744

  17. Associations between Maternal Scaffolding and Executive Functioning in 3 and 4 Year Olds Born Very Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Jean; Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne W.; Ohls, Robin K.; Duncan, Andrea F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deficits in executive function, including measures of working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility, have been documented in preschoolers born very low birth weight (VLBW) compared with preschoolers born with normal birth weight (NBW). Maternal verbal scaffolding has been associated with positive outcomes for both at-risk and typically developing preschoolers. Aims The purpose of this study was to examine associations between maternal verbal scaffolding, Verbal IQ (VIQ) and executive function measures in preschoolers born VLBW. Subjects A total of 64 VLBW and 40 NBW preschoolers ranging in age from 3 ½ to 4 years participated in the study. Outcome Measures VIQ was measured with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – 3rd edition. Executive function tests included the Bear Dragon, Gift Delay Peek, Reverse Categorization and Dimensional Change Card Sort-Separated Dimensions. Study Design Maternal verbal scaffolding was coded during a videotaped play session. Associations between maternal verbal scaffolding and preschoolers’ measures of VIQ and executive function were compared. Covariates included test age, maternal education, and gender. Results Preschoolers born VLBW performed significantly worse on VIQ and all executive function measures compared to those born NBW. Maternal verbal scaffolding was associated with VIQ for VLBW preschoolers and Gift Delay Peek for the NBW group. Girls born VLBW outperformed boys born VLBW on VIQ and Bear Dragon. Conclusion Integrating scaffolding skills training as part of parent-focused intervention may be both feasible and valuable for early verbal reasoning and EF development. PMID:25127288

  18. Overweight and obesity in mothers and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight infants: systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhen; Mulla, Sohail; Beyene, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the relation between overweight and obesity in mothers and preterm birth and low birth weight in singleton pregnancies in developed and developing countries. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources Medline and Embase from their inceptions, and reference lists of identified articles. Study selection Studies including a reference group of women with normal body mass index that assessed the effect of overweight and obesity on two primary outcomes: preterm birth (before 37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2500 g). Data extraction Two assessors independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full articles, extracted data using a piloted data collection form, and assessed quality. Data synthesis 84 studies (64 cohort and 20 case-control) were included, totalling 1 095 834 women. Although the overall risk of preterm birth was similar in overweight and obese women and women of normal weight, the risk of induced preterm birth was increased in overweight and obese women (relative risk 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.37). Although overall the risk of having an infant of low birth weight was decreased in overweight and obese women (0.84, 0.75 to 0.95), the decrease was greater in developing countries than in developed countries (0.58, 0.47 to 0.71 v 0.90, 0.79 to 1.01). After accounting for publication bias, the apparent protective effect of overweight and obesity on low birth weight disappeared with the addition of imputed “missing” studies (0.95, 0.85 to 1.07), whereas the risk of preterm birth appeared significantly higher in overweight and obese women (1.24, 1.13 to 1.37). Conclusions Overweight and obese women have increased risks of preterm birth and induced preterm birth and, after accounting for publication bias, appeared to have increased risks of preterm birth overall. The beneficial effects of maternal overweight and obesity on low birth weight were greater in developing countries and disappeared after accounting

  19. Growth factors and metabolic markers in cord blood: relationship to birth weight and length.

    PubMed

    Napoli, F; Di Iorgi, N; Bagnasco, F; Cangemi, G; D'Amico, B; Boschetti, M; Allegri, A E M; Bruzzone Ichim, I A; Traggiai, C; Allodi, A; Polo Perucchin, P; Ghezzi, M; Noli, S; Giaccardi, M; Roviglione, B; De Miglio, L; Calcagno, A; Lorini, R; Maghnie, M

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight and length for gestational age are associated with a high risk of short stature and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. The mechanisms that link prenatal growth to adult stature and metabolic syndrome have not yet been entirely clarified. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between standardized anthropometric measures at birth and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, insulin, adiponectin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) cord blood levels in the general population. One hundred fifty-eight random newborn subjects (77F, 81M) from Genoa, Italy, were analyzed. Anthropometric parameters were measured and standardized according to standard Italian tables. Insulin values were treated as categorical, since in several cases the results fell below detection cut-off. Mean birth weight was 3,214.23∓488.99 gr and mean length was 49.82∓2.17 cm. Females had higher mean IGF-I (p=0.04), and were more likely to have insulin values either <2 μU/ml or >4.5μU/ml (p= 0.04) compared to males. Weight and length SD scores (SDS) were higher in subjects with elevated insulin levels (p=0.002). A moderate correlation was found between weight and IGF-II (r=0.354). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that standardized birth weight was associated with IGFII and insulin values. Our data highlight the importance of IGF-II in fetal growth and suggest that gender differences should be taken into consideration when evaluating prenatal growth. PMID:25001656

  20. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  1. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyoung; Jang, Hye Lim; Kang, Byung Ho; Lee, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Yong-Sung; Shim, Kye Shik; Lim, Jae Woo; Bae, Chong-Woo; Chung, Sung-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010-2012), smoothed percentile curves (3(rd)-97(th)) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22-23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  2. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Beginning Weight Training Class: Their Relations to Students' Behavioral Intention and Actual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…

  3. [Eye diseases and visual disability in extremely low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Kuck, H; Rose, D; Goelz, R; Mentzel, H

    1992-09-01

    79 consecutively treated very low birth weight newborns (less than 1000 g) were systematically examined in the postpartal period and after a follow-up of 2 to 5.5 years. Retinopathy of prematurity was found in 19 eyes of 10 children (maximum stage III-IV). At a minimum age of 2 and maximum age of 6 years, when 42 of these children could be reexamined, including all children with earlier retinopathy of prematurity, 10 children suffered from minimal to moderate retinal pathology due to inactive retinopathy of prematurity (4 eyes with dragging of vessels and macula), but 9 children exhibited a minor visual disability due to strabism, higher ametropia, anisometropia, and amblyopia. This stresses the need for opthalmological follow-up in low birth weight babies with 6 months and 3-4 years of age. PMID:1405392

  4. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Boyle, Michael H.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  5. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  6. Information processing in very-low-birth-weight children with and without attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, S T; de Cock, P

    2004-01-01

    Very-low-birth-weight children (16 with and 45 without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) were matched to term-born controls (27 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 30 without) according to age, intelligence, and social class of their parents. The children were screened for motor, visual, and mental disabilities. The general aim of the study was to evaluate information processing stages using the additive factor method of Sternberg. The tasks consisted of computerized visual-motor letter recognition and arrow detection tasks. The tasks elicited similar prolongations of response times, increases in standard deviation of the response times, and increased error rates in the four groups. We conclude that very-low-birth-weight and control children do not differ in their information processing stages. PMID:14707433

  7. Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon C S; Malone, Fergal D; Ball, Robert H; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Berkowitz, Richard L; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if first trimester fetal growth is associated with birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Design Prospective cohort study of 38 033 pregnancies between 1999 and 2003. Setting 15 centres representing major regions of the United States. Participants 976 women from the original cohort who conceived as the result of assisted reproductive technology, had a first trimester ultrasound measurement of fetal crown-rump length, and delivered live singleton infants without evidence of chromosomal or congenital abnormalities. First trimester growth was expressed as the difference between the observed and expected size of the fetus, expressed as equivalence to days of gestational age. Main outcome measures Birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Results For each one day increase in the observed size of the fetus, birth weight increased by 28.2 (95% confidence interval 14.6 to 41.2) g. The association was substantially attenuated by adjustment for duration of pregnancy (adjusted coefficient 17.1 (6.6 to 27.5) g). Further adjustments for maternal characteristics and complications of pregnancy did not have a significant effect. The risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant decreased with increasing size in the first trimester (odds ratio for a one day increase 0.87, 0.81 to 0.94). The association was not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics or complications of pregnancy. Conclusion Variation in birth weight may be determined, at least in part, by fetal growth in the first 12 weeks after conception through effects on timing of delivery and fetal growth velocity. PMID:17355993

  8. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation or Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Hintz, Susan R; Blakely, Martin L; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Saha, Shampa; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if extremely low birth weight infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis have a higher risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (secondary outcome) at 18–22 months corrected age compared to infants with spontaneous intestinal perforation and infants without necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation. Study Design Retrospective analysis of the Neonatal Research Network very low birth weight registry, evaluating extremely low birth weight infants born between 2000–2005. The study infants were designated into 3 groups: 1) Spontaneous intestinal perforation without necrotizing enterocolitis; 2) Surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell's stage III); and 3) Neither spontaneous intestinal perforation nor necrotizing enterocolitis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the clinical group and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for multiple confounding factors including center. Results Infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis had the highest rate of death prior to hospital discharge (53.5%) and death or neurodevelopmental impairment (82.3%) compared to infants in the spontaneous intestinal perforation group (39.1% and 79.3%) and no necrotizing enterocolitis/no spontaneous intestinal perforation group (22.1% and 53.3%; p<0.001). Similar results were observed for neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors. On logistic regression analysis, both spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.2 and adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.9 respectively) and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.2 and adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4 respectively). Conclusions Spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing

  9. Hepcidin and Iron Metabolism in Pregnancy: Correlation with Smoking and Birth Weight and Length.

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Gajewska, Joanna; Jabłońska-Głąb, Ewa; Maciejewski, Tomasz M; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the effect of tobacco smoking on iron homeostasis and the possible association between hepcidin and the neonatal birth weight and length, concentrations of serum hepcidin and selected iron markers were measured in 81 healthy pregnant women (41 smokers and 40 nonsmokers). The smoking mothers had significantly lower concentrations of serum hepcidin (p < 0.001), iron (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin (p < 0.05), but higher erythropoietin (p < 0.05) levels compared with non-smoking pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis showed the highest negative impact of the number of cigarettes smoked per day (β = -0.46; p < 0.01) and positive impact of ferritin level (β = 0.47; p < 0.001) on serum hepcidin concentration. The birth weight and the body length of smoking mothers' infants were significantly lower than in tobacco abstinent group (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, birth body weight (β = 0.56; p < 0.001) and length (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) were significantly related to maternal hepcidin values. Tobacco smoking affected hepcidin level in serum of pregnant women in a dose-dependent manner. Low concentrations of iron and hemoglobin in maternal serum coexisting with high level of erythropoietin suggest that smoking could lead to subclinical iron deficiency and chronic hypoxia not only in mothers but also in fetus. Low serum hepcidin concentration in smoking pregnant women might be associated with lower fetal birth weight and length. PMID:26785641

  10. Cardiac tamponade and bilateral pleural effusion in a very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Haass, Cristina; Sorrentino, Elena; Tempera, Alessia; Consigli, Chiara; De Paola, Domenico; Calcagni, Giulio; Piastra, Marco; Finocchi, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    A very low birth weight premature newborn developed a sudden cardiac tamponade due to parenteral fluid extravasation 1 month after central line insertion. Besides tensive pericardial effusion a bilateral pleural effusion also developed. An emergency pericardiocentesis was really life-saving and after pleural fluid removal a complete cardiorespiratory recovery was obtained. Pericardial and bilateral pleural effusions very rarely coexist as a complication of central line extravasation. PMID:19253161

  11. Short- and long-run associations between birth weight and children's height.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Aditi; Fink, Günther; Berkman, Lisa F; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Much evidence suggests that the 1000 days spanning from conception to children's second birthdays are critical for physical development. Whether influence of the exposures occurring during this window lasts later in life is unclear. Our study investigates changes in associations between birth weight and height, one measure of physical development, over different life-stages and whether greater household wealth promotes better growth for low birth weight (LBW) children. Using longitudinal data from Young Lives, we analyzed associations between birth weight and physical growth and examined differences across ages and by household wealth for 3999 children from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. At 6-18 months, LBW children had 0.53-SD (Standard error [SE]: 0.08) lower HAZ. Over time, the gap between normal and LBW children narrowed significantly to 0.21-SD (SE: 0.05) and 0.24-SD (SE: 0.05) at 4-5 years and 7-8 years, respectively. Prenatal experiences are most salient in establishing the greatest height deficits within the first year. Although disparities in height are reduced in the first year, height differences at age 4-5 years remain at 7-8 years of age. Even among wealthier families, there was no recovery in height for LBW children during the first year and no catch-up growth for these children in later childhood. These findings suggest that prenatal conditions, reflected in birth weight, are more important in setting height trajectories in comparison to postnatal factors, which do not help children recover fully from early growth deficits. PMID:26922363

  12. Birth weight modifies the association between central-nervous-system gene variation and adult body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A.; Haddad, Stephen A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 100 loci associated with body mass index (BMI). Persons with low birth-weight have an increased risk of metabolic disorders. We postulate that normal mechanisms of body weight regulation are disrupted in subjects with low birth-weight. The present analyses included 2215 African American women from the Black Women’s Health Study, and were based on genotype data on twenty BMI-associated loci and self-reported data on birth-weight, weight at age 18, and adult weight. We used general linear models to assess the association of individual SNPs with BMI at age 18 and later in adulthood within strata of birth-weight (above and below the median, 3200 g). Three SNPs (rs1320330 near TMEM18, rs261967 near PCSK1, and rs17817964 in FTO), and a genetic score combining these three variants, showed significant interactions with birth-weight in relation to BMI. Among women with birth-weight <3200 g, there was an inverse association between genetic score and BMI; beta-coefficient = −0.045 (95% CI −0.104, 0.013) for BMI at age 18, and −0.055 (95% CI −0.112, 0.002) for adult BMI. Among women with birth-weight ≥3,200 g, genetic score was positively associated with BMI: beta-coefficient = 0.110 (95% CI 0.051, 0.169) for BMI at age 18 (P for interaction = 0.0002), and 0.112 (95% CI 0.054, 0.170) for adult BMI (P for interaction < 0.0001). Because TMEM18, PCSK1, and FTO are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest that low birth-weight may disrupt mechanisms of CNS body weight regulation. PMID:26582267

  13. [Analysis of the fractal properties of the birth weight of Liangshan semi-fine wool sheep.].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Sheng; Wu, Deng-Jun; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-10-01

    Understanding of animal population genetic structure about quantitative traits is an important step in animal breeding. In the present study, the data of birth weight of the Liangshan semi-fine wool sheep was first studied by the fractal theory of nonlinear theory. The information dimension, correlation dimension, none-scale range, and the scale range were calculated. The results showed that (1) the information dimensions of the birth weight from 1996 to 2004 ranged from 0.66529 to 0.90675. The none-scale range and the range of the variation were very large. This indicates that the population had large dimensions of the BW (birth weight), large variation, and great potential in breeding; (2) the correlation dimensions ranged from 0.62438 to 0.86528, which indicates that the genetic structures of the population were highly correlated; (3) both of the two dimensions could reveal the fractal properties of the population genetic structure through two different aspects, and it was useful in studying the population genetic structure and animal breeding. PMID:18930893

  14. Children who were very low birth weight: development and academic achievement at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1989-02-01

    Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ. PMID:2925866

  15. Nine-year outcome of the Vermont intervention program for low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, T M; Howell, C T; Aoki, M F; Rauh, V A

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four low birth weight children who had received an experimental intervention (LBWE) during the neonatal period, 31 control children who had received no treatment (LBWC), and 36 normal birth weight children were compared. The intervention involved seven hospital sessions and four home sessions in which a nurse helped mothers adapt to their LBW babies. At age 9, LBWE children scored significantly higher than LBWC children on the Kaufman Mental Processing Composite, Sequential, Simultaneous, Achievement, Arithmetic, and Riddles scales, after statistical adjustments for socioeconomic status. The LBWE children had also advanced more rapidly in school than had LBWC children. Parent (Child Behavior Checklist) and teacher (Teacher's Report Form) ratings of school functioning were more favorable for LBWE than LBWC children, with especially strong effects on Teacher's Report Form scores for academic performance and the attention problems syndrome. At age 9, LBWE children were not significantly inferior to normal birth weight children on any measure. These results bear out a progressive divergence between the LBWE and LBWC children that first became statistically significant in cognitive scores at age 3. The findings suggest that the intervention prevented cognitive lags among LBW children and that this eventually had a favorable effect on academic achievement, behavior, and advancement in school. The progression from no significant differences between LBWE and LBWC children on early cognitive and achievement scores to significant and pervasive differences in later functioning argues for long-term follow-up periods to evaluate properly the power of behavioral interventions to compensate for biological risks. PMID:7677972

  16. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arpana

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14–45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting. PMID:24575305

  17. Caffeine intake in pregnancy: Relationship between internal intake and effect on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Partosch, F; Mielke, H; Stahlmann, R; Gundert-Remy, U

    2015-12-01

    We used a physiologically based kinetic model to simulate caffeine blood concentration-time profiles in non-pregnant and pregnant women. The model predicted concentration-time profile was in good accordance with experimental values. With 200 mg, the safe dose per occasion in non-pregnant women, AUC and peak concentration in pregnant women were nearly twice that of non-pregnant women. In order to derive a safe dose for the pregnant women we estimated the dose in the pregnant women model taken at once which would not exceed AUC and peak concentration in the non-pregnant women of 200 mg as single dose. The resulting dose is 100 mg caffeine per occasion which we recommend as safe. The caffeine dose of 200 mg per day is declared as safe for pregnant women with respect to the foetus by EFSA based on results on reduced birth weight in epidemiological studies. We modelled AUC and peak concentration for different caffeine doses to investigate the relationship between internal caffeine exposure and risk measures of reduced birth weight from epidemiological studies. The graphical analysis revealed that the reduction in birth weight was related to AUC and peak concentration up to a dose of 250 mg caffeine. PMID:26549379

  18. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle.

    PubMed

    Schiermiester, L N; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Kachman, S D; Spangler, M L

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in these data included: Angus, Hereford, Red Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Composite MARC III. Heterosis was further estimated by proportions of British × British (B × B), British × Continental (B × C) and Continental × Continental (C × C) crosses and by breed-specific combinations. Model 1 fitted fixed covariates for heterosis within biological types while Model 2 fitted random breed-specific combinations nested within the fixed biological type covariates. Direct heritability estimates (SE) for birth, weaning ,and yearling weight for Model 1 were 0.42 (0.04), 0.22 (0.03), and 0.39 (0.05), respectively. The direct heritability estimates (SE) of birth, weaning, and yearling weight for Model 2 were the same as Model 1, except yearling weight heritability was 0.38 (0.05). The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for birth weight were 0.47 (0.37), 0.75 (0.32), and 0.73 (0.54) kg, respectively. The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for weaning weight were 6.43 (1.80), 8.65 (1.54), and 5.86 (2.57) kg, respectively. Yearling weight estimates for B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis were 17.59(3.06), 13.88 (2.63), and 9.12 (4.34) kg, respectively. Differences did exist among estimates of breed-specific heterosis for weaning and yearling weight, although the variance component associated with breed-specific heterosis was not significant. These results illustrate that there are differences in breed-specific heterosis and exploiting these differences can lead to varying levels of heterosis among mating plans. PMID:25568356

  19. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  20. Low Birth Weight as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood and Adolescence? The PEP Family Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn; Schwandt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Because data in children and adolescents are sparse and controversial, we assessed the association of birth weight with CVD risk factors in German youths. Methods: We categorized 843 urban children and adolescents aged 3-18 years by quintiles of birth weight and measured nine traditional risk factors in terms of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C, Non HDL-C and triglycerides (TG). SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values and prevalence of nine anthropometric and lipid risk variables were equally distributed over the five birth weight groups. Though risk factors clustered between 3.0 kg and 4.0 kg of birth weight in both genders we found only one significant correlation of birth weight with TG for males and females and another one for HDL-C in males. The strongest clustering of significant regression coefficients occurred in the 2nd birth weight quintile for SBP (ß 0.018), TC (ß -0.050), LDL-C (ß -0.039), non LDL-C (ß -0.049) and log TG (ß -0.001) in males and females. Conclusions: Overall we did not find significant associations between birth weight and nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. However, the 2nd quintile of birth weight might suggest clustering of risk factors. PMID:26900435

  1. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25326878

  2. Effect of average litter weight in pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of the offspring as depending on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Pardo, C E; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2013-11-01

    Offspring born from normal litter size (10 to 15 piglets) but classified as having lower than average birth weight (average of the sow herd used: 1.46 ± 0.2 kg; mean ± s.d.) carry at birth negative phenotypic traits normally associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as brain-sparing and impaired myofiber hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to assess long-term effects of intrauterine crowding by comparing postnatal performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality of offspring born from litters with higher (>1.7 kg) or lower (<1.3 kg) than average litter birth weight. From a population of multiparous Swiss Large White sows (parity 2 to 6), 16 litters with high (H = 1.75 kg) or low (L = 1.26 kg) average litter birth weight were selected. At farrowing, two female pigs and two castrated pigs were chosen from each litter: from the H-litters those with the intermediate (HI = 1.79 kg) and lowest (HL = 1.40 kg) birth weight, and from L-litters those with the highest (LH = 1.49 kg) and intermediate (LI = 1.26 kg) birth weight. Average birth weight of the selected HI and LI piglets differed (P < 0.05), whereas birth weight of the HL- and LH-piglets were similar (P > 0.05). These pigs were fattened in group pen and slaughtered at 165 days of age. Pre-weaning performance of the litters and growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of the selected pigs were assessed. Number of stillborn and pig mortality were greater (P < 0.05) in L- than in H-litters. Consequently, fewer (P < 0.05) piglets were weaned and average litter weaning weight decreased by 38% (P < 0.05). The selected pigs of the L-litters displayed catch-up growth during the starter and grower-finisher periods, leading to similar (P > 0.05) slaughter weight at 165 days of age. However, HL-gilts were more feed efficient and had leaner carcasses than HI-, LH- and LI-pigs (birth weight class × gender interaction P < 0.05). Meat quality traits were mostly similar between groups. The

  3. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  4. Levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in breast milk in relation to birth weight in a Norwegian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eggesbø, Merete; Stigum, Hein; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Polder, Anuschka; Aldrin, Magne; Basso, Olga; Thomsen, Cathrine; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Becher, Georg; Magnus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that, even at low doses, causes destruction of ovarian primordial germ cells in experimental studies. However, its potential for reproductive toxicity in humans exposed to background levels has not been fully evaluated. Here we examined the association between maternal levels of HCB and their infants’ birth weight. Methods HCB was measured in milk samples from a subset of women in the Norwegian Human Milk Study (HUMIS), 2003–2006. 300 subjects were randomly chosen from the cohort and 26 from all small for gestational age (SGA) children. Additional information was obtained through questionnaires and the Medical Birth Registry. Results Overall, HCB was associated with birth weight (adjusted b=−90 g per eight μg/kg milk fat, 95 % CI −275 to 8) and with SGA (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 0.9–3.7 per eight μg/kg milk fat (difference between the 10th and the 90th percentile)). After stratification, however, the association was present only among smokers. For birth weight for past or current smokers: b=−282, CI −467 to −98; for never smokers: b=0.5, CI −149 to 150, p-value for interaction: 0.01. Similar results were observed for head circumference, crown-heel length, and SGA. Conclusions We saw a moderate association between HCB and markers of impaired fetal growth among past and current smokers. This finding may be non-causal and due to underlying genetic variants tied to both growth and breakdown of HCB or to confounding by unmeasured toxicants that coexist in exposure sources. It may, however, also result from HCB exposure. PMID:19410245

  5. High numbers of circulating pigmented polymorphonuclear neutrophils as a prognostic marker for decreased birth weight during malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chua, Caroline Lin Lin; Robinson, Leanne J; Baiwog, Francesca; Stanisic, Danielle I; Hamilton, John A; Brown, Graham V; Rogerson, Stephen J; Boeuf, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    During gestational malaria, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes can sequester within the placenta, contributing to poor pregnancy outcomes, especially low birth weight. In children and non-pregnant adults, pigmented leukocytes may serve as markers of sequestered parasite burden and predict clinical outcomes. Here, we investigated circulating pigmented leukocyte numbers as predictors of clinical outcomes in pregnant women presenting with malaria at enrolment. The number of circulating pigmented neutrophils at enrolment negatively correlated with birth weight (Rho=-25, P=.04), suggesting these cells may have a pathogenic role in, and could serve as prognostic markers for, malaria-associated low birth weight. PMID:25555554

  6. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. Results The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n=40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6±6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928±533 grams. There were 51.1% (n=165) male neonates and 48.9% (n=158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR=4.7, 95%C.I.=1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR=2.95, 95%C.I.=1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I.=1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR=2.32, 95%C.I.=1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR=5.07, 95%C.I.=1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR=3.37, 95%C.I.=1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Conclusion Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area. PMID:26090056

  7. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P < 0.001) and hypothermic (P < 0.001) than those who only needed positive pressure ventilation (PPV). On logistic regression, DR-CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI. PMID:26566357

  8. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-10-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P < 0.001) and hypothermic (P < 0.001) than those who only needed positive pressure ventilation (PPV). On logistic regression, DR-CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI. PMID:26566357

  9. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time. PMID:25171131

  10. [Prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast].

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse Albuquerque; Santos, Sheila Lima Diogenes; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Campelo, Viriato

    2016-06-01

    The main determinants of the risk of mortality in the neonatal period are low birth weight and premature birth. The study sought to analyze the adequacy of prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in a northeastern Brazilian capital. This is a case-control study. A model for adequacy of prenatal conditions composed of four indicators was created. Descriptive statistics for univariate analysis were used; as well as Wald linear trend tests, Student's t and chi-square test for bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression for multivariate analysis with p <0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that poor education, not performing gainful activity, caesarean section, oligohydramnios, placental abruption and pre-eclampsia are independent factors associated with premature birth and/or low birth weight. For adequacy of prenatal care, variable indicator III remained significant, showing that mothers who had inadequate prenatal care had an increased chance for the occurrence of the outcome, highlighting the need for adequate public health policies of care for pregnant women in the municipality under scrutiny. PMID:27276545

  11. Weight loss in full-term negroid infants: relationship to body water compartments at birth?

    PubMed

    Offringa, P J; Boersma, E R; Brunsting, J R; Meeuwsen, W P; Velvis, H

    1990-02-01

    The possible influence of the body fluid compartments at birth on postnatal weight loss was studied in normal term negroid infants when on a standardized oral fluid, sodium and energy regimen during the first three days of life. Measurements of plasma volume (PV), total body water (TBW), and extracellular water (ECW) were performed simultaneously on vaginally-born infants on the first day of life, by using a triple indicator (Evans blue, deuterium oxide and sucrose) single injection dilution technique. PV was 54 +/- 7 ml/kg (N = 9), TBW was 751 +/- 50 ml/kg (N = 13) and ECW was 311 +/- 61 ml/kg (N = 13) (mean +/- S.D.). Postnatal weight loss (3.7% of birth weight) occurred during the first two days. The postnatal weight loss was not related to any of the body water compartments. However, there was a highly significant correlation with the (cumulative) urine water excretion (r = 0.833, P less than 0.001 on day 1, with similar values for days 1 and 2). PMID:2318126

  12. Air pollution metric analysis while determining susceptible periods of pregnancy for low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Warren, Joshua L; Fuentes, Montserrat; Herring, Amy H; Langlois, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple metrics to characterize air pollution are available for use in environmental health analyses in addition to the standard Air Quality System (AQS) pollution monitoring data. These metrics have complete spatial-temporal coverage across a domain and are therefore crucial in calculating pollution exposures in geographic areas where AQS monitors are not present. We investigate the impact that two of these metrics, output from a deterministic chemistry model (CMAQ) and from a spatial-temporal downscaler statistical model which combines information from AQS and CMAQ (DS), have on risk assessment. Using each metric, we analyze ambient ozone's effect on low birth weight utilizing a Bayesian temporal probit regression model. Weekly windows of susceptibility are identified and analyzed jointly for all births in a subdomain of Texas, 2001-2004, and results from the different pollution metrics are compared. Increased exposures during weeks 20-23 of the pregnancy are identified as being associated with low birth weight by the DS metric. Use of the CMAQ output alone results in increased variability of the final risk assessment estimates, while calibrating the CMAQ through use of the DS metric provides results more closely resembling those of the AQS. The AQS data are still preferred when available. PMID:23431464

  13. Air Pollution Metric Analysis While Determining Susceptible Periods of Pregnancy for Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Joshua L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Herring, Amy H.; Langlois, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple metrics to characterize air pollution are available for use in environmental health analyses in addition to the standard Air Quality System (AQS) pollution monitoring data. These metrics have complete spatial-temporal coverage across a domain and are therefore crucial in calculating pollution exposures in geographic areas where AQS monitors are not present. We investigate the impact that two of these metrics, output from a deterministic chemistry model (CMAQ) and from a spatial-temporal downscaler statistical model which combines information from AQS and CMAQ (DS), have on risk assessment. Using each metric, we analyze ambient ozone's effect on low birth weight utilizing a Bayesian temporal probit regression model. Weekly windows of susceptibility are identified and analyzed jointly for all births in a subdomain of Texas, 2001–2004, and results from the different pollution metrics are compared. Increased exposures during weeks 20–23 of the pregnancy are identified as being associated with low birth weight by the DS metric. Use of the CMAQ output alone results in increased variability of the final risk assessment estimates, while calibrating the CMAQ through use of the DS metric provides results more closely resembling those of the AQS. The AQS data are still preferred when available. PMID:23431464

  14. Association between Short Maternal Height and Low Birth Weight: a Hospital-based Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry measurements, such as height and weight, have recently been used to predict poorer birth outcomes. However, the relationship between maternal height and birth outcomes remains unclear. We examined the effect of shorter maternal height on low birth weight (LBW) among 17,150 pairs of Japanese mothers and newborns. Data for this analysis were collected from newborns who were delivered at a large hospital in Japan. Maternal height was the exposure variable, and LBW and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit were the outcome variables. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations. The shortest maternal height quartile (131.0–151.9 cm) was related to LBW (OR 1.91 [95% CI 1.64, 2.22]). The groups with the second (152.0–157.9 cm) and the third shortest maternal height quartiles (158.0–160.9 cm) were also related to LBW. A P trend with one quartile change also showed a significant relationship. The relationship between maternal height and NICU admission disappeared when the statistical model was adjusted for LBW. A newborn’s small size was one factor in the relationship between shorter maternal height and NICU admission. In developed countries, shorter mothers provide a useful prenatal target to anticipate and plan for LBW newborns and NICU admission. PMID:26955234

  15. Birth weight and longitudinal growth in infants born below 32 weeks’ gestation: a UK population study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Tim J; Statnikov, Yevgeniy; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Pan, Huiqi; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe birth weight and postnatal weight gain in a contemporaneous population of babies born <32 weeks’ gestation, using routinely captured electronic clinical data. Design Anonymised longitudinal weight data from 2006 to 2011. Setting National Health Service neonatal units in England. Methods Birth weight centiles were constructed using the LMS method, and longitudinal weight gain was summarised as mean growth curves for each week of gestation until discharge, using SITAR (Superimposition by Translation and Rotation) growth curve analysis. Results Data on 103 194 weights of 5009 babies born from 22–31 weeks’ gestation were received from 40 neonatal units. At birth, girls weighed 6.6% (SE 0.4%) less than boys (p<0.0001). For babies born at 31 weeks’ gestation, weight fell after birth by an average of 258 g, with the nadir on the 8th postnatal day. The rate of weight gain then increased to a maximum of 28.4 g/d or 16.0 g/kg/d after 3 weeks. Conversely for babies of 22 to 28 weeks’ gestation, there was on average no weight loss after birth. At all gestations, babies tended to cross weight centiles downwards for at least 2 weeks. Conclusions In very preterm infants, mean weight crosses centiles downwards by at least two centile channel widths. Postnatal weight loss is generally absent in those born before 29 weeks, but marked in those born later. Assigning an infant's target centile at birth is potentially harmful as it requires rapid weight gain and should only be done once weight gain has stabilised. The use of electronic data reflects contemporary medical management. PMID:23934365

  16. Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: prevention of low birth weight*

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Ann; Feachem, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of low birth weight (LBW) on diarrhoea morbidity and mortality is analysed and interventions to increase birth weights are reviewed. Birth weight is a major determinant of infant mortality and, in developed countries at least, its effect on neonatal mortality is independent of socioeconomic status. We have located no satisfactory data on LBW as a determinant of diarrhoea mortality or morbidity. The strong association between LBW and mortality, however, makes it likely that there is an association between LBW and diarrhoea mortality in developing countries where diarrhoea is a major cause of infant death. Poor maternal nutrition, certain infections, pre-eclampsia, arduous work after mid-pregnancy, short birth intervals, and teenage pregnancy are likely to be causally associated with LBW in developing countries. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are additional risk factors. Of the interventions examined, maternal food supplementation has been the most studied. If targeted to mothers at nutritional risk, and if the food is consumed in addition to the usual diet, the prevalence of LBW can be expected to be reduced. However, food supplementation can be expensive and the results from carefully supervised feeding trials may be better than those that can be achieved in national programmes. The effect of supplementation with iron, zinc or folate requires further study. If it were possible to intervene in maternal nutrition, health and life-style in a developing country in a way that reduced the prevalence of LBW from around 30% to around 15%, a fall in the infant mortality rate of around 26% would be expected. The fall in infant diarrhoea mortality rate might be similar. The scarce data on relative risk of morbidity by birth weight do not allow any comparable computations for morbidity reductions to be made. This review confirms that whatever its association with diarrhoea, LBW is an important determinant of infant mortality. For the more general goal of reducing

  17. Can Parental Expectations Compensate for the Negative Effects of Low-Birth Weight on Academic Achievement? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National PEELS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier-Zenon, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact parental expectations have on the academic achievement of children born with low-birth weight to inform educational leaders. Literature on levels of children born with birth weights as low as 1 LB to as high as 9 LBS were evaluated based on: birth weight, academic achievement, and…

  18. Second trimester postload glucose level as an important predictor of low birth weight infants: Tanaka Women's Clinic Study.

    PubMed

    Yachi, Yoko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishibata, Izumi; Yoshizawa, Sakiko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Kodama, Satoru; Suzuki, Akiko; Hanyu, Osamu; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-09-01

    Although it is well known that the maternal prepregnancy BMI is a strong contributor to fetal growth, our results showed that a low postload glucose level, although within normal range, independent of maternal BMI was strongly associated with an increased risk of low birth weight births among Japanese mothers. PMID:25023991

  19. The Increasing Protection of Marriage on Infant Low Birth Weight across Two Generations of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Debbie S.

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) on two generations of African American women who gave birth from 1967 to 2005 to describe changing relationships between marital status and low birth weight (LBW) across the generations. An increasing protection of marriage on infant LBW across the two generations was found after…

  20. Geospatial Association between Low Birth Weight and Arsenic in Groundwater in New Hampshire, USA

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xun; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Onda, Akikazu; Miller, Stephanie; Rees, Judy; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Onega, Tracy; Gui, Jiang; Karagas, Margaret; Moeschler, John

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence of the role of arsenic in the etiology of adverse human reproductive outcomes. Since drinking water can be a major source of arsenic to pregnant women, the effect of arsenic exposure through drinking water on human birth may be revealed by a geospatial association between arsenic concentration in groundwater and birth problems, particularly in a region where private wells substantially account for water supply, like New Hampshire, US. Methods We calculated town-level rates of preterm birth and term low birth weight (term LBW) for New Hampshire, using data for 1997-2009 and stratified by maternal age. We smoothed the rates using a locally-weighted averaging method to increase the statistical stability. The town-level groundwater arsenic values are from three GIS data layers generated by the US Geological Survey: probability of local groundwater arsenic concentration > 1 μg/L, probability > 5 μg/L, and probability > 10 μg/L. We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between the reproductive outcomes (preterm birth and term LBW) and the arsenic values, at both state and county levels. Results For preterm birth, younger mothers (maternal age < 20) have a statewide r = 0.70 between the rates smoothed with a threshold = 2,000 births and the town mean arsenic level based on the data of probability > 10 μg/L; For older mothers, r = 0.19 when the smoothing threshold = 3,500; A majority of county level r values are positive based on the arsenic data of probability > 10 μg/L. For term LBW, younger mothers (maternal age < 25) have a statewide r = 0.44 between the rates smoothed with a threshold = 3,500 and town minimum arsenic level based on the data of probability > 1 μg/L; For older mothers, r = 0.14 when the rates are smoothed with a threshold = 1,000 births and also adjusted by town median household income in 1999, and the arsenic values are the town minimum based on probability > 10 μg/L. At the county level, for

  1. Residential proximity to toxic release sites and the implications for low birth weight and premature delivery.

    PubMed

    Braud, Troylyn; Nouer, Simonne; Lamar, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study discussed in this article was to evaluate the impact of residential proximity to toxic release sites (TRS) and potential implications for low birth weight (LBW) and premature delivery in Shelby County, Tennessee women. The sample (N = 369) included pregnant women who participated in the Blues Project (2007-2009). ArcGIS was used to map the mother's residence at delivery and distance from each of the 10 TRS. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict LBW and prematurity based on proximity to TRS, while adjusting for probable confounders and effect modifiers. Proximity to Site 8 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.018, confidence interval [CI] = 1.103-14.643) and Site 10 (OR = 2.667, CI = 1.036-6.862) put mothers at increased risk for preterm births. The authors' findings suggest that residential proximity to Site 8 or Site 10 may be a risk factor for premature delivery in Shelby County women. PMID:21306089

  2. Achievement in children with birth weights less than 750 grams with normal cognitive abilities: evidence for specific learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Hack, M; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C

    1995-12-01

    Examined achievement, behavior, and neuropsychological outcomes at early school age in a regional population of children < 750-g birth weight who were neurologically intact and who scored in the broad average range on a test of cognitive ability. Comparison groups included children of birth weight 750-1,499 g and children born at full-term. The children < 750 g performed more poorly than the higher birth weight groups on tests of math, even after adjusting for group differences in cognitive ability. Corresponding group differences were found in language, perceptual motor, and attentional skills, but not in behavior outcomes. Findings document specific weaknesses in achievement and neuropsychological skills in children < 750 g birth weight and support the need for early identification and special education interventions. PMID:8558373

  3. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In the NHSII 1989 baseline questionnaire and subsequent ...

  4. A Case-Control Study on Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight, Southeast Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Demelash, Habtamu; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Violence against women has serious consequences for their reproductive and sexual health including birth outcomes. In Ethiopia, though the average parity of pregnant women is much higher than in other African countries, the link between intimate partner violence with low birth weight is unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intimate partner violence and low birth weight among pregnant women. Method. Hospital based case-control study was conducted among 387 mothers (129 cases and 258 controls). Anthropometric measurements were taken both from mothers and their live births. The association between intimate partner violence and birth weight was computed through bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses and statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. Result. Out of 387 interviewed mothers, 100 (25.8%) had experienced intimate partner violence during their index pregnancy period. Relatively more mothers of low birth weight infants were abused (48%) compared with controls (16.4%). Those mothers who suffered acts of any type of intimate partner violence during pregnancy were three times more likely to have a newborn with low birth weight (95% CI; (1.57 to 7.18)). The association between overall intimate partner violence and LBW was adjusted for potential confounder variables. Conclusion. This research result gives insight for health professional about the importance of screening for intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health care providers should consider violence in their practice and try to identify women at risk. PMID:26798345

  5. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers’ addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. Conclusions This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers. PMID:25426640

  6. Perinatal and infant mortality and low birth weight among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain

    SciTech Connect

    Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Vrijheid, M.; Thakrar, B.; Armstrong, B.

    2000-02-01

    With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher risk of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. Zones of 7.5-km radius around 22 cokeworks in Great Britain were studied, within which the authors assumed that exposure declined from highest levels within 2 km to background levels. Routinely recorded birth and death data for Great Britain during the period 1981--1992 were analyzed. Each individual record had a postcode that referred to a small geographical area of typically 15--17 addresses. The authors calculated expected numbers on the basis of regional rates, stratified by year, sex, and a small-area socio-economic deprivation score. For all cokeworks combined, the observed/expected ratio within 2 km of cokeworks was 1.00 for low-birth-weight infants; 0.94 for still births; 0.95 for infant mortality; 0.86 for neonatal mortality; 1.10 for postneonatal mortality; 0.79 for respiratory postneonatal mortality; and 1.07 for postneonatal Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respiratory postneonatal mortality was low throughout the entire 0--7.5-km study area. There was no statistically significant decline in risk with distance from cokeworks for any of the outcomes studied. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of an increased risk of low birth weight, stillbirths, and/or neonatal mortality near cokeworks, and there was no strong evidence for any association between residence near cokeworks and postneonatal mortality. One must remember, however, the limited statistical power of the study to detect small risks.

  7. Timeliness, frequency and content of antenatal care: which is most important to reducing indigenous disparities in birth weight in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Servan-Mori, Edson; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Najera-Leon, Esmeralda; Darney, Blair G

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the role of components of adequate antenatal care (ANC) in disparities in birth weight between indigenous and non-indigenous women in Mexico. We estimate the potential for added weight gain among indigenous infants if their mothers received timely, frequent ( ≥4 visits) and complete ANC (≥75% of recommended processes of care). We used population-based survey data (2012;N= 6612 women 12-49). We applied quantile regression to examine heterogeneity of the association between adequate ANC, indigenous ethnicity and birth weight across quantiles of the birth weight distribution. A greater proportion of indigenous women reported a low-birth weight infant (<2.5 kg) at last delivery (14 vs 8% among non-indigenous women). Coverage of adequate ANC (timely, frequent and complete care) is lower among indigenous (59%, CI:53;65) than non-indigenous (68%, CI:66;70) women. Indigenous ethnicity is associated with a lower birth weight across quantiles of the observed birth weight distribution: between 300 g in the 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25 quantiles. Among indigenous women, greater newborn weight gains are achieved in the lowest quantiles if they have access to ≥75% of the content of ANC compared with those that did not have access: ∼180 and 260 g are gained in both quantiles 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. This means that the smallest indigenous newborns could potentially reach 2.36 kg (from 1.86 kg), close to the normal weight threshold. The frequency of ANC was positively associated with birth weight for all women but complete ANC appears to differentially affect indigenous women at the bottom of the birth weight distribution. The marginal gains obtained among indigenous newborns that received complete ANC compared with indigenous/non-indigenous newborns did not receive it, is particularly important in low-birth weight quantiles. Delivering basic processes of ANC may therefore have the potential to impact the highest risk women and help them to overcome the

  8. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Among Pregnant Indian Women: A Hospital-based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Parvati; Acharya, Shashidhar; Kamath, Asha; Bhat, Shashikala; Rao, Chythra; Nayak, Sathisha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the maternal risk factors for preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) with a special emphasis on assessing the proportions of maternal genitourinary and periodontal infections among Indian women and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A hospital-based prospective study comprising 790 pregnant women visiting the obstetrics clinic for a routine antenatal check-up was undertaken. Once recruited, all study participants underwent clinical and microbiological investigations for genitourinary infections followed by a dental check-up for the presence of periodontitis. The study participants were followed up until their delivery to record the pregnancy outcomes. Infectious and non-infectious risk factors for PTB and LBW were assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Independent risk factors for PTB and LBW were reported in terms of adjusted relative risk (ARR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Rates of PTB and LBW in the study population were 7.6% and 11.4%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery (ARR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.5 to 19.1), periodontitis (ARR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9), Oligohydramnios (ARR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.4 to 11.5), presence of Nugent’s intermediate vaginal flora (ARR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1), gestational diabetes mellitus (ARR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.0 to 8.3), and maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.1) were risk factors for PTB, while periodontitis (ARR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.6 to 6.9), gestational hypertension (ARR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.3 to 10.8), maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.1) and genital infection during later stages of pregnancy (ARR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.1) were independent risk factors for LBW. Conclusions: Our study findings underscore the need to consider screening for potential genitourinary and periodontal infections during routine antenatal care in developing countries. PMID:27255075

  9. The Influence of Aggressive Parenteral Nutrition to Preterm and Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Yi; Chen, Yi-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui; Chen, Yu-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    Background. To achieve the weight gain of preterm infants who are appropriate for gestational age without adverse effect, there should be no interruption in delivery of nutrients from time of birth. Methods. Twenty-eight very low birth weight infants were eligible for the study. Those administered conventional nutrition (amino acids 2 g/kg/day started on third day of life) were classified as the conventional support (CVS) group, and those administered aggressive early nutrition (amino acid 2 g/kg/day started on first day of life) were classified as the aggressive support (AGS) group. Results. The days babies took to reach the weight of 2000 g in the AGS group was significantly shorter than for babies in the CVS group, and babies in the AGS group showed better tolerance to enteral nutrition and had shortened neonatal intensive care unit days. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that aggressive early nutrition showed better tolerance to enteral nutrition, higher total calories, and shortened the stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:27335933

  10. Timing of prenatal smoking cessation or reduction and infant birth weight: evidence from the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji; Groothuis, Peter A

    2015-03-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a key contributor to poor infant health. Our study presents a dynamic relationship between the timing of prenatal smoking cessation or reduction and infant birth weight. Using a large representative dataset of a birth cohort in the United Kingdom, we apply regression analysis to examine the influences of cessation in smoking or reduction in smoking intensity at different months or trimesters on infant birth weight. For robustness checks, we use a rich set of additional covariates, a series of variable selection procedures, alternative birth outcome measures, and stratified samples. We find robust evidence that mothers who quit smoking by the third month of pregnancy or the end of the first trimester have infants of the same weight as those infants of nonsmokers. However, we find smoking cessation in the fourth month or any time beyond is associated with substantially lower infant birth weights. Two-thirds of the total adverse smoking impact on infant birth weight occurs in the second trimester. Our study also shows mothers who smoke throughout pregnancy but cut smoking intensity by the third month in pregnancy deliver infants of the same weight as those infants born to persistent light smokers. Our research suggests the efficacy of prenatal smoking cessation services can be significantly improved, if health professionals can encourage more pregnant women to quit smoking or reduce smoking intensity timely by the end of the first trimester. PMID:24889113

  11. Genetic control of the environmental variance for birth weight in seven generations of a divergent selection experiment in mice.

    PubMed

    Formoso-Rafferty, N; Cervantes, I; Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Gutiérrez, J P

    2016-06-01

    Data from seven generations of a divergent selection experiment designed for environmental variability of birth weight were analysed to estimate genetic parameters and to explore signs of selection response. A total of 10 783 birth weight records from 638 females and 1127 litters in combination with 10 007 pedigree records were used. Each record of birth weight was assigned to the mother of the pup in a heteroscedastic model, and after seven generations of selection, evidence of success in the selection process was shown. A Bayesian analysis showed that success of the selection process started from the first generation for birth weight and from the second generation for its environmental variability. Genetic parameters were estimated across generations. However, only from the third generation onwards were the records useful to consider the results to be reliable. The results showed a consistent positive and low genetic correlation between the birth weight trait and its environmental variability, which could allow an independent selection process. This study has demonstrated that the genetic control of the birth weight environmental variability is possible in mice. Nevertheless, before the results are applied directly in farm animals, it would be worth confirming any other implications on other important traits, such as robustness, longevity and welfare. PMID:26150168

  12. Association between oocyte number retrieved with live birth rate and birth weight: an analysis of 231,815 cycles of in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Valerie L.; Brown, Morton B.; Luke, Barbara; Conrad, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if number of oocytes correlates with live birth rate and incidence of low birthweight (LBW). Design Retrospective cohort. Setting N/A. Patients Women undergoing fresh embryo transfer utilizing either autologous (n=194,627) or donor (n=37,188) oocytes whose cycles were reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology 2004–2010. Main outcome measures Live birth rate, birthweight, birth weight z-score, LBW. Interventions None. Results For both autologous and donor oocyte cycles, increasing number of oocytes retrieved paralleled live birth rate and embryos available for cryopreservation in most analyses performed with all models adjusted for age and prior births. For cycles achieving singleton pregnancy using autologous oocytes via transfer of 2 embryos, a higher number of oocytes retrieved was associated with lower mean birth weight, lower birthweight z-score, and greater incidence of LBW. In contrast, for cycles using donor oocytes, there was no association of oocyte number retrieved with measures of birthweight. Conclusions A higher number of oocytes retrieved was associated with an increased incidence of LBW in autologous singleton pregnancies resulting from transfer of 2 embryos but not in donor oocyte cycles. Although the effect of high oocyte number on the incidence of LBW in autologous cycles was of modest magnitude, further study is warranted to determine if a subgroup of women may be particularly vulnerable. PMID:25638421

  13. Association of birth weight and the development of antipsychotic induced adiposity in individuals with treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Bernardo, Miquel; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Ozanne, Susan E; Jones, Peter B; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    Though weight gain is a common side effect of antipsychotic treatment, there are no useful predictors of which patients are likely to be affected and to what degree. It has been shown that exposure to adverse conditions during intra-uterine life confers a vulnerability to the development of later life metabolic complications and low birth weight for gestational age has been shown to be a robust marker of such prenatal adversity. We hypothesised that patients with schizophrenia with a lower birth weight will have increased vulnerability to the weight inducing effects of antipsychotic treatment. The relationship between birth weight and total and central adiposity, measured as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) respectively, was examined in three groups: drug naïve first episode of psychosis (FEP) patients (n=41), treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) patients (n=42) and matched healthy volunteers (n=72). All analyses were controlled for age, gender and duration of treatment exposure. We found that a lower birth weight was associated with higher BMI and WHR only in TRS patients but not in FEP or controls, suggesting that prenatal adversity, as indicated by the surrogate marker of a lower birth weight, confers an increased vulnerability to clozapine induced weight gain. PMID:27107738

  14. A search for imprinted quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, A.; Llewellyn, B.; Schieken, R.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies have generally provided strong evidence that maternal effects are a much more important determinant of birth weight than the genes of the fetus. In the past, these findings have been interpreted as reflecting a genetically determined maternal constraint on fetal growth. However, the recognition that the expression of a gene can be influenced by its parental origin has provided an alternative explanation for apparent maternal effects. In the mouse, a growing number of imprinted genes have been identified which can profoundly influence birth weight or body size including IGF-1, IGF-2, and their respective receptor loci. To determine whether any of the loci are QTLs for body size in man, we have used parental typing data to classify dizygotic twins according to their identity by descent (IBD) for polymorphic markers at or near the candidate loci. The contrast between the correlations of DZ pairs sharing both alleles IBD and no alleles IBD can provide evidence for a candidate gene effect while the contrast between twins sharing one maternal or one paternal allele IBD can provide evidence for any effect of imprinting that may exist at the locus. Finally, the inclusion of data on MZ twins in an overall analysis permits the resolution of the imprinting and marker gene effects from other sources of genetic and environmental variation. We have applied this model to birth weight data on 181 pairs of twins who were classified according to their allele sharing at the IGF-1 locus. In keeping with other observations, the data show no evidence that the IGF-1 locus is imprinted in man. Although our results are consistent with the possibility that this locus may account for 15-20% of the genetic variation, the apparent effect is not statistically significant. Partitioned twin analysis appears to be a useful method for detecting the effects of specific candidate gene on continuously distributed traits.

  15. An electronic documentation system increases diagnostic code capture for very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Information describing medical interventions and patient outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW; BW <1500 grams) infants who receive neonatal intensive care is necessary to evaluate the quality of health care. We developed an electronic patient documentation system (EDS) called PCode to identify and select patient diagnostic (DX) codes and compared EDS to the previous paper-based documentation system (PDS). Our hypothesis was that EDS would capture more patient diagnostic codes than PDS. METHODS: PDS was originally developed as a two page 'code sheet' which listed all 275 neonatal diagnoses/management options and corresponding 3-4 character diagnostic (DX) codes, organized by organ system. PDS code sheets were manually completed by one of three trained 'coders' for every neonatal patient. EDS was developed as a Java application with the 'coder' selecting DX codes from drop lists also categorized by organ system. The study intervention was patient code selection using either the PDS or the EDS system. Both systems produced a paper DX code summary. PDS data capture occurred from 11/1997-3/1999 followed by EDS data capture until 8/2000. The primary outcome variable was DX codes captured per patient. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and linear regression. RESULTS: The number of diagnoses increased with decreasing birth weight. After linear regression was applied to control for birth weight, the number of DX codes was 31% greater in the EDS group, 7.2 +/- 2.9 DX codes/patient, p=0.008. There was a trend towards fewer erroneous DX codes in the EDS group. The most common DX codes were hyaline membrane disease, sepsis evaluation and hyperbilirubinemia, as expected for this patient population. CONCLUSIONS: EDS captured more VLBW infant DX codes compared to PDS. These results support the transition toward electronic data documentation for the neonatal clinical environment. Electronically linking PCode to the patient database has been initiated and

  16. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

    PubMed Central

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46–54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition. PMID:25774127

  17. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Admission Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shwu-Meei; Lung, Hou-Ling; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Jim, Wai-Tim; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hung, Hsiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypothermia remains a common problem and is related to elevated morbidities and mortality. However, the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of admission hypothermia are still unknown. This study attempted to determine the short-term and long-term consequences of admission hypothermia in VLBW preterm infants. Study Design This retrospective study measured the incidence and compared the outcomes of admission hypothermia in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were divided into the following groups: normothermia (36.5–37.5°C), mild hypothermia (36.0–36.4°C), moderate hypothermia (32.0–35.9°C), and severe hypothermia (< 32°C). We compared the distribution, demographic variables, short-term outcomes, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of corrected age among groups. Results We studied 341 infants: 79 with normothermia, 100 with mild hypothermia, 162 with moderate hypothermia, and 0 with severe hypothermia. Patients in the moderate hypothermia group had significantly lower gestational ages (28.1 wk vs. 29.7 wk, P < .02) and smaller birth weight (1004 g vs. 1187 g, P < .001) compared to patients in the normothermia group. Compared to normothermic infants, moderately hypothermic infants had significantly higher incidences of 1-min Apgar score < 7 (63.6% vs. 31.6%, P < .001), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (58.0% vs. 39.2%, P = .006), and mortality (18.5% vs. 5.1%, P = .005). Moderate hypothermia did not affect neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years’ corrected age. Mild hypothermia had no effect on short-term or long-term outcomes. Conclusions Admission hypothermia was common in VLBW infants and correlated inversely with birth weight and gestational age. Although moderate hypothermia was associated with higher RDS and mortality rates, it may play a limited role among multifactorial causes of neurodevelopmental impairment. PMID:26193370

  18. Depressive Symptoms Prior to Pregnancy and Infant Low Birth Weight in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-10-01

    Despite improvements in service delivery and patient management, low birth weight among infants has been a persistent challenge in South Africa. The study aimed to explore the relationship between depression before pregnancy and the low birth weight (LBW) of infants in post-apartheid South Africa. This study utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the South African National Income Dynamics Study, the main outcome being a dichotomous measure of child LBW (<2500 g) drawn from the Wave 2 child questionnaire. Depressive symptoms of non-pregnant women was the main predictor drawn from the Wave 1 adult questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 10-item four-point Likert version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) instrument. A total score of 10 or greater on the CES-D indicates a positive screen for depressive symptoms. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between women's depression before pregnancy and infant LBW. A sample size of 651 women in Wave 1 was linked to 672 newborns in Wave 2. The results of the adjusted logistic regression model indicated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) prior to pregnancy were associated with infant LBW (adjusted OR 2.84, 95 % CI 1.08-7.46). Another significant covariate in the model was multiple childbirths. Our finding indicates that women's depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy are associated with the low birth weight of newborns and suggests that this association may not be limited to depression present during the ante-natal phase. PMID:25673370

  19. Plasma metabolomics indicates metabolic perturbations in low birth weight piglets supplemented with arginine.

    PubMed

    Getty, C M; Almeida, F N; Baratta, A A; Dilger, R N

    2015-12-01

    Large profit losses in the swine industry can be attributed to morbidity and mortality of piglets before weaning, especially in the low birth weight (LBW) piglet. Recent evidence suggests sow's milk contains insufficient concentrations of Arg to support optimal growth and health of piglets. Therefore, our objective was to assess global metabolomic profiles and the potential for Arg supplementation to promote growth of LBW (≤0.9 kg BW) and average birth weight (ABW; 1.3 to 1.5 kg BW) piglets. Piglets were selected in littermate pairs at processing to receive either Arg or an isonitrogenous control (Ala) and weighed daily to assess growth rate, and blood was collected at approximately 16 d of age for metabolomics analysis. In terms of growth, LBW and ABW piglets supplemented with Arg weighed 22.3 and 12.7% less, respectively, at d 16 compared with Ala-supplemented piglets of the same birth weight group. Overall, differences ( < 0.05) were observed among treatments for metabolic pathways involving energy (i.e., tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), AA, nucleotides, and fatty acids. Increased nucleotide turnover, indicative of an increase in DNA damage and cell death, was particularly noted in the LBW piglet. However, Arg supplementation reduced these effects to levels comparable to those observed in ABW piglets. Moreover, changes in glucose metabolism suggested a compromised ability to extract energy from dietary sources may have occurred in the LBW piglet, but these effects were partially recovered by Arg supplementation. We conclude that a reduction in the growth potential of LBW piglets may be associated with alterations in multiple metabolic pathways, and further reduction due to Arg supplementation may have resulted from perturbations in multiple metabolic pathways. PMID:26641185

  20. Modification of nutrition strategy for improvement of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ah Young; Lee, Yong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the effects of modified parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) regimens on the growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods The study included VLBW infants weighing <1,500 g, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital between October 2010 and April 2014, who were alive at the time of discharge. Subjects were divided according to 3 periods: period 1 (n=37); prior to the PN and EN regimen being modified, period 2 (n=50); following the PN-only regimen modification, period 3 (n=37); following both PN and EN regimen modification. The modified PN regimen provided 3 g/kg/day of protein and 1 g/kg/day of lipid on the first day of life. The modified EN regimen provided 3.5-4.5 g/kg/day of protein and 150 kcal/kg/day of energy. We investigated growth rate, anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and the incidence of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) at 40 weeks PCA. Results Across the 3 periods, clinical characteristics, including gestational age, anthropometric measurements at birth, multiple births, sex, Apgar score, surfactant use and PDA treatment, were similar. Growth rates for weight and height, from time of full enteral feeding to 40 weeks PCA, were higher in period 3. Anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks PCA were greatest in period 3. Incidence of weight, height and head circumference EUGR at 40 weeks PCA decreased in period 3. Conclusion Beginning PN earlier, with a greater supply of protein and energy during PN and EN, is advantageous for postnatal growth in VLBW infants. PMID:27186226

  1. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact. PMID:26807855

  2. Assessment of developmental coordination disorder in children born with extremely low birth weights.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Deborah; Creighton, Dianne E; Heath, Jennifer A; Wilson, Brenda N; Anseeuw-Deeks, Debbie; Crawford, Susan G; Sauve, Reg

    2011-01-01

    There is no tool that is considered the "gold" standard for identifying children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and various techniques have been reported in the research literature. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of DCD in a cohort of extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight ≤ 1,000g) children at age 5 years using various methods including standardized motor assessment measures, an established clinic protocol, and a parent report. We also examined the association between selected neonatal risk factors and severity of the motor impairment. Four methods were used to assess motor functioning: (1) the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC); (2) a motor assessment battery, which included the Movement ABC, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2; (3) a Perinatal Follow-up Clinic protocol, which included the Geometric Design and the Mazes subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Fine and Gross Motor subscales of the Child Development Inventory, and a pediatric neuromotor exam; and (4) a parent completed questionnaire (i.e., Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ)). The prevalence of motor impairment in ELBW children was 64% on the Movement ABC, 67% on the motor assessment battery, 66% on the Perinatal Follow-up Clinic protocol, and 26% on the DCDQ. Sensitivity ranged from 36% to 100% and specificity from 65% to 92% using the Movement ABC as the reference standard. Neonatal risk factors associated with increased severity of motor impairment were bronchopulmonary dysplasia, postnatal steroids, and increasing gestational age. Children with birth weights ≤ 1,000 g are at considerable risk for motor impairment; therefore, developmental evaluations should include an assessment of motor functions. A standardized motor assessment test such as the Movement ABC appears to be the most

  3. Phototherapy and the Risk of Photo-Oxidative Injury in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David K; Wong, Ronald J; Arnold, Cody C; Pedroza, Claudia; Tyson, Jon E

    2016-06-01

    Phototherapy has been used to treat newborns with jaundice for more than 50 years with the presumption that it is safe and effective for all infants. In fact, this presumption may not be true for all infants, especially the smallest and most immature. The safety and efficacy of phototherapy have never really been questioned or adequately tested in the latter, yet clinical applications of phototherapy have been further refined as its mechanisms of action have been better understood and alternative light sources have become available. This article addresses what is known about the possible risks of photo-oxidative injury in extremely low birth weight infants. PMID:27235208

  4. [Risk of damage to the organ of vision in low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Hofman, H; Krzyzanowska, J

    1979-01-01

    The authors presented their own material of years 1974-1977. During this period 8788 children were born, in it 737 (8,3%) with low birth weight (below 2500 g). Retrolental fibroplasia was diagnosed in 4 children, it was 0,5% of newborns with low birth weight, and 0,04% of the all live-borns. The retrolental fibroplasia was diagnosed in: 1) the child born in 27 week of pregnancy with 1000 g of body weight, 2) in two children born in 32-33 week of pregnancy with 1450 g and 1350 g of body weight, 3) in a child born in 31 week of pregnancy with 1600 g of body weight. The infants were nursed in incubators with about 30% of oxygen during 36 to 46 days. Contemporary hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, atelectasia of lungs with respiratory insufficiency were diagnosed. In the discussion the authors underlined the role of immaturity and hypoxia of the premature baby, which play the role in the secondary injury of vessel's walls of retina. The disturbancy of carbohydrate and protein metabolism were certainly secondary pathogenic agent sin retrolental fibroplasia. There exists the necessity of oxygen therapy of premature baby, but to take cre of the infant in the incubator does not mean the necessity of oxygen therapy . Even with controlled oxygen dosage in incubator the retrolental fibroplasia may occur as a result of relative hyperoxydation induced by the constriction of retina vessels. The authors underlined the necessity of repeated ophthalmologic examination of premature babies in about every 2 weeks, what makes very early diagnosis possible. PMID:263740

  5. Birth weight and delivery practice in a Vietnamese rural district during 12 year of rapid economic development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the Doi Moi reform 1986 economic conditions in Vietnam have changed significantly and positive health and health care developments have been observed. International experience shows that improved economic conditions in a country can reduce the risk of perinatal mortality, decrease the risk of low birth weight and increase the mean birth weight in newborns. The Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) FilaBavi in Bavi district outside Hanoi city has been operational since 1999. An open cohort of more than 12,000 households (52,000 persons) has been followed primarily with respect to demography, economy and education. The aim of this research is to study trends in birth weight as well as birth and delivery practices over the time period 1999–2010 in FilaBavi in relation to the social and economic development. Methods Information about birth weight, sex, place and method of delivery, mother’s age and education as well as household economy of 10,114 children, born from 1999 to 2010, was obtained from the routine data collection in the HDSS. Results Over the study period the mean birth weight remained at the same level, about 3,100 g, in spite of increased economic resources and technology development. At the individual child level we found associations between birth weight and household economy as well as the education of the mother. Hospital delivery increased from about 35% to 65% and the use of Caesarian section increased from 2.6% to 10.1%. Conclusion During the twelve years studied, household income as well as the use of modern technology increased rapidly. In spite of that, the mean and variation of birth weight did not change systematically. It is suggested that increasing gaps in economic conditions and misallocation of resources, possibly to overuse of technology, are partly responsible. PMID:23418725

  6. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  7. 9 CFR 201.55 - Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchases, sales, acquisitions, payments and settlements to be made on actual weights. 201.55 Section 201.55 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS...

  8. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in the same lot? 302-7.404 Section 302-7.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...

  9. Self-efficacy and outcome expectancy in beginning weight training class: their relations to students' behavioral intention and actual behavior.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M; Harrison, Louis

    2008-03-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training. Their attendance and workout logs were calculated as a measure of actual behavior. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive relationships among all the variables during both program periods. Multiple regression analyses indicated that outcome expectancy initially played a more important role than self-efficacy in predicting behavioral intention and actual behavior. However, self-efficacy appeared more influential at midprogram. Findings of this study can enhance our understanding of the determining factors for individuals' motivated behaviors in college physical activity classes. PMID:18431955

  10. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP) on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11) and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65) reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23) and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92) increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW) for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599) reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59) excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results. Conclusions Maternal use of

  11. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multibreed population.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, C M; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Kachman, S D; Snelling, W M; Spangler, M L

    2016-05-01

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first-parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was transformed from the USMARC scores to corresponding -scores from the standard normal distribution based on the incidence rate of the USMARC scores. Breed fraction covariates were included to estimate breed differences. Heritability estimates (SE) for BWT direct, CD direct, BWT maternal, and CD maternal were 0.34 (0.10), 0.29 (0.10), 0.15 (0.08), and 0.13 (0.08), respectively. Calving difficulty direct breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.13 to 0.77 and maternal breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.27 to 0.36. Hereford-, Angus-, Gelbvieh-, and Brangus-sired calves would be the least likely to require assistance at birth, whereas Chiangus-, Charolais-, and Limousin-sired calves would be the most likely to require assistance at birth. Maternal breed effects for CD were least for Simmental and Charolais and greatest for Red Angus and Chiangus. Results showed that the diverse biological types of cattle have different effects on both BWT and CD. Furthermore, results provide a mechanism whereby beef cattle producers can compare EBV for CD direct and maternal arising from disjoined and breed-specific genetic evaluations. PMID:27285683

  12. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary M; Stettler, Nicolas; Smith, Kimberly M; Reiss, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01); another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; P<0.0001) and increases of 8.4 or 7.7 g per quintile intake of fruits and vegetables (combined) or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined), respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for small for gestational age birth, and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased birth weight among women from highly developed countries was identified. Among women in less developed countries, limited inconclusive evidence suggests that increased consumption of vegetables or fruits may be

  13. Birth weight-specific infant mortality due to congenital anomalies, 1960 and 1980.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, R J; Buehler, J W; Strauss, L T; Hogue, C J; Smith, J C

    1987-01-01

    The impact of mortality due to congenital anomalies in single-delivery births was compared in 1960 and 1980 birth cohorts; data were used from the 1960 National Center for Health Statistics national linkage of birth and death certificates and the 1980 National Infant Mortality Surveillance project. In 1960 there were 14,714 deaths due to congenital anomalies, compared with 8,674 in 1980, a 41 percent reduction. The infant mortality risk (IMR) due to congenital anomalies fell 31 percent. This is in contrast with the observed 54 percent decline in IMR due to all causes. This reduction in mortality due to congenital anomalies occurred for both whites and blacks in the postneonatal period and for whites only in the neonatal period. Changes ranged from a 1.8 percent increase for the black neonatal mortality risk to a 46.6 percent decrease for the white postneonatal mortality risk. In spite of these relative reductions, the absolute percentage of all infant deaths due to congenital anomalies had increased from 15.8 percent in 1960 to 24.1 percent in 1980. Two categories, cardiovascular and central nervous system anomalies, accounted for 72 percent of infant deaths due to congenital anomalies in 1960 and for 59 percent in 1980; cardiovascular anomalies accounted for 48 percent of all deaths due to congenital anomalies in 1960 and 40 percent in 1980. Infant mortality risks in the United States showed a 2:1 black to white ratio in both 1960 and 1980. However, for infant mortality due to congenital anomalies, the black and white mortality risks were approximately equal in both 1960 and 1980. For infants with birth weights of 500-2,499 g, the risk of neonatal mortality for blacks was less than half the risk for whites. PMID:3104974

  14. Influence of some sow characteristics on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H; Brossard, L; Valancogne, A; Quiniou, N

    2008-12-01

    Within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0) is associated with an increased piglet mortality and a high variability in pig weight at weaning and weight or age at slaughter. Data collected in two experimental herds were used to quantify within-litter variability in BW0 and to assess the influence of factors mainly related to the sow. Within 24 h after birth, piglets born alive were individually weighed and stillborn piglets were collectively (first data set) or individually (second data set) weighed. The first data set was restricted to litters with no or only one stillborn piglet (3338 litters). It was used to assess the influence of genetic selection on BW0 variation by comparing litter characteristics before (1994 to 1996) and after (2001 to 2004) the development of hyperprolific sows in this herd. The second data set included all litters (n = 1596) from sows born between 2000 and 2004. For each litter, mean BW0 (mBW0) and its coefficient of variation (CVBW0) were calculated. Then, variance analyses were performed to test the influence of litter size, parity, year of sow birth and season at conception. Prolificacy improvement was associated with an increased CVBW0 in litters from pure Large White (LW) and Landrace × Large White (LR × LW) crossbred sows. The CVBW0 averaged 21% and was significantly influenced by litter size and parity. It increased from 15% to 24% when litter size varied from less than 10 piglets to more than 15 piglets. The proportion of small piglets (i.e. weighing less than 1 kg) increased concomitantly. The CVBW0 was not repeatable from a parity to the following. It was lowest for first and second parities (20%) and thereafter increased progressively. The CVBW0 was positively related to sow's backfat thickness gain during gestation. Taking into account litter size, parity, year of sow birth and season at conception explained 20% of BW0 variation. Thus, major part of heterogeneity is due to other factors, presumably including embryo

  15. Educated mothers, healthy infants. The impact of a school reform on the birth weight of Norwegian infants 1967-2005.

    PubMed

    Grytten, Jostein; Skau, Irene; Sørensen, Rune J

    2014-03-01

    Birth weight is an important predictor of health and success in later life. Little is known about the effect of mothers' education on birth weight. A few causal analyses have been done, but they show conflicting results. We estimated the effect of mothers' education on birth weight by using data on a school reform in Norway. During the period 1960-1972, all municipalities in Norway were required to increase the number of compulsory years of schooling from seven to nine years. We used this education reform to create exogenous variation in the education variable. The education data were combined with large sets of data from the Medical Birth Registry and Statistics Norway. Since municipalities implemented the reform at different times, we have cross-sectional as well as time-series variation in the reform instrument. In the analyses, we controlled for municipality fixed effects, municipality-specific time-trends and mothers' and infants' year of birth. Using this procedure we found a fairly large effect of mothers' education on birth weight. Increasing mothers' education reduces the likelihood of low birth weight, even in a publically financed health care system. In interpreting these results it is important to keep in mind that we have examined only one channel, which is through birth weight, through which education may explain differences in health. There are other potential channels that should be explored by future research. In particular, it would be of interest to examine whether education has causal effects on the broader determinants of health, such as psychopathology, social capital and networks, and family stress and dysfunction. PMID:24509048

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fluconazole in Premature Infants with Birth Weights Less than 750 Grams.

    PubMed

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Capparelli, Edmund V; Wade, Kelly C; Kantak, Anand; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy; Cummings, James J; Nedrelow, Jonathan H; Hudak, Mark L; Mundakel, Gratias T; Natarajan, Girija; Gao, Jamie; Laughon, Matt; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2016-09-01

    Fluconazole is an effective agent for prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis in premature infants. The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) and dosing requirements of fluconazole in infants with birth weights of <750 g. As part of a randomized clinical trial, infants born at <750 g birth weight received intravenous (i.v.) or oral fluconazole at 6 mg/kg of body weight twice weekly. Fluconazole plasma concentrations from samples obtained by either scheduled or scavenged sampling were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Population PK analysis was conducted using NONMEM 7.2. Population PK parameters were allometrically scaled by body weight. Covariates were evaluated by univariable screening followed by multivariable assessment. Fluconazole exposures were simulated in premature infants using the final PK model. A population PK model was developed from 141 infants using 604 plasma samples. Plasma fluconazole PK were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. Only serum creatinine was an independent predictor for clearance in the final model. The typical population parameter estimate for oral bioavailability in the final model was 99.5%. Scavenged samples did not bias the parameter estimates and were as informative as scheduled samples. Simulations indicated that the study dose maintained fluconazole troughs of >2,000 ng/ml in 80% of simulated infants at week 1 and 59% at week 4 of treatment. Developmental changes in fluconazole clearance are best predicted by serum creatinine in this population. A twice-weekly dose of 6 mg/kg achieves appropriate levels for prevention of invasive candidiasis in extremely premature infants. PMID:27401564

  17. Behavior Disorders in Extremely Preterm/Extremely Low Birth Weight Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Megan N.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Fristad, Mary A.; Klein, Nancy; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of behavior disorders in a 2001–2003 birth cohort of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, <28 weeks gestational age and/or <1000 g) children in kindergarten. Method We compared 148 EPT/ELBW children to 111 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls on reports of psychiatric symptoms obtained from parent interview (P-ChIPS), parent and teacher ratings of behavior (CBCL, TRF, BRIEF), and teacher ratings of social functioning (SSBS-2). Associations of behavior disorders with global cognitive ability and tests of executive function were also examined within the EPT/ELBW group. Results Rates of ADHD Combined on psychiatric interview were about twice as high for the EPT/ELBW group than for the NBW group, OR (95% CI)=2.50 (1.34, 4.68), p=.004. The EPT/ELBW group also had much higher rates of teacher-identified disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and social functioning, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 3.35 (1.64, 6.83) to 18.03 (4.12, 78.94), all p’s<.01. ADHD and impaired behavior self-regulation were associated with deficits on tests of executive function but not with global cognitive impairment. Conclusions The findings document elevated rates of disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and socialization in EPT/ELBW children and suggest that deficits on tests of executive function are associated with some of these disorders. Early identification and intervention for these disorders are needed to promote early adjustment to school and facilitate learning progress. PMID:22245934

  18. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    PubMed

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth. PMID:25451477

  19. Mortality in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Neonates in México City (1985–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel; Ramírez-Haua, José; González-Morán, Rocco; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To analyze 25 years of mortality of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) neonates (≤1000 g) in a private hospital in Mexico City and to establish the current viability limit for ELBW neonates. Methods. We designed a prospective observational study of all ELBW neonates born between 1985 and 2009. Neonatal mortality, early neonatal mortality, and the 120-day mortality rate were analyzed in 5-year intervals by two categories of birth weight (501–750 g and 751–1000 g). Results. Among the 50,823 total births, 158 were ELBW (3.1 per 103). Neonatal mortality (death ≤28 days) decreased for the 501–750 g neonates from 88.9% (1985–1989) to 55.6% (2005–1999) (P = .008) and for 751–1000 g neonates also decreased from 50% to 5.3% (P = .002). The 120-day mortality for neonates over 500 g diminished: 501–750 g neonates, 88.9% to 61.1% (P = .02) and for 751–1000 g neonates, 62.5% to 15.8% (P = .002). The highest viability limit was established in neonates who weighed ≥650 g and were ≥26 weeks in gestational age. Conclusions. The survival of ELBW neonates has improved in Mexico particularly in private hospitals, and it was more evident over the years 2004–2009. These data suggest that it is possible to increase the ELBW neonates survive in developing counties. PMID:21234389

  20. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. PMID:25662564

  1. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. PMID:25985121

  2. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Babies in Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ravi Kumar; Deo, Krishna Kumar; Neupane, Uttam; Chaudhary Bhaskar, Subhadra; Yadav, Birendra Kumar; Pokharel, Hanoon P.; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study was done to assess the maternal and sociodemographic factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Methods. An unmatched case control study was done involving 159 cases (mothers having LBW singleton babies) and 159 controls (mothers having normal birth weight singleton babies). Results. More than 50% of LBW babies were from the mothers with height ≤145 cm while only 9.43% of NBW babies were from the mothers with that height. Finally, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal height, time of first antenatal care (ANC) visit, number of ANC visits, iron supplementation, calcium supplementation, maternal education, any illness during pregnancy, and hypertension were found as the significant predictors of LBW. However, maternal blood group AB, normal maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), mother's age of 30 or more years, and starting ANC visit earlier were found to be protective for LBW. Conclusion. Study findings suggest that selectively targeted interventions such as delay age at first pregnancy, improving maternal education and nutrition, and iron and calcium supplementation can prevent LBW in Nepal. PMID:26783406

  3. The structural alteration of gut microbiota in low-birth-weight mice undergoing accelerated postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The transient disruption of gut microbiota in infancy by antibiotics causes adult adiposity in mice. Accelerated postnatal growth (A) leads to a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome in low birth-weight (LB) humans than in normal birth-weight (NB) individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we set up an experiment using LB + A mice, NB + A mice, and control mice with NB and normal postnatal growth. At 24 weeks of age (adulthood), while NB + A animals had a normal body fat content and glucose tolerance compared with controls, LB + A mice exhibited excessive adiposity and glucose intolerance. In infancy, more fecal bacteria implicated in obesity were increased in LB + A pups than in NB + A pups, including Desulfovibrionaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Barnesiella. One bacterium from the Lactobacillus genus, which has been implicated in prevention of adult adiposity, was enhanced only in NB + A pups. Besides, LB + A pups, but not NB + A pups, showed disrupted gut microbiota fermentation activity. After weaning, the fecal microbiota composition of LB + A mice, but not that of NB + A animals, became similar to that of controls by 24 weeks. In infancy, LB + A mice have a more dysbiotic gut microbiome compared to NB + A mice, which might increase their risk of adult metabolic syndrome. PMID:27277748

  4. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation. PMID:26685708

  5. The structural alteration of gut microbiota in low-birth-weight mice undergoing accelerated postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The transient disruption of gut microbiota in infancy by antibiotics causes adult adiposity in mice. Accelerated postnatal growth (A) leads to a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome in low birth-weight (LB) humans than in normal birth-weight (NB) individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we set up an experiment using LB + A mice, NB + A mice, and control mice with NB and normal postnatal growth. At 24 weeks of age (adulthood), while NB + A animals had a normal body fat content and glucose tolerance compared with controls, LB + A mice exhibited excessive adiposity and glucose intolerance. In infancy, more fecal bacteria implicated in obesity were increased in LB + A pups than in NB + A pups, including Desulfovibrionaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Barnesiella. One bacterium from the Lactobacillus genus, which has been implicated in prevention of adult adiposity, was enhanced only in NB + A pups. Besides, LB + A pups, but not NB + A pups, showed disrupted gut microbiota fermentation activity. After weaning, the fecal microbiota composition of LB + A mice, but not that of NB + A animals, became similar to that of controls by 24 weeks. In infancy, LB + A mice have a more dysbiotic gut microbiome compared to NB + A mice, which might increase their risk of adult metabolic syndrome. PMID:27277748

  6. Hearing loss in children with very low birth weight: current review of epidemiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cristobal, R; Oghalai, J S

    2013-01-01

    An association between birth weight <1500 g (very low birth weight (VLBW)) and hearing loss has been long recognised. As universal hearing screening programmes have become widely implemented and the survival rate of VLBW babies in modern intensive care units has increased, we have gained a substantially better understanding of the nature of this problem. However, many gaps in our knowledge base exist. This review describes recent data on hearing loss in the VLBW population and explains the current level of understanding about the physiological basis underlying the auditory deficits in these patients. Although VLBW alone may not have a severe impact on hearing, it is commonly associated with multiple other risk factors that can alter hearing in a synergistic fashion. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss is substantially higher than in the general newborn population. Also, it is important to perform a more comprehensive audiometric evaluation than standard otoacoustic emission screening for infants who are in the neonatal intensive care unit in order not to miss hearing loss due to retrocochlear pathology. Furthermore, children with VLBW are also at increased risk of experiencing progressive or delayed-onset hearing loss, and thus should continue to have serial hearing evaluations after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:18941031

  7. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥ 1500 g birth weight.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Gaurav; Dogra, Mangat R; Katoch, Deeksha; Gupta, Amod

    2014-02-01

    In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in infants ≥ 1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week) and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5%) had zone 1 and 19 (65.5%) had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2%) eyes had flat neovascularization and 4 (13.8%) eyes had brush like proliferation. We noticed large vascular loops in 10 (34.5%) eyes. After confluent laser photocoagulation, 22 (75.9%) eyes had a favorable outcome. The study concludes that APROP in heavier (≥ 1500 g birth weight) premature infants occurs mostly in posterior zone 2 with flat neovascularization and atypical features like large vascular loops. Supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration and multiple systemic co-morbidities could be a contributing factor. PMID:24618495

  8. Hearing loss in children with very low birth weight: current review of epidemiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cristobal, R; Oghalai, J S

    2008-11-01

    An association between birth weight <1500 g (very low birth weight (VLBW)) and hearing loss has been long recognised. As universal hearing screening programmes have become widely implemented and the survival rate of VLBW babies in modern intensive care units has increased, we have gained a substantially better understanding of the nature of this problem. However, many gaps in our knowledge base exist. This review describes recent data on hearing loss in the VLBW population and explains the current level of understanding about the physiological basis underlying the auditory deficits in these patients. Although VLBW alone may not have a severe impact on hearing, it is commonly associated with multiple other risk factors that can alter hearing in a synergistic fashion. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss is substantially higher than in the general newborn population. Also, it is important to perform a more comprehensive audiometric evaluation than standard otoacoustic emission screening for infants who are in the neonatal intensive care unit in order not to miss hearing loss due to retrocochlear pathology. Furthermore, children with VLBW are also at increased risk of experiencing progressive or delayed-onset hearing loss, and thus should continue to have serial hearing evaluations after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:18941031

  9. Spontaneous variability in minute ventilation oxygen consumption and heart rate of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K; Kairam, R; Stefanski, M; Sciacca, R; Bateman, D; Dell, R; James, L S

    1981-08-01

    Continuous measurements of minute ventilation (VI), oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), activity, and temperature were made in eleven low birth weight infants during the interval between feedings. Significant increases in VI, VO2, and HR were noted between quiet and active sleep. (VI Active - VI Quiet/VI Quiet) X 100 = 18.4% VO2 Active - VO2 Quiet/VO2 Quiet) X 100 = 10.1% and HR Active - HR Quiet/HR Quiet) X 100 = 6.4%. Significant differences were also noted within epochs of the same state of sleep: mean slope VI versus time in epoch (t) = -156 ml/kg . min/hr, VO2 versus t. = 1.49 ml/kg . min/hr and HR versus t = -15.0 beats/min/hr. Differences between successive epochs of the same state of sleep were also observed: VI, +5.9 to 46.6%; VO2, 4.7 to 24.6%; HR, 1.0 to 9.7%. These differences were related to the length of time after feeding. These data indicate that steady state conditions do not occur in growing low birth weight infants and that the design of studies of respiration and metabolism in these infants should include continuous assessment of the state of sleep or activity and time after feeding to ensure that experimental and control periods are truly comparable. PMID:7267185

  10. The HUS1B promoter is hypomethylated in the placentas of low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Rumbajan, Janette Mareska; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Higashimoto, Ken; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Nishioka, Kenichi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Aoki, Shigehisa; Toda, Shuji; Takeda, Satoru; Seki, Hiroyuki; Hatada, Izuho; Hata, Kenichiro; Soejima, Hidenobu; Joh, Keiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is associated with a range of human disorders. To identify differences in DNA methylation of gene promoters between placentas of low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants, we screened 8091 genes for aberrant methylation in placentas using microarray-based integrated analysis of methylation by isoschizomers (MIAMI). Seven candidate genes for hypomethylation in the placentas of LBW infants were selected. Among these candidates, COBRA analyses suggested that the HUS1B gene was hypomethylated in some of the placentas. Quantitative methylation analyses by bisulfite-pyrosequencing indicated that the promoter region of the gene was hypomethylated in three of the 86 placentas analyzed. The HUS1B promoter was highly methylated in two cell lines derived from trophoblastic cells. Gene expression increased when the promoter was demethylated by 5Aza-dC treatment. This suggests that hypomethylation of HUS1B alters gene expression in the placenta and that this dysregulated gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of LBW by affecting placental functions involved in fetal growth. PMID:26911255

  11. Free thyroxin measured in dried blood spots from normal, low-birth-weight, and hypothyroid neonates.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, F; Masson, J; Laroche, D; Travert, J; Travert, G

    1991-12-01

    We have adapted a new radioimmunoassay for free thyroxin (FT4) measurement in dried blood spots for use in neonatal screening for hypothyroidism. The method is easy, fast, and cheap. Within-assay and between-assay CVs are respectively 9.6% and 13.2%. In 997 neonates three days postpartum with normal thyrotropin concentrations, the mean FT4 concentration was 27.2 pmol/L (SD 7.3 pmol/L). There was no significant difference in mean FT4 concentration between boys and girls. FT4 concentrations increased linearly with birth weight or with gestational age, as expressed by multiple linear regression: FT4 (pmol/L) = 0.0016 birth weight (g) + 0.6931 gestational age (weeks) - 4.8772. Only gestational age significantly affected the FT4 value. For five hypothyroid infants tested on day three postpartum, FT4 values were all below the 1st percentile of values from healthy neonates. Thus, when the neonatal concentration of thyrotropin is above normal, FT4 measured in the same sample can provide a reliable earlier diagnosis of hypothyroidism. PMID:1764786

  12. Aerobic capacity as a mediator of the influence of birth weight and school performance.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, A

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with cognitive impairments persisting into adolescence and early adulthood. The purposes of this study was two-fold: to analyse the association between birth weight (BW) and school performance, and to determine the influence of adolescent aerobic capacity and muscular strength on the association between BW and school performance in children at 12-13 years. The study included 395 children (50.4% boys, aged 12-13 years). Self-reported BW was evaluated. We measured school performance (mean of the grades obtained in language and mathematics) and two physical fitness tests (aerobic capacity and muscular strength). Analysis of variance was used to analyse the differences in school performance according to BW categories (⩽2500, 2500-3500 and ⩾3500 g). Linear regression models fitted for mediation analyses examined whether the association between BW and school performance was mediated by aerobic capacity and/or muscular strength. Higher BW was associated with better school performance independent of current body mass index. These differences disappeared after controlling for aerobic capacity, which also mediated the association between BW and school performance (13.4%). The relationship between BW and school performance seems to be dependent on aerobic capacity fitness. Our results are of importance because the consequences of BW tend to continue into childhood, and current physical fitness of the children may potentially be modified to improve school performance. PMID:27020122

  13. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted. PMID:26566358

  14. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers. PMID:25371871

  15. Taiwanese parents' perceptions of their very low-birth-weight infant with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions and experiences of Taiwanese parents in coping with the unfolding evidence of a disability, their response to the official diagnosis, and their views about their child's developmental disability. This descriptive qualitative study is a partial analysis of data from a larger study including 19 Taiwanese parents of very low-birth-weight infants with developmental disability at 6 and 12 months of corrected age. Four themes were generated: uncertainty and worry about developmental progress, search for meaning and supernatural will, desire for normality and attitude toward services, and finding a balance point in family life and relationships. The parents of very low-birth-weight infants face uncertainty about developmental and other potential problems in the infant's early age. Adequate information related to infant development needs to be integrated into follow-up clinic and early intervention services. Early intervention programs should not only focus on the needs of these infants but also provide support and care to the whole family. Understanding parental beliefs and values toward developmental disabilities can help neonatal and pediatric professionals to provide optimal early intervention to these families. PMID:24164817

  16. Low birth weight, later renal function, and the roles of adulthood blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity in a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J; Pierce, Mary; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Whincup, Peter; Ferro, Charles; Savage, Caroline; Kuh, Diana; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been shown to be associated with later renal function, but it is unclear to what extent this is explained by other established kidney disease risk factors. Here we investigate the roles of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity using data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a socially stratified sample of 5362 children born in March 1946 in England, Scotland, and Wales, and followed since. The birth weight of 2192 study members with complete data was related to three markers of renal function at age 60–64 (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using cystatin C (eGFRcys), eGFR calculated using creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys), and the urine albumin–creatinine ratio) using linear regression. Each 1 kg lower birth weight was associated with a 2.25 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval 0.80–3.71) lower eGFRcys and a 2.13 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (0.69–3.58) lower eGFRcr-cys. There was no evidence of an association with urine albumin–creatinine ratio. These associations with eGFR were not confounded by socioeconomic position and were not explained by diabetes or hypertension, but there was some evidence that they were stronger in study members who were overweight in adulthood. Thus, our findings highlight the role of lower birth weight in renal disease and suggest that in those born with lower birth weight particular emphasis should be placed on avoiding becoming overweight. PMID:23760284

  17. Lifecourse relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight, contemporaneous anthropometric measurements and bone mass at 18 years old. The 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Howe, Laura D.; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Muniz, Ludmila Correia; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Assunção, Maria Cecilia; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with short-term and also long-term harmful effects on offspring. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring bone health at 18 years old, and the role of birth weight and contemporaneous height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in this association. Data from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort were analyzed using path analysis stratified by sex. Adolescents at 18 years old (N = 1512 males, 1563 females). DXA-determined total body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were assessed at 18 years old. Results Each additional cigarette smoked during pregnancy was associated with a lower BMC by − 4.20 g in males (95% CI − 8.37; − 0.05), but not in females [− 2.22 g (95% CI − 5.49; 1.04)]; weaker inverse associations were observed for BMD. This inverse association was explained by the influence of maternal smoking on birth weight and contemporaneous anthropometry, particularly height. A 1 kg higher birth weight was associated with a higher BMC by around 144 g in males and by around 186 g in females, and also with a higher BMD by around 0.019 g/cm2 in males and by around 0.018 g/cm2 in females, respectively. Conclusions Lifecourse analysis using path models has enabled to evaluate the role of mediators in the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight with bone mass in the offspring, thus generating improved understanding of the etiology of bone health and the importance of early life experiences. PMID:25463840

  18. Intergenerational transmission of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) through birth weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramraj, Chantel; Pulver, Ariel; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-12-01

    This review examines intergenerational differences in birth weight among children born to first-generation and second-generation immigrant mothers and the extent to which they vary by country of origin and receiving country. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, and ProQuest from inception to October 2014 for articles that recorded the mean birth weight (in grams) or odds of low birth weight (LBW) of children born to immigrant mothers and one subsequent generation. Studies were analyzed descriptively and meta-analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. We identified 10 studies (8 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies) including 158,843 first and second-generation immigrant women. The United States and the United Kingdom represented the receiving countries with the majority of immigrants originating from Mexico and South Asia. Six studies were meta-analyzed for mean birth weight and seven for low birth weight. Across all studies, there was found to be no statistically significant difference in mean birth weight between first and second-generation children. However, the odds of being LBW were 1.21 [95% CI, 1.15, 1.27] times greater among second-generation children. Second-generation children of Mexican descent in particular were at increased odds of LBW (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.28, 1.69]). In the United States, second-generation children were at 34% higher odds of being LBW (OR = 1.34 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.58]) when compared to their first-generation counterparts. This effect was slightly smaller in the United Kingdom (OR = 1.18 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.23]). In conclusion, immigration to a new country may differentially influence low birth weight over generations, depending on the mother's nativity and the country she immigrates to. PMID:26492459

  19. [Birth weight and factors associated with the prenatal period: a cross-sectional study in a maternity hospital of reference].

    PubMed

    Capelli, Jane de Carlos Santana; Pontes, Juliana Silva; Pereira, Silvia Eliza Almeida; Silva, Alexandra Anastácio Monteiro; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Larcher

    2014-07-01

    This study examined factors related to birth weight in a maternity hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro. It is a descriptive, sectional study conducted in the Herculano Pinheiro Maternity Hospital (HMHP) in Rio de Janeiro between December 2008 and February 2009, with postpartum mothers between 20 and 34 years of age. The chi-square test, the Student's t test and the logistical regression model were applied. 14.6% of the infants had low birth weight (less than 2500 g). There was a negative correlation between birth weight and smoking habits of the mother. The pre-pregnancy weight, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and number of pre-natal visit variables were positively associated with birth weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated maternal age as being a risk factor for low birth weight. The conclusion reached is that the marital status situation, where this was perceived as an important variable, as well as the number of prenatal visits, which in group analysis showed no statistical significance, deserve further investigation together with other studies. PMID:25014286

  20. Assessment of maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight neonates at a tertiary hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Domple, Vijay Kishanrao; Doibale, Mohan K.; Nair, Abhilasha; Rajput, Pinkesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To assess the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) neonates at a tertiary hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Nanded city of Maharashtra between January 2014 and July 2014 among 160 cases (LBW-birth weight ≤2499 g) and 160 controls (normal birth weight-birth weight >2499. Data collection was done by using predesigned questionnaire and also related health documents were checked and collected the expected information during the interview after obtaining informed consent from mothers. The data were analyzed by Epi Info 7 Version. Results: The present study found the significant association among gestational age, sex of baby, type of delivery, maternal age, religion, education of mother and husband, occupation of mother and husband, type of family, maternal height, weight gain, hemoglobin level, planned/unplanned delivery, bad obstetric history, interval between pregnancies, previous history of LBW, underlying disease, tobacco chewing, timing of first antenatal care (ANC) visit, total number of ANC visit, and iron and folic acid (IFA) tablets consumption with LBW. No significant association was found among maternal age, residence, caste, consanguinity of marriage, socioeconomic status, gravida, birth order, multiple pregnancy, and smoking with LBW in our study. Conclusion: It was concluded that hemoglobin level, weight gain during pregnancy, gestational age, planned/unplanned delivery, bad obstetric history, and IFA tablets consumption during pregnancy were independent risk factors for LBW. PMID:27185977

  1. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  2. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 557 from Ukraine, who were recruited during antenatal care visits in 2002‒2004. Secondary metabolites of diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. Results Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log–transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: –87 g (95% CI: –137, –340 per 1.70 ng/mL), –43 g (95% CI: –108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and –135 g (95% CI: –192, –78 per 1.82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: –5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). Conclusions This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth. These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. Citation Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP

  3. Effects of air pollution on birth weight among children born between 1995 and 1997 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Tseng, Yaw-Tseng; Chang, Chih-Ching

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution might be associated with low birth weight. The effects of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and particulate matter less than 10 microm (PM(10)) were examined on birth weight in each trimester of pregnancy. The study group included all full-term singleton live births during 1995-1997 to women living within about 2 km of an air pollution monitoring site in Kaohsiung. Measurements of SO(2) and PM(10) collected at six air quality monitoring stations were used to estimate the influence of exposures on different pregnancy trimesters. This was done by averaging daily ambient air pollution concentrations during the corresponding days based on the birth date and gestational age of each child. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of air pollution on birth weight adjusting for possible confounders including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant gender. The estimated reduction in birth weight was 0.52 g for 1 microg/m (3) increase in either SO(2) or PM(10) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:12746128

  4. Relationship between Revised Graduated Index (R-GINDEX) of Prenatal Care Utilization & Preterm Labor and Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tayebi, Tahereh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Dayhimi, Marjaneh; Danesh, Mahmonir

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal care refers to accurate and consistent performance of the principles important to maintain healthy pregnancy outcomes and also for mother and child health. One of the new indices to assess the adequacy of care is Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (R-GINDEX). The study aims to assess the relationship between quantitative prenatal care factors and preterm labor and low birth weight using R-GINDEX. This historical cohort study has been conducted on 420 mothers during the first two years after delivery in 2010. The adequacy of care was calculated by R-GINDEX. Based on this index, participants have been divided into three care groups including inadequate, adequate and intensive care groups. A significant relationship has been found between R-GINDEX and preterm birth and low birth weight (P<0.05). Thus the probability of premature labor in inadequate care group (RR=3.93) and low birth weight (RR= 2.53) was higher than that of the adequate and intensive care group. The results showed that the quantity of prenatal care is effective in reducing preterm birth and low birth weight. PMID:24762355

  5. Birth weight and adult health in historical perspective: evidence from a New Zealand cohort, 1907-1922.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Evan; Wood, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    We provide new historical evidence on the developmental origins of health and disease in a cohort of boys born between 1907 and 1922 in Wellington, New Zealand. Using a dataset of 1523 birth records that include birth weight and length we find 852 (58%) of the adult cohort in World War II records measuring stature, body mass and blood pressure. On average, the boys weighed 3.5 kg at birth, similar to Australian and American babies of the era, and nearly identical to full-term New Zealand babies in the 1990s. Using OLS regression models we estimate the effect of birth weight on adult stature and systolic blood pressure. We find an increase in birth weight of 1 kg is associated with an increase in stature of 2.6 cm (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 cm-3.6 cm), and a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 2.1 mm/Hg (95% CI - 5.00 to 0.67). This is the earliest cohort by fifty years for whom the fetal origins hypothesis has been examined in early adulthood. Our estimates of the effect of birth weight on blood pressure are towards the upper end of the range of published estimates in modern cohorts. PMID:24607677

  6. Maternal Cadmium Levels during Pregnancy Associated with Lower Birth Weight in Infants in a North Carolina Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jill E.; Valentiner, Ellis; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, a known carcinogen, and understudied as a developmental toxicant. In the present study, we examined the relationships between Cd levels during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes in a prospective pregnancy cohort in Durham, North Carolina. The study participants (n = 1027) had a mean Cd level of 0.46 µg/L with a range of <0.08 to 2.52 µg/L. Multivariable models were used to establish relationships between blood Cd tertiles and fetal growth parameters, namely birth weight, low birth weight, birth weight percentile by gestational age, small for gestational age, pre-term birth, length, and head circumference. In multivariable models, high maternal blood Cd levels (≥0.50 µg/L) during pregnancy were inversely associated with birth weight percentile by gestational age (p = 0.007) and associated with increased odds of infants being born small for gestational age (p<0.001). These observed effects were independent of cotinine-defined smoking status. The results from this study provide further evidence of health risks associated with early life exposure to Cd among a large pregnancy cohort. PMID:25285731

  7. Employment trends during preschool years among mothers of term singletons born with low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Kornstad, Tom; Nes, Ragnhild Bang; Kristensen, Petter; Irgens, Lorentz M; Landolt, Markus A; Eskedal, Leif T; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2014-11-01

    Children born at term with low birth weight (LBW) are regarded growth restricted and are at particular risk of adverse health outcomes requiring a high degree of parental participation in the day-to-day care. This study examined whether their increased risk of special health care needs compared to other children may influence mothers' opportunities for participation in the labor market at different times after delivery. Data from 32,938 participants in the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study with singleton children born at term in 2004-2006 were linked to national registers in order to investigate the mothers' employment status when their children were 1-3 years in 2007 and 4-6 years in 2010. Children weighing less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean were defined as LBW children. Although not significantly different from mothers of children in the normal weight range, mothers of LBW children had the overall highest level of non-employment when the children were 1-3 years. At child age 4-6 years on the other hand, LBW was associated with an increased risk of non-employment (RR 1.39: 95 % CI 1.11-1.75) also after adjustment for factors associated with employment in general. In accordance with employment trends in the general population, our findings show that while mothers of normal birth weight children re-enter the labor market as their children grow older, mothers of LBW children born at term participate to a lesser extent in paid employment and remain at levels similar to those of mothers with younger children. PMID:24643811

  8. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles – a Brazilian Report

    PubMed Central

    Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós; Galão, Eloisa Aparecida; Oliani, Antonio Hélio; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM+/IgG+) were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05). The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213) of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213) were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213) were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years) was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011) and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012). There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742) and low birth weight (p = 0.7186). The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles. PMID:26192182

  9. Associations between prenatal physical activity, birth weight, and DNA methylation at genomically imprinted domains in a multiethnic newborn cohort.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Lauren E; Mendez, Michelle A; Miller, Erline E; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Birth weight is a commonly used indicator of the fetal environment and a predictor of future health outcomes. While the etiology of birth weight extremes is likely multifactorial, epidemiologic data suggest that prenatal physical activity (PA) may play an important role. The mechanisms underlying this association remain unresolved, although epigenetics has been proposed. This study aimed to estimate associations between prenatal PA, birth weight, and newborn DNA methylation levels at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating 4 imprinted genes known to be important in fetal development. Study participants (N = 1281) were enrolled as part of the Newborn Epigenetics Study. Prenatal PA was ascertained using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, and birth weight data obtained from hospital records. Among 484 term mother-infant pairs, imprinted gene methylation levels were measured at DMRs using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations. After adjusting for preterm birth and race/ethnicity, we found that infants born to mothers in the highest quartile of total non-sedentary time had lower birth weight compared to infants of mothers in the lowest quartile (β = -81.16, SE = 42.02, P = 0.05). These associations appeared strongest among male infants (β = -125.40, SE = 58.10, P = 0.03). Methylation at the PLAGL1 DMR was related to total non-sedentary time (P < 0.05). Our findings confirm that prenatal PA is associated with reduced birth weight, and is the first study to support a role for imprinted gene plasticity in these associations. Larger studies are required. PMID:25928716

  10. Associations between Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptom Severity: Indirect Effects via Primary Neuropsychological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Burt; Healey, Dione M.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD has a range of aetiological origins which are associated with a number of disruptions in neuropsychological functioning. This study aims to examine how low birth weight, a proxy measure for a range of environmental complications during gestation, predicts ADHD symptom severity in preschool-aged children indirectly via neuropsychological functioning. Methods 197 preschool-aged children were recruited as part of a larger longitudinal study. Two neuropsychological factors were derived from NEPSY domain scores. One, referred to as ‘Primary Neuropsychological Function,’ loaded highly with Sensorimotor and Visuospatial scores. The other, termed ‘Higher-Order Function’ loaded highly with Language and Memory domain scores. Executive functioning split evenly across the two. Analyses examined whether these neuropsychological factors allowed for an indirect association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. Results While both factors were associated with symptom severity, only the Primary Neuropsychological Factor was associated with birth weight. Furthermore, birth weight was indirectly associated to symptom severity via this factor. Conclusions These data indicate that birth weight is indirectly associated with ADHD severity via disruption of neuropsychological functions that are more primary in function as opposed to functions that play a higher-order role in utilising and integrating the primary functions. PMID:24795955

  11. Predischarge morbidities in extremely and very low-birth-weight infants in Spanish neonatal units.

    PubMed

    Moro, Manuel; Pérez-Rodriguez, Jesus; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Fernández, Cristina; Doménech, Eduardo; Jiménez, Rafael; Pérez-Sheriff, Vicente; Quero, Jose; Roques, Vicente

    2009-05-01

    We sought to describe neonatal morbidities and therapeutic interventions in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) and extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants cared for in Spanish hospitals. We preformed a prospective collection of data covering the perinatal period until discharge by the SEN1500 network. This network, set up by the Spanish Society of Neonatology, targets VLBW and ELBW infants (400 to 1500 g) admitted to neonatal units in Spanish hospitals. Data were recorded in electronic form and controlled for possible errors or inconsistencies before analysis. We report data for 8836 neonates admitted to 48 neonatal units from January 2002 to December 2005. Prenatal steroids were given to significantly more newborns in 2003 to 2005 (79.4%) than in 2002 (73.4%), although the remaining perinatal data examined failed to significantly vary. Delivery was by cesarean section in 69.8% of cases but significantly lower (35.9%) for infants under a postmenstrual age of 26 weeks. Hyaline membrane disease was diagnosed in 53.9% of the newborns and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in 10.46%. Mechanical ventilation was employed in 69.1%, surfactant in 50.3%, and steroids for BPD in 5.3%. Intraventricular hemorrhage grades 3 to 4 (8.1%) and cystic leukomalacia (2.6%) were the most relevant brain ultrasonography findings. Rates of early- and late-onset septicemia were 5% and 29.4%, respectively. Further diagnoses were necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; 6.9%) and persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA; 24.2%); 40.6% of the cases of NEC and 15.3% of those of PDA required surgery. In addition, 26.6% of the newborns required supplementary oxygen at 28 days of life. The number of newborns who had not recovered their birth weight at this age fell from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.5% in 2005. Rates of prenatal steroid use, cesarean delivery, and main morbidities were comparable to figures cited for other patient series, although our BPD rate was among the lowest reported and nosocomial sepsis rate among the

  12. Genetic effects on birth weight in reciprocal Brahman-Simmental crossbred calves.

    PubMed

    Dillon, J A; Riley, D G; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    2015-02-01

    Brahman-cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objectives of this work were to confirm that unusual inheritance and to investigate non-Mendelian genetic effects that may influence differences in Brahman × Simmental crossbred calves. Crossbred calves were produced by embryo transfer ( = 2,862) and natural service or artificial insemination ( = 2,125) from 1983 to 1991 by a private seedstock producer. Brahman-sired F embryos out of Simmental donors weighed 9.4 ± 1.1 ( < 0.001) kg more at birth than Simmental-sired F embryos out of Brahman donor cows when transferred to comparable recipients. This reciprocal difference was accompanied by sexual dimorphism: within Brahman-sired F calves, males were 5.0 ± 1.4 kg heavier than females, whereas within Simmental-sired F calves, females were 0.7 ± 0.5 kg heavier than males. Covariates were constructed from the pedigree to represent genetic effects: proportion Brahman in calves and dams (direct and maternal breed effects), direct and maternal breed heterozygosity, probability of Brahman mitochondrial origin, probability of Brahman Y chromosome, probability of Brahman X chromosome, genomic imprinting (the difference between the probabilities of Brahman in the genetic dam and in the sire), nonrandom X inactivation by breed of origin (the probability of breed heterozygosity of the X chromosomes of a female), and nonrandom X inactivation by parent of origin (the difference between probabilities of a female inheriting a paternal or maternal Brahman X chromosome). The maternal breed heterozygosity, genomic imprinting, probability of Brahman X chromosome, and genomic imprinting × sex effect covariates from the full model were significant with regression coefficients of 1.1 ± 0.5 ( < 0.05), ‒8.3 ± 2.3 ( < 0.01), ‒3.5 ± 1.3 ( < 0.01), and ‒5.3 ± 2.0 ( < 0.01), respectively

  13. Histopathological Study of Placentae in Low Birth Weight Babies in India

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, JS; Misra, V; Singh, P; Singh, PA; Chauhan, S; Thakur, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: The antenatal health-care given to pregnant women has great influence on the rates of perinatal death and morbidity. Amongst the different causes of perinatal mortality, low birth weight (LBW) is the single most significant factor therefore placenta from all the LBW babies (LBWB) should be examined routinely to find out the likely cause. Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the pathological changes in the placenta in association with LBWB. Materials and Methods: This is a Case control study performed at Medical College Allahabad,(MLN) India. In this study, 90 placentae were included. 30 placentae from full-term vaginally delivered babies, weighing more than 2500 g were included as the control group. 60 placentae belonged to babies whose birth weight was less than 2500 g (LBW). Weight of the baby was taken within the 1st h of birth and Apgar score was noted. Gross and microscopic examination of placentae was done. Statistical correlation of was carried out between them by using SPSS 18 version. Chi-square test with or without yate's correction was used as and when required. P < 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results: Placenta was circum-marginal in both groups. Attachment of cord was mainly central in the control group 90% (27/30), whereas eccentric attachment was prominent in patient group 66.67% (40/60). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Calcification and sub-chorionic fibrin deposition was seen in significantly higher numbers of placentae from patients than controls (P < 0.01) infarction and meconium staining were seen in placentae from patients only. Histologically placental ischemia, infarction and calcification were seen in significantly higher number of patients (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and < 0.01 respectively). Fibrinoid necrosis, stromal fibrosis, placental dysmaturity and obstructive vasculopathy were seen in placentae from patients only. Conclusion: Placental pathology among LBW infants was high

  14. Home uterine activity monitoring in the prevention of very low birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Kempe, A; Sachs, B P; Ricciotti, H; Sobol, A M; Wise, P H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite controversy regarding the efficacy of home uterine activity monitoring (HUAM), it is currently licensed for detection of preterm labor in women with previous preterm deliveries. In practice, however, it is being more widely utilized in an effort to prevent preterm delivery. This study seeks to determine which group of mothers delivering very low birth weight (VLBW) infants would have qualified for HUAM given three different sets of criteria and in which women it could have been used to help prolong gestation. METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of mothers of VLBW infants born in five U.S. locations (N = 1440), retrospectively applying three sets of eligibility criteria for HUAM use: (a) the current FDA licensing criterion for use of HUAM, a previous preterm birth; (b) indication for HUAM commonly cited in published reports; (c) a broad set of criteria based on the presence of any reproductive or medical conditions that might predispose to premature delivery. The authors then analyzed the conditions precipitating delivery for each group to determine whether delivery might have been prevented with HUAM and tocolytic therapy. RESULTS: Only 4.4% of the total group of women delivering VLBW infants would have been eligible for HUAM under the FDA criterion and might potentially have benefited from this technology. If extremely broad criteria had been applied to identify those eligible for monitoring, under which almost 80% of all women who delivered VLBW infants would have been monitored, only 20.3% of the total group would have been found eligible and would potentially have benefited. If such broad criteria were applied to all pregnant women, a sizable proportion of pregnancies would be monitored at great expense with small potential clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Because VLBW births are usually precipitated by conditions that are unlikely to benefit from HUAM, this technology will have little impact on reducing VLBW and neonatal

  15. Traffic-Related Air Toxics and Term Low Birth Weight in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Jo Kay; Su, Jason; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked criteria air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes, but there is less information on the importance of specific emission sources, such as traffic, and air toxics. Objectives: We used three exposure data sources to examine odds of term low birth weight (LBW) in Los Angeles, California, women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants during pregnancy. Methods: We identified term births during 1 June 2004 to 30 March 2006 to women residing within 5 miles of a South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES III) monitoring station. Pregnancy period average exposures were estimated for air toxics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), source-specific particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) based on a chemical mass balance model, criteria air pollutants from government monitoring data, and land use regression (LUR) model estimates of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Associations between these metrics and odds of term LBW (< 2,500 g) were examined using logistic regression. Results: Odds of term LBW increased approximately 5% per interquartile range increase in entire pregnancy exposures to several correlated traffic pollutants: LUR measures of NO, NO2, and NOx, elemental carbon, and PM2.5 from diesel and gasoline combustion and paved road dust (geological PM2.5). Conclusions: These analyses provide additional evidence of the potential impact of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth. Particles from traffic sources should be a focus of future studies. PMID:21835727

  16. The association of PM2.5 with full term low birth weight at different spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Gerald; Thompson, W. Douglas; Fitzgerald, Edward; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is interest in determining the relationship between fine particulate matter air pollution and various health outcomes, including birth outcomes such as term low birth weight. Previous studies have come to different conclusions. In this study we consider whether the effect may vary by location and gestational period. We also compare results when using different spatial resolutions for the air concentration estimates. Among the seven states considered, New Jersey and New York had the highest PM2.5 levels (average full gestation period exposures of 13 μg/m3) and the largest rate of low birth weight births (2.6 and 2.8%, respectively); conversely Utah and Minnesota had the lowest PM2.5 levels (9 μg/m3) and the lowest rates of low birth weight births (2.1 and1.9%, respectively). There is an association between PM2.5 exposure and low birth weight in New York for the full gestation period and all three trimesters, in Minnesota for the full gestation period and the first and third trimesters, and in New Jersey for the full gestation period and the first trimester. When we pooled the data across states, the OR for the full gestation period was 1.030 (95% CI: 1.022–1.037) and it was highest for the first trimester (OR 1.018; CI: 1.013–1.022) and decreasing during the later trimesters. When we used a finer spatial resolution, the strengths of the associations tended to diminish and were no longer statistically significant. We consider reasons why these differences may occur and their implications for evaluating the effects of PM2.5 on birth outcomes. PMID:25261950

  17. Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaibo; Zhang, Jinliang; Thurston, Sally W.; Stevens, Timothy P.; Pan, Ying; Kane, Cathleen; Weinberger, Barry; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Duan, Xiaoli; Assibey-Mensah, Vanessa; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight. Objectives Using the natural experiment of air pollution declines during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, we evaluated whether having specific months of pregnancy (i.e., 1st…8th) during the 2008 Olympics period was associated with larger birth weights, compared with pregnancies during the same dates in 2007 or 2009. Methods Using n = 83,672 term births to mothers residing in four urban districts of Beijing, we estimated the difference in birth weight associated with having individual months of pregnancy during the 2008 Olympics (8 August–24 September 2008) compared with the same dates in 2007 and 2009. We also estimated the difference in birth weight associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean ambient particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations during each pregnancy month. Results Babies whose 8th month of gestation occurred during the 2008 Olympics were, on average, 23 g larger (95% CI: 5 g, 40 g) than babies whose 8th month occurred during the same calendar dates in 2007 or 2009. IQR increases in PM2.5 (19.8 μg/m3), CO (0.3 ppm), SO2 (1.8 ppb), and NO2 (13.6 ppb) concentrations during the 8th month of pregnancy were associated with 18 g (95% CI: –32 g, –3 g), 17 g (95% CI: –28 g, –6 g), 23 g (95% CI: –36 g, –10 g), and 34 g (95% CI: –70 g, 3 g) decreases in birth weight, respectively. We did not see significant associations for months 1–7. Conclusions Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight. Citation Rich DQ, Liu K, Zhang J

  18. Risk factors for low birth weight in New York state counties.

    PubMed

    Darling, Rosa D; Atav, A Serdar

    2012-02-01

    The rate of low birth weight (LBW) is a national concern. In New York counties in 2009, the LBW rate was 8.2%. Reducing LBW has significant humanitarian and economic implications. At an average cost of $51,600 per infant, care for infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth is substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and health service factors that contribute to LBW among counties in New York. Analyses of data indicated that the number of MOMs providers and teen pregnancy rate were the strongest predictors for LBW. These findings reinforce the fact that LBW is a correctable phenomenon that can be addressed through public policy. With increasing budget cuts, provision of health services and implementation of programs that address teen pregnancy have become challenging. Public policy decisions and stewardship that support programs that increase the number of providers for the uninsured, underinsured, and economic underclass and maintain programs for the pregnant adolescent will help New York counties in their fight against LBW. PMID:22585673

  19. Reduced birth weight, cleft palate and preputial abnormalities in a cloned dog

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report a novel developmental abnormality in a cloned dog. A fibroblast cell line was established from an 8-year-old male German shepherd dog. In vivo matured oocytes were retrieved from a large breed dog, and the nucleus was removed from each oocyte. A donor cell was injected into an enucleated oocyte, and the oocyte-cell couplet was fused electrically. After chemical activation, the resulting embryos were transferred into a naturally estrus-synchronized recipient dog, and two cloned pups were delivered by Cesarean section 60 days later. One cloned pup (Clone 1) was healthy, but the other (Clone 2) had a birth weight of only 320 g and cleft palate, failure of preputial closure at the ventral distal part, and persistent penile frenulum. Clone 2 was raised by stomach feeding until Day 40 after birth, where palatoplasty was performed. The abnormalities in external genitalia in Clone 2 resulted in persistent penile extrusion that was surgically corrected. This complex developmental abnormality has not been reported in dogs previously. PMID:24669802

  20. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p < 0.0001 for both trends. These maternal glucose and/or weight gain effects to imprint for childhood obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:27154523

  1. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-03-15

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. The association between birth weight and adult PLC, separately in men and women was investigated, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p values for interaction = 0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25 and 3.75 kg, men with birth weights between 2.00 and 3.25 kg and 3.75-5.50 kg, had HRs of 1.48 (1.06-2.05) and 0.85 (0.56-1.28), respectively. Among women the corresponding HRs were 1.71 (0.90-3.29) and 3.43 (1.73-6.82). Associations were similar for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across year of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, viral hepatitis and biliary cirrhosis. Prenatal exposures influenced the risk of adult PLC, and the effects at the high birth weight levels appeared to be sex-specific. These findings underscore the importance of considering sex-specific mechanisms in the early origins of adult PLC. PMID:26506514

  2. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yuk Joseph; Ho, Pak-Leung; Wong, Kar-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a common veterinary pathogen. In both domestic and wild animals, this bacterium causes respiratory infections including infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Human infections are rare and have been documented in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe an extremely-low-birth-weight infant with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. This is the first report that describes the microorganism's responsibility in causing nosocomial infection in a preterm neonate. He recovered uneventfully after a course of meropenem. It is possible that the bacteria colonize the respiratory tracts of our health care workers or parents who may have had contact with pets and then transmitted the bacterium to our patient. Follow-up until 21 months of age showed normal growth and development. He did not suffer from any significant residual respiratory disease. PMID:23705092

  3. Ethical issues in the care of extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Kraybill, E N

    1998-06-01

    This article examines the difficulties in making decisions about the medical treatment of infants who have uncertain viability because of extremely low birth weight. The advantages and disadvantages of three systematic approaches are reviewed. An approach called "provisional intensive care for all" may offer the most benefit and cause the least harm. With this approach, all liveborn infants would be presumed viable and would receive intensive care, at least initially. After further assessment of the infant, the parents would be informed as fully as possible about the possible outcome of continuing intensive care. The treating physicians would offer the parents the options of continuing intensive care or withdrawing it and providing basic care. Although the physicians would provide recommendations based on their best medical judgment, they would be prepared to support and carry out the parents' decision. PMID:9650228

  4. Effect of medical and social risk factors on outcome of prematurity and very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Leonard, C H; Clyman, R I; Piecuch, R E; Juster, R P; Ballard, R A; Behle, M B

    1990-04-01

    A cohort of 129 infants with birth weights less than or equal to 1250 gm was followed for more than 4 1/2 years (mean +/- SD: 60 +/- 10 months) to determine the independent effects of two medical risk factors--intracranial hemorrhage and severe chronic lung disease--and a parenting risk factor (abuse or neglect) on neurodevelopmental outcome. In infants without any intracranial hemorrhage or parenting risk factors, severe chronic lung disease was not related to neurologic or cognitive outcome. Infants with increasing grades of intracranial hemorrhage had increasing rates of neurologic and cognitive abnormalities. However, the factor associated with the highest incidence of later abnormality was the parenting risk factor. We conclude that infants with medical risk factors may have additional social risk factors, and that both of these influences must be considered in an examination of the long-term sequelae of neonatal complications. PMID:2319409

  5. Aggressive parenteral nutrition in sick very low birth weight babies: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tagare, Amit; Walawalkar, Meenal; Vaidya, Umesh

    2013-10-01

    Survival of preterm neonates in developing world has improved. Developing countries lag behind in nutritional management in NICU especially parenteral nutrition (PN). This randomized controlled trial was done to evaluate the effect of aggressive parenteral nutrition on nitrogen retention of sick VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) babies. From September 2009 to February 2010, total 34 babies were randomized to receive aggressive parenteral nutrition (APN)(n=17) or standard parenteral nutrition (SPN) (n=17). The average daily total and PN calory intake of babies in APN group was significantly higher during first week. APN was well-tolerated; however, nitrogen retention was not significantly higher in APN group. Aggressive parenteral nutrition in sick VLBW babies is feasible in developing world, though it did not improve nitrogen retention in first week of life. PMID:23798635

  6. Migrant Selectivity or Cultural Buffering? Investigating the Black Immigrant Health Advantage in Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Cedric A L; Sarathchandra, Dilshani

    2016-04-01

    Prior studies on population health have reported an "immigrant health advantage" in which immigrants tend to show better health outcomes compared to their native-born racial/ethnic counterparts. Migrant selectivity and cultural buffering have been proposed as explanations for this relative advantage, predominantly in studies that focus on Latino immigrants' health in the US. This study adds to the relatively scant literature on black immigrant health advantage by comparing the two hypotheses (migrant selectivity and cultural buffering) as related to black immigrant health. The effect of nativity on infant low birth weight is tested using data from the US Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results indicate that immigrant black mothers do have relatively better health outcomes that may result from cultural buffering, which reduces their risky health behaviors. PMID:25787352

  7. Cognitive and motor function of neurologically impaired extremely low birth weight children

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Janine; Friedman, Harriet; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rates of neurological impairment among extremely low birth weight children (ELBW [<1 kg]) have decreased since 2000; however, their functioning is unexamined. OBJECTIVE: To compare motor and cognitive functioning of ELBW children with neurological impairment, including cerebral palsy and severe hypotonia/hypertonia, between two periods: 1990 to 1999 (n=83) and 2000 to 2005 (n=34). METHODS: Measures of function at 20 months corrected age included the Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Indexes of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Gross Motor Functional Classification System as primary outcomes and individual motor function items as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Analysis failed to reveal significant differences for the primary outcomes, although during 2000 to 2005, sitting significantly improved in children with neurological impairment (P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Decreases in rates of neurological impairment among ELBW children have been accompanied by a suggestion of improved motor function, although cognitive function has not changed. PMID:26435676

  8. Perinatal medical variables predict executive function within a sample of preschoolers born very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Susanne W; Erickson, Sarah J; MacLean, Peggy; Lowe, Jean R

    2015-05-01

    The goal was to identify perinatal predictors of early executive dysfunction in preschoolers born very low birth weight. Fifty-seven preschoolers completed 3 executive function tasks: Dimensional Change Card Sort-Separated (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility), Bear Dragon (inhibition and working memory), and Gift Delay Open (inhibition). Relationships between executive function and perinatal medical severity factors (gestational age, days on ventilation, size for gestational age, maternal steroids, and number of surgeries) and chronological age were investigated by multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Different perinatal medical severity factors were predictive of executive function tasks, with gestational age predicting Bear Dragon and Gift Open; and number of surgeries and maternal steroids predicting performance on Dimensional Change Card Sort-Separated. By understanding the relationship between perinatal medical severity factors and preschool executive outcomes, we can identify children at highest risk for future executive dysfunction, thereby focusing targeted early intervention services. PMID:25117418

  9. Birth Weight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Black Women’s Health Study: Does Adult BMI Play a Mediating Role?

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Julie R.; Gerlovin, Hanna; Wise, Lauren A.; Vimalananda, Varsha G.; Rosenzweig, James L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of birth weight with incident type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of obesity, in a large cohort of U.S. black women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Black Women’s Health Study is an ongoing prospective study. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CI for categories of birth weight (very low birth weight [<1,500 g], low birth weight [1,500–2,499 g], and high birth weight [≥4,000 g]) in reference to normal birth weight (2,500–3,999 g). Models were adjusted for age, questionnaire cycle, family history of diabetes, caloric intake, preterm birth, physical activity, years of education, and neighborhood socioeconomic status with and without inclusion of terms for adult BMI. RESULTS We followed 21,624 women over 16 years of follow-up. There were 2,388 cases of incident diabetes. Women with very low birth weight had a 40% higher risk of disease (IRR 1.40 [95% CI 1.08–1.82]) than women with normal birth weight; women with low birth weight had a 13% higher risk (IRR 1.13 [95% CI 1.02–1.25]). Adjustment for BMI did not appreciably change the estimates. CONCLUSIONS Very low birth weight and low birth weight appear to be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in African American women, and the association does not seem to be mediated through BMI. The prevalence of low birth weight is especially high in African American populations, and this may explain in part the higher occurrence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25147255

  10. Adult mental health outcomes of child sexual abuse survivors born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lund, Jessie I; Day, Kimberly L; Schmidt, Louis A; Saigal, Saroj; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2016-09-01

    The high prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) is concerning, particularly as survivors are at increased risk for multiple adverse outcomes, including poor mental health across the lifespan. Children born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000g) and who experience CSA may be a group that is especially vulnerable to psychopathology later in life. However, no research has considered the mental health risks associated with being born at ELBW and experiencing CSA. In this study, we investigated the mental health of 179 ELBW survivors and 145 matched normal birth weight (NBW; >2500g) participants at ages 22-26 and 29-36. At age 22-26, CSA was associated with increased odds of clinically significant internalizing (OR=7.32, 95% CI: 2.31-23.23) and externalizing (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.11-19.51) problems among ELBW participants exposed to CSA compared to those who did not, though confidence intervals were wide. At age 29-36, CSA was linked to increased odds of any current (OR=3.43, 95% CI: 1.08-10.87) and lifetime (OR=7.09, 95% CI: 2.00-25.03) non-substance use psychiatric disorders, however, this did not hold after adjustment for covariates. Statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were not observed in NBW participants exposed to CSA compared to NBW participants who were not exposed. Survivors of significant perinatal adversity who are also exposed to CSA may be at higher risk for psychopathology through the fourth decade of life. PMID:27500386

  11. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (<1500 grams, VLBW) are at increased risk for developmental delays. Play is an important developmental outcome to the extent that child’s play and social communication are related to later development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as

  12. Pattern of Maternal Complications and Low Birth Weight: Associated Risk Factors among Highly Endogamous Women.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Salameh, Khalil M K; Yousafzai, Mohammad T; Saleh, Najah M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the study was to examine the pattern of low birth weight LBW, maternal complications, and its related factors among Arab women in Qatar. Design. This is a prospective hospital-based study. Setting. The study was carried out in Women's Hospital, Doha. Subjects and Methods. Pregnant women in their third trimester were identified in the log book of Women's Hospital and recruited into the study during first week of January 2010 to July 2011. Only 1674 (out of 2238) Arab women (74.7%) consented to participate in this study. Data on clinical and biochemistry parameters were retrieved from medical records. Follow-up data on neonatal outcome was obtained from labor room register. Results. The incidence of LBW (<2500 g) was 6.7% among Arab women during 2010 in Qatar. Distribution of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), antepartum hemorrhage (APH), maternal anemia, premature rupture of membrane (PROM), maternal occupation, parity, sheesha smoking, and parental consanguinity were significantly different (P < 0.05) between mothers of LBW and normal birth weight NBW (≥2500 g) babies. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that previous LBW, consanguinity, parity, smoking shesha, GDM, APH, anemia, PROM, maternal occupation, and housing condition were significantly associated with LBW adjusting for gestational age. Conclusion. Maternal complications such as GDM, APH, anemia, PROM, and smoking shesha during pregnancy are significantly increasing the risk of LBW outcome. Screening and prompt treatment for maternal complications and health education for smoking cessation during routine antenatal visits will help in substantial reduction of LBW outcome. PMID:22991672

  13. Cognitive correlates in toddlers born very low birth weight and full-term.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jean; Erickson, Sarah J; MacLean, Peggy

    2010-12-01

    Understanding what contributes to children's cognitive development can improve our ability to identify those children at risk for later developmental disorders. We hypothesized that cognition would be more strongly associated with child and mother interaction variables such as communication, sensitivity and affect during play in contrast to medical variables in preterm children, and that these same variables would also be correlates of cognition in children born full-term. Cognition was measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II Mental Developmental Index and mother-toddler play interactions were coded with the Caregiver-Child Affect, Responsiveness and Engagement Scales (C-CARES) for child and mother affect, communication, and sensitivity in 40 very low birth weight (VLBW) and 54 full-term toddlers at 18-22 months of age, adjusted for gestational age. Two different multivariate models were identified that best predicted cognition in the two sets of toddlers. For the toddlers born VLBW, days on ventilation, maternal education and the three C-CARES Child Play scales (sensitivity, affect and communication) were the best predictors of cognition. In contrast, the multivariate model that best correlated with cognition for the children born full-term included the Maternal Communication scale of the C-CARES. The different multivariate models identified for toddlers born preterm compared to those born full-term emphasizes the importance of using identification and cognitive intervention techniques that are uniquely tailored for children born very low birth weight. Findings highlight the importance of investigating beyond more traditional measures of cognition by incorporating play-based socio-emotional measures. PMID:20708803

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke and low birth weight: a hazard in the workplace?

    PubMed Central

    Misra, D P; Nguyen, R H

    1999-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) increases infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. One well-established risk factor is maternal smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has recently been focused on as another potential risk factor. In this article, we review epidemiologic literature on the effects of ETS on LBW and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), the cause of LBW related to maternal smoking. As we consider the feasibility of modifying women's exposure, we focus our discussion on workplace exposure to ETS. The workplace is particularly important to consider because women of child-bearing age are present in the workplace in greater numbers now than ever before. In addition, certain subgroups of working women may be particularly at risk from the effects of ETS on pregnancy because they work in environments with higher exposure or they are more susceptible to its effects. We conclude that there is consistent evidence to relate maternal ETS exposure to an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and that this association may be generalized to the work environment. In studies with positive findings, infants exposed to ETS antenatally were 1.5-4 times more likely to be born with LBW, but few studies examined LBW. Most studies looked at measures of IUGR. ETS was associated with reductions in birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) ranging from 25 to 90 g. Infants born to women exposed to ETS were generally 2-4 times more likely to be born small-for-gestational age. ETS exposure in the workplace can and should be minimized to protect pregnant women from its adverse effects. PMID:10592147

  15. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yuki; Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  16. Influence of birth weight and gender on lipid status and adipose tissue gene expression in lambs.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P; Adam, Clare L

    2014-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for obesity, particularly when offspring are born into an unrestricted nutritional environment. In this study, we investigated the impact of IUGR and gender on circulating lipids and on expression of adipogenic, lipogenic and adipokine genes in perirenal adipose tissue. Singleton lambs born to overnourished adolescent dams were normal birth weight (N) or IUGR (32% lower birth weight due to placental insufficiency). IUGR lambs exhibited increased fractional growth rates but remained smaller than N lambs at necropsy (d77). At 48 days, fasting plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol were elevated predominantly in IUGR males. Body fat content was independent of prenatal growth but higher in females than in males. In perirenal fat, relative to male lambs, females had larger adipocytes; higher lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase and leptin and lower IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA expression levels, and all were independent of prenatal growth category; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA expression were not affected by IUGR or gender. Adiposity indices were inversely related to G3PDH mRNA expression, and for the population as a whole the expression of IGF system genes in perirenal fat was negatively correlated with plasma leptin, fat mass and adipocyte size, and positively correlated with circulating IGF1 levels. Higher plasma lipid levels in IUGR males may predict later adverse metabolic health and obesity, but in early postnatal life gender has the dominant influence on adipose tissue gene expression, reflecting the already established sexual dimorphism in body composition. PMID:24928206

  17. Incidence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in extreme low birth weight Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Yau, Gordon S K; Lee, Jacky W Y; Tam, Victor T Y; Liu, Catherine C L; Chu, Benjamin C Y; Yuen, Can Y F

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) Chinese infants. A retrospective medical record review of all ELBW (≤1,000 g) neonates screened for ROP from 2007 to 2012 was performed in Hong Kong. ROP screening was conducted at 2 neonatal intensive care units by 3 pediatric ophthalmologists using the Royal College of Ophthalmologists ROP guideline and the International Classification of ROP. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. In 131 ELBW Chinese infants, the mean gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) were 27.3 ± 3.3 weeks and 806.9 ± 133.7 g, respectively. The incidence of ROP and Type 1 ROP was 53.4 and 14.5 %, respectively. For ROP, a lighter BW, smaller GA, vaginal delivery, postnatal hypotension, inotrope use, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, surfactant use, invasive mechanical ventilation, and supplementary oxygen were independent risk factors for ROP, while PET was protective (P ≤ 0.02). On multivariate analysis, a smaller GA was a risk factor, while PET and congenital heart disease were protective for ROP development (P ≤ 0.01). For Type 1 ROP, a lighter BW, smaller GA, surfactant use, and invasive mechanical ventilation were independent risk factors for ROP, while PET was protective (P ≤ 0.02). There were no significant covariates on multivariate analysis for Type 1 ROP. In ELBW, preterm Chinese infants, a smaller GA was a risk factor for ROP, while PET and congenital heart disease were protective for ROP development in multivariate analysis. PMID:24898774

  18. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in low birth weight singleton pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Buckland, C M; Thom, H; Campbell, A G

    1984-01-01

    Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) measurement between 16 and 21 weeks gestation is used to define a group of women with an increased risk of fetal abnormality, particularly open neural tube defect. The test is strongly gestation dependent and women with high MSAFP levels require sonar scan examination to define gestation, exclude twins and examine the fetus for obvious malformation or death. It has been reported that women with no primary cause for raised MSAFP have an increased incidence of low birth weight babies. Conflicting reports have separately ascribed these to premature delivery and to intra-uterine growth retardation. We have studied the relationship between MSAFP and low birth weight infants with respect to both prematurity and retarded fetal growth. MSAFP values were expressed as multiples of the appropriate weekly median (MOM) values relating to normal pregnancies with normal outcomes at term. For our normal population an MSAFP value of 2 MOM is the 95% centile, i.e. 5% of normal outcome pregnancies of sure gestation will have MSAFP values in the second trimester which are at or above 2 MOM. Information was available on 389 women whose infants were liveborn singletons weighing 2.5 kg or less. 33 (8.5%) of these women had MSAFP greater than 2 MOM (p less than 0.005) and of the 145 women whose babies weighed less than 2 kg, 17 (11.7%) had MSAFP at this level (p less than 0.001) Tab. I).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6209381

  19. Morbidity status of low birth weight babies in rural areas of Assam: A prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Madhur; Baruah, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) infants suffer more episodes of common childhood diseases and the spells of illness are more prolonged and serious. Longitudinal studies are useful to observe the health and disease pattern of LBW babies over time. Aims: This study was carried out in rural areas of Assam to assess the morbidity pattern of LBW babies during their first 6 months of life and to compare them with normal birth weight (NBW) counterparts. Materials and Methods: Total 30 LBW babies (0-2 months) and equal numbers of NBW babies from three subcenters under Boko Primary Health Centre of Assam were followed up in monthly intervals till 6 months of age in a prospective fashion. Results: More than two thirds of LBW babies (77%) were suffering from moderate or severe under-nutrition during the follow up. Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) was the predominant morbidity suffered by LBW infants. The other illnesses suffered by the LBW infants during the follow up were diarrhea, skin disorders, fever and ear disorders. LBW infants had more episodes of hospitalization (65%) than the NBW infants (35%). Incidence rate of episodes of morbidity was found to be higher among those LBW infants who remained underweight at 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 49.3 per 100 infant months) and those who were not exclusively breast fed till 6 months of age (Incidence rate of 66.7 per 100 infant months). Conclusion: The study revealed that during the follow up, incidence of morbidities were higher among the LBW babies compared to NBW babies. It was also observed that ARI was the predominant morbidity in the LBW infants during first 6 months of age. PMID:26288777

  20. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  1. Genetic modification of the effect of maternal household air pollution exposure on birth weight in Guatemalan newborns

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lisa M.; Yousefi, Paul; Penaloza, Renee; Balmes, John; Holland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether null polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), specifically GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in infants or mothers, modifies the association between high exposures to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking fires and birth weight. Pregnant women in rural Guatemala were randomized to receive a chimney stove or continue to use open fires for cooking. Newborns were measured within 48 hours of birth. 132 mother-infant pairs provided infant genotypes (n=130) and/or maternal genotypes (n=116). Maternal null GSTM1 was associated with a 144 gram (95% CI: -291, 1) and combined maternal/infant null GSTT1 was associated with a 155 gram (95% CI -303, -8) decrease in birth weight. Although there was a trend toward higher birth weights with increasing number of expressed GST genes, the effect modification by chimney stove use was not demonstrated. PMID:25305053

  2. Genetic modification of the effect of maternal household air pollution exposure on birth weight in Guatemalan newborns.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa M; Yousefi, Paul; Peñaloza, Reneé; Balmes, John; Holland, Nina

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether null polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), specifically GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in infants or mothers, modify the association between high exposures to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking fires and birth weight. Pregnant women in rural Guatemala were randomized to receive a chimney stove or continue to use open fires for cooking. Newborns were measured within 48 h of birth. 132 mother-infant pairs provided infant genotypes (n=130) and/or maternal genotypes (n=116). Maternal null GSTM1 was associated with a 144 g (95% CI, -291, 1) and combined maternal/infant null GSTT1 was associated with a 155 g (95% CI, -303, -8) decrease in birth weight. Although there was a trend toward higher birth weights with increasing number of expressed GST genes, the effect modification by chimney stove use was not demonstrated. PMID:25305053

  3. Changes in Survival Rate for Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea: Comparison with Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae Won; Jin, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) was established in order to enhance treatment outcomes further through the registration of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) data. The present study was conducted on 2,606 VLBWI, 2,386 registered and 220 un-registered, in the KNN participating centers, with the objective of reporting on recent survival rates of VLBWI in Korea and verifying the changing trends in survival rates with data from the 1960s and beyond. The study also aimed to compare the premature infants' survival rate in Korea with those reported in neonatal networks of other countries. The recent survival rate of VLBWI increased more than twice from 35.6% in the 1960s to 84.8%, and the survival rate of the extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) increased by more than 10 times, indicating improvement of the survival rate in premature infants with lower birth weight and gestational age. Comparison of VLBWI between countries showed improved survival rates according to each birth weight group in Canada, Australia-New Zealand, and European countries with Japan at the head, but in terms of comparison based on gestational age, differences, except for Japan, have been reduced. Efforts to increase the survival rate of premature infants in Korea with low birth rate are inevitable, and they should be the foundation of academic and clinical development based on its network with advanced countries. PMID:26566354

  4. Human milk feeding supports adequate growth in infants ≤ 1250 grams birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite current nutritional strategies, premature infants remain at high risk for extrauterine growth restriction. The use of an exclusive human milk-based diet is associated with decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but concerns exist about infants achieving adequate growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth velocities and incidence of extrauterine growth restriction in infants ≤ 1250 grams (g) birth weight (BW) receiving an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification using a donor human milk derived fortifier. Methods In a single center, prospective observational cohort study, preterm infants weighing ≤ 1250 g BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet until 34 weeks postmenstrual age. Human milk fortification with donor human milk derived fortifier was started at 60 mL/kg/d and advanced to provide 6 to 8 additional kilocalories per ounce (or 0.21 to 0.28 kilocalories per gram). Data for growth were compared to historical growth standards and previous human milk-fed cohorts. Results We consecutively evaluated 104 infants with mean gestational age of 27.6 ± 2.0 weeks and BW of 913 ± 181 g (mean ± standard deviation). Weight gain was 24.8 ± 5.4 g/kg/day with length 0.99 ± 0.23 cm/week and head circumference 0.72 ± 0.14 cm/week. There were 3 medical NEC cases and 1 surgical NEC case. 22 infants (21%) were small for gestational age at birth. Overall, 45 infants (43%) had extrauterine growth restriction. Weight velocity was affected by day of fortification (p = 0.005) and day of full feeds (p = 0.02). Our cohort had significantly greater growth in weight and length compared to previous entirely human milk-fed cohorts. Conclusions A feeding protocol for infants ≤ 1250 g BW providing an exclusive human milk-based diet with early and rapid advancement of fortification leads to growth meeting targeted standards with a low rate of extrauterine growth restriction. Consistent

  5. Association between GIS-Based Exposure to Urban Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Birth Weight in the INMA Sabadell Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Corbella, Teresa; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Foradada, Carles M.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution reduces birth weight. Improving exposure assessment is a key issue to advance in this research area. Objective We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution via geographic information system (GIS) models on birth weight in 570 newborns from the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Sabadell cohort. Methods We estimated pregnancy and trimester-specific exposures to nitrogen dioxide and aromatic hydrocarbons [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX)] by using temporally adjusted land-use regression (LUR) models. We built models for NO2 and BTEX using four and three 1-week measurement campaigns, respectively, at 57 locations. We assessed the relationship between prenatal air pollution exposure and birth weight with linear regression models. We performed sensitivity analyses considering time spent at home and time spent in nonresidential outdoor environments during pregnancy. Results In the overall cohort, neither NO2 nor BTEX exposure was significantly associated with birth weight in any of the exposure periods. When considering only women who spent < 2 hr/day in nonresidential outdoor environments, the estimated reductions in birth weight associated with an interquartile range increase in BTEX exposure levels were 77 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 7–146 g] and 102 g (95% CI, 28–176 g) for exposures during the whole pregnancy and the second trimester, respectively. The effects of NO2 exposure were less clear in this subset. Conclusions The association of BTEX with reduced birth weight underscores the negative role of vehicle exhaust pollutants in reproductive health. Time–activity patterns during pregnancy complement GIS-based models in exposure assessment. PMID:19672415

  6. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  7. Physical Activity Volumes during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies Assessing the Association with Infant's Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Michèle; Lavoie-Guénette, Joëlle; Tremblay, Angelo; Marc, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the association between different maternal physical activity exposures during pregnancy and infant's birth weight, body composition, and risk of inadequate weight. Methods Two reviewers (M.B. and J.L.G.) identified observational studies reporting total or leisure time activity during pregnancy and birth weight outcomes. Pooled analyses were performed to summarize the risk associated with high or moderate volumes of physical activity on birth weight. Results A total of 54 studies among 4,080 reported the association between physical activity and birth weight (37 studies) or risks of small or large birth weight. The association between physical activity and birth weight was evaluated by physical activity levels (low, moderate, or high). Despite heterogeneity, pooled results (23 studies) suggested that moderate levels of activity are associated with an increased birth weight (mean difference: 61.5 g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6, 106.5, 15 studies), while high levels were associated with lower birth weight (mean difference: −69.9 g, 95% CI: −114.8, −25.0, 15 studies). Data were insufficient to provide robust estimates for other outcomes. Conclusions The results of observational studies suggest an inverted u-shaped association between physical activity and birth weight, despite methodological variability. These results could help refining physical activity guidelines for pregnancy and provide guidance for future research. PMID:27127718

  8. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Liu, Yong; Lai, Ya-Ping; Gu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM. Methods: A total of 147 women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical data were collected. Results: The independent samples t-test showed that BPD, HC, and AC were larger in GDM than in NC (P < 0.05). Fetal hemodynamic indices of the UA and MCA were lower (P < 0.05), but those of the RA were higher (P < 0.001) in GDM than in NC. Birth weight was higher in GDM than in NC (P < 0.001). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that hemodynamic indices of the UA were negatively correlated with birth weight, BPD, HC, and AC in both groups (P < 0.05). MCA (S/D, PI, and RI) was negatively correlated with birth weight, HC, and AC in GDM (r = −0.164, −0.206, −0.200, −0.226, −0.189, −0.179, −0.196, −0.177, and − 0.172, respectively, P < 0.05), but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05). RA (S/D, PI, and RI) was positively correlated with birth weight in GDM (r = 0.168, 0.207, and 0.184, respectively, P < 0.05), but there were no correlations in NC (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Fetal hemodynamic indices in late pregnancy might be helpful for estimating newborn birth weight in women with GDM. PMID:27569240

  9. Sex effects on breed of sire differences for birth, weaning, and yearling weights.

    PubMed

    Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V

    1998-06-01

    Weights of males and females can be considered to be correlated traits with different averages and variances. This study attempted to determine whether defining traits as expressed in males or in females would change estimates of breed of sire differences needed to calculate across-breed factors for adjustment of within-breed EPD to across-breed EPD. Records from the US Meat Animal Research Center of progeny of Hereford, Angus, and MARC III composite dams mated to 12 sire breeds that had been used to calculate breed of sire adjustments in 1996 were used. Breeds of sire were Hereford, Angus, Shorthorn, Brahman, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Maine-Anjou, Gelbvieh, Pinzgauer, Tarentaise, and Salers. Female and male records for birth (BWT), weaning (WWT), and yearling (YWT) weights were considered to be separate although correlated traits. Heritability estimates for expression as females and males were as follows: .44 and .47 for BWT, .25 and .19 for WWT, and .55 and .49 for YWT. Corresponding genetic correlations between expression in males and females were .85, 1.00, and .92. Phenotypic standard deviations were slightly larger and coefficients of variation slightly smaller for males than for females; the largest differences were for YWT. Breeds ranked similarly for female and male weights; the major exception was Brahman for BWT. Averages of breed of sire contrasts for expression in females and males were almost identical to contrasts from analyses of combined male and female records. Largest differences between averaged and combined breed of sire contrasts were approximately 1 kg for BWT and WWT and approximately 2 kg for YWT. The results show that considering male and female weights as separate traits is not needed in calculation of across-breed adjustment factors from US Meat Animal Research Center records. PMID:9655571

  10. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6th 2008. Results Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6–9 months after the collapse. Conclusion The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  11. Association of Maternal Working Condition with Low Birth Weight: The Social Determinants of Health Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Z; Karimlou, M; Sajjadi, H; Dejman, M; Vameghi, M; Dolatian, M; Mahmoodi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The socioeconomic conditions have made more job opportunities available to women. This has created interest to conduct studies on the effect of working lifestyle on pregnancy outcomes. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim to assess the relationship between mothers' working status as a social determinant and the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) of the newborn. Subjects and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 500 women with normal weight infants (control group) and 250 women with LBW infants (case group) in selected hospitals in Tehran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, designed to assess the effect of mothers' prenatal lifestyle, as a social determinant, on LBW of the newborn. A section of the questionnaire involved assessment of mother's working condition in terms of the work environment, activities, and job satisfaction. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and logistic regression tests. Results: LBW among employed mothers was 5 times more likely than unemployed ones (odds ratio = 5.35, P < 0.001). Unfavorable work conditions such as humid environment, contact with detergents, and being in one standing or sitting position for long hours were significantly associated with LBW (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study showed that unfavorable work conditions were associated with LBW; therefore, they need special attention. PMID:27057375

  12. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants. PMID:22415299

  13. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Takashige Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  14. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  15. Distributions of Heavy Metals in Maternal and Cord Blood and the Association with Infant Birth Weight in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaobin; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cheng, Yibin; Holford, Theodore; Lin, Shaobin; Leaderer, Brian; Qiu, Jie; Bassig, Bryan A.; Shi, Kunchong; Zhang, Yawei; Niu, Jianjun; Zhu, Yong; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Huan; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Jianqing; Xu, Shunqing; Jin, Yinlong

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure serum levels of heavy metals in Chinese pregnant women and their newborns, and to evaluate the association of these metals with infant birth weight STUDY DESIGN We measured serum concentrations of lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), nickle (Ni), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in 81 mother-infant pairs using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of these heavy metals with infant birth weight. RESULTS Se, Pb, As, and Cd showed the highest detection rates (98.8%) in both the maternal and cord blood, followed by Tl, which was detected in 79.0% and 71.6% of the maternal and cord blood samples, respectively. Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected, with concentrations of 23.1 ng/g and 22.0 ng/g, respectively. No significant associations were observed between any heavy metals and birth weight. However, Tl in the maternal and cord blood was most notably inversely associated with birth weight. CONCLUSION Se intake was low in Chinese women and their newborns, whereas Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected. Tl was a unique pollution source in this population, and Tl levels were shown to have the largest effect on decreasing infant birth weight in this pilot study. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals—especially Tl and Pb—on birth outcomes in Chinese infants. PMID:25745747

  16. Negotiating options in weight-loss surgery : "Actually I didn't have any other option".

    PubMed

    Groven, Karen Synne; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2016-09-01

    In this study we explore how a selection of Norwegian women account for their decision to undergo weight loss surgery (WLS). We argue that women's descriptions of their experiences leading up to this choice of action illuminate issues regarding social norms of bodily appearance and personal responsibility. The starting point is women's own experiences within a cultural context in which opting for WLS often attracts moral scrutiny. Inspired by Merleau-Ponty's notion of consciousness as embodied and de Beauvoir's ideas concerning women's situation, we argue that bodily as well as socio-cultural aspects intertwine with women's choice of surgery as a means of losing weight. Although society's stigmatization of women with obesity has been well challenged by scholars in the field of critical fat studies, women with obesity still experience the bodily hindrances associated with being overweight in an intense and subjective way. The findings suggest that women confronting the option of WLS do so in a context of pain, dysfunction and social stigma, a combination which illuminates the intricate ambiguity of the obese body as both subject (of agency) and object (of moral and medical scrutiny). PMID:26715285

  17. Differences in pup birth weight, pup variability within litters, and dam weight of mice selected for alternative criteria to increase litter size.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, M A; Nielsen, M K; Ribeiro, E L

    1995-07-01

    Selection for litter size had been practiced for 21 generations and relaxed selection for 13 generations in mice. Three replicates were used with four selection criteria: index of components (ovulation rate and ova success), uterine capacity, litter size, and an unselected control. Especially with selection for litter size and the index relative to the control, number of pups born had increased, and differences also occurred in mating weight. Dams of the three replicates and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of accumulated selection on pup birth weight, variability in weight of littermates, and dam's weight at mating and after littering. Total number born, number born alive, number of males, and number of females were also recorded and studied. Mean pup birth weight did not differ among the criteria; however, variability among littermates in pup weight tended to differ among criteria of selection. Regressions for pup weight and within-litter standard deviation of pup weight on number born were small and negative but significant (P < .001). The distribution of pup weight within litter was normal for 77.2% of the litters, with no differences among the criteria. The difference between weight of male and weight of female pups was significant (P < .001); overall males were 2.5% heavier than females. There was a difference (P < .02) among criteria in mating weight and littering weight; however, the maternal weight gain between mating and littering was not different among criteria. Number born differed (P < .003) among the criteria, but there was no significant difference among criteria in numbers of males and females.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592078

  18. Risk factors of mild rectal bleeding in very low birth weight infants: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mild rectal bleeding (MRB) is a particular clinical entity different from necrotizing enterocolitis, which significantly influences neonatal care in preterm infants. We aimed to determine the risk factors and to evaluate prospectively the clinical course of MRB. Methods We consecutively included in a case–control study all infants with birth weight ≤ 1500 g or gestational age ≤ 32 weeks admitted to our unit, and presenting MRB, defined as either isolated or associated with mild clinical or radiological signs. We matched each Case with two Controls. Clinical data before, after and at time of MRB were collected, together with stool cultures at time of MRB (or at similar postnatal age in Controls). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for the development of MRB. Results During 4 years, among 823 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants admitted to our unit, 72 (8.8%) had MRB. The median duration of rectal bleeding was 1.1 [1–2] days and the fasting period lasted 2.9 [2–10] days. A relapse occurred in 24% of cases. In multivariate analysis, only hypertension during pregnancy (p = 0.019), growth restriction at onset of bleeding (p = 0.026), and exposure to ibuprofen (p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for MRB. In Cases there were more infants with Clostridium Difficile in stools than in Controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion Hypertension during pregnancy, even without intrauterine growth restriction, appeared to carry the same risk for MRB as exposure to ibuprofen and extrauterine growth restriction. PMID:24283213

  19. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Vital Physiological Parameters of The Low Birth Weight Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Alpanamayi; Ghosh, Jagabandhu; Singh, Arun Kumarendu; Hazra, Avijit; Som, Tapas; Munian, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch) on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min), heart rate (HR/ min), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Results: Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO2) were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Conclusions: Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy. PMID:25364150

  20. Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah-Young; Lim, Ryoung-Kyoung; Han, Young-Mi; Park, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is one of the most common complications in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs). The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors of PNAC in VBLWIs. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 322 VLBWIs admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital from July 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. We excluded 72 dead infants; 6 infants were transferred to another hospital, and 57 infants were transferred to our hospital at 2 weeks after birth. The infants were divided into the cholestasis and the non-cholestasis groups. PNAC was defined as a direct bilirubin level of ≥2.0 mg/dL in infants administered with PN for ≥2 weeks. Results A total of 187 VLBWI were enrolled in this study; of these, 46 infants developed PNAC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of PNAC in VLBWI were longer duration of antimicrobial use (odds ratio [OR] 4.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.42-4.58), longer duration of PN (OR 2.68, 95% CI 2.41-3.00), long-term lack of enteral nutrition (OR 2.89, 95% CI 2.43-3.37), occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.16-2.83), and gastrointestinal operation (OR 2.19, 95% CI 2.03-2.58). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that shorter PN, aggressive enteral nutrition, and appropriate antimicrobial use are important strategies in preventing PNAC. PMID:27066450

  1. Prophylactic Indomethacin and Intestinal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, John; Salas, Ariel A.; Bhat, Ramachandra; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Saha, Shampa; Stoll, Barbara J.; Bell, Edward F.; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Shankaran, Seetha; VanMeurs, Krisa P.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Ball, M. Bethany; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prophylactic indomethacin reduces severe intraventricular hemorrhage but may increase spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Early feedings improve nutritional outcomes but may increase the risk of SIP. Despite their benefits, use of these therapies varies largely by physician preferences in part because of the concern for SIP. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 15 751 ELBW infants in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network from 1999 to 2010 who survived beyond 12 hours after birth. The risk of SIP was compared between groups of infants with and without exposure to prophylactic indomethacin and early feeding in unadjusted analyses and in analyses adjusted for center and for risks of SIP. RESULTS: Among infants exposed to prophylactic indomethacin, the risk of SIP did not differ between the indomethacin/early-feeding group compared with the indomethacin/no-early-feeding group (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–1.11). The risk of SIP was lower in the indomethacin/early-feeding group compared with the no indomethacin/no-early-feeding group (adjusted RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.90, P = .0159). Among infants not exposed to indomethacin, early feeding was associated with a lower risk of SIP compared with the no early feeding group (adjusted RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36–0.777, P = .0011). CONCLUSIONS: The combined or individual use of prophylactic indomethacin and early feeding was not associated with an increased risk of SIP in ELBW infants. PMID:25349317

  2. Trends in low birth weight: a comparison of two birth cohorts separated by a 15-year interval in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A. A.; Barbieri, M. A.; Gomes, U. A.; Bettiol, H.

    1998-01-01

    The incidence and some determinants of low birth weight (LBW) were studied in two population-based cohorts of singletons born live to families in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The first cohort comprised infants born between June 1978 and May 1979 (6750 births--population survey) and the second, infants born between May and August 1994 (2990 births--sample survey). The incidence of LBW was 7.2% in 1978-79 and 10.6% in 1994. After adjustment for confounding factors, the following determinants remained significant in 1978-79: female sex, maternal age > or = 35 years, preterm delivery, < four antenatal health visits, maternal smoking, lower level of maternal education, and manual work/unemployment. In 1994, the significant determinants were preterm delivery, maternal smoking and caesarean section. The adjusted percentage population attributable risk (PAR%) fell for the majority of risk factors but increased for caesarean section, preterm birth, multiparity (> or = 5), primiparity and non-cohabitation. The increase in the rate of LBW from 1978-79 to 1994 was higher for families with more qualified occupations, and occurred only for infants delivered at 36-40 weeks' gestational age and weighing 1500-2499 g, i.e. those most likely to be born by elective caesarean section. The caesarean section rate rose from 30.3% in 1978-79 to 51.1% in 1994. The increase in LBW was probably due to iatrogenic practices associated with elective caesarean section. PMID:9615499

  3. [Fat-emulsions and acid-base balance in neonates of low weight at birth (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Melichar, V; Wolf, H; Jirsová, V; Vondrácek, J

    1975-09-01

    The influence of a single intravenous infusion of triglycerides (1 g triglyceride per kg body weight) on the acid base equilibrium was investigated in 16 newborn infants with low birth weight during the first days of age. No changes of pH, PCO2 and standard bicarbonate, base excess, buffer base and actuelle bicarbonate, respectively, were observed. Fat emulsions can be used, therefore, without hazards in the parenteral feeding of newborn infants. PMID:240960

  4. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF CYSTEINE SYNTHESIS IN VERY LOW-BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES USING A [13C6] GLUCOSE TRACER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cysteine is an amino acid necessary for the synthesis of all proteins, the antioxidant glutathione, and the neuromodulator taurine. Whether cysteine is an essential amino acid for premature neonates remains controversial. Using a [13C6]glucose precursor in very-low-birth weight (VLBW) premature neon...

  6. Interrelations between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Sociodemographic Factors in the Prediction of Early Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijbregts, S. C. J.; Seguin, J. R.; Zelazo, P. D.; Parent, S.; Japel, C.; Tremblay, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale…

  7. Nasal CPAP in the delivery room for newborns with extremely low birth weight in a hospital in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-Ferri, W.A.; Martinez, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the use of continuous positive airway pressure installed prophylactically in the delivery room (DR-CPAP), for infants with a birth weight between 500 and 1000 g in settings with limited resources. During 23 months, infants with a birth weight between 500 and 1000 g consecutively received DR-CPAP. A total of 33 infants with low birth weight were enrolled, 16 (48.5%) were females. Only 14 (42.4%) received antenatal corticosteroids and only 2 of those 14 (14.3%) infants weighing 500-750 g were not intubated in the delivery room, and apnea was given as the reason for intubation of these patients. Of the 19 infants in the 751-1000 g weight range, 9 (47.4%) were intubated in the delivery room, 6 due to apnea and 3 due to respiratory discomfort. For DR-CPAP to be successful, it is probably necessary for preterm babies to be more prepared at birth to withstand the respiratory effort without the need for intubation. Antenatal corticosteroids and better prenatal monitoring are fundamental for success of DR-CPAP. PMID:24141616

  8. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multi-breed population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was...

  9. ESTIMATING THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL POVERTY-ADJUSTED EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ON TERM BIRTH WEIGHT USING CONDITIONAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported maternal education is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes. Like income, it is believed to allow women to locate in more favorable conditions than less educated or affluent peers. We examine the effect of reported educational attainment on term birth weight (birt...

  10. Effectiveness of Early Intervention for Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine: Moderating Effects of Low Birth Weight on Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sheinberg, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of low birth weight on the effectiveness of an early intervention program to improve cognitive, language and behavioral outcomes for children prenatally exposed to cocaine. Participants included 293 primarily minority, low SES children who were enrolled in the intervention during their first year and…

  11. The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

  12. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  13. Frontal Electroencephalogram Asymmetry, Salivary Cortisol, and Internalizing Behavior Problems in Young Adults Who Were Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Louis A.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Boyle, Michael; Saigal, Saroj

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined internalizing behavior problems at middle childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood and brain-based measures of stress vulnerability in 154 right-handed, nonimpaired young adults (M age = 23 years): 71 (30 males, 41 females) born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; less than 1,000 g) and 83 (35 males, 48 females) controls…

  14. Effects of Maternal Sensitivity on Low Birth Weight Children's Academic Achievement: A Test of Differential Susceptibility versus Diathesis Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Julia; Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) postulates that some children are more affected--for better and for worse--by developmental experiences, including parenting, than others. Low birth weight (LBW, 1,500-2,499 g) may not only be a predictor for neurodevelopmental impairment but also a marker for prenatally programmed…

  15. Neonatal Network: A Model for Interagency Service Coordination for Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl J.

    1986-01-01

    The Neonatal Network, a model program in Dallas for interagency service coordination for primarily indigent, minority, very-low-birth-weight infants and their families is described. The Neonatal Network has been an effective service delivery coordination system and training mechanism that should be applicable and easily replicable in other…

  16. Maternal Glucose and Fatty Acid Kinetics and Infant Birth Weight in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cade, W Todd; Tinius, Rachel A; Reeds, Dominic N; Patterson, Bruce W; Cahill, Alison G

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe maternal glucose and lipid kinetics and 2) to examine the relationships with infant birth weight in obese women with pregestational type 2 diabetes during late pregnancy. Using stable isotope tracer methodology and mass spectrometry, maternal glucose and lipid kinetic rates during the basal condition were compared in three groups: lean women without diabetes (Lean, n = 25), obese women without diabetes (OB, n = 26), and obese women with pregestational type 2 diabetes (OB+DM, n = 28; total n = 79). Glucose and lipid kinetics during hyperinsulinemia were also measured in a subset of participants (n = 56). Relationships between maternal glucose and lipid kinetics during both conditions and infant birth weight were examined. Maternal endogenous glucose production (EGP) rate was higher in OB+DM than OB and Lean during hyperinsulinemia. Maternal insulin value at 50% palmitate Ra suppression (IC50) for palmitate suppression with insulinemia was higher in OB+DM than OB and Lean. Maternal EGP per unit insulin and plasma free fatty acid concentration during hyperinsulinemia most strongly predicted infant birth weight. Our findings suggest maternal fatty acid and glucose kinetics are altered during late pregnancy and might suggest a mechanism for higher birth weight in obese women with pregestational diabetes. PMID:26861786

  17. Association of maternal sleep practices with pre-eclampsia, low birth weight, and stillbirth among Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Anderson, Frank J.; Coleman, Jerry; Oppong, Samuel; Seffah, Joseph D.; Aikins, Alfred; O’Brien, Louise M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess sleep practices, and investigate their relationship with maternal and fetal outcomes, among pregnant Ghanaian women. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, between June and July 2011, postpartum women were interviewed within 48 hours of delivery about sleep quality and practices during pregnancy. Interviews were coupled with a systematic review of participants’ medical charts for key outcomes including maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight, and stillbirth. Results Most women reported poor sleep quality during pregnancy. Snoring during pregnancy was independently associated with pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–8.5; P=0.007). The newborns of women who reported supine sleep during pregnancy were at increased risk of low birth weight (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.2–20.2; P=0.025) and stillbirth (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5–43.2; P=0.016). Low birth weight was found to mediate the relationship between supine sleep and stillbirth. Conclusion The present findings in an African population demonstrate that maternal sleep, a modifiable risk factor, has a significant role in pre-eclampsia, low birth weight, and subsequently stillbirth. PMID:23507553

  18. Development and Predictive Value of Early Vocalizations in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze early vocalization development, the predictive value of this development in terms of later language skills, and possible gender difference in early vocalization development in a selected cohort of 32 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children and 35 full-term controls. The data on early vocalization…

  19. Born Too Soon: What Can We Expect? Nature of Home Literacy Experiences for Children with Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragusa, G.

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the home literacy experiences of children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). The study's design was modelled after Purcell-Gates' study of social domains mediated by print as home literacy experiences. A design combining purposeful sampling, semi-structured data collection and descriptive case study analysis was employed…

  20. Birth Weight, Apgar Scores, Labor and Delivery Complications and Prenatal Characteristics of Southeast Asian Adolescents and Older Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined 337 adolescents and 876 older mothers who delivered live-born, single infants between 1980-1982. Absence of alcohol and tobacco consumption among Southeast Asian subjects may have contributed to generally favorable Apgar scores, length of gestation, and birth weights. High frequencies of alcohol and tobacco consumption among White…

  1. COMT Val[superscript 108/158] Met Gene Variant, Birth Weight, and Conduct Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Grizenko, Natalie; Schmitz, Norbert; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Bellingham, Johanne; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Polotskaia, Anna; Stepanian, Marina Ter; Thakur, Geeta; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In a recent study, Thapar and colleagues reported that COMT "gene variant and birth weight predict early-onset antisocial behavior in children" with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have attempted to replicate these findings in a group of ADHD children using a similar research design. Method: Children (n = 191) between 6 and…

  2. Hyperglycemia is a risk factor for early death and morbidity in extremely low-birth weight infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of hyperglycemia in extremely low birth-weight infants and to determine whether hyperglycemia increases the risk of early adverse outcomes (death or intraventricular hemorrhage of grade 3 or 4) and/or affects the length of hos...

  3. Nutritional management of very low birth weight infants: effects of different feeding regimens on calcium absorption and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate nutrition is a key aspect of care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, it is difficult to provide adequate nutrition to VLBW infants who require fluid restriction and increased caloric density feedings due to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The effects of these nutritional c...

  4. Motor, Sleep/Wake and Physiological Organization in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Given Developmental Care. Conference Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patricia T.; And Others

    This study examined the effect of a modification of nursing care on stressors associated with care procedures for low birth weight infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); and on infants' physiological, motor, and behavioral development. The nursing staff of an NICU received training to reduce environmental and procedural stress, support…

  5. A Case–Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. Objectives This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. Methods This case–control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012–2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers < 28 years old and for mothers with lower household income; however, there was no statistical evidence of heterogeneity in risk according to maternal age (p for heterogeneity = 0.18) or household income (p for heterogeneity = 0.28). Conclusion To our knowledge, ours is the first case–control study to investigate the association between prenatal Tl exposure and LBW. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to high levels of Tl may be associated with an increased risk of LBW. Citation Xia W, Du X, Zheng T, Zhang B, Li Y, Bassig BA, Zhou A, Wang Y, Xiong C, Li Z, Yao Y, Hu J, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xue W, Ma Y, Pan X, Peng Y, Xu S. 2016. A case–control study of prenatal thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164–169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202 PMID:26009470

  6. Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight of Children Among Employed Mothers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria

    2015-09-01

    Evidence shows that Pakistan has an increasing rate of children with low birth weight (LBW). Employed mothers in paid work (EMPW) in the country have predominantly been disadvantaged in terms of access to education and low-income employment; with negative consequences on maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics of EMPW and identify the association between maternal employment and child birth weight in Pakistan. Secondary data from the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) conducted for the year 2006-2007 was used. PDHS is a nationally representative household survey. Relevant data needed from the PDHS data file were coded and filtered. The sample size of EMPW with at least one child born in the last 5 years was 2,515. Data was analyzed by using SPSS. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to see the association between EMPW characteristics and LBW. Findings confirm that the majority of EMPW in Pakistan are illiterate, poor, employed in unskilled work, and belonging to rural regions. Multivariate regression analysis revealed statistical association between EMPW and LBW among mothers who did not receive prenatal care from unskilled healthcare provider (AOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.30), had lack of access to information such as radio (AOR 1.88; 95% CI 1.28-2.77), during pregnancy did not receive calcium (AOR 1.19; 95% CI 1.05-1.34), and iron (AOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.05-1.69), had experienced headaches during pregnancy (AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12-1.76), and were not paid in cash for their work (AOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.04-1.90). EMPW in Pakistan, especially in low-income jobs and rural regions, need urgent support for healthcare awareness, free supplementation of micronutrients and frequent consultation with trained practitioner during the prenatal period. Long-term mobilization of social structure and governance is needed to encourage maternal health awareness, hospital deliveries, and formal sector employment

  7. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother’s Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Shafiqur; Howlader, Tamanna; Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Rahman, Mohammad Lutfor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW) despite its high prevalence (36%). This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children. Methods Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (–2SD) from median of WHO’s reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR), which controls for potential confounders such as child’s age and sex, mother’s education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%). While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16–1.30), 1.71 (95% CI:1.53–1.92) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38–1.56) for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of

  8. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  9. Estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for birth weight of Brown Swiss calves in Turkey using an animal model.

    PubMed

    Sahin, A; Ulutas, Z; Yilmaz Adkinson, A; Adkinson, R W

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the influence of genetic and environmental factors on Brown Swiss calf birth weight, and to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values. Data were collected on 1,761 Brown Swiss calves born from 1990 to 2005 in the Konuklar State Farm in Turkey. Mean birth