Aliakbari, Mohammad; Heidarzad, Mohsen
This study aimed at analyzing Iranian EFL teachers' beliefs toward classroom management and the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their actual practices of classroom management in regard with individual variables such as gender, education degree, and teaching experience. The data were collected using a behavior and instructional…
Olorundare, Solomon A.
This paper was based on an investigation of how an officially prescribed science curriculum was interpreted and translated by teachers into actual classroom practice in Nigerian primary schools. Mismatches between official and hidden curricula were rampant and often beyond teachers' control. The teacher's role was "policy broker," not…
This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…
Although culturally relevant pedagogy is widely espoused and applied in educational research and practice, it is often not commonly understood as a conceptual framework that advocates the elements of academic success, cultural competence, and sociopolitical consciousness. This study was a grassroots attempt to work collaboratively with a group of…
The purpose of this study was to compare elementary classroom teachers' actual practice and perceived importance of English Language Arts professional development in five professional development dimensions: alignment, content and modeling, active learning, collaboration, and follow-up, in high and low mastery, low needs schools. The schools…
Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…
Ezzi, Nemah Abdullah Ayash
Beliefs of in-service English teachers about grammar learning/teaching and the influence of such beliefs on their classroom practices remain relatively unexplored. More precisely, this study explores English teachers' beliefs about grammar learning and teaching. It throws light on the teachers' actual practices in the classrooms of 7th -12th…
Existential principles--celebrating authenticity and fostering the courage to be--can be applied in the classroom by using teachable moments, varying questions (imaginative-divergent, evaluative, hypothetical), and providing students opportunities to make meaningful decisions and accept responsibility. (SK)
Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.
The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…
Burwell, Rebecca; Huyser, Mackenzi
This article explores pedagogical approaches to teaching students how to practice hospitality toward the other. Using case examples from the college classroom, the authors discuss the roots of Christian hospitality and educational theory on transformative learning to explore how students experience engaging with others after they have…
van Tartwijk, Jan; den Brok, Perry; Veldman, Ietje; Wubbels, Theo
Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in…
Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.
This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…
Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Wei-Lun; Miao, Nae-Fang; Wu, Yu-Ping; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern
Background: A good classroom environment can promote students' learning motivation and affect their academic efficacy and adaptation. This study compares the perceptions of Taiwanese middle school students regarding actual and preferred classroom environments and explores the association with sex and grade level. Methods: Data were collected using…
Allen, Kathleen P.
While bullying in schools has begun to receive attention, little is known about the relationship between classroom management and bullying in the classroom. The process for exploring this relationship will be a review of research and literature related to bullying in the school environment, classroom management, teacher practices, and student…
Tierney, Robin D.
The pedagogical potential of classroom assessment to support student learning has increasingly been evidenced in research over the past decade. Constructive classroom assessment has been championed by assessment specialists, and endorsed by professional organizations. In practice, however, the process of changing classroom assessment from its…
Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie
Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…
Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.
Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…
Recent classroom environment research has investigated the association between students' cognitive and affective learning outcomes and their perceptions of psychosocial characteristics of their classrooms. The findings of these studies suggest that student outcomes can be improved by creating environments that are conducive to learning. This study…
Farrell, Thomas S. C.
Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom…
Johnston, Peter; Goatley, Virginia
Identifying researchers whose work has influenced classroom practice, raises questions about the nature of research and its relationship with practice, and the means through which knowledge is distributed. We argue that normally, influence arises through lines of research more than individuals, that knowing-in-practice distribution systems should…
Pressure for students to produce writing perfection in the classroom often eclipses the emphasis placed on the need for students to practice writing. Occasions for students to choose, challenge, and reflect--to actually risk risking--are too often absent from conversations among students and teachers in countless English classrooms. Tom Romano…
Gill, Kent, Ed.; And Others
Based on successful classroom practice, the 31 essays in this book describe methods for teaching English and language arts while increasing students' self-esteem and respect for others, awareness of social issues, appreciation of literature, understanding of connections among disciplines, and involvement in their own learning. Essays in the book…
Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders
The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment…
Lankshear, Colin; Knobel, Michelle
The first edition of this popular book examined new literacies and new kinds of knowledge and classroom practices in the context of the massive growth of electronic information and communication technologies. This timely second edition discusses a fresh range of practices like blogging, fanfiction, mobile/wireless communications, and fan practices…
Cornesky, Robert A.
The mission of this book is to facilitate effective instructor-student partnerships through the study of total quality management (TQM) principles and to demonstrate to instructors how they can make a difference in their classrooms, institutions, and communities. It uses an educational approach that actively involves students in the learning…
Savova, Lilia, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series asks one fundamental question, "How can teachers teach the students, not the book?" The response, given within "Using Textbooks Effectively", is to move beyond the textbook as a separate entity and view it instead as part of the ESOL curriculum process and as a tool for student learning. The…
Griffin, Cynthia C.; League, Martha B.; Griffin, Valerie L.; Bae, Jungah
In this exploratory study, teachers' use of standards-based, discourse practices and their students' mathematics learning in inclusive elementary mathematics classrooms were examined. Two beginning teachers (one third-grade teacher, one fourth-grade teacher) and six students identified with disabilities or as low performing in mathematics…
Barone, Diane M.; Taylor, Joan M.
Whether it is standardized test data, student journals, or informal classroom question and answer, assessments provide invaluable, ongoing diagnostic information for making key instructional decisions. In this engaging and comprehensive resource, the authors demonstrate practical ways for embedding test preparation into teaching by integrating…
Mishna, Faye; Bogo, Marion
Social work literature provides analysis and strategies about teaching social work practice and its interrelationship with a diverse society. In this paper, we present a framework to aid instructors' understanding of and response to conflict in the classroom, which is unavoidable. We propose the "reflective practitioner paradigm" along with the…
Zell, Stacy K.
Examines a practical application of ecofeminism for classroom educators. Provides a basic understanding of ecofeminist theory as it applies to science education and examples from classroom practice. Contains 33 references. (DDR)
McMillan, James H.; Workman, Daryl J.
This review of literature is an analysis of completed research on the nature and effect of classroom assessment practices and grading. An examination of the literature in this field suggests that it is divided into these categories: (1) definitions of classroom assessment; (2) classroom assessment practices; (3) grading practices; and (4) the…
Chazan, Daniel; Herbst, Patricio
Background/Context: For decades, teacher educators and professional developers have been using video recordings of actual classroom practice to help teachers reflect on their teaching (e.g., van Es & Sherin, 2002, 2008) and to help preservice teachers come into contact with practice (Lampert & Ball, 1998). However, the use of video records of…
Al Darwish, Salwa
This qualitative study aims at detecting areas that requires to be developed in the EFL reading program in elementary stages in Kuwaiti public schools by using children's literature. It also examines the reading program in the public elementary curriculum. The participants were six English language major students from the College of Basic…
Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders
The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss
Little, Mary E.; King, Laura M.
Although research identifies a plethora of evidence-based instructional practices, classroom teachers find research difficult to access and often of little relevance to classroom practice; therefore, they do not implement these practices. Bridging the gap between research and practice requires continued and mediated support as teachers translate…
Scouller, Dianne L.
Recent research in two New Zealand Christian schools found that despite biblical vision and mission statements and declarations of pedagogy built on biblical foundations, actual classroom practice frequently differed little from that in secular schools. Teachers could clearly articulate their respective school's vision and goals but all except one…
Landin, Cecelia W
Evidence based practice (EBP) can be incorporated into the curriculum of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) Programs. Current components of curriculum can include EBP in pre-analytic, analytic, and post-analytic topics. Discussion of EBP topics in the classroom using practices assessed through the Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Initiative (LMBP) of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will give students a clear understanding of EBP and how it is used in the clinical laboratory for improved health care quality. Student involvement in Quality Improvement projects to improve laboratory performance and patient outcomes can be developed through capstone projects. Examples of clinical projects and application of EBP into the MLS curriculum are discussed.
Nelson, Olga G., Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.
The 38 essays in this book look back at language experience as an educational approach, provide practical classroom applications, and reconceptualize language experience as an overarching education process. Classroom teachers and reading specialists describe strategies in use in a variety of classroom settings and describe ways to integrate…
Gorham, Jennifer Jones
This qualitative study examines the enactment of culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010) within two African American elementary teachers' classrooms. Teacher interviews, classroom observations, and classroom documents were collected and analyzed to examine the supports and barriers these teachers encountered as they attempted to…
Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…
Rusk, Robert Brian
This qualitative case study explored how the classroom management practices of sampled teachers in a private school in central Oregon influenced classroom disruptions. Through the study, the researcher was able to provide insight on the differences in specific classroom management processes between teachers who had a high number of Positive…
Crandell, Carl C.; Smaldino, Joseph J.
This article reviews some relevant events in the development of acoustical standards for classrooms, describes classroom challenges to providing clear acoustical signals to children in classrooms, and outlines amplification solutions to some of those classroom challenges. Solutions include personal amplification devices and use of signal-to-noise…
Price-Dennis, Detra; Holmes, Kathlene A.; Smith, Emily
In this article instructional practices from a diverse inclusive 5th grade classroom are examined to better understand how students engaged in 21st century literacies. The authors focus on one classroom to provide insight into how a 21st century literacies perspective can support inclusive literacy practices that 1) create a community of learners,…
Tuchman, Ellen; Lalane, Monique
This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach the scope and consequences of evidence-based practices in mental health through an innovative assignment that integrates classroom and field learning. The authors illustrate the planning and implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice: Integrating Classroom Curriculum and Field…
Kasten, Susan, Ed.
The classroom practices discussed in "Effective Second Language Writing" reflect various trends and methodologies; however, the underlying theme in this volume of the Classroom Practice Series is the need for clear and meaningful communication between ESL writers and their readers. While approaches differ, two core beliefs are constant: ESL…
Borko, Hilda; Stecher, Brian M.; Alonzo, Alicia C.; Moncure, Shannon; McClam, Sherie
This article describes the development of artifact collection and scoring procedures to characterize classroom practice in mathematics and science. A data collection tool called the "Scoop Notebook" was used to gather artifacts related to key features of classroom practice, such as teachers' use of instructional materials and strategies, classroom…
Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina
This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…
Olaniran, Bolanle A.; Stewart, Robert A.
Explores effects of instructional practices on classroom communication apprehension (CCA) in Nigerian classrooms. Finds similarities and marked differences between American and Nigerian students' preferences for instructional practices as intervention strategies for CCA, specifically significant differences between low and high CCAs in preferred…
Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.
Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…
Bowman, Connie L.; Herrelko, Janet M.
Pre-service candidates' perceptions of how to teach were challenged after going through the process of Classroom Rounds, the process that was used in this study. Classroom Rounds consisted of a pre-conference meeting with an inservice teacher, followed by a classroom observation of that teacher, and finally a discussion focusing on proven…
Dommett, Eleanor J; Devonshire, Ian M; Plateau, Carolyn R; Westwell, Martin S; Greenfield, Susan A
The importance of neuroscience in education is becoming widely recognized by both neuroscientists and educators. However, to date, there has been little effective collaboration between the two groups, resulting in the spread of ideas in education poorly based on neuroscience. For their part, educators are often too busy to develop sufficient scientific literacy, and neuroscientists are put off collaborations with risk of overinterpretation of their work. We designed and led a successful 6-month collaborative project between educators and neuroscientists. The project consisted of a series of seminars on topics chosen by both parties such as the neuroscience of attention, learning, and memory and aimed to create a dialog between the two. Here, we report that all teachers found the seminars relevant to their practice and that the majority felt the information was presented in an accessible manner. Such was the success of the project that teachers felt there were direct changes in their classroom practice as a consequence and that the course should be more widely available. We suggest that this format of co-constructed dialog allows for lucrative collaborations between neuroscientists and educators and may be a step to bridging the waters that separate these intrinsically linked disciplines.
Konzal, Jean L.
When parents develop negative attitudes towards new practices, powerful resistance may develop and new instructional practices may disappear. This paper examines: (1) how parental attitudes towards new classroom instructional practices influence the introduction and continuation of these practices in a school; (2) the impact of the widening gap…
Blanton, Maria L.; Kaput, James J.
We present here results of a case study examining the classroom practice of one thirdgrade teacher as she participated in a long-term professional development project led by the authors. Our goal was to explore in what ways and to what extent the teacher was able to build a classroom that supported the development of students' algebraic reasoning…
Iaquinta, Anita; Hipsky, Shellie
This article was developed to assist the regular education elementary classroom teacher in utilizing practical bibliotherapy strategies for the inclusive classroom. Using quality children's literature for bibliotherapy helps students to grow socio-emotionally by identifying with the main character in the story with a disability which leads to…
Edwards-Groves, Christine Joy
This paper presents research exploring "writing and text construction" practices in contemporary primary classrooms. In particular, the ways 17 teachers and their students engaged with technologies in the construction of classroom texts were investigated. The case studies presented prompt the necessity to extend more traditional…
While extensive research has been conducted on classroom management little research exists on culturally responsive classroom management. The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how four novice teachers developed their culturally responsive management practice (CRCM) to better meet the needs of their students. My analysis was…
Drang, Debra Michal
This study examined preschool teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and practices related to classroom management. The rationale for researching this topic is based on the role of teachers in the special education referral process, the poor success rate for inclusion for children with disabilities who demonstrate problematic classroom behaviors, and the…
This article explores the use of experiential teaching methods in social work education. The literature demonstrates that relying on experiential teaching methods in the classroom can have overwhelmingly positive learning outcomes; however, not much is known about the possible effect of these classroom methods on practice. On the basis of…
Houff, Suzanne G.
Using William Glasser's five basic needs as a foundation, "The Classroom Manager" provides a theoretical base to guide readers in the understanding and development of an effective classroom management program. The topics of survival, belonging and love, power, fun, and freedom are explored through definitions, practical recommendations and case…
Yunus, Hashimah Mohd.; Ismail, Zurida; Raper, George
The present study discusses the findings from a research that was conducted involving fourteen teachers in a primary school. In the study, the teachers' classroom practices of teaching and learning science were observed and analysed. The data gathering procedures included 23 classroom observations and analysed by means of qualitative data…
Based on 10 preservice science teachers in 4 schools, this study presents a detailed analysis of how preservice teacher expectation interacts with school practicum and authentic classroom action of inquiry-based instruction. Classroom observation, lesson plan analysis, and interviews revealed that inquiry-based instruction in the expectation and…
This paper critiques specific forms of classroom teacher effectiveness research. In doing so, the paper suggests that education policy-making deems and employs teacher effectiveness research as a promising and capable contrivance for the identification of ineffective classroom teaching practice. The paper engages with this policy debate by using a…
The use of mobile devices in the language classroom can help accomplish innumerable learning objectives, yet many teachers regard smartphones and tablets as obstacles to lesson goals. However, as portable technology continues to infiltrate classroom boundaries, it is becoming increasingly clear that educators should find ways to take advantage of…
Hall, Ashley A.; DuFrene, Debbie D.
Popularity is growing for flipped classroom instruction, which replaces lectures with out-of-class delivery of streaming video, reading materials, online chats, and other modalities. Face-to-face class time is spent on instructor-student and student-student interaction, including small group problem solving and discussion. Classroom flipping has…
Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016
Teachers know they need to focus on practices that can make the biggest difference to their students--but which practices have a track record of improving learning and growth? Read the second article in our five-part series to discover specific classroom formative assessment practices proven to take students from zoned out to tuned in. You'll…
Zell, Stacy K.
This paper examines a practical application of ecofeminism for classroom educators, particularly, science educators. Ecofeminism is often, but not exclusively, linked to projects aimed at assisting men, women and children in developing areas to organize and define development projects for their community. Mainstream applications of ecofeminism for science educators are frequently omitted from science education literature. This article gives the reader a basic understanding of ecofeminist theory as it applies to science education. Direct examples from classroom practices suggest five key points in the application of ecofeminism for classroom use.
This is a comprehensive review of the salient key features of the actual English instructional practices in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this work is to gain insights into the practices and pedagogic approaches to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching currently employed in this country. In particular, we identify the following central features…
Fuhler, Carol J.
Describes three theories supporting reading instruction--schema theory, the constructivist approach, and literary response theory--and offers best classroom practices that support these theories. Provides a sample lesson illustrating possible cross-curricular interactions, also considered a best practice. (EV)
MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Simonsen, Brandi; Briere, Donald E.
Establishing effective academic instruction, effective classroom management, and building relationships can all be accomplished with the application of observable and measurable practices. How an individual applies these practices will vary, yet common components of effective teaching are omnipresent. Across academic instruction, behavior…
Herrington, Anthony; Herrington, Jan; Hoban, Garry; Reid, Doug
Professional learning is an important process in enabling teachers to update their pedagogical knowledge and practices. The use of online technologies to support professional learning has a number of benefits in terms of flexibility and scalability. However, it is not clear how well the approach impacts on teachers' classroom practices. This…
Pace, Judith L., Ed.; Hemmings, Annette B., Ed.
This book describes and analyzes authority relationships in classrooms through explorations of theory, prior research, and contemporary qualitative studies. The emphasis is on the social construction of authority and the crucial role authority plays in K-16 teachers' pedagogy and students' academic engagement and achievement. The introductory…
Asserts that effectively preparing students for the challenges of an ever-changing workplace requires incorporating the use of technology and the principles of business management into the classroom environment. Summarizes the development of a formal team research project for an English course that teaches skills that include planning and…
Explores the extent to which published advice on the organization and structure of theses and dissertations concurs with what happens in actual practice. Examines guides and handbooks that focus on thesis and dissertation writing and postgraduate research. Found that only a few books devoted a substantial amount of space to this topic. Discusses…
This study examined high school teachers' and students' perceptions, attitudes and actual practices of continuous assessment. The participants of the study were 41 teachers and 808 students in Injabara General and Preparatory, Tilili General Secondary, Mengesha Jembere General Secondary, and Dangila Preparatory schools in West Gojjam, Ethiopia.…
Kuhn Berland, Leema
Traditional classroom practices communicate epistemic commitments and goals that might be contrary to those needed for meaningful participation in scientific inquiry practices. In this dissertation, I explore how traditional classroom practices influence students' participation in the practice of scientific argumentation. I address this through a two-pronged approach. First, given that students do not typically engage in collaborative knowledge-building through scientific argumentation, I used the best-practices put forth by relevant research to support teachers in facilitating this practice. Second, I worked with four classes as they enacted a unit designed to foster scientific argumentation. I observed the emergent class discussions and engaged in discourse analysis in which I related the interaction patterns found in non-argumentative class discussions to those that occurred in lessons designed to foster scientific argumentation. Examining the argumentative discussions reveals that each class transformed the practice in different ways. Comparing these interactions to those of the non-argumentative suggests that students used the goals and beliefs that guided their typical classroom practices to interpret the activity structures for and teacher's framings of the new practice of scientific argumentation. In this dissertation, I present a research methodology for understanding the relationship between typical classroom practices and student adaptations of new scientific practices; design strategies for supporting scientific argumentation; and a framework for understanding how and why classroom communities adapt the practice of scientific argumentation.
Chisholm, Marie A.; Wade, William E.
Evaluates the use of actual patients in a required clinical applications course at the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy. Patients discuss their illness and how it affects their lives with the first-year students. On 12 of 13 items, students scored significantly higher on an attitude survey following the first patient presentation than…
Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.
Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…
Franklin, Scott V.; Chapman, Tricia
We present a temporally fine-grained characterization of faculty practice in workshop-style introductory physics courses. Practice is binned in five minute intervals and coded through two complementary observational protocols: the Reform Teaching Observation Protocol provides a summative assessment of fidelity to reform-teaching principles, while the Teaching Dimensions Observation Protocol records direct practice. We find that the TDOP's direct coding of practice explains nuances in the holistic RTOP score, with higher RTOP scores corresponding to less lecture, but not necessarily more student-directed activities. Despite using similar materials, faculty show significant differences in practice that manifests in both TDOP and RTOP scores. We also find a significant dependence of practice on course subject reflected in both RTOP and TDOP scores, with Electricity & Magnetism using more instructor-centered practices (lecture, illustration, etc.) than Mechanics courses.
Muldoon, Becky T; Mai, Vinh Q; Burch, Henry B
Over the last century, much has been learned about the pathogenesis, manifestations, and management of Graves' disease leading to the establishment of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. The joint clinical practice guidelines from the American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists give recommendations on both the diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism. A survey of clinicians performed that same year, however, revealed that current practices diverge from these recently published guidelines in multiple areas. These differences will need to be assessed serially to determine the impact of the guidelines on future clinical practice and perhaps vice versa.
This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.
Terwilliger, James S.
This study was designed to obtain descriptive data on the classroom evaluation practices of secondary teachers in two different public school systems. A self-report survey instrument was employed to collect data from 217 teachers in York, England, and 217 teachers in Minnesota. Respondents were asked to indicate which specific techniques they…
Riley, Maureen Keohane; And Others
The constructivist approach of the Teacher as Composer project used analog experiences that replicate thinking and social demands. Classroom constraints, inservice limitations, and teacher mindsets impeded its application. Personal narratives and principles of children's thinking helped bridge the gap between theory and practice. (SK)
Booyse, Celia; Chetty, Rajendra
Evidence of the value of constructivist theory in the classroom is especially important for educational practice in areas of poverty and social challenge. Research was undertaken in 2010 into the application of constructivist theory on instructional design. The findings of this research are particularly relevant to the current curricular crisis in…
This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…
Relationships between first and third grade classroom instructional practices and child outcomes (i.e. test scores, days absent, and observed child behavior) were assessed in seven Project Follow Through educational programs. The programs chosen represented a wide spectrum of innovative educational theories. The range included two models based on…
Spencer, Leland G.
This article reports the results of a feminist action research project that sought to ascertain professors' best practices for engaging undergraduates in feminist classrooms. In semi-structured interviews, professors recommended assigning readings from a variety of positionalities; creating a safe space for class discussion; relying on data to…
Fellenz, Robert A.; Conti, Gary J.
Activity and involvement are the keys to effective learning in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. The fragile self-concepts of many adults, however, make them hesitate to plunge into the practice of their newly developed language skills. The answer may lie in simple games and role-playing activities that are useful in establishing…
National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.
This book focuses on successful classroom practices which used oral communication to develop student confidence in a variety of speaking situations and to expand student understanding of literature through both analysis and performance. The book contains the following essays, listed here with their authors: (1) "Follow the Bouncing Ball"…
Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Albin, Richard W.
Twelve practical strategies that can be used by classroom teachers to prevent behavioral escalation are discussed, including reinforce calm, know the triggers, pay attention to anything unusual, do not escalate, intervene early, know the function of problem behavior, use extinction wisely, teach prosocial behavior, and teach academic survival…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Reuland, Meg M.; Gregory, Anne
Students who do not get along with their peers are at elevated risk for academic disengagement and school failure. Research has predominantly focused on factors within such children that contribute to their peer problems. This study considers whether teacher practices also predict social preference for children in that classroom. Participants were…
Tauber, Robert T.
Educators need a balance between discipline theory and its practice in the classroom. This is especially important in today's educational climate, with its increased demands for teacher accountability. Tauber has designed this book for both those who are new to teaching and those who are already seasoned teachers, but who have had little, if any,…
Beames, Simon; Higgins, Pete; Nicol, Robbie
"Learning Outside the Classroom" outlines theory and practice that will enable and encourage teachers to systematically and progressively incorporate meaningful outdoor learning opportunities into their daily teaching activities in a wide variety of environments and with diverse populations of pupils. This is the first textbook based around the…
Garcia, Ofelia; Sylvan, Claire E.
Bilingual classrooms most often have strict language arrangements about when and who should speak what language to whom. This practice responds to diglossic arrangements and models of bilingualism developed in the 20th century. However, in the 21st century, heteroglossic bilingual conceptualizations are needed in which the complex discursive…
Millar, Rachel; Gillies, Donald
"Successful learners" is one of the four capacities, or purposes, of "Curriculum for Excellence" (CfE). This paper reports on a project which aimed to clarify its meaning, explore children's understanding of the term, and consider possible implications of both for classroom practice. The project was thus conducted in two parts:…
Sutherland, R.; Armstrong, V.; Barnes, S.; Brawn, R.; Breeze, N.; Gall, M.; Matthewman, S.; Olivero, F.; Taylor, A.; Triggs, P.; Wishart, J.; John, P.
Drawing on socio-cultural theory, this paper describes how teams of teachers and researchers have developed ways of embedding information and communications technology (ICT) into everyday classroom practices to enhance learning. The focus is on teaching and learning across a range of subjects: English, history, geography, mathematics, modern…
Stanford, Myah D.
The instructional practices of three current classroom teachers who formerly served as Servant Leader Interns (SLIs) in the Children's Defense Fund Freedom Schools (CDFFS) Program were examined. Haskell ("Transfer of learning: cognition, instruction, and reasoning." Academic Press, San Diego, 2001) outlined eleven principles of transfer…
The arts are an important area of development for young children in their early years. By engaging with arts activities, young children are able to use their senses to explore the world. This paper reports on current arts practice in two kindergartens and two preparatory classrooms in Queensland, Australia. All sites are located in neighbouring…
Ruskovaara, Elena; Pihkala, Timo
Purpose: This study aims to highlight the entrepreneurship education practices teachers use in their work. Another target is to analyze how these practices differ based on a number of background factors. Design/methodology/approach: This article presents a quantitative analysis of 521 teachers and other entrepreneurship education actors. The paper…
Davis, Margaret H.
The practice of teaching democracy in school is diminishing. The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has forced teachers to teach to the test, and has required some to follow scripted curriculum, leaving little time or incentive for teaching democracy. This study examines the importance of practicing democracy and identifies ways in…
Cook, Lenora, Ed.; Lodge, Helen C., Ed.
This book presents a collection of classroom practices that view the personal experiences of diverse student populations as valuable resources for instruction. It offers teachers various responses to the challenges posed by students' cultural, linguistic, and social group affiliations. The book contains essays arranged into three interwoven…
Price, Jill M; Whitlatch, Joy; Maier, Cecilia Jane; Burdi, Melissa; Peacock, James
This pilot study explored the effectiveness of an online workshop provided to faculty teaching one course in a large online RN-to-baccalaureate nursing (BSN) program. This exploration helped to fill a gap in knowledge related to implementing best classroom teaching practices into distance education for online nursing students. Focus groups with purposeful sampling (three focus groups: two faculty focus groups with a total of 11 faculty and one student focus group with a total of six students) were used to assess the effectiveness of the workshop and faculty and student perceptions of the seven best classroom teaching practices. Themes derived from the faculty focus groups included reaffirmation, commitments from students, and opportunities for instructor improvement. Themes derived from the student focus group included engagement, availability, encouragement, and diverse learning. Online teaching recommendations, created from the emerged themes of the study, could be considered to improve teaching practices of online nurse educators. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(5):222-227.
Gwimbi, Eric M.; Monk, Martin
Thirty-three senior high-school biology teachers in Harare, Zimbabwe, participated in the study. Self-report data on school contexts was used to cluster the teachers according to their own perceptions of the contextual circumstances in their schools. The clustering differentiated self-perceived better and poorer resourced schools. In theory lessons, teachers from the self-perceived better resourced schools were observed to use less individual organization, less written exercises, more whole class organization, and more listening to the teacher than to the teachers in the poorer schools. In practical lessons teachers in the better self-perceived better resourced schools were observed to use less whole class organization, less small group organization, more individual organization, less listening to teacher, less teacher explanation, less teacher questioning, and to conduct more practical. An interpretation of these findings is made in terms of the fit between a teacher's classroom practice and their self-perceived classroom context.
Andrée, Maria; Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
In science education, students sometimes create and engage in spontaneous science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. However, in previous research, little attention has been given to the role of informal spontaneous play in school science classrooms. We argue that, in order to enhance our understanding of learning processes in school science practices, research that investigates play as an aspect of everyday culture is needed. The aim of this paper is to explore students' informal play as part of activity in lower secondary school science. The empirical study was conducted in two Swedish compulsory schools in grade 6. Data were collected throughout a teaching unit called `The Chemistry of Food' during a 10-week period using video and audiotape recordings of classroom work. Our analyses show that the play students engage in involves the transformations of given tasks. We find that students' spontaneous collective play offers opportunities for them to explore the epistemic values and norms of science and different ways of positioning in relation to science. Our findings contribute to the understanding of how learning in the school science classroom is socially and culturally-historically embedded and how individual students' engagement through play may transform and transcend existing classroom practices.
Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Reuland, Meg M; Gregory, Anne
Students who do not get along with their peers are at elevated risk for academic disengagement and school failure. Research has predominantly focused on factors within such children that contribute to their peer problems. This study considers whether teacher practices also predict social preference for children in that classroom. Participants were 26 elementary school teachers and 490 students in their classrooms followed for one school year. Results suggested that teachers who favored the most academically talented students in the fall had classrooms where children had lower average social preference in the spring after statistical control of children's fall social preference and externalizing behavior problems. Teachers who demonstrated emotionally supportive relationships with students in the fall had classrooms where children had greater possibility of changing their social preference from fall to spring. Although children with high externalizing behaviors tended to experience declining social preference over the course of the school year, teachers' learner-centered practices attenuated this progression. However, teachers' favoring of the most academically talented accentuated the negative relation between externalizing behaviors and social preference. Implications for school psychology practitioners are discussed.
Furin, Molly; Kohn, Melissa; Overberger, Ryan; Jaslow, David
Introduction Pennsylvania, among other states, includes surgical airway management, or cricothyrotomy, within the paramedic scope of practice. However, there is scant literature that evaluates paramedic perception of clinical competency in cricothyrotomy. The goal of this project is to assess clinical exposure, education and self-perceived competency of ground paramedics in cricothyrotomy. Methods Eighty-six paramedics employed by four ground emergency medical services agencies completed a 22-question written survey that assessed surgical airway attempts, training, skills verification, and perceptions about procedural competency. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate responses. Results Only 20% (17/86, 95% CI [11–28%]) of paramedics had attempted cricothyrotomy, most (13/17 or 76%, 95% CI [53–90%]) of whom had greater than 10 years experience. Most subjects (63/86 or 73%, 95% CI [64–82%]) did not reply that they are well-trained to perform cricothyrotomy and less than half (34/86 or 40%, 95% CI [30–50%]) felt they could correctly perform cricothyrotomy on their first attempt. Among subjects with five or more years of experience, 39/70 (56%, 95% CI [44–68%]) reported 0–1 hours per year of practical cricothyrotomy training within the last five years. Half of the subjects who were able to recall (40/80, 50% 95% CI [39–61%]) reported having proficiency verification for cricothyrotomy within the past five years. Conclusion Paramedics surveyed indicated that cricothyrotomy is rarely performed, even among those with years of experience. Many paramedics felt that their training in this area is inadequate and did not feel confident to perform the procedure. Further study to determine whether to modify paramedic scope of practice and/or to develop improved educational and testing methods is warranted. PMID:27330674
Cazier, Joseph A; Medlin, B Dawn
For most healthcare information systems, passwords are the first line of defense in keeping patient and administrative records private and secure. However, this defense is only as strong as the passwords employees chose to use. A weak or easily guessed password is like an open door to the medical records room, allowing unauthorized access to sensitive information. In this paper, we present the results of a study of actual healthcare workers' password practices. In general, the vast majority of these passwords have significant security problems on several dimensions. Implications for healthcare professionals are discussed.
Cazier, Joseph A; Medlin, B. Dawn
For most healthcare information systems, passwords are the first line of defense in keeping patient and administrative records private and secure. However, this defense is only as strong as the passwords employees chose to use. A weak or easily guessed password is like an open door to the medical records room, allowing unauthorized access to sensitive information. In this paper, we present the results of a study of actual healthcare workers' password practices. In general, the vast majority of these passwords have significant security problems on several dimensions. Implications for healthcare professionals are discussed. PMID:18066366
Ragawanti, Debora Tri
Classroom management is commonly believed to be the key to the success of an instruction. Many student teachers, however, might find it very challenging to handle their classrooms. It is, therefore, necessary to advance their professional practice in the context of a real classroom such as through teaching practicum and reflective practice. This…
Power, Bianca; Klopper, Christopher
This article documents the current classroom practice of creative arts education of respondent classroom teachers in the New South Wales Greater Western Region, Australia. The study provides a descriptive account of classroom practice in creative arts education through the employment of a quantitative methodology. A questionnaire was designed and…
Clunies-Ross, Penny; Little, Emma; Kienhuis, Mandy
This study investigated the relationship between primary school teachers' self-reported and actual use of classroom management strategies, and examined how the use of proactive and reactive strategies is related to teacher stress and student behaviour. The total sample consisted of 97 teachers from primary schools within Melbourne. Teachers…
Two Heads Are Better than One: The Factors Influencing the Understanding and Practice of Classroom-Library Collaboration proposed to identify the factors involved in educating future K-8 classroom teachers about collaboration for instruction with school library media specialists (SLMSs). This longitudinal study monitored the growth of teacher…
Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Peters, Stephanie
This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented.…
Given the current interest in organizing teacher education around core instructional practices that help preservice teachers enact ambitious aspects of teaching like leading classroom discussions, this article investigates an example from the experience of a preservice teacher as she works on orienting students to each other's ideas. Resulting…
Soukakou, Elena P.; Winton, Pam J.; West, Tracey A.; Sideris, John H.; Rucker, Lia M.
The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP), an observation measure designed to assess the quality of classroom practices in inclusive preschool programs. The measure was field tested in 51 inclusive classrooms. Results confirmed and extended previous research findings, providing…
Ozer Kendig, Elisha
21st century classrooms are different from the traditional high school classroom. The teacher is not the focal point of learning and the students take the lead role. Technology integration is a major component to this shift in teaching style. The inclusion of technology into the classroom and how it influences teaching practice and student…
This is a pilot study to explore the classroom implementation of the Lions Quest Program in Turkey. Teachers of first through eighth grades at two elementary schools who applied the program were interviewed about the program and their classroom practices while they were also observed and their classrooms were also observed. Considerable program…
Lee, Ho Sup; Min, Chang-Ki
Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant plasma cell-originating cancer. Although its treatment outcomes have improved with the use of glucocorticoids, alkylating drugs, and novel agents, including proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide), relapse remains a serious problem. Strategies to improve outcomes following autologous stem cell transplantation and frontline treatments in non-transplant patients include consolidation to intensify therapy and improve the depth of response and maintenance therapy to achieve long-term disease control. Many clinical trials have reported increased progression-free and overall survival rates after consolidation and maintenance therapy. The role of consolidation/maintenance therapy has been assessed in patients eligible and ineligible for transplantation and is a valuable option in clinical trial settings. However, the decision to use consolidation and/or maintenance therapy needs to be guided by the individual patient situation in actual clinical practice. This review analyzes the currently available evidence from several reported clinical trials to determine the optimal consolidation and maintenance therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27604793
Proponents of block scheduling perceive this approach to be a 'structural lever' to invite and impel teachers to change their teaching (Marshak, 1997). This desired shift is supposed to be manifest in movement from the traditional classroom structure, focusing on the teacher as lecturer or transmitter of subject matter, to that of teacher as coach with students as active learners, engaged in a variety of activities involving them individually and collaboratively in their education (Canady & Rettig, 1995). Block scheduling changes the formal structure of the school day, but does it really change pedagogical practices in high school science classrooms? Fraser's Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) the instrument used in this study of science classes in five block-scheduled high schools in Connecticut, incorporates the tenets for an enriched classroom environment in its five scales or constructs: Participation---Extent to which students are encouraged to participate rather than be passive learners; Personalization---Emphasis on opportunities for individual students to interact with the teacher and on concern for the personal welfare and social growth of the individual; Investigation---Emphasis on the skills and processes of inquiry and their use in problem solving and investigation. Independence---Extent to which students are allowed to make decisions and have control over their own learning environment and behavior; Differentiation---Emphasis on the selective treatment of students on the basis of ability, learning style, interests, and rate of working (Fraser, 1990). The results and conclusions from this research study suggested that the block-scheduled high school science classes that participated in this research do promote, to varying degrees, those tenets that define an enriched classroom environment. Both the teachers and their classes of students perceived opportunities for Participation, Personalization, and Investigation constructs as
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A
A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.
Mathematics teachers in Finland and Iceland are on different tracks. Based on a recent video study, the classroom practices of Finnish mathematics teachers seem to be rather traditional. This is in contrast to the Icelandic teachers many of whom use progressive-minded, learner-based instructional strategies. The classroom practices in Finland…
This mixed methods study investigates the relationship between fifth-grade teachers' social studies knowledge and beliefs and their relationship to classroom practices. Quantitative data were collected through a beliefs and classroom practices survey and 60-item knowledge test covering the areas of American History, America and the World,…
Alghamdi, AbdulKhaliq Hajjad; Bin Sihes, Ahmad Johari
"Scientific studies found the impact of professional development on effective classroom practices in Higher Education." This paper hypothesizes no statistically significant effect of lecturers' professional development on classroom practices in some selected Saudi Universities not as highlighted in the model. Hierarchical multiple…
Poth, Cheryl; Pei, Jacqueline; Job, Jenelle M.; Wyper, Katherine
The value of research-informed classroom practices is well recognized and thus this qualitative study was designed to explore, from multiple perspectives, the experiences and influences of classroom practices for students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The inductive analysis of 11 focus groups and three interviews involving 60…
Pane, Debra Mayes; Rocco, Tonette S.; Miller, Lynne D.; Salmon, Angela K.
This study explored the relation between classroom interactions and exclusionary school discipline practices within and across four classrooms in a disciplinary alternative school. Critical social practice theory and critical microethnographic methodology supported the examination, interpretation, and analysis of interactive power to illuminate…
Student assessment, particularly at classroom level, remains an integral part of teaching and learning and is a driving force for the implementation of educational policies and practices in many countries. Nevertheless, problems associated with teachers' classroom assessment practices continue to exist in schools and research shows that teachers…
Sarieddine, Diana; BouJaoude, Saouma
Whether teachers' conceptions of NOS are reflected in their instructional planning and classroom practice remains an important research question. Consequently, this study investigated teachers' NOS views and their relationship to their classroom practice and delineated the factors that facilitate or impede this relationship. To achieve this, seven…
Haider, Md. Zulfeqar; Akhter, Elina
Extensive reading is being practiced in many EFL and ESL classrooms as an effective means for developing learners' reading as well as other related skills. This paper is based on a small-scale study that explores the current practices and future possibilities of using extensive reading in the EFL classrooms at the junior secondary schools in…
Sprouls, Katie; Mathur, Sarup R.; Upreti, Gita
Although using higher rates of positive to negative feedback is one best practice often recommended to teachers, particularly when it comes to students experiencing behavioral problems in classroom settings, research on the use of positive feedback in classroom teaching practice has revealed inconsistent results. Research has documented…
Smith, Michelle K; Jones, Francis H M; Gilbert, Sarah L; Wieman, Carl E
Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change.
Smith, Michelle K.; Jones, Francis H. M.; Gilbert, Sarah L.; Wieman, Carl E.
Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To help facilitate this process, we present a new classroom observation protocol known as the Classroom Observation Protocol for Undergraduate STEM or COPUS. This protocol allows STEM faculty, after a short 1.5-hour training period, to reliably characterize how faculty and students are spending their time in the classroom. We present the protocol, discuss how it differs from existing classroom observation protocols, and describe the process by which it was developed and validated. We also discuss how the observation data can be used to guide individual and institutional change. PMID:24297289
Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.
Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.
Research on multilingual classrooms usually focuses on contexts where both teachers and pupils share the same linguistic repertoire; what can be called "symmetrical" multilingual classrooms. This paper sets out to investigate whether (and how) pupils' multilingual resources can be used in classrooms where the teacher does not share…
McLaurin, Sidney E.; Bell, Beulah; Smith, Curtis
The classroom assessment process can have encouraging results when it begins with "early assessment" that addresses student learning, as well as the social and emotional needs of student(s) in the classroom. This paper presents a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis for classroom assessment. It will review literature…
Results of influential reports on early literacy have drawn attention to the need for early childhood educators to take up a more explicit, teacher-directed approach to beginning reading. Positive classroom results however are in part dependent upon teacher knowledge and this study investigated the relationship between early childhood educators'…
Periscope is a set of materials to support university instructors in observing, discussing, and reflecting on best practices in university instruction. Periscope is organized into short ``video workshops,'' each introducing a significant topic in the teaching and learning of physics, such as formative assessment or cooperative learning. The workshops are appropriate for university professors, two-year college faculty, graduate student teaching assistants, and undergraduate learning assistants. Key topics in teaching and learning are introduced through captioned video episodes of introductory physics students in the classroom, chosen to prompt collaborative discussion. Video episodes from exemplary sites (including the University of Maryland, University of Colorado - Boulder, Harvard University, and Florida International University) showcase a variety of research-tested instructional formats such as Peer Instruction and Tutorials in Introductory Physics. Discussion questions prompt participants who view the episode to reflect on their pedagogical beliefs, on their own practice, and on the results of physics education research. Periscope materials may be flexibly adapted for settings ranging from brief introductory sessions to all-day workshops or weekly meetings.
This paper explores the wide range of mathematics content and processes that arise in the secondary classroom via the use of unusual counting problems. A universal pedagogical goal of mathematics teachers is to convey a sense of unity among seemingly diverse topics within mathematics. Such a goal can be accomplished if we could conduct classroom…
Barr, Stephanie A.; Ross, Mike J.; Otero, Valerie
The University of Colorado's LA-Test K-12 research team investigated the classroom practices of former Learning Assistants' who went on to become K-12 teachers. One of the tools used for this analysis of classroom practice was the Scoop Notebook, an instructional artifact package developed to assess teachers' use of reform-oriented practices. In this paper, the authors characterize differences in classroom practices between former Learning Assistants teaching at the secondary level and their colleagues through the collection and analysis of teaching artifacts. Analyses of these artifacts indicate significant differences between LA and non-LA groups. A description of the methodology and implications of using artifact packages to study classroom practice will be discussed, detailing the role of the LA experience in teacher preparation.
This study examined the learning, practice, and classroom communities of five beginning secondary science teachers for one school year. To varying degrees, the participants attempted to enact ambitious practice, a framework for instruction focused on providing students with opportunities to engage in rigorous and responsive science activity. The purpose of the study was twofold. First, this study investigated the resources beginning teachers recognized, generated, and used to shape and learn from practice. Second, this study examined the epistemic classroom community and science practice negotiated between the participants and their students. By analyzing teacher and student interactions in a classroom context, this study filled important gaps in the field's understanding of teacher learning and classroom communities as spaces for students to engage in authentic science practice. This study pursued answers to two groups of guiding questions: · What resources for instruction do beginning teachers recognize, generate, and use in their school contexts? How do beginning teachers' differing use of resources shape their particular trajectories of practice and professional learning? · How and why is science framed as a "public" or "private" practice? Over time, how and why does the public or private framing of science influence actors' (teachers, students) participation in the epistemic work in classroom spaces? How do teachers and students negotiate "what counts" as a science idea in classroom spaces? How is value assigned to science ideas and by whom? How do teachers and students work on science ideas over time given the kind of epistemic community they negotiate? Using a situative framework, this study traced both beginning teacher learning and the negotiation of their classrooms as epistemic communities over time. Analysis of discourse during classroom interactions, artifacts created by participants and students, and interviews with participants afforded insights
Youngkin, C Andrew
The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services.
Herbert, Pia, Ed.; McFeeter, Jan, Ed.
This guide reports on classroom research conducted by experienced teachers of adult basic education students of limited English and/or native language literacy. Most chapters are illustrated with excerpts from instructional materials, and provide practical information about classroom techniques and activities. Chapters include: "Introduction"…
Forrester, Victor; Hui, Anna
A review is offered of Hong Kong's current education reform that sites a key role for "creativity." This key role leads us to ask "Creativity in the Hong Kong Classroom: what is the contextual practice?" To address this question 27 Primary classroom teachers across three subject areas were observed and rated using the Classroom…
Downing, David B., Ed.
Offering models for what reconfigured literary and cultural studies classrooms might look like, this book suggests new directions for teachers of literary and cultural studies seeking to change their own classroom practices and curriculum designs in a time of significant cultural uncertainty. The 14 essays in the book are grounded in the…
This study evaluated the relationships between classroom practices and mathematics motivation. The evaluation was given in a specific context, namely eighth grade in U.S. middle schools. Using quantitative methods, the study adopted data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 and compared classroom practices…
Fingon, Joan C., Ed.; Ulanoff, Sharon H., Ed.
This resource guide looks at new classroom-based literacy research that supports "all" learners, including culturally and linguistically diverse students. The authors demonstrate how teachers and researchers develop instructional practices based on multiple languages and the literacy contexts of their schools. They describe classrooms where…
Dawson, Melanie Rees; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin
Novice teachers need to develop foundation teaching skills to effectively address student behavior and academics in the classroom. The TLE TeachLivE™ simulation laboratory (TLE) is a virtual classroom used to supplement traditional didactic instruction and field experiences in teacher preparation programs. In this study, repeated practice and…
Drawing on recent developments in dialogic approaches to learning and teaching, I examine the roots of dialogic meaning-making as a concept in classroom practices. Developments in the field of dialogic pedagogy are reviewed and the case for dialogic engagement as an approach to classroom interaction is considered. The implications of dialogic…
Being a feminist teacher, working on gender equity education, including teaching, reading, writing, and doing research on this topic, has become a commitment for me. I have frequently reflected my teaching practices and occasionally found new teaching strategies in the classroom. I always try to bring new topics or issues into the classroom in…
Tondeur, J.; De Bruyne, E.; Van Den Driessche, M.; McKenney, S.; Zandvliet, D.
The purpose of this study was to gain deeper insights into how technology restructures the classroom as a spatial setting and how the positioning of these technologies can be associated with educational practices. The research includes a photographic and schematic representation of 115 classrooms in 12 primary schools in Belgium, resulting in a…
The purpose of this study was to explore alignment between reform-based Turkish primary science curriculum and alternative assessment practices of a classroom teacher. Observational case study approach was utilized. A classroom teacher with 32 years of experience and his 31 students participated in the study. The data were collected during one…
Biza, Irene; Nardi, Elena; Joel, Gareth
In this paper we present the results from a study in which 21 mathematics trainee teachers engage with two practice-based tasks in which classroom management interferes with mathematical learning. We investigate the trainees' considerations when they make decisions in classroom situations and how these tasks can trigger their reflections on the…
Gottlieb, Margo; Katz, Anne; Ernst-Slavit, Gisela
Teachers of English language learners in 21st-century classrooms face a daunting task. The nature of language is complex, learners' needs are diverse, academic content challenges students, and the demand for accountability is an educational reality. "Paper to Practice: Using the TESOL English Language Proficiency Standards in PreK-12 Classrooms"…
This paper discusses the relationship between English language trainee teachers' views on how to deal with large classes at the primary school level, create a positive environment in young learners' classroom and hold young learners' attention, and how far their views are reflected in classroom practice. The data were collected by means of…
Sempowicz, Tracey; Hudson, Peter
A key concern for preservice teachers is classroom management, including student behaviour management, which also has been a factor associated with teachers leaving the profession within the first five years. This study investigates the mentoring practices used to guide the mentee's classroom management. Using multiple data sources (e.g., lesson…
Daniels, Denise H.; Kalkman, Deborah L.; McCombs, Barbara L.
Investigated primary students' perceptions of teacher practices and learning in learner-centered (LC) and non-learner-centered (NLC) classroom contexts. Found that primary students valued similar characteristics in teachers regardless of classroom context or grade level. Children's interest in schoolwork and learning was lower in NLC classrooms…
Heredia, Sara C.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Renga, Ian Parker
Formative assessment has been recognized as an essential element of effective classroom practice; as a result, teachers are increasingly required to create formative assessments for their classrooms. This study examines data drawn from a long-term, site-based professional development program that supported a department of biology teachers in the…
DeLozier, Sarah J.; Rhodes, Matthew G.
Flipped classrooms refer to the practice of assigning lectures outside of class and devoting class time to a variety of learning activities. In this review, we discuss the range of approaches to the flipped classroom and focus on activities frequently used in these settings. Amongst these, we examine both out-of-class activities (e.g., video…
Richard-Amato, Patricia A.
A discussion linking theory and practice in second language instruction focuses on ways of providing opportunities for meaningful interaction in language classrooms. The first part lays a theoretical foundation, looking at: the variety and evolution of instructional approaches from grammar-based to communicative; the classroom as environment for…
Walker, Margaret A.
This study examines what an emerging educational theory looks like when put into practice in an art classroom. It explores the teaching methodology of a high school art teacher who has utilized concept-based inquiry in the classroom to engage his students in artmaking and analyzes the influence this methodology has had on his adolescent students.…
This study examines mainstream teachers' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and classroom practices in relation to English language learners. The study was guided by four questions: (1) What professional knowledge do mainstream teachers have about teaching English language learners, and where and how did they learn what they know? (2) What beliefs…
This paper describes a pilot study investigating Teacher Aides (TAs) in primary mathematics classrooms. Three teacher/TA teams were investigated. The teachers were asked about the role of TAs in their classrooms, and the TAs were asked about their confidence in mathematics and in the desirability of professional learning. The TAs indicated a need…
Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich
A study investigated the interpersonal dynamics occurring in an ungraded bilingual education class of native Spanish-speaking students in an ungraded primary classroom (with 10-12 students each from grades one, two, and three) at Garamond Elementary School in a working class community southeast of Los Angeles, California. Six classroom sessions…
Davin, Kristin J.
This article explores the implementation of dynamic assessment (DA) in an elementary school foreign language classroom by considering its theoretical basis and its applicability to second language (L2) teaching, learning, and development. In existing applications of L2 classroom DA, errors serve as a window into learners' instructional needs and…
Dennis, Danielle V.
The University of South Florida has designed and initiated a two-year teacher residency program that intends to meld classroom preservice teacher instruction with work in classrooms with children from low-income and urban backgrounds. The Urban Teacher Residency Partnership Program is a joint effort between the University of South Florida and…
Vu, Jennifer A.; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Howes, Carollee
Research Findings: This study is intended to widen the debate around the bachelor's degree (BA) as preparation for early childhood teaching when head teachers possess various levels of credentials and education. We examined classroom quality and teacher involvement in 231 classrooms sponsored by 122 different agencies, staffed and supervised by…
Sebo, Aud Berggraf
My specific teaching and research interest is drama in the classroom--drama as a teaching and learning medium to fulfil a curriculum demand for student-active, creative and aesthetic learning processes. In this article I will focus on the challenges and possibilities that exist in Norwegian classroom drama. The article is based on my latest…
Rallis, Sharon F.
A program, in Rhode Island, to reduce student referrals to special education programs is evaluated in this study together with its impact on classroom teacher policy. The Classroom Alternative Process (CAP) addresses strategies for regular education teachers to remediate students' problems prior to, or instead of, referral to special education.…
Hastie, Megan; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kuo, Yen-Hung
This paper investigates the correlation between the quality of instructional design and learning outcomes for early childhood students in the online synchronous cyber classroom. Today's generation of e-learners has access to highly engaging and well-designed multi-media synchronous classrooms. However little data exists on what constitutes…
Savaille-Troike, Muriel, Ed.
This publication is the first in a series planned to acquaint classroom teachers with successful methods and materials being used in TESOL and bilingual contexts. M. Saville-Troike illustrates several types of conflict which may occur in elementary classrooms when teachers do not understand the nature of the linguistic and cultural diversity of…
McRae, Murdo William
Describes how reader response theory can be easily adapted to classroom practice, thereby sharpening student interest in reading, increasing their capacity to reason and write, and fostering greater regard for different points of view. (HOD)
Holden, James, Ed.; Schmit, John S., Ed.
This collection of 14 articles aims to help teachers make the most of student discussion and inquiry in classrooms from middle school to high school to college. Contributors to the collection--secondary and college practitioners--offer theory-grounded, classroom-tested approaches for literature study in which students engage in democratic dialogue…
Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.
Detailed studies of a new manufactured house and four new industrialized relocatable school classrooms were conducted to determine the emission sources of formaldehyde and other VOCs and to identify and implement source reduction practices. Procedures were developed to generate VOC emission factors that allowed reasonably accurate predictions of indoor air VOC concentrations. Based on the identified sources of formaldehyde and other aldehydes, practices were developed to reduce the concentrations of these compounds in new house construction. An alternate ceiling panel reduced formaldehyde concentrations in the classrooms. Overall, the classrooms had relatively low VOC concentrations.
Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei
The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…
Young, Darlene S.; Baker, Robert E.
The practical learning experience that internships provide can be effectively incorporated into the sport management curriculum as a way to link classroom theory to professional practice. The authors stress the importance of establishing and maintaining academic rigor within internship experiences. The article addresses specific learning outcomes…
Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R
Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives.
Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel
Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…
Baker, Linda; Sonnenschein, Susan; Serpell, Robert
This report details a 5-year study comparing family literacy practices of families from preschool to Grade 3 with recommendations from the position statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children and the International Reading Association (NAEYC-IRA). Participating were African- and European-American families of children…
Clock, Sarah A.; Cohen, Bevin; Behta, Maryam; Ross, Barbara; Larson, Elaine L.
Background Contact precautions are recommended for interactions with patients colonized/infected with multidrug-resistant organisms; however, rates of contact precautions practice are unknown. Methods Observers recorded the availability of supplies and staff/visitor adherence to contact precautions at rooms of patients indicated for contact precautions. Data were collected at three sites in a New York City hospital network. Results Contact precautions signs were present for 85.4% of indicated patients. The largest proportions were indicated for isolation for vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures. Isolation carts were available outside 93.7-96.7% of rooms displaying signs, and personal protective equipment was available at rates of 49.4-72.1% for gloves (all sizes: small, medium, and large) and 91.7-95.2% for gowns. Overall adherence rates upon room entry and exit, respectively, were 19.4% and 48.4% for hand hygiene, 67.5% and 63.5% for gloves, and 67.9% and 77.1% for gowns. Adherence was significantly better in intensive care units (p<0.05) and by patient-care staff (p<0.05), and patient-care staff compliance with one contact precautions behavior was predictive of adherence to additional behaviors (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings support the recommendation that methods to monitor contact precautions and identify and correct non-adherent practices should be a standard component of infection prevention and control programs. PMID:19913329
Molin, Lisa; Lantz-Andersson, Annika
Since reading and writing digitally demand partially different competencies, there is a change in some of the premises of related educational practices. This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of educational reading practices by scrutinizing how literacy events evolve in a digital classroom where each student has a personal digital device…
A book that explores the problematic connection between education policy and practice while pointing in the direction of a more fruitful relationship, "Inside the Black Box of Classroom Practice" is a provocative culminating statement from one of America's most insightful education scholars and leaders. "Inside the Black Box of…
Strangeways, Al; Papatraianou, Lisa Helen
Classroom readiness and the attendant theory-practice disjunction remains a key concern of policy makers, stakeholders and graduate teachers themselves. Links between the theoretical knowledge that preservice teachers gain during initial teacher education (ITE) courses and the practical learning of their school placements need to be strengthened…
Ruggiero, Dana; Mong, Christopher J.
Previous studies indicated that the technology integration practices of teachers in the classroom often did not match their teaching styles. Researchers concluded that this was due, at least partially, to external barriers that prevented teachers from using technology in ways that matched their practiced teaching style. Many of these barriers,…
Monk, Martin; Swain, Julian; Ghrist, Mary; Riddle, Wendy
Surveyed Egyptian secondary science and mathematics teachers following a 12-week inservice in the United Kingdom regarding their views on barriers to changing their classroom practice and what changes they have introduced or can introduce to their practice. Overall, demands of final examinations were the most important inhibitor, and the…
Kloser, Matthew; Borko, Hilda; Martinez, Jose Felipe; Stecher, Brian; Luskin, Rebecca
Assessments are powerful tools for informing teachers and students about where student thinking stands with relation to a learning goal. Yet, few studies provide qualitative analyses of assessment practice across a unit. This study uses a framework of nine dimensions of effective assessment practice in science classrooms to compare more and less…
Although teachers continue to implement an array of best practices, learners identified as unsuccessful according to criteria may lack engagement to succeed in the current curriculum activities. Even as teachers continue to apply best practices in the classroom, data does not support continued improvement of student engagement and achievement of…
Yarnall, Louise; Fusco, Judi
If college science instructors are to use inquiry practices more in the classroom, they need both professional support to foster comfort with the pedagogy and practical ways to engage students in inquiry. Over a semester, we studied 13 community college biology instructors as they adopted bioinformatics problem-based learning (PBL) modules in…
Morrison, Timothy G.; Jacobs, James S.; Swinyard, William
Surveys teachers nationwide to determine their level of commitment as readers, as well as to establish their use of recommended literacy instructional practices. Finds a significant linear relationship between teachers who read personally and their use of recommended literacy practices in their classrooms; and significant results regarding…
The purpose of this reputation-based, multiple-site case study was to explore professional learning communities' impact on teacher classroom practice. The goal of this research was to describe the administrator and teachers' perceptions with respect to professional learning communities as it related to teacher practice in their school. Educators…
This study proposes a new theoretical framework that incorporates thematic descriptors to form broad conclusions about teachers' mathematical beliefs and their classroom practices. Narrative accounts provided by beginning primary teachers were used to analyse the relationship between their beliefs and practices through the lens of this newly…
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of instructional treatments on reflective practice and critical thinking in the college classroom at Bowling Green State University in the College of Business. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design to examine student reflective practice among three…
Schultz, Katherine; Coleman-King, Chonika
This article documents what happened when a teacher in an urban school shifted classroom practice through changing participation structures to incorporate digital technology and multiple modalities into a fifth grade literacy curriculum. This shift in teacher practice provided opportunities for immigrant students to become more visible in the…
Merritt, Eileen G.; Palacios, Natalia; Banse, Holland; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Leis, Micela
Teachers need more clarity about effective teaching practices as they strive to help their low-achieving students understand mathematics. Our study describes the instructional practices used by two teachers who, by value-added metrics, would be considered "highly effective teachers" in classrooms with a majority of students who were…
Hillman, Sara Katherine
Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) and Wenger's (1998) "communities of practice" (CoP) framework, this study explores the shared repertoire of humor practices in the creation of community within the context of a culturally diverse and multilevel adult Arabic language classroom consisting of two native speakers, five heritage language learners…
McKenna, John William; Muething, Colin; Flower, Andrea; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian
Opportunities to respond (OTR) and specific praise are two practices that may be particularly beneficial to students learning in secondary inclusive classrooms. Yet, there is relatively little research on effective inclusion practices involving secondary students with learning disabilities (LD) or studies at the secondary level. This study sought…
This paper sets out to explore science teachers' classroom assessment practices and outlines some of the tensions and synergies in changing assessment practices. It describes episodes from a collaborative action research project with science teachers designed to support the strengthening of classroom assessment practices--the King's Researching…
Shrestha, Prithvi Narayan
English language teaching (ELT) has been investigated from various angles including how English language teachers perceive what happens in an ELT classroom. How primary school English language learners perceive their experiences of ELT is rarely reported in the published literature, particularly from developing countries such as Bangladesh. This…
Byalick, Robert; Bersoff, Donald N.
The Positive Reinforcement Observation Schedule was used to obtain data concerning expressed preference for and observed use of positive reinforcement in integrated classrooms taught by 30 black and 30 white female elementary school teachers. The results are related to previous research and implications are drawn. (Author/SE)
Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Kasanda, Choshi; Kapenda, Hileni; Gaoseb, Noah; Kandjeo-Marenga, Utji
Presents the results of a study that focused on incidences of prescribed textbook usage in Namibian science classrooms. Indicates teacher dominated textbook use and restricted range of textbook references per lesson. States that the teachers used textbooks for diagrams and data and to verify factual information. (CMK)
Watt, Sarah J.; Therrien, William J.; Kaldenberg, Erica; Taylor, Jonte
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of inquiry-based instruction and to outline components of inquiry-based instruction key to ensuring that students with disabilities in inclusive science classrooms acquire core concepts. The use of collaboration, big ideas, knowledge and retention strategies, and formative assessments are…
Evertson, Carolyn M., Ed.; Weinstein, Carol S., Ed.
Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing concern during their early teaching years. Management problems continue…
Whitworth, Jerry E.
This paper describes a professional development model, which emerged from two projects, that had professional development of teachers as an important component. The first project, Project Lighthouse, was designed to facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities into general education classrooms. In this project, faculty and staff…
Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Eckert, Tanya L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Little, Steven G.
The debate over the effects of the use of extrinsic reinforcement in classrooms, businesses, and societal settings has been occurring for over 30 years. Some theorists have cautioned against the use of reward, whereas others have found little, if any, detrimental effect. This article examines the debate with an emphasis on data-based findings. The…
Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.; Long, Beverly A.
Six remedial reading teachers in a large, rural school district participated in a form of professional development called Teaching as Intentional Learning, based on an inquiry process. Their topic of inquiry was formative assessment. Professional development comprised both direct instruction and inquiry learning in teachers' own classrooms. This…
Young, Mark R.; Rapp, Eve; Murphy, James W.
Action Research is an applied scholarly paradigm resulting in action for continuous improvement in our teaching and learning techniques offering faculty immediate classroom payback and providing documentation of meeting our educational responsibilities as required by AACSB standards. This article reviews the iterative action research process of…
Wolberg, Rochelle Ibanez; Goff, Allison
This article describes thinking routines as tools to guide and support young children's thinking. These learning strategies, developed by Harvard University's Project Zero Classroom, actively engage students in constructing meaning while also understanding their own thinking process. The authors discuss how thinking routines can be used in both…
Hansen, Dee; Imse, Leslie A.
Music teacher evaluations traditionally examine how teachers develop student music-learning objectives, assess cognitive and performance skills, and direct classroom learning experiences and behavior. A convergence of past and current educational ideas and directives is changing how teachers are evaluated on their use of student-centered…
Weese, J. Scott
A wide range of activities may be undertaken in elementary and secondary school science laboratories as part of regular curricular activities or optional classroom activities, including science fair projects. Among these is the culturing of microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. There are various potential educational opportunities associated…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Compensatory Education.
The 111th Street School is successfully educating black students K-6 in inner-city Los Angeles. The key to the program's success is a form of organization designed to functionally support an ungraded system of learning centers devoted to attainment of specific educational objectives. Two Directories, this for the classroom teacher and a separate…
In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…
This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…
Andrée, Maria; Lager-Nyqvist, Lotta
In science education, students sometimes create and engage in spontaneous science-oriented play where ideas about science and scientists are put to use. However, in previous research, little attention has been given to the role of informal spontaneous play in school science classrooms. We argue that, in order to enhance our understanding of…
Jenkinson, Jill; Hyde, Tessa; Ahmad, Saffia
This reference manual on uses of occupational therapy techniques in British secondary schools is intended to help therapists to identify students' problems and then apply alternative strategies to improve classroom performance. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 1 defines 13 critical foundation skills (e.g., gross motor coordination, fine…
Golub, Jeff; And Others
Written by English teachers considered successful in directing collaborative learning, this collection of essays focuses on the effective use of collaborative learning in the English language arts classroom. The essays and their authors are, as follows: (1) "None of Us Is as Smart as All of Us" (Dana Herreman); (2) "Collaborative…
Twenty One Inch Classroom, Boston, MA.
A sequential series of four fifteen minute classroom television programs provide a drama whereby students can identify with a candidate's problems of getting elected to political office. Major purposes of the overall program are: 1) to make students aware of electoral processes in a democracy; 2) to emphasize the importance of each individual's…
Pounder, James S.
In a Hong Kong study, the author examined the effect on undergraduate business students of university business school instructors' exhibiting a transformational leadership style in the classroom. Transformational leadership is one of the central concepts in management, and research has indicated that a positive association exists between this…
Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.
Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…
Hendren, Kevin L.
Science teachers' decisions to integrate computer technology into their classrooms was impacted by their pedagogical beliefs and their computer attitudes. First order barriers, ones extrinsic to the teacher, and second order barriers, ones grounded in the teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning, interfered with the implementation of computer technology. This study examined the beliefs of high school educators in a large, suburban school district in the Southeast. Teachers identified their actual levels of computer use in the current school year and what their ideal levels of use would have been if they were given unlimited resources of time, technical support, computer hardware, and software. The level of computer use was measured in the areas of administration, communication, Internet, instruction, and laboratory. Research questions examined in the study were: (1) What are the pedagogical beliefs and computer attitudes of high school science teachers in the district? (2) How do first and second order barriers affect the actual use of computers? (3) How do first and second order barriers affect the teachers' perspective of the ideal use of computers? A significant interaction existed between computer use and the attitude of the science teachers toward computers, and the most notable interaction was between the teachers' computer attitudes and the use of the Internet. Teachers with constructivist beliefs were more likely to do Internet and use the computer in the laboratory. A significant difference existed between the actual use and the ideal use of computer technology in the areas of communication, Internet, instruction, and laboratory. A significant difference existed between male and female teachers in the amount of time computers were used in the laboratory, and years of teaching showed a significant interaction with constructivism and computer attitude. In their ideal visions, the science teachers expressed the greatest desire for growth in the areas of
Zhang, Meilan; Passalacqua, Susan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan; Parker, Joyce; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Zhang, Tianyi; Paik, Sunhee
In this study we described an action research project enacted by a veteran Kindergarten teacher (Sarah) in the context of a professional development program. Over the course of a year, Sarah collaborated with other teachers in a small group to investigate how to use "Science Talks" to promote student learning in Kindergarten classrooms. A…
Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.
In the era of teacher evaluation and effectiveness, assessment tools that identify and monitor educators' instruction and behavioral management practices are in high demand. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) Observer Form is a multidimensional teacher progress monitoring tool designed to assess teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral…
Mohamed, Hashim Issa; Banda, Felix
The paper problematises student writing as social practice from the perspective of lecturers' discursive practices. The paper uses data from a major study at a higher learning institution in Tanzania to explore lecturers' discursive practices and familiarity with the university orders of discourse including English medium of instruction, in…
Linguistic behavior often reveals cultural practices. In fact, sociolinguistics is dedicated to researching how language use intersects with cultural and social identity (e.g., Coupland. and Jaworski, 2009). One aspect of language use that sociolinguistics focuses on is naming practices. The study of such practices is called onomastics. While…
Shirley, Melissa L.
Formative assessment involves the probing of students' ideas to determine their level of understanding during the instructional sequence. Often conceptualized as a cycle, formative assessment consists of the teacher posing an instructional task to students, collecting data about student understanding, and engaging in follow-up strategies such as clarifying student understanding and adjusting instruction to meet learning needs. Despite having been shown to increase student achievement in a variety of classroom settings, formative assessment remains a relative weak area of teacher practice. Methods that enhance formative assessment strategies may therefore have a positive effect on student achievement. Audience response systems comprise a broad category of technologies that support richer classroom interaction and have the potential to facilitate formative assessment. Results from a large national research study, Classroom Connectivity in Promoting Mathematics and Science Achievement (CCMS), show that students in algebra classrooms where the teacher has implemented a type of audience response system experience significantly higher achievement gains compared to a control group. This suggests a role for audience response systems in promoting rich formative assessment. The importance of incorporating formative assessment strategies into regular classroom practice is widely recognized. However, it remains challenging to identify whether rich formative assessment is occurring during a particular class session. This dissertation uses teacher interviews and classroom observations to develop a fine-grained model of formative assessment in secondary science classrooms employing a type of audience response system. This model can be used by researchers and practitioners to characterize components of formative assessment practice in classrooms. A major component of formative assessment practice is the collection and aggregation of evidence of student learning. This dissertation
Borgmeier, Chris; Loman, Sheldon L.; Hara, Motoaki
The limited implementation of evidence-based classroom practices and ways to provide effective professional development to address this challenge remain enduring concerns in education. Despite these concerns, there exists a well-established research literature on evidence-based practices for effective classroom management and instructional…
Kinloch, Karen Elizabeth
According to an extensive review of the literature, effective instructional delivery and "classroom management" practices are critical factors to elevate student achievement (Shindler, Jones, Williams, Taylor, & Cadenas, 2012). The purpose of this study was to analyze a comparison of classroom management practices on student…
Ficarra, Laura; Quinn, Kevin
In the present investigation, teachers' self-reported knowledge and competency ratings for the evidence-based classroom management practices were analysed. Teachers also reflected on how they learned evidence-based classroom management practices. Results suggest that teachers working in schools that implement Positive Behavioural Interventions and…
Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie
This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed.
Allison, Elizabeth Rowland
This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify
Zhang, Meilan; Passalacqua, Susan; Lundeberg, Mary; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan; Parker, Joyce; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Zhang, Tianyi; Paik, Sunhee
In this study we described an action research project enacted by a veteran Kindergarten teacher (Sarah) in the context of a professional development program. Over the course of a year, Sarah collaborated with other teachers in a small group to investigate how to use “Science Talks” to promote student learning in Kindergarten classrooms. A Problem-Based Learning approach was adopted to guide the collaborative action research. Based on a rich set of data sources, we concluded that Sarah’s action research improved student learning and led to her own professional growth. We also identified important conditions in support of action research.
Buysse, Virginia; Castro, Dina C.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen
A randomized, controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the Nuestros Ninos professional development program on classroom practices and child outcomes related to language development and early literacy skills in both English and Spanish. Fifty-five teachers and 193 Latino dual language learners (DLLs) enrolled in the North Carolina…
Bartos, Stephen A.
Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these views necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of the considerable research that has examined teachers'…
Bartos, Stephen A.; Lederman, Norman G.
Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these conceptions necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of considerable research that has examined…
Ing, Marsha; Webb, Noreen M.; Franke, Megan L.; Turrou, Angela C.; Wong, Jacqueline; Shin, Nami; Fernandez, Cecilia H.
Engaging students as active participants in mathematics classroom discussions has great potential to promote student learning. Less well understood is how teachers can promote beneficial student participation, and how teacher-student interaction relates to student achievement. This study examined how the kinds of teacher practices that may…
Nag, Sonali; Snowling, Margaret J.; Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun
Surveys in low- and middle-income (LMI countries) reveal persistently low levels of learning among children in disadvantaged communities. Against this background, our synthesis of ethnographies aims at a fresh interpretation of classroom practices to clarify instruction-related barriers to literacy attainments. The review focuses on the period…
De Fazio, Carina M.; Fain, A. Christi; Duchaine, Ellen L.
Legislation such as No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and its reauthorization, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, mandate that evidence-based practices be used in schools. In fact, NCLB requires that "scientifically-based research" be the basis for classroom practices…
Hoffman, Steven J., Ed.
This practical guide is essential for anyone new to or intimidated by online instruction. It distills the wisdom of veteran instructors and program directors who have successfully navigated the transition from face-to-face classroom teaching to the online learning environment. Chapters cover all the bases from skills assessment to instructional…
Swiderski, Suzanne M.
High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…
Maxwell, Kelly L.; McWilliam, R. A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ault, Melinda Jones; Schuster, John W.
Tested psychometric properties of a new measure of developmentally appropriate practices in kindergarten through third grade and the predictive value of classroom and teacher characteristics. Found that grade, class size, number of children with disabilities, teacher educational level, teacher experience, and teacher beliefs accounted for 42…
Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.
Recent research has confirmed both the importance of teachers in producing student achievement growth and in the variability across teachers in the ability to do that. Such findings raise the stakes on our ability to identify effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures…
Hessari, Ruth; Hill, Dave
The practical application of multicultural education to the British elementary school classroom is discussed, taking into account the 1988 Education Reform Act and the attainment targets of the British National Curriculum. Part 1 explores the historical development of multicultural education, considering sex and class inequality and local and…
Muthasamy, Paramasivam; Farashaiyan, Atieh
This study examined the teaching approaches and techniques that Iranian instructors utilize for teaching L2 pragmatics in their classroom practices. 238 Iranian instructors participated in this study. The data for this study were accumulated through questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. In terms of the instructional approaches, both the…
Gorgorio, Nuria; de Abreu, Guida
This article suggests that a critical perspective of the notion of social representations can offer useful insights into understanding practices of teaching and learning in mathematics classrooms with immigrant students. Drawing on literature using social representations, previous empirical studies are revisited to examine three specific…
Werner, Linnette; Hellstrom, David; Chung, Jessica; Kessenich, Katherine; Taylor, Leonard, Jr.; Capeder, Anna
With leadership education expanding at an unprecedented rate, there is an acute need for an evidence-based leadership pedagogy that can bridge the gap between leadership theory and student practice both in the classroom and beyond its boundaries. This paper will give an overview of the Intentional Emergence Model as a way to teach leadership to…
McMillan, James H.; Myran, Steve; Workman, Daryl
The impact of the new Virginia statewide Standards of Learning (SOL) testing program on classroom instructional and assessment practices was studied through surveys before and after implementation of the testing program. The sample represented responses from 570 secondary school teachers (of mathematics, social studies, English, and science) and…
Siman, Nina; Goldenberg, Shifra M.; Gold, Thomas
A major focus of the booming education technology sector is on products that aim to help teachers improve classroom practice. For their part, districts must figure out which of these resources will be most useful to schools. In New York City, the Department of Education developed its own Achievement Reporting and Innovation System (ARIS), which…
Siman, Nina; Goldenberg, Shifra M.; Gold, Thomas
A major focus of the booming education technology sector is on products that aim to help teachers improve classroom practice. For their part, districts must figure out which of these resources will be most useful to schools. In New York City, the Department of Education developed its own Achievement Reporting and Innovation System (ARIS), which…
Cook-Sather, Alison; Motz-Storey, Damon
This qualitative case study describes how undergraduate students positioned as pedagogical consultants use several observational techniques to help faculty view their classroom practice from a new angle. It includes a brief review of literature on students as active partners with faculty in explorations of pedagogical approaches and a short…
Our pedagogical histories lean on textbooks, institutional records, and the words of famous teachers. Students rarely appear in situ. Here, the voices of two very different Progressive Era students cast spotlights on the shadows of long-ago classroom practices--offering a liveliness that is difficult to recover, but worth seeking. (Contains 5…
Reid, Louann, Ed.; Golub, Jeffrey N., Ed.
This book offers successful classroom practices that encourage students to learn purposefully and constructively by reflecting on their own learning processes and by making connections between what they read (whether verbal or visual texts) and the lives they lead. Extending from middle and high school through college composition and English…
This study explores how intertextuality influences the narrative practices of young deaf children in two classrooms. Specifically, the study examines how variations in what texts are made available to juxtapose and variations in how texts are juxtaposed influence the narratives young deaf children produce. A major premise underlying these two…
Hung, Yu-ju; Chen, Shu-cheng; Samuelson, Beth Lewis
Role-play is an oral classroom activity that has been promoted to provide young learners with opportunities to practice English in meaningful contexts. To familiarize elementary students with this group task, to encourage them to pay attention to their peers' performances, and to replace traditional paper-and-pencil modes of evaluating speaking…
McKibbin, Michael D.; Joyce, Bruce R.
The effects of training on twenty-one teachers in a Teacher Corps school were examined according to the type of training chosen, the preference exhibited by the teacher for certain types of delivery systems, and the level of transfer to classroom practice which were applicable to the different systems. This four-year study of inservice teacher…
Boyles, Deron R.
In an effort to navigate the treacherous path between professionalism and social relevancy, this essay takes up an area of professional philosophy--epistemology--with the intention of reclaiming the integrative role John Dewey held for philosophy and classroom practice. Deron Boyles asserts that epistemology can and should represent an area of…
Diamond, John B.
In this article, the author examines the links between high stakes testing policies, school organization processes, and instructional practice using data from a study of K-5 and K-8 schools in Chicago. He argues that although the policy environment penetrates the classroom, this penetration is partial--stronger on some aspects of instruction than…
This article explores the design and implementation of critical action research undertaken to encourage equal classroom participation. Building on a body of literature on critical action research and oral participation, the author reports her research project undertaken in a multi-lingual and multi-ethnic class in Japan to examine practices of how…
Student voice is a construct that has come to mean many things to many people. In this article the author is interested in forms of student voice practice that generate a shift in status for students, from passive recipients of schooling to governance partners with teachers in the classroom. She argues that governance partnerships that include…
In this compelling video series, popular presenter-educator Rick Wormeli examines the assessment practices that best support the differentiated classroom. He considers the role of assessment in designing differentiated lessons, the power of formative assessment, important considerations in tiering assessments, and the key components of strong…
Wong, Emily M. L.; Li, Sandy S. C.; Choi, Tat-heung; Lee, Tsz-ngong
This paper draws on the literature of transformational leadership and learning organisation with a concern to foster innovative changes in classroom practices. Based on the understanding that effective use of ICT has to be construed in the pedagogical and organisational context, this study focuses on the impact of the relevant contextual factors…
Yook, Cheongmin; Lee, Yong-hun
This study employed qualitative data collection and analysis methods to investigate the influence of English as a foreign language teacher education programme on Korean teachers' classroom teaching practices. Six in-service secondary-school teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was applied to the data collected…
Jacobs, James S.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Swinyard, William R.
Determines how often 1,874 elementary teachers read to their students. Reports how many of the last 10 school days they read to their students. Concludes that teachers reading aloud to students is a practice that is more common in primary-grade classrooms than in the intermediate grades, and that older teachers read less often to their students…
Evnitskaya, Natalia; Morton, Tom
This paper draws on Wenger's model of community of practice to present preliminary findings on how processes of negotiation of meaning and identity formation occur in knowledge construction, meaning-making and interaction in two secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) science classrooms. It uses a multimodal conversation analysis…
Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn
This study explores the transfer of critical thinking skills and dispositions from pre-service teacher training to classroom practice and student achievement in the cases of two graduates from a course on critical thinking-integrated instruction. Two 7th and two 8th grade classes were randomly assigned as experimental (CT-integrated instruction),…
Wyatt, Monica; Pickle, J. Michael
A study investigated the effect of the stated objectives of remedial reading programs on the objectives and teaching practices of classroom reading instructors. Interviews were conducted with nine reading teachers in two highly structured college reading programs. Each operated with a set curriculum, set materials, and prewritten tests, but the…
Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016
Guiding student growth minute-by-minute--aka classroom formative assessment--has a track record of boosting student and teacher engagement. Discover concrete ways leaders can support this high-impact instructional practice throughout your school or district. Learn: (1) how to clarify who owns the learning and who is responsible for the learning…
Bozkurt, Gulay; Ruthven, Kenneth
This study examines the classroom practice and craft knowledge underpinning one teacher's integration of the use of GeoGebra software into mathematics teaching. The chosen teacher worked in an English secondary school and was professionally well regarded as an accomplished user of digital technology in mathematics teaching. Designed in accordance…
This article examines the role students play in shaping the nature of the technologies they use in their classrooms and the role teachers play in supporting students' innovative practices. Drawing on research on the sociology of technological development from the field of Science and Technology Studies, the process by which one student's…
Dunn, Karyn; Strafford, Ed; Marston, Chris
This study investigated current classroom assessment practices by surveying teachers in New Zealand at years 5, 7, and 9 on the assessments they use in the areas of English and mathematics, the purposes of the assessment, and the assessments that provide the most useful information. A total of 676 questionnaires were returned from 311 full…
This article examines the wider meanings of collective inquiries, creative collaboration and learning at work through analyzing a teacher's learning process when plunging into collaborative inquiry and creation with the students in primary classroom context. The incorporation of "songcrafting" into the existing practice of singing…
Brinkley, Alan; Dessants, Betty; Flamm, Michael; Fleming, Cynthia; Forcey, Charles; Rothschild, Eric
This book is designed to offer practical advice to beginning, as well as experienced, teachers of college courses on navigating many of the common challenges faced both in and outside the classroom. Chapters include "Getting Ready," which covers three discrete components of course design: deciding what you want students to learn, choosing…
Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse
This article is based on a pedagogical action research initiative carried out in a Finnish primary school. Twenty-four 5th grade pupils and their teacher participated in the study. The research initiative was guided by two questions: (1) How do pupils experience their classroom practices? (2) How can pupils participate in the process of developing…
Stanford, Gene; And Others
This collection of 27 articles written by educators suggests to classroom teachers creative ways of teaching writing well even when confronted with unreasonably large classes. The articles are presented under six main headings: ungraded writing, teacher involvement--not evaluation, student self-editing, practice with parts, focused feedback, and…
Meichtry, Yvonne J.
This research investigation focused on a middle school interdisciplinary team of teachers in an attempt to understand how such an arrangement, as an aspect of school organization, has the potential to influence teacher interactions and the classroom practices of teachers. Major sources of data were the interactions among participant teachers as…
Loughland, Tony; Vlies, Penny
Teacher adaptability is a key disposition for teachers that has been linked to outcomes of interests to schools. The aim of this study was to examine how the broader disposition of teacher adaptability might be observable as classroom-based adaptive practices using an argument-based approach to validation. The findings from the initial phase of…
Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham
The article examines the impact of New Labour policies--particularly the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies and the subsequent Primary National Strategy--on classroom practice at Key Stage 2 in England. Evidence is drawn from fieldwork conducted in 2003-2005 from a sample of 50 schools, replicating a study conducted a decade previously in…
This paper explores the metaphor of the classroom as a "crucible" for early professional learning where beginning teachers forge professional identities in complex, unpredictable, paradoxical, affectively and physically potent contexts of practice. It works into the dissonances and contradictions of the micro-narratives embedded in the…
This study investigated teachers' perceptions and practices concerning musical improvisation in the English primary classroom. A questionnaire survey was carried out with participants drawn from primary teachers--both generalists and specialists--working in various regions of England. The findings demonstrate a positive view of teachers'…
McNeill, Brigid; Kirk, Cecilia
The current study aimed to examine teachers' reported spelling assessment and instruction practices. Analysis of the match between teachers' theoretical beliefs about spelling and their reported pedagogy was conducted to elucidate factors that may support or impede the use of evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. An electronic…
Lopes, J. B.; Silva, A. A.; Cravino, J. P.; Santos, C. A.; Cunha, A.; Pinto, A.; Silva, A.; Viegas, C.; Saraiva, E.; Branco, M. J.
This study deals with the problem of how to collect genuine and useful data about science classroom practices, and preserving the complex and holistic nature of teaching and learning. Additionally, we were looking for an instrument that would allow comparability and verifiability for teaching and research purposes. Given the multimodality of…
This paper builds on sociological assumptions that teachers, schools and schooling may play an important role in the recognition and psychopathologization of particular boys as "difficult, disordered and disturbed". The data draw on ethnographic work combined with video recordings of everyday classroom practices in a special educational…
Kington, Alison; Sammons, Pam; Day, Christopher; Regan, Elaine
The Effective Classroom Practice project aimed to identify key factors that contribute to effective teaching in primary and secondary phases of schooling in different socioeconomic contexts. This article addresses the ways in which qualitative and quantitative approaches were combined within an integrated design to provide a comprehensive…
Zhou, Jiming; Deneen, Christopher Charles
This study examines Chinese tertiary award-winning tutors' perceptions and reported practices of classroom-based assessment. Seventeen tutors in the final stage of a national university teaching contest were individually interviewed. An interview framework was developed using three process dimensions of assessment for learning (AfL). A sequential…
Classroom observations are an important source of information about teaching and about the practice of particular teachers. The paper considers the value placed on talk as opposed to silence in this context and suggests that a cultural bias towards talk means that silence is commonly perceived negatively. The paper is based on a qualitative…
Fincham, Emmanuelle N.; Fellner, Amanda R.
Transitions from one classroom to the next as children reach a certain age or achieve certain milestones seem inevitable; however, this taken-for-granted practice in early childhood centers has not been looked at closely in research. This article considers what happens when we look more in depth at these day-to-day experiences of teachers and…
Set within the affective turn in cultural and social theory, in this paper, I explore the significance of materiality and matter, most specifically, bodily matter, in the pedagogic practices of contemporary school classrooms. The received view in education is that affect is tantamount to emotion or feeling and that materials, such as bodily…
Cirocki, Andrzej; Tennekoon, Sujeewa; Calvo, Alicia Pena
Modern language education favours the model of a reflective teacher-researcher who is engaged in both individual and collaborative curriculum revision and teaching-learning environment improvement. The present paper addresses the issue of classroom research and reflective practice in current ESL pedagogy and teacher professional development. The…
Observations were carried out in 10 regular elementary classrooms in Winnipeg (Manitoba) in which instructional assistants were assigned to students with severe disabilities for at least 2.5 hours per day. Instructional assistants were found to facilitate inclusive practices by interacting with regular and special education students together,…
Stairs, Andrea J.; Donnell, Kelly A.; Dunn, Alyssa Hadley
"Urban Teaching in America: Theory, Research, and Practice in K-12 Classrooms" is a brief yet comprehensive overview of urban teaching. Undergraduate and graduate students who are new to the urban context will develop a deeper understanding of the urban teaching environment and the challenges and opportunities they can expect to face while…
Ramirez, Elena; Clemente, Maria; Canedo, Isabel; Martin, Jorge
Knowing precisely how teachers use Internet resources in their classroom practice is essential when seeking to explain what aspects support the real incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching, and in determining the mechanisms underlying the use of these resources in direct teaching situations. This article…
Hinchey, Patricia H.
This book introduces critical theory, providing a practical starting point for teachers interested in exploring alternatives for creating a new kind of classroom experience, both for themselves and their students. Critical theory offers most educators an approach to education that is radically different from the norm. This book provides the…
Which pedagogical processes and practices that target the recognition, value and sharing of world views in teaching and learning can be identified as strategies for learning to live together in an Australian multicultural classroom? The question is addressed by this paper, which presents two discrete but complementary pedagogical models that…
Marcon, Nerissa; Faulkner, Julie
Digital games are positioned in literacy research as integral to contemporary youth culture and their potential as a learning resource continues to be explored in current literature. This paper examines the use of "Minecraft" as a pedagogical tool to motivate girls' literacy practices within the secondary English classroom. The data…
Levin, Tamar; Wadmany, Rivka
This paper reports on an exploratory, longitudinal study that analyzes and interprets the evolution of teachers' beliefs regarding learning, teaching, and technology, and their instructional practices, in the context of integrating technology-based information-rich tasks in six 4th-6th grade classrooms. The study used multiple research tools,…
Wong, Arch Chee Keen; McAlpine, Bill; Moore, Tim; Brotherton, Dave; Charter, Ian R.; Emgard, Emma; Buszowski, Fern
The cultivation of reflective practice has become a commonly accepted goal of theological education. However, theological educators must face the challenge of teaching and assessing reflective practice. Hypothesizing that this concern is best addressed in community, the authors of this article devised a collaborative action-research project using…
Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Tasker, Tammy; White, Barbara
This article examines the pedagogical practices of two science inquiry teachers and their students using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry (WOI). There is a need to build a collective repertoire of pedagogical practices that can assist elementary and middle school teachers as they support students to develop a complex model of inquiry based…
Rush, Kathy Lynn
Evidenced-based practice is no longer a "frill" but a necessity, demanded by an evolving healthcare system and the needs of practice, professional nursing bodies, and American consumers who want safe, quality care. Although its importance has been touted by the profession, incorporating evidence into practice is not a skill for which nurses at point of care are ready. Preparation for evidence-based practice must begin in basic educational programs. Yet, the process of using evidence to guide practice is complex especially for undergraduate students who are only beginning to ask questions let alone answer them. Nursing schools have responded to the professional call to evidence-based practice with the use of a variety of teaching approaches. This article presents a unique approach, not previously described, involving the use of laptops in an undergraduate nursing research course to equip students for evidence-based practice, giving students hands-on experience with the process and introducing students to online resources. Student feedback and educator reflections highlight the value of the technology in expediting student learning and comfort with evidence-based practice.
Rowlands, Kate; Avramenko, Alex
This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and…
McMillan, James H.
This book is designed to provide prospective and practicing teachers with: (1) a concise presentation of assessment principles that clearly and specifically relate to instruction, (2) current research in the field, and (3) practical and realistic examples of assessment and suggestions for assessment built into the instructional process. The book…
Lippitt, Ronald O.; Fox, Robert S.
A survey of teaching practices and a face-to-face sharing institute were designed for an experiment to identify innovative practices, to legitimize the sharing of them, and to develop criteria for evaluating the relevance and importance of particular inventions. This experiment was part of a project involving a state organization of teachers and…
In this paper JoAnne Reid explains why she is confident about the benefits of programming, and uses this opportunity to reflect upon Garth Boomer's influence on her own teaching practice. Reid adds "I think more theoretically about programming in my own situation of practice--teacher education." Using Boomer's own work on programming,…
Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman
Al Kharusi, Hussain A.
Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment
Boriack, Anna Christine
The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' perceptions of professional development and changes in classroom practice. A proposed conceptual framework for effective professional development that results in changes in classroom practices was developed. Data from two programs that provided professional development to teachers in the areas of technology, mathematics, and science was used to inform the conceptual framework. These two programs were Target Technology in Texas (T3) and Mathematics, Science, and Technology Teacher Preparation Academies (MSTTPA). This dissertation used a multiple article format to explore each program separately, yet the proposed conceptual framework allowed for comparisons to be made between the two programs. The first study investigated teachers' perceptions of technology-related professional development after their districts had received a T3 grant. An online survey was administrated to all teachers to determine their perceptions of technology-related professional development along with technology self-efficacy. Classroom observations were conducted to determine if teachers were implementing technology. The results indicated that teachers did not perceive professional development as being effective and were not implementing technology in their classrooms. Teachers did have high technology self-efficacy and perceived adequate school support, which implies that effective professional development may be a large factor in whether or not teachers implement technology in their classrooms. The second study evaluated participants' perceptions of the effectiveness of mathematics and science professional development offered through a MSTTP academy. Current and former participants completed an online survey which measured their perceptions of academy activities and school environment. Participants also self-reported classroom implementation of technology. Interviews and open-ended survey questions were used to provide further insight into
Lea, Dale Halsey; Thomas-Lawson, Marjorie
Case studies illustrating baccalaureate and advanced practice nursing roles in genetic health care form the basis of an integrated approach to genetics education in nursing curricula. Use of such case studies involves nurses in obtaining informed consent from clients. (SK)
Jita, Loyiso Currell
This study investigated the construction of teaching practices that are aimed at including all students in learning the key ideas of science and helping them to develop a voice for participating in the discourses in and outside of the science classroom. Such practices define what in this study is referred to as transformative practice. The study tells the stories of three Black secondary school teachers in South Africa who have worked to construct a transformative practice in their biology and physical science classrooms. Using a life history perspective, the study explored the relationships between teachers' identities and the changes in their classroom practices. Data were collected mainly through periodic interviews with the teachers and observations of their teaching practices over a period of 18 months. An important finding of the study was that the classroom practices of all three teachers were defined by three similar themes of: (1) "covering the content" and preparing their students to succeed in the national examinations, (2) developing deep conceptual understandings of the subject matter, and (3) including all students in their teaching by constructing what other researchers have called a "culturally-relevant" pedagogy. This finding was consistent despite the observed variations of context and personal histories. A major finding of this study on the question of the relationship between identity and teaching practice was that despite the importance of context, subject matter, material and social resources, another category of resources---the "resources of biography"---proved to be crucial for each of the teachers in crafting a transformative pedagogy. These "resources of biography" included such things as the teachers' own experiences of marginalization, the experiences of growing up or living in a particular culture, and the experiences of participating in certain kinds of social, political, religious or professional activities. The study suggests that it
The purposes of this dissertation study are to better understand what specific types of scientific knowledge and practice three elementary teachers exhibit, and to examine how they use their scientific knowledge in their classroom teaching practice to provide students' opportunities to learn science when teaching condensation in the context of a unit on the water cycle. By comparing and contrasting three cases of elementary classroom teaching, this study discusses what kinds of scientific knowledge and practice are fundamental for teaching elementary science for scientific understanding. The data include structured interviews (content, pre- and post- observation, and stimulated recall), videotaped classroom observations, and collections of teachers' and students' written artifacts. Data were collected prior to, during, and after the three teachers taught condensation to fifth grade students. The data were analyzed in three contexts: interviews, teaching practices, and students' classroom activities. This made it possible to clarify which characteristics of teacher's scientific knowledge influenced which aspects of their teaching practice. Data analysis shows that teachers' scientific knowledge were closely associated with their teaching practice and students' classroom activities. Two characteristics of the teachers' scientific reasoning emerged as especially important. The first concerned how teachers connected observations of condensation with patterns in those observations (e.g., condensation occurs when warm moist air cools) and with explanations for those patterns (e.g., condensation is water vapor that changes to liquid water). Two teachers were careful to connect observations with patterns in their own thinking and in their classroom teaching. One of those teachers also connected the observations and patterns to scientific explanations. In contrast, the third teacher focused on listing scientific terms with little elaboration with specific observations and
Krist, Christina Rae
Recent reforms in science education, based on decades of learning research, emphasize engaging students in science and engineering practices as the means to develop and refine disciplinary ideas. These reforms advocate an epistemic shift in how school science is done: from students learning about science ideas to students figuring out core science ideas. This shift is challenging to implement: how do we bring the goals and practices of a discipline into classroom communities in meaningful ways that go beyond simply following rote scientific procedures? In this dissertation, I investigate how classroom communities learn to engage meaningfully in scientific practices, characterizing their engagement as a process of epistemic learning. I take a situated perspective that defines learning as shifts in how members engage in communities of practice. I examine students' epistemic learning as a function of their participation in a classroom community of scientific practice along two dimensions: what they do, or the practical epistemic heuristics they use to guide how they build knowledge; and who they are, or how ownership and authorship of ideas is negotiated and affectively marked through interaction. I focus on a cohort of students as they move from 6th to 8 th grade. I analyze three science units, one from each grade level, to look at the epistemic heuristics implicit in student and teacher talk and how the use of those heuristics shifts over time. In addition, I examine one anomalous 8th grade class to look at how students and the teacher position themselves and each other with respect to the ideas in their classroom and how that positioning supports epistemic learning. Taken together, these analyses demonstrate how students' engagement in scientific practices evolves in terms of what they do and who they are in relation to the knowledge and ideas in their classroom over time. I propose a model for epistemic learning that articulates how classroom communities develop
Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.
Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.
Glynn, Donna M
This qualitative study examined the incorporation of "reflection-on-action" in a structured reflective classroom format as defined by Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model on the development of perceived clinical judgment and clinical confidence in Bachelor of Science nursing students. The qualitative results described the students' perceptions of the benefit of the intervention on their development of clinical judgment and clinical confidence. This research was an important contribution to the debate regarding the benefit of structured reflection in a classroom setting. By using reflection in the classroom, nurse educators may influence the education-practice gap and incorporate new pedagogies to strengthen the educational preparedness of nursing students to provide high-quality, competent, compassionate care to patients and their families.
While you don't need to be a scientist to understand brain-compatible teaching, you'll be far more effective when you base your teaching practices on the very best scientific information. This expanded and updated ASCD best-seller delivers that essential information in clear, everyday language that any teacher can immediately incorporate into…
Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim
Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…
Dover, Alison G.
In this article, the author presents the results of a multistate study examining how teachers, and specifically secondary English Language Arts (ELA) teachers, conceptualize and implement teaching for social justice in standards-based contexts. Additional analysis underscores how this practice both reflects and extends earlier equity-oriented…
The strengths and weaknesses of using ethnographic research to investigate equity in a study of a grade 9 class that used a dynamic geometry program with laptop computers will be presented. It will be argued that research approaches that involve "windows on practice" provide understanding of not only who is advantaged and disadvantaged in…
Feryok, Anne; Pryde, Michael
Conceptualizations of teacher knowledge have shifted to focusing on the role of experiential rather than theoretical knowledge. There are different approaches to this, but the idea of an image that guides practice is widespread. One approach to images that has not been frequently investigated in studies of second language teachers is through…
Norton, Nadjwa E. L.
This article examines how one spiritual, Black, male, first grade teacher and one spiritual, Black first grader name music as a spiritual practice. The data arise from a 1-year multicultural feminist critical narrative inquiry. The findings demonstrate how the participants' age, ethnicity, class, and spirituality shape music as a spiritual…
Swartz, James D.
This paper examines teachers' practical theories of teaching and ways in which individual teachers participate in a social solidarity, based on Richard Rorty's idea of solidarity as clinging to one's own ethnocentrism to understand differences between right and wrong, good and bad. Social solidarity is seen as holding people together, defining…
López, Omar S.; Springer, Stephen B.; Nelson, Jeffrey B.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain central topics in institutions' efforts to address student veteran needs. From the authors' experiences with student veterans, they present the five principles of effective instructional practice identified by the National Research Council (NRC) within the context of…
Elementary school is not too early to introduce contemporary art; young students are especially adept at learning by mimicry and embracing contemporary art practices, including site-specific works. Elementary students are poised and capable to comprehend and respond to contemporary art. Tangible products can be made within a conceptual,…
Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Albin, Richard W.
In this article, the authors describe 12 practical strategies identified as empirically effective in preventing behavioral escalation in students: (1) Reinforce calm and on-task behaviors; (2) Know the triggers; (3) Pay attention to anything unusual about the student's behavior; (4) Do not escalate along with the student; (5) Offer students…
Inquiry has been one of the most prominent terms of the contemporary science education reform movement (Buck, Latta, & Leslie-Pelecky, 2007; Colburn, 2006; Settlage, 2007). Practicing classroom inquiry has maintained its central position in science education for several decades because science education reform documents promote classroom inquiry as the potential savior of science education from its current problems. Likewise, having the capabilities of teaching science through inquiry has been considered by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS] as one of the essential elements of being an accomplished science teacher. Successful completion of National Board Certification [NBC] assessment process involves presenting a clear evidence of enacting inquiry with students. Despite the high-profile of the word inquiry in the reform documents, the same is not true in schools (Crawford, 2007). Most of the science teachers do not embrace this type of approach in their everyday teaching practices of science (Johnson, 2006; Luera, Moyer, & Everett, 2005; Smolleck, Zembal-Saul, & Yoder, 2006; Trumbull, Scarano, & Bonney, 2006). And the specific meanings attributed to inquiry by science teachers do not necessarily match with the original intentions of science education reform documents (Matson & Parsons, 2006; Wheeler, 2000; Windschitl, 2003). Unveiling the various meanings held by science teachers is important in developing better strategies for the future success of science education reform efforts (Jones & Eick, 2007; Keys & Bryan, 2001). Due to the potential influences of National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs] on inexperienced science teachers as their mentors, examining inquiry conceptions of NBCSTs is called for. How do these accomplished practitioners understand and enact inquiry? The purpose of this dissertation research study was twofold. First, it investigated the role of NBC performance assessment process on the professional development
Plummer, J. D.; Small, K. J.
Children should be learning how to engage in science practices in ways that reflect the domain-specific nature of learning to “do science.” Our work explores methods for engaging children in science practices in astronomy, such as developing representations and models, using evidence, and organizing observations into patterns. We used research literature on learning in formal and informal environments to develop learning environment design principles that integrate classroom and planetarium instruction. These were used to develop an intervention for first-grade students. Children first participated in an anticipatory lesson in their classroom. They next visited the planetarium, where they were engaged in a modular planetarium design program that mixed live interaction with video sequences. Finally, children applied what they learned as they engaged in activities in their classroom. Initial analysis of interviews conducted with children before and after instruction suggest the intervention was successful in improving students' reasoning about the Moon and illustrates successful methods of integrating a field trip with a classroom-based lesson.
Guided by sociocultural theory and the theory of multiliteracies, learning is perceived as a shifting participation in practices, which is mediated by multiple physical and symbolic tools. Drawing on the situated multiliteracies approach, which integrates these two theories, the purpose of this ethnographic research is to examine the participation…
Bhattacharya, Rimli; Gupta, Snehlata; Jewitt, Carey; Newfield, Denise; Reed, Yvonne; Stein, Pippa
This article makes a methodological contribution to investigating the policy-practice nexus in the English classroom. It looks beyond language to offer a multimodal case study analysis of English classrooms in three cities: Delhi, Johannesburg, and London. The article shows how policies mediated by the agencies of the state, the school, the…
Fagan, Drew Stephen
Although contemporary second language learning scholars assert that teacher management of learner contributions in classroom interaction is key to promoting learning opportunities, research has yet to make explicit teachers' real-time management practices. Studies on classroom interaction have illuminated how learner contributions are elicited via…
Civitillo, Sauro; Denessen, Eddie; Molenaar, Inge
Nowadays, teachers must deal, as never before, with diversity in classrooms. Differentiation practices help teachers to address this diversity in an inclusive setting. However, teachers' perceptions about classroom heterogeneity are fundamental to examine whether they are competent to screen their pupils' needs. The present study used a…
Newton, Xiaoxia A.
This paper reported results from a generalizability study that examined the process of developing classroom practice indicators used to evaluate the impact of a school district's mathematics reform initiative. The study utilized classroom observational data from 32 second, fourth, eighth, and tenth grade teachers. The study addresses important…
Lange, Karin E.
Implementing research-based practices in classrooms as a means of increasing achievement in mathematics for all students requires an understanding of many complex factors that influence classroom change. Situating the role of the teacher as critical to these efforts, teacher inquiry provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the…
Kang, Yan; Cheng, Xiaotang
This article reports on an in-depth case study of a novice middle school EFL teacher's cognition development during the process of learning to teach in the workplace. Data was collected mainly through classroom observations and interviews. Results indicate that the teacher exhibited a considerable amount of change in her classroom practices, which…
Heredia, Sara C.; Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Renga, Ian Parker
Formative assessment has been recognized as an essential element of effective classroom practice; as a result, teachers are increasingly required to create formative assessments for their classrooms. This study examines data drawn from a long-term, site-based professional development program that supported a department of biology teachers in the iterative design and enactment of common formative assessment tools. We analyze teacher conversations to understand how teachers collaborated to design formative assessments. Results indicate that when teachers attended to problems of practice related to teaching evolution, increased transparency in their talk helped build consensus about the design of formative assessment tools. These results highlight the importance of encouraging transparency in teacher dialog when they are engaged in collaborative design of formative assessments.
Wu, Pai-Hsing; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Kuo, Che-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Shao
Computer-based learning tools include design features to enhance learning but learners may not always perceive the existence of these features and use them in desirable ways. There might be a gap between what the tool features are designed to offer (intended affordance) and what they are actually used (actual affordance). This study thus aims at…
Vlachou, Anastasia; Fyssa, Aristea
This study observed the extent to which teachers supported the inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream classrooms and involved monitoring 52 mainstream preschool settings in Greece. The association between programme quality, context and teacher characteristics was also tested. Findings showed that the quality of inclusion ranged…
Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L
This study examined classroom food practices and eating behavior of middle school teachers from 16 schools in a metropolitan area, located in the upper Midwest. In winter 1999-2000, teachers in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade were surveyed (response rate = 70%; n = 490/701). Questions addressed teachers' classroom food practices, eating behavior while at school, personal health, and attitudes about the school food environment. Use of food as an incentive/reward for students was a common classroom practice in middle schools, and most foods did not support development of health eating patterns by young adolescents. Candy was the most frequently used food item, reported by 73% of teachers, followed by cookies/doughnuts (37%), sweetened drinks (35%), and pizza (28%). Many middle school teachers did not role model healthy eating behavior at school. Prevalent use of vending was a particular concern, with beverage and snack vending use reported by 62% and 35% of teachers, respectively. Most vending items purchased were sweetened drinks (57%) and high-fat or high-sugar snacks (85%). Low perceived personal health, high-fat scores, and low support for the school food environment were some of the significant correlates of teachers' eating behavior. School and health professionals should continue to advocate for schoolwide policies and programs that support students and teachers if the goal of an integrated healthy school food environment is to be realized.
Chini, Jacquelyn J.; Straub, Carrie L.; Thomas, Kevin H.
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] Undergraduate students are increasingly being used to support course transformations that incorporate research-based instructional strategies. While such students are typically selected based on strong content knowledge and possible interest in teaching, they often do not have previous pedagogical training. The current training models make use of real students or classmates role playing as students as the test subjects. We present a new environment for facilitating the practice of physics pedagogy skills, a highly immersive mixed-reality classroom simulator, and assess its effectiveness for undergraduate physics learning assistants (LAs). LAs prepared, taught, and reflected on a lesson about motion graphs for five highly interactive computer generated student avatars in the mixed-reality classroom simulator. To assess the effectiveness of the simulator for this population, we analyzed the pedagogical skills LAs intended to practice and exhibited during their lessons and explored LAs' descriptions of their experiences with the simulator. Our results indicate that the classroom simulator created a safe, effective environment for LAs to practice a variety of skills, such as questioning styles and wait time. Additionally, our analysis revealed areas for improvement in our preparation of LAs and use of the simulator. We conclude with a summary of research questions this environment could facilitate.
Genel, Abdulkadir; Sami Topçu, Mustafa
Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle school science classrooms, and the research question that guided the present study is: How can we characterize Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (ages 11-14)? Sample: In order to address the research question of this study, we explored 10 Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms. A purposeful sampling strategy was used, thus, PSTs were specifically chosen because they were ideal candidates to teach SSI and to integrate SSI into the science curricula since they were seniors in the science education program who had to take the field experience courses. Design and method: The participants' SSI teaching practices were characterized in light of qualitative research approach. SSI-based teaching practices were analyzed, and the transcripts of all videotape recordings were coded by two researchers. Results: The current data analysis describes Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices under five main categories: media, argumentation, SSI selection and presentation, risk analysis, and moral perspective. Most of PSTs did not use media resources in their lesson and none of them considered moral perspective in their teaching. While the risk analyses were very simple and superficial, the arguments developed in the classrooms generally remained at a simple level. PSTs did not think SSI as a central topic and discussed these issues in a very limited time and at the end of the class period. Conclusions: The findings of this study manifest the need of the reforms in science education programs. The present study provides evidence that moral, media
Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor
This study describes and analyzes the experiences of two high-school chemistry teachers who participated in a team-based professional development program to learn about and enact formative assessment in their classrooms. The overall purpose of this study is to explain how participation in this professional development influenced both teachers' classroom enactment of formative assessment practices. This study focuses on 1) teachers' participation in the professional development program, 2) teachers' enactment of formative assessment, and 3) factors that enabled or hindered enactment of formative assessment. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and using evidence from teacher lessons, teacher interviews, professional development meetings as data sources, this single embedded case study analyzes how these two teachers who participated in the same learning team and have similar characteristics (i.e., teaching in the same school, teaching the same courses and population of students, and using the same materials) differentially used the professional development learning about formative assessment as mediating tools to improve their classroom instruction. The learning team experience contributed to both teachers' development of a better understanding of formative assessment---especially in recognizing that their current grading and assessment practices were not appropriate to promote student learning---and the co-creation of artifacts to gather evidence of students' ideas. Although both teachers demonstrated understanding about how formative assessment may serve to promote student learning and had a set of tools available to utilize for formative assessment use, they did not enact these tools in the same way. One teacher appropriated formative assessment as mediating tool to verify if the students were following her explanations, and to check if the students were able to provide the correct response. The other teacher used the mediating tool to promote
Caldwell, Jane E
Audience response systems (ARS) or clickers, as they are commonly called, offer a management tool for engaging students in the large classroom. Basic elements of the technology are discussed. These systems have been used in a variety of fields and at all levels of education. Typical goals of ARS questions are discussed, as well as methods of compensating for the reduction in lecture time that typically results from their use. Examples of ARS use occur throughout the literature and often detail positive attitudes from both students and instructors, although exceptions do exist. When used in classes, ARS clickers typically have either a benign or positive effect on student performance on exams, depending on the method and extent of their use, and create a more positive and active atmosphere in the large classroom. These systems are especially valuable as a means of introducing and monitoring peer learning methods in the large lecture classroom. So that the reader may use clickers effectively in his or her own classroom, a set of guidelines for writing good questions and a list of best-practice tips have been culled from the literature and experienced users.
Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami; Kokkonen, Tuukka
A teacher's practical knowledge contains the teacher's beliefs about the goals, values and principles of education that guide his or her actions in the classroom. There is still a lack of knowledge about how teachers' practical knowledge influences their teaching. The present study examines student teachers' practical knowledge in the context of…
Essien, Anthony A.
This paper reports on an investigation into what teacher educators consider to be best practices in how to prepare pre-service teachers to effectively deal with the challenges of teaching Mathematics in multilingual contexts, and how what teacher educators consider as best practices inform their own classroom practice. Twelve teacher educators…
McQuarrie, Sarah H.; Sherwin, Ronald G.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between actual current assessment practices of elementary music teachers and the assessment topics as published in the literature aimed at those teachers. Specifically, this study sought to: 1) identify the current assessment techniques utilized by elementary music teachers; 2) identify…
The practical epistemologies of university students during laboratory work in chemistry are analyzed to enhance understanding of how teaching practices interact with learners. The purpose is to develop a theoretical framework of learning as action that can be used by educational researchers to examine meaning-making, but also by teachers in close association with their daily work to understand the course learning takes in their own classrooms. Here this framework is adopted to demonstrate how the sequence of learning may affect the subject content learnt. It is also demonstrated how learning can be understood in terms of habits, and how observations of such habits could be used by a teacher to inform her/his teaching. The theory of practical epistemologies is based on the later Wittgenstein, pragmatics, and sociocultural approaches identifying learning with talk, action, and habits situated in practices.
Woolbaugh, Walter Harold
This study first identifies the teaching and learning practices that have shown to be effective in producing achievement gains with K--12 Native American students. In order to identify effective practices, policy guidelines and research studies focusing on achievement gains among Native American students were reviewed. This information was then mapped to the National Science Education Standards and aligned with a widely used mathematics and science observation instrument. The instrument was used by the author to gather data from 13 teachers by observing 68 lessons in 11 middle schools on the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Reservations in Southeast Montana. Interviewing and surveying the observed teachers generated further data. To complete the study, administrators and community members, including tribal elders, were involvement from tribal elders. The literature reveals that Native American students achieve more when student centered teaching methods are used. These methods include the use of visual teaching aids, cooperative learning, and practical applications all interwoven in culturally relevant lessons. The literature supports building community support, including involvement from tribal elders. Data gathered by the researcher revealed that the teachers on and near the two reservations have more teaching experience, more science credits, and attain higher ratings for observed lessons than a national sample of teachers. A factor analysis indicated that Crow and Northern Cheyenne region teachers scored especially high in student/teacher relationships, classroom management, and content knowledge. Even through 43 percent of class time was spent in hands-on paired activities, teachers scored lower on indicators pertaining to creating classroom environments that engaged students in rigorous, meaningful learning experiences. Teachers reported on not feeling prepared to include cultural applications and meaning during instruction. Teachers attaining lower scores during
Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Sprick, Randy
Highly accessible and user-friendly, this book focuses on helping K-12 teachers increase their use of classroom management strategies that work. It addresses motivational aspects of teacher consultation that are essential, yet often overlooked. The Classroom Check-Up is a step-by-step model for assessing teachers' organizational, instructional,…
In the evolving field of mathematics education, there is the need to maintain the relationship between what is presented in college level preparation courses and the skills required to teach mathematics in classrooms. This research examines the knowledge demands placed on 73 pre-service primary teachers as they use lesson study to plan and teach data handling in primary classrooms. Pre-service teachers are observed as they plan, teach and re-teach data lessons in classrooms. Problems of practice are identified and categorized using the Ball, Thames and Phelps (2008) subdomains of common content knowledge (CCK), specialized content knowledge (SCK), knowledge of content and students (KCS) and knowledge of content and teaching (KCT). The results provide insights into the specific knowledge demands placed on early career teachers when teaching data and statistics and identifies foci area that can be addressed in teacher preparation programs. The results illustrate that development of understandings in one knowledge subdomain can motivate and impact learning in another subdomain. These interrelationships were found to exist both within and between the domains of content and pedagogical content knowledge.
Leffler, Angela K.
The narrowed curriculum continues to be challenging for science education as teachers strive to impart content that is on the high-stakes assessments. This Qualitative multiple-case study investigated four experienced, elementary classroom teachers' use of writing in science. It was designed to provide insight into teaching beliefs and practices of how teachers use writing in science opportunities within a narrowing curriculum. Triangulation was achieved through teacher interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis. Three major findings were evident through careful examination of data which is representative of the teacher participants within this study: 1.) Writing is combined with dialogue, multiple applications, activity and audience, 2.) Writing is used as an assessment and as a means to enhance learning, 3.) Writing is prioritized in science with differing schedule approaches. Although these are the major findings there were exceptions that were unique to each individual participant. The findings of this study can inform pre-service, novice and experienced classroom teachers on how to interconnect the two subject areas of writing and science to promote enhancement of learning. By gaining this information, it could diminish the global achievement gap in science.
National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.
The 13 articles in this report fall into four categories: programs for the culturally disadvantaged, teaching composition, curriculum revision, and detailed classroom practices. Mildred A. Dawson outlines compensatory programs used in Sacramento, California, to prevent drop-outs; Lois Grose concentrates on the pattern-practice method of teaching…
Hanson, Deborah L.
Science is a subject that many elementary teachers struggle to teach. One of the reasons documented in the literature is the low science teaching self-efficacy of many elementary teachers. This study investigated possible connections between how a teacher defines science (her personal definition of science) and her science teaching self-efficacy. Thirteen teachers participating in Science EDUCATES, a professional development program that emphasized NOS, scientific inquiry and physical science content knowledge, were investigated to see how their science teaching self-efficacy was impacted as changes to their personal definition of science occurred. Two of these teachers were selected for further study; in addition, two teachers, outside the professional development, were also studied. Personal definitions of science were gathered using the VNOS-D2 and VOSI-E survey instruments while science teaching self-efficacy was measured by the STEBI survey. Interviews and classroom observations were conducted to see the patterns that emerged between the teachers' personal definition of science, their science self-efficacy and their classroom practices. The teachers in the professional development did increase their science teaching self-efficacy and contributed this increase to their enhanced knowledge about NOS and how scientific knowledge is generated. This increased science content knowledge led to a statistically significant difference in the PSTE scores of the teachers. Teachers with low to mid science teaching self-efficacy levels seem to have various elements embedded within their personal definition of science that prevents them from engaging fully in science. Their science practices seem to pattern those subjects, like social studies or language arts, they are more comfortable teaching. Understanding NOS helped the teachers to change their personal definitions of science and place their classroom practices more in line with the recommendations in the national reform
Pool, Jonelle E.; Ellett, Chad D.; Schiavone, Salvatore; Carey-Lewis, Charmaine
Conducted mini case studies of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) using classroom observations, teacher interviews, and focus group interviews. Findings show considerable variation in the quality of teaching and learning associated with these teachers. Discusses implications for the validity of…
Yukhymenko, Mariya A.; Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brodowinska, Kamila; Mullin, Gregory
Problem-based learning (PBL) environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study tried to gain an understanding of teachers' instructional practices and students' responses to such practices in middle school classrooms with PBL environment through…
Dias, Michael; Eick, Charles J.; Brantley-Dias, Laurie
A science teacher educator returned to teaching adolescents after more than 10 years in the professoriate. We studied his beliefs, practice and daily use of inquiry pedagogy while implementing a reform-based curriculum. Reflection on practice was evidenced by a weekly journal, classroom observations and debriefings, and extensive interviews. Newly…
Lefebvre, Sonia; Samson, Ghislain; Gareau, Alexandre; Brouillette, Nancy
The interactive whiteboard (IWB) is increasingly used for teaching and learning in the classroom. Nevertheless, the ways that teachers incorporate this tool within their teaching practices remain poorly understood. This paper examines elementary and high school teachers' self-reported practices with the IWB. The conceptual framework centers on…
This study aimed to investigate the areas that constituted the professional practical knowledge of experienced English as a Foreign Language teachers in Egypt and how their knowledge informed their classroom practice. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 236 preparatory and secondary school teachers in 38 schools through…
Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others
This study explored teachers' behavior as related to effective teaching practices in 8th, 9th, and 10th grade English classrooms in Jordan. The study also examined some variables that could predict teachers' implementation of effective teaching practices and aimed at finding an estimate of the percentage of students in 8th, 9th, and 10th grades…
Ho, Kai Fai; Tan, Preston
The term "professional vision" points to the many nuanced ways professionals see. This paper traces the development of a professional vision of a researcher and a teacher looking at classroom practices. The researcher's interest was to capture and study notable aspects of the teacher's practice. Through a coding scheme, disparate…
Batalo, Cecilia Gray
The purpose of this study was to describe how the school and classroom cultures affected practices of inclusion for students with disabilities and how the inclusionary practice of co-teaching was influenced by the school culture. This study sought to investigate school and classroom cultures and their impact on practices of inclusion. It also…
were some similarities and differences between teachers' conceptions of the student-centered approach and the underlying principles of the student-centered approach. Moreover, this study showed that teachers' conceptions of the student-centered approach were not always consistent with their classroom practices. In addition, these teachers used various instructional activities perceived by them as being non-student-centered, such as developing curriculum based on the national high school physics textbooks and teacher's experiences, delivering knowledge through lecture, and assessing students' understanding by using teacher-constructed test questions. Furthermore, findings from this study provide implications for researchers, teacher educators, and policy makers with regards to successfully implement the reform-based, student-centered approach in the actual science classroom.
The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning practices demonstrated by seventh graders when they used various scientific inscriptions in an inquiry-based learning environment. Inscriptions are types of transformations, such as graphs, diagrams, data tables, symbols, maps, and models, that materialize or visualize an entity into another format or mode. As suggested by science studies, scientific knowledge and the reality of science are constructed through manipulating a variety of inscriptions. However, little is known about how middle school students make use of inscriptions over time and what resources or features of the learning environment support students in doing so. Drawing on a naturalistic approach, this classroom-based study aims to characterize students' inscriptional practices, trace their learning trajectories, examine potential use of various scientific inscriptions, and analyze the learning supports and resources provided by the teachers and the learning environment. This eight-month study is conducted in two inquiry-based science classes with participation of two teachers and 27 seventh graders. Two student dyads from each class were observed intensively. Multiple sources of data were collected, including fieldnotes, classroom video recordings, process video recordings, computer-based models, webpages, science reports, notebooks, and transcripts from interviews with students and teachers. Several analytical steps were taken to analyze and synthesize these data. Expanding upon early research on students' learning of inscriptions, this study shows that seventh graders could demonstrate competent, purposeful inscriptional practices when they were scaffolded by the teachers and the curriculum in a learning environment where the inscriptional activities were sequenced, iterated, and embedded in scientific inquiry. Additionally, using inscriptions in science classrooms provided students with opportunities to engage in thoughtful discussions
Weaver, Charlotte A; Warren, Judith J; Delaney, Connie
The rise of evidence-base practice (EBP) as a standard for care delivery is rapidly emerging as a global phenomenon that is transcending political, economic and geographic boundaries. Evidence-based nursing (EBN) addresses the growing body of nursing knowledge supported by different levels of evidence for best practices in nursing care. Across all health care, including nursing, we face the challenge of how to most effectively close the gap between what is known and what is practiced. There is extensive literature on the barriers and difficulties of translating research findings into practical application. While the literature refers to this challenge as the "Bench to Bedside" lag, this paper presents three collaborative strategies that aim to minimize this gap. The Bedside strategy proposes to use the data generated from care delivery and captured in the massive data repositories of electronic health record (EHR) systems as empirical evidence that can be analysed to discover and then inform best practice. In the Classroom strategy, we present a description for how evidence-based nursing knowledge is taught in a baccalaureate nursing program. And finally, the Bench strategy describes applied informatics in converting paper-based EBN protocols into the workflow of clinical information systems. Protocols are translated into reference and executable knowledge with the goal of placing the latest scientific knowledge at the fingertips of front line clinicians. In all three strategies, information technology (IT) is presented as the underlying tool that makes this rapid translation of nursing knowledge into practice and education feasible.
King, Ken; Shumow, Lee; Lietz, Stephanie
Through a case study approach, the state of science education in an urban elementary school was examined in detail. Observations made from the perspective of a science education specialist, an educational psychologist, and an expert elementary teacher were triangulated to provide a set of perspectives from which elementary science instruction could be examined. Findings revealed that teachers were more poorly prepared than had been anticipated, both in terms of science content knowledge and instructional skills, but also with respect to the quality of classroom pedagogical and management skills. Particularly significant, from a science education perspective, was the inconsistency between how they perceived their teaching practice (a hands-on, inquiry-based approach) and the investigator-observed expository nature of the lessons. Lessons were typically expository in nature, with little higher-level interaction of significance. Implications for practice and the associated needs for staff development among urban elementary teachers is discussed within the context of these findings.
In this paper, I discuss the existence of varying ideologies and perspectives within urban science classrooms and uncover the importance of focusing on student and teacher practices as a means to bridge these disconnections. Specifically, I describe the existence of corporate and communal ideologies and the dynamics that create the misalignment between groups that hold allegiances to these varying belief systems. Utilizing three allied theoretical frames, this paper provides a multi layered and timely analysis of the teaching of science in an urban high school in New York City. I conjoin Bourdieu's sociocultural theory, an analysis of social life through the use of the structure|agency dialectic, and a theorizing of corporate and communal practice to embark on a journey into how African American and Latino/a students' ways of knowing and being can be utilized to meet the goal of improving their success in science.
In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then analyze the role of formative assessment in the change of local learning culture. Based on the practice of Yin and Buck I emphasize the significance of their "bottom up" strategy to the teachers' epistemological change. I believe that this strategy may provide practicable solutions to current Chinese educational problems as well as a means for science educators to shift toward systematic professional development.
Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.
Literacy in the Science Classroom Project was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted in different classrooms. We also wanted to identify the challenges and enablers to implementing these literacy strategies and practices at the classroom, school, and district levels. Data collection involved both qualitative and quantitative methodologies: student questionnaires; interviews with teachers, principals, and mentor; and focus groups with students. The findings suggest that the program had an impact on beliefs and practices commensurate with the workshop participation of individual teachers. These language-enhanced teacher practices also had a positive impact on the use of talking, reading and writing by students in the science classroom. Finally, continuing PD support may be needed in certain jurisdictions for strengthening minority-language programs given the high teacher mobility in content-area classrooms evident in this study.
Kamil, Michael L.; Borman, Geoffrey D.; Dole, Janice; Kral, Cathleen C.; Salinger, Terry; Torgesen, Joseph
The goal of this practice guide is to formulate specific and coherent evidence-based recommendations that educators can use to improve literacy levels among adolescents in upper elementary, middle, and high schools. The target audience is teachers and other school personnel with direct contact with students, such as coaches, counselors, and…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of professional development on the knowledge and classroom practices of teachers of science in kindergarten through Grade 5. These teachers, trained to be generalists in the content areas, were strongly prepared in pedagogical practices, reading skills, basic language arts, and mathematics content areas. Science reform has led to more content-specific science standards that were difficult for these unprepared teachers to address without professional development. The researcher implemented a professional development program that used a collaborative model involving 8 teachers in Grade 4. The researcher conducted the professional development, assisted at times by personnel from the New Jersey State Department of Education. The new standards were learned, reinforced, and adopted. The data that were analyzed to determine the effects of the professional development came from a comparison of student achievement of the classes of 2 sets of teachers in Grade 4, one of which was the control set ( n = 8). The other was the experimental set (n = 8). The researcher administered pre- and postintervention content tests to both groups to measure teacher knowledge. In addition, the researcher reviewed lesson plans, conducted observations, and administered surveys to determine whether professional development in science impacted teacher practices in the classroom. This limited study suggested that teacher instruction did not significantly differ after professional development intervention. It also suggested that teacher content knowledge did not significantly increase due to the intervention. The researcher believes that local factors influenced the outcome and recommends a more systemic program that includes the involvement of all stakeholders.
Jensen, Aaron C.
Efforts to modify and improve science education in the United States have seen minimal success (Crawford, 2000; Borko & Putman, 1996; Puntambekar, Stylianou & Goldstein, 2007; Lustick, 2011). One important reason for this is the professional development that teachers go through in order to learn about and apply these new ideas is generally of poor quality and structured incorrectly for long-term changes in the classroom (Little, 1993; Fullen, 1996; Porter, 2000; Jeanpierre, Oberhauser, & Freeman, 2005). This grounded theory study explores a science community of practice and how the professional development achieved through participation in that community has effected the instruction of the teachers involved, specifically the incorporation of researched based effective science teaching instructional strategies. This study uses personal reflection papers written by the participants, interviews, and classroom observations to understand the influence that the science community of practice has had on the participants. Results indicate that participation in this science community of practice has significant impact on the teachers involved. Participants gained greater understanding of science content knowledge, incorporated effective science instructional strategies into their classroom, and were able to practice both content knowledge and strategies in a non-threatening environment thus gaining a greater understanding of how to apply them in the classrooms. These findings motivate continued research in the role that communities of practice may play in teacher professional develop and the effectiveness of quality professional development in attaining long-term, sustained improvement in science education.
Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Berry, Robert Q.; Larsen, Ross A.
This study highlights the connections between two facets of teachers' skills--those supporting teachers' mathematical instructional interactions and those underlying social interactions within the classroom. The impact of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach and use of RC practices on the use of standards-based mathematics teaching practices was…
Lischka, Alyson E; Garner, Mary
In this paper we present the development and validation of a Mathematics Teaching Pedagogical and Discourse Beliefs Instrument (MTPDBI), a 20 item partial-credit survey designed and analyzed using Rasch measurement theory. Items on the MTPDBI address beliefs about the nature of mathematics, teaching and learning mathematics, and classroom discourse practices. A Rasch partial credit model (Masters, 1982) was estimated from the pilot study data. Results show that item separation reliability is .96 and person separation reliability is .71. Other analyses indicate the instrument is a viable measure of secondary teachers' beliefs about reform-oriented mathematics teaching and learning. This instrument is proposed as a useful measure of teacher beliefs for those working with pre-service and in-service teacher development.
Bruckert, Eric; Ferrières, Jean
The use of pharmacological lipid-lowering intervention in individuals with hypercholesterolaemia and known cardiovascular disease or diabetes/chronic kidney disease is well established. Current European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend immediate initiation of drugs in adjunct to lifestyle intervention in these patients at high or very high cardiovascular risk. In these clinical settings, statins are generally chosen as the first-choice drug intervention, in consideration of the robust evidence showing a reduction in all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). In contrast, primary prevention with statins, even in the subset of patients at high-risk of cardiovascular events, is not well implemented. This might be related to a lack of public awareness regarding the actual risk associated with prolonged exposure to high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and uncertainties in the clinical evidence coming from the earliest trials in this patient subset. However, recent observational studies suggest that lowering LDL-C earlier in life and for a longer duration can substantially decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Moreover, results from recent well-conducted large meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials showed that primary prevention with statins reduced all-cause mortality by 14% and MACE by > 20% - findings similar to those observed for the use of statins in secondary prevention. Recently published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on the treatment of blood cholesterol emphasize that primary prevention using high-dose statins in individuals with LDL-C ≥ 190 mg/dL induces a benefit in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk reduction that clearly exceeds the potential for adverse effects. We aim in this review to discuss the new data that advocate the use of statins in primary prevention earlier and more frequently, putting the efficacy evidence into
Brown, Jean E., Ed.; Stephens, Elaine C., Ed.
Addressing the complexity of the question of multicultural literature in the classroom, this anthology of 27 articles includes: contemplations by seven award-winning writers of young adult (YA) literature on the subject of diversity; a resource section that describes over 200 literary works and lists 50 reference tools to help teachers stay…
Qhobela, Makomosela; Kolitsoe Moru, Eunice
The classroom practices of science teachers are indicative of their beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). PCK is an amalgam of knowledge about subject matter, pedagogy, and contextual issues. This article identifies areas where physics teachers in Lesotho may need professional development support by addressing the research question: How…
This study aims to examine kindergarten children's mental models of the day and night cycle and provide implications for pedagogical practices targeting space science concepts in early childhood classrooms. A total of 46 kindergartners participated in the study, their age ranging from 60 to 75 months, including 22 boys and 24 girls.…
Yilmaz, Hulya; Cavas, Pinar Huyuguzel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the teaching practice on pre-service elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy and classroom management beliefs. The subjects were 185 pre-service elementary teachers from two different universities in Izmir. In this study, Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI-B) and the…
Hobbs, Valerie; Matsuo, Ayumi; Payne, Mark
Research on language classroom code-switching ranges from describing both teachers' and learners' first language and target language use to making connections between code-switching and student learning. However, few studies compare differences in practice between native and non-native speaker teachers and even fewer consider culture of learning…
This study explored the potential of classroom-based meditation practice as a tool to facilitate learning. Moreover, the impact of meditation on cognitive engagement, mindfulness and academic performance of undergraduate college students was investigated. Additionally, the relationships between mindfulness and cognitive engagement, and between…
Milner, Andrea R.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Johnson, Carla C.; Czerniak, Charlene M.
The impact of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandated state science assessment on elementary teachers' beliefs about teaching science and their classroom practice is relatively unknown. For many years, the teaching of science has been minimized in elementary schools in favor of more emphasis on reading and mathematics. This study examines the…
Reis, Giuliano; Barwell, Richard
The day-to-day business of being a science or mathematics teacher involves the continuous assessment of students. This, in turn, is an inherently discursive process. The aim of the present study is to examine some of the specific discursive practices through which science and mathematics knowing is jointly produced through classroom interaction.…
The aim of the article is to investigate the effects of the foreign language section of TEOG (Transition Examination from Primary to Secondary Education) on language teacher practices in the classroom. The participants of the study include 30 English language teachers working at lower secondary schools in Turkey. The results of the study indicate…
Aus, Kati; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Kikas, Eve
We focus on assessing whether newly qualified teachers' professional outcome expectations and their beliefs about students' intellectual potential are associated with teachers' self-reported classroom management and instructional practices. One hundred and eighteen novice teachers participating in the induction year programme were studied during…
Agarwal, Pooja K.; Bain, Patrice M.; Chamberlain, Roger W.
Over the course of a 5-year applied research project with more than 1,400 middle school students, evidence from a number of studies revealed that retrieval practice in authentic classroom settings improves long-term learning (Agarwal et al. 2009; McDaniel et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology" 103:399-414, 2011; McDaniel et al.…
Kendall, Leslie Threadgill
Connectedness and classroom management has been defined as the ability to relate to students and keep order and maintain successful relationships with individuals. This qualitative study utilized surveys, questionnaires, interviews, and observations to examine the best practices implemented by educators to develop and maintain connections with…
Hue, Ming-Tak; Leung, Chi-Hung; Kennedy, Kerry Johon
As part of a wide-scale education reform, Hong Kong schools have been focusing on the creation of "no loser" classrooms that support learning for all students (Education Commission 2000). This article examined both groups of ethnic minority and Chinese students' perception of assessment practices and the extent to which classroom…
Stecher, Brian M.; Wood, Alice C.; Gilbert, Mary Lou; Borko, Hilda; Kuffner, Karin L.; Arnold, Suzanne C.; Dorman, Elizabeth H.
The purpose of this research is to determine whether we can use classroom artifacts as the basis for making valid judgments about the presence of reform-oriented teaching practices in middle-school mathematics classes. Our approach compares ratings based on collections of artifacts assembled by teachers according to our directions (the "Scoop…
Witte, Melissa Marie
Dissection of lab specimens is a common procedure in science classrooms, yet there are many unasked and unexamined questions relating to this practice. In addition to ethical considerations, there are personal and environmental health impacts of using conventional dissection, which has historically included animals and animal organs embalmed in…
Repair practices used by teachers who work with children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLDs) have hitherto remained largely unexplored. Such classrooms therefore offer a new context for researching repairs and considering how they compare with non-SSLD interactions. Repair trajectories are of interest because they are dialogic…
Whitman, Joan Wrobleski
Designers of professional development training often presume that teachers are able to apply new concepts classroom practice, but fail to include teacher voice, provide systemic follow-up, collegial support, and evaluation (Guskey, 2002; Joyce & Calhoun, 2010; McAdams, 2007). The study investigated differences between new, non-tenured and…
The purpose of this study is to examine peer assessments that the classroom candidates applied at teaching practice on life study lesson. The cross sectional survey method which is one of the survey methods has been used in the research. In this study the sampling criteria, one of the purposive sampling methods, is used. Thus, in the fall semester…
The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe how middle school mathematics teachers "make meaning" of proofs and the process of proving in the context of their classroom practices. A framework of "making meaning," created by the researcher, guided the data collection and analysis phases of the study. This framework…
This study explored some of the intricate connections between the cognitions (beliefs, knowledge, perceptions, attitudes) and pedagogical practices of five English language teachers, specifically in relation to pronunciation-oriented techniques. Integral to the study was the use of semistructured interviews, classroom observations, and stimulated…
Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.
'Literacy in the Science Classroom Project" was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted…
Hall, Tracey E., Ed.; Meyer, Anne, Ed.; Rose, David H., Ed.
Clearly written and well organized, this book shows how to apply the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) across all subject areas and grade levels. The editors and contributors describe practical ways to develop classroom goals, assessments, materials, and methods that use UDL to meet the needs of all learners. Specific teaching…
Roedding, Amy L.
In an effort to understand Christian college professors' levels of awareness to the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs) in content-based classrooms and to identify effective practices for language learning that are being implemented, a quantitative study using descriptive research was carried out. A survey was used to collect data to…
Rabon, Barbara Ellen
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which select Best Practices are used in regular education classrooms and if there was correlation between the frequency of their use and previous professional development attendance. Regular education teachers were the target audience for this study because the average ELL spends only three…
Lopes, J. B.; Silva, A. A.; Cravino, J. P.; Santos, C. A.; Cunha, A.; Pinto, A.; Silva, A.; Viegas, C.; Saraiva, E.; Branco, M. J.
This study deals with the problem of how to collect genuine and useful data about science classroom practices, and preserving the complex and holistic nature of teaching and learning. Additionally, we were looking for an instrument that would allow comparability and verifiability for teaching and research purposes. Given the multimodality of teaching and learning processes, we developed the multimodal narrative (MN), which describes what happens during a task and incorporates data such as examples of students' work, photos, diagrams, etc. Also, it describes teachers' intentions, preserving the nature of teaching practice in natural settings and it is verifiable and comparable. In this paper, we show how the MN was developed and present the protocol that was used for its construction. We identify the main characteristics of the MN and place it in the context of international research. We explore the potential of the MN for research purposes, illustrating its use in a research study that we carried out. We find that the MN provides a way to gather, organize and transform data, avoiding confusing and time-consuming manipulation of data, while minimizing the natural subjectivity of the narrator. The same MN can be used by the same or by different researchers for different purposes. Furthermore, the same MN can be used with different analysis techniques. It is also possible to study research practices on a large scale using MNs from different teachers and lessons. We propose that MNs can also be useful for teachers' professional development.
Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.
Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…
This paper will consider ways in which students are constructed as aliens in health classrooms. Creating the classroom as a setting for health promotion requires closer attention to those who make use of such space. If classrooms are places where diversity exists and is recognised, then health educators are challenged to consider how students are…
Nelson, Angela C.
It is widely recognized that technology in the classroom has the potential to transform education at every stage from Pre-K, to K-12, to Higher Education and Adult Education. Using the Digital Teaching Platform as an exemplar of 21st Century classroom instruction style, the author offers an overview of classroom technology and its effects on…
Verma, Mahendra K., Ed.; And Others
Papers by teachers and teacher trainers address issues in bilingualism and related teaching techniques in the elementary school classroom in England. They are derived from an inservice teacher training project. Essays include: "Investigating Children's Discourse in the Primary Classroom: The Linguistic Demands of Classroom Tasks"…
Dias, Michael; Eick, Charles J.; Brantley-Dias, Laurie
A science teacher educator returned to teaching adolescents after more than 10 years in the professoriate. We studied his beliefs, practice and daily use of inquiry pedagogy while implementing a reform-based curriculum. Reflection on practice was evidenced by a weekly journal, classroom observations and debriefings, and extensive interviews. Newly developed practical knowledge from this experience shifted the science teacher educator's beliefs away from the Piagetian structuralism espoused in prescribed curricula towards a more culturally responsive, student-driven approach to teaching science to middle grades students. The merits and limitations of curricula attempting to follow traditional scientific practices are discussed.
First, Michael B; Bhat, Venkat; Adler, David; Dixon, Lisa; Goldman, Beth; Koh, Steve; Levine, Bruce; Oslin, David; Siris, Sam
The clinical use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is explicitly stated as a goal for both the DSM Fourth Edition and DSM Fifth Edition (DSM-5) revisions. Many uses assume a relatively faithful application of the DSM diagnostic definitions. However, studies demonstrate significant discrepancies between clinical psychiatric diagnoses with those made using structured interviews suggesting that clinicians do not systematically apply the diagnostic criteria. The limited information regarding how clinicians actually use the DSM raises important questions: a) How can the clinical use be improved without first having a baseline assessment? b) How can potentially significant shifts in practice patterns based on wording changes be assessed without knowing the extent to which the criteria are used as written? Given the American Psychiatric Association's plans for interim revisions to the DSM-5, the value of a detailed exploration of its actual use in clinical practice remains a significant ongoing concern and deserves further study including a number of survey and in vivo studies.
Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.
The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only…
Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Donohue, Amy; Davis, Robert G.
The article discusses trends in classroom design and then transitions to a discussion of the future of the classroom and how the lighting industry needs to be preparing to meet the needs of the future classroom. The OSU Classroom building as an example throughout, first discussing how trends in classroom design were incorporated into the Classroom Building and then discussing how future lighting systems could enhance the Classroom Building, which is a clear departure from the actual lighting design and current technology.
In response to the needs for understanding teaching practices and approaches with a technology tool in actual elementary classrooms, this paper examines the perspectives of American elementary teachers who use classroom wikis. Specially, it examines three main ideas: (a) teaching approaches and strategies across subject areas in the primary and…
Moreland, Judy; Jones, Alister; Northover, Ann
This paper reports on a two-year classroom investigation of primary school (Years 1-8) technology education. The first year of the project explored emerging classroom practices in technology. In the second year intervention strategies were developed to enhance teaching, learning and assessment practices. Findings from the first year revealed that assessment was often seen in terms of social and managerial aspects, such as teamwork, turn taking and co-operative skills, rather than procedural and conceptual technological aspects. Existing formative interactions with students distorted the learning away from the procedural and conceptual aspects of the subject. The second year explored the development of teachers' technological knowledge in order to enhance formative assessment practices in technology, to inform classroom practice in technology, and to enhance student learning. Intervention strategies were designed to enhance the development of procedural, conceptual, societal and technical aspects of technology for teachers and students. The results from this intervention were very positive. This paper highlights the importance of developing teacher expertise pertaining to broad concepts of technology, detailed concepts in different technological areas and general pedagogical knowledge. The findings from this research therefore have implications for thinking about teaching, learning and assessment in technology.
Carpenter, Stacey Lynn
Science education reform efforts in the U.S. have emphasized shifting away from teacher-centered instruction and teaching science as isolated facts, to more student-centered instruction where students engage in disciplinary discourse and science and engineering practices to learn more connected concepts. As such, teachers need to be prepared to teach science in these reform-based ways; however, many teachers have neither experienced reform-based science instruction in their own science learning, nor witnessed reform-based science instruction in their preservice classroom field experiences. At the same time, there has been an emphasis in teacher education on organizing the preparation of new teachers around high-leverage teaching practices--equitable teaching practices that are known to result in student learning and form a strong base for future teacher learning. In this qualitative study, I investigated eight prospective secondary science teachers as they participated in the unique field experience contexts of classrooms in STEM-focused high school academies. Using a lens of situated learning theory, I examined how prospective teachers from two classroom-based field experiences engaged in high-leverage teaching practices and how their experiences in these classrooms shaped their own visions of science teaching. I analyzed video data of classroom instruction, along with prospective and mentor teacher interviews and surveys, to determine the instructional contexts of each academy and the science teaching strategies (including high-leverage practices) that prospective teachers had opportunities to observe and participate in. I also analyzed prospective teacher interviews and surveys to determine their visions of effective science teaching, what high-leverage science teaching practices prospective teachers included in their visions, and how their visions changed throughout the experience. I found that both academy contexts featured more student work, particularly
Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross A.; Berry, Robert Q.
This study investigates the effectiveness of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, a social and emotional learning intervention, on changing the relations between mathematics teacher and classroom inputs (mathematical knowledge for teaching [MKT] and standards-based mathematics teaching practices) and student mathematics achievement. Work was…
Miranda, Rommel J.; Damico, Julie B.
This mixed-methods study examines how engaging science teachers in a summer Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) followed by an academic-year Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on translating teacher research experiences to inquiry-based classroom lessons might facilitate changes in their beliefs and classroom practices regarding…
Walsh, E.; McGowan, V. C.
The Next Generation Science Standards promote a vision in which learners engage in authentic knowledge in practice to tackle personally consequential science problems in the classroom. However, there is not yet a clear understanding amongst researchers and educators of what authentic practice looks like in a classroom and how this can be accomplished. This study explores these questions by examining interactions between scientists and students on a social media platform during two pilot enactments of a project-based curriculum focusing on the ecological impacts of climate change. During this unit, scientists provided feedback to students on infographics, visual representations of scientific information meant to communicate to an audience about climate change. We conceptualize the feedback and student work as boundary objects co-created by students and scientists moving between the school and scientific contexts, and analyze the structure and content of the scientists' feedback. We find that when giving feedback on a particular practice (e.g. argumentation), scientists would provide avenues, critiques and questions that incorporated many other practices (e.g. data analysis, visual communication); thus, scientists encouraged students to participate systemically in practices instead of isolating one particular practice. In addition, scientists drew attention to particular habits of mind that are valued in the scientific community and noted when students' work aligned with scientific values. In this way, scientists positioned students as capable of participating "scientifically." While traditionally, incorporating scientific inquiry in a classroom has emphasized student experimentation and data generation, in this work, we found that engaging with scientists around established scientific texts and data sets provided students with a platform for developing expertise in other important scientific practices during argment construction.
Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter; van Driel, Jan
Background/Context: A fundamental tension has long existed between school reform proposals and actual teaching practice. Despite a large literature on teacher change, the discontinuity between innovation and practice continues and many attempts to reform teaching fail to be enacted in most classrooms. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of…
Jeanpierre, Bobby; Oberhauser, Karen; Freeman, Carol
We studied the outcome of a professional development opportunity that consisted of 2-week-long resident institutes for teams consisting of a secondary science teacher and two students. The science content of the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded professional development institute was monarch butterfly ecology. The first institute took place in Minnesota during the summer, and the second in Texas during the fall. Staff scientists provided intense instruction in inquiry, with numerous opportunities for participants to conduct short inquiry-based research projects. Careful attention was paid to introducing each step of the full inquiry process, from asking questions to presenting research findings. All participants conducted independent team full inquiry projects between the two institutes. Project findings show that the number of teachers providing opportunities for their students to conduct full inquiry increased significantly after their participation. A mixed-methodology analysis that included qualitative and quantitative data from numerous sources, and case studies of 20 teachers, revealed that the characteristics of the program that helped teachers successfully translate inquiry to their classrooms were: deep science content and process knowledge with numerous opportunities for practice; the requirement that teachers demonstrate competence in a tangible and assessable way; and providers with high expectations for learning and the capability to facilitate multifaceted inquiry experiences.
Smith, Michelle K.; Jones, Francis H. M.; Gilbert, Sarah L.; Wieman, Carl E.
Instructors and the teaching practices they employ play a critical role in improving student learning in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Consequently, there is increasing interest in collecting information on the range and frequency of teaching practices at department-wide and institution-wide scales. To…
O'Keefe, KariJo; Dearden, Katherine Norman; West, Robert
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the nature of North Dakota elementary classroom teachers' (NDECT) music integration in the general classroom. The majority of NDECTs integrated music with: the subjects of Language Arts (62.01%), Mathematics (55.00%), and Physical Education (50.89%); the settings of Group Work Time (64.29%),…
This paper discusses how teachers in a bilingual education programme see their pedagogies and interactions influencing student connection to the languages of the bilingual programme. The teacher perception of the classroom is explored because the classroom is one of the principal settings in which the students negotiate their bilingual identities.…
Monroe, Ann Elizabeth; Blackwell, Sarah Elizabeth; Pepper, Susan Kaye
Classroom management is often noted as one of the most influential factors in determining success for first-year teachers and as the most influential factor in students' academic success (Marzano & Marzano, 2003). However, according to Haycock (2006), nearly half of this country's new teachers leave the classroom within their first five years,…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for…
Dybdahl, Claudia S.; Ryan, Susan
The authors aimed to investigate the perceptions and experiences of regular education classroom teachers whose students included at least 1 child diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) disorders. The authors collected data over a 3-year period in 3 school districts in the Pacific Northwest. Data included interviews with classroom teachers,…
Several theoretical and pragmatic questions arise when one attempts to employ feminist pedagogy in the classroom (or to study it), such as how to strike a balance between classroom order and instructor de-centering and how to productively address student resistance. In this article, the author describes how she took on her final project for a…
Saidy, Christina; Hannah, Mark; Sura, Tom
This article uses theories of technical communication and archives to advance a pedagogy that includes archival production in the technical communication classroom. By developing and maintaining local classroom archives, students directly engage in valuable processes of appraisal, selection, collaboration, and retention. The anticipated outcomes…
Moeller, Aleidine J.; Osborn, Sarah R. Faltin
This article analyzes and synthesizes the major theoretical frameworks for building intercultural communicative competency (ICC) within the domain of the foreign language classroom. Researchers used a pragmatist orientation as a venue for the translation of theoretical models into usable, accessible guidelines for classroom teachers in order to…
Blanton, Maria L.; Westbrook, Susan; Carter, Glenda
This study explores the use of Valsiner's zone theory as a way to interpret the zones of proximal development of three secondary teachers in mathematics and science. Specifically, we used classroom discourse to identify what the participating teachers promoted (zone of promoted action) or allowed (zone of free movement) in the classroom as a way…
Ruthven, Kenneth; Hennessy, Sara; Deaney, Rosemary
The idea of "interpretative flexibility" underpins new approaches to studying technological artefacts and curricular resources in use. This paper opens by reviewing, in this light, the evolving design of dynamic geometry, its pioneering use within classroom projects, and early sketches of its mainstream use in ordinary classrooms. After…
O'Connor, Katherine A.; Greene, H. Carol; Anderson, Patricia J.
Background: Action research is a meaningful form of research because it is conducted by the teacher in his or her own classroom. Action research requires a teacher to design a study in an area of interest and conduct it in their own classroom. Action research is a requirement for some masters of education programs in the United States. Purpose: To…
Recently, a number of studies have examined the lived experiences of the international teaching assistants (ITAs) in the U.S. classrooms. The findings show that the ITAs face many challenges such as classroom management, instructional, linguistic, cultural and social challenges. Following this line of research, this interview-based study examined…
Arani, Mohammad Reza Sarkar; Keisuke, Fukaya; Lassegard, James P.
This research examines "lesson study" as a traditional model of creating professional knowledge in schools. "Lesson study," typically defined as teachers' classroom based collaborative research, has a long history in Japan as a shared professional culture with potential for enhancing learning, enriching classroom activities and…
Abu Isneineh, Ribhi A.
This paper attempts to discover and describe the salient common factors constituting four high school science teachers' role conceptions. In a year-long ethnographic study, two researchers worked as participant observers in various science classroom settings at an urban high school. Teachers in charge of these classrooms were interviewed on issues…
In this article, I share results from a year-long qualitative study that focused on the emergent production of a classroom culture and the social identities most valued in that culture. I collected observational data, interview data and archival data throughout the school year in one self-contained fourth-grade classroom. Using a combination of…
Beyer, Landon E., Ed.
In this book, seven teachers analyze their own efforts to integrate social, moral, and political issues into the public school classroom. The volume weighs the possibilities for making classrooms more responsive to the need for social justice, critical consciousness, and democratic values. Through their personal narratives, these teachers reveal…
Whitacre, Michelle Phillips
This qualitative, multiple case study examines five teachers' experiences with a National Science Foundation-funded professional development (PD) program focused on science literacy. Using a three dimensional conceptual framework combining transformative learning theory, communities of practice, and sociocultural conceptions of identity it explores: the ways the "Science Literacy through Science Journalism" (SciJourn) project built professional community and influenced teacher learning; the influence of the project on participating science teachers' professional identities, knowledge, and classroom practices; and the ways teachers were or were not transformed by participation in the project. To this end, data from surveys and phenomenological interviews were analyzed through qualitative textual analysis and narrative analysis. Four of the teachers experienced a change in their stories to live by, aka, an identity shift. Three predominant themes emerged across these cases. These included a changed conceptualization of science literacy, the importance of student engagement and authenticity, and the value of SciJourn's professional development and community. The changed conceptualization of science literacy was particularly salient as it challenged these teachers' assumptions, led them to rethink how they teach science literacy, and also influenced them to re-evaluate their teaching priorities beyond the PD. Consequently, this study concludes that PD efforts should focus as much, or more, on influencing teachers' ideas regarding what and how they teach and less on teaching strategies. A close comparison between two teachers' diverging experiences with the program showed that student engagement played a significant role in teachers' perceptions of the value of project, suggesting that whether or not teachers sustain a new practice is closely tied to their students' feedback. Additionally, this analysis showed that a teacher's individualized needs and sense of efficacy
Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved.
Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871
Beerenwinkel, Anne; von Arx, Matthias
For the last three decades, moderate constructivism has become an increasingly prominent perspective in science education. Researchers have defined characteristics of constructivist-oriented science classrooms, but the implementation of such science teaching in daily classroom practice seems difficult. Against this background, we conducted a sub-study within the tri-national research project Quality of Instruction in Physics (QuIP) analysing 60 videotaped physics classes involving a large sample of students (N = 1192) from Finland, Germany and Switzerland in order to investigate the kinds of constructivist components and teaching patterns that can be found in regular classrooms without any intervention. We applied a newly developed coding scheme to capture constructivist facets of science teaching and conducted principal component and cluster analyses to explore which components and patterns were most prominent in the classes observed. Two underlying components were found, resulting in two scales—Structured Knowledge Acquisition and Fostering Autonomy—which describe key aspects of constructivist teaching. Only the first scale was rather well established in the lessons investigated. Classes were clustered based on these scales. The analysis of the different clusters suggested that teaching physics in a structured way combined with fostering students' autonomy contributes to students' motivation. However, our regression models indicated that content knowledge is a more important predictor for students' motivation, and there was no homogeneous pattern for all gender- and country-specific subgroups investigated. The results are discussed in light of recent discussions on the feasibility of constructivism in practice.
Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Objective To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Method Thirty-six classrooms within five urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child outcomes (n = 364; 43% girls) were assessed in the fall and spring. Results Random effects regression models showed main effects of intervention on teacher-student relationship closeness, academic self-concept, and peer victimization. Results of multiple regression models showed levels of observed teacher emotional support in the fall moderated intervention impact on emotional support at the end of the school year. Conclusions Results suggest teacher consultation and coaching can be integrated within existing mental health activities in urban schools and impact classroom effectiveness and child adaptation across multiple domains. PMID:22428941
Daniels, Harvey; Bizar, Marilyn
Everyone talks about "best practice" teaching--what does it actually look like in the classroom? How do working teachers translate complex curriculum standards into simple, workable classroom structures that embody exemplary instruction--and still let kids find joy in learning? In this book, the authors present seven basic teaching structures that…
The disproportionate focus on classroom teachers and their instruction--teacher effectiveness--in order to confront and address under-achievement and disadvantage appears as a contemporary education policy theme in Australia. Phrases such as "high performing schooling systems","the best teachers", "high performing…
Gilbert, Gregg H; Riley, Joseph L; Eleazer, Paul D; Benjamin, Paul L; Funkhouser, Ellen
Objectives Use of a rubber dam during root canal treatment is considered the standard of care because it enhances patient safety and optimises the odds of successful treatment. Nonetheless, not all dentists use a rubber dam, creating disconnect between presumed standard of care and what is actually done in clinical practice. Little is known about dentists’ attitudes towards use of the rubber dam in their practices. The objectives were to: (1) quantify these attitudes and (2) test the hypothesis that specific attitudes are significantly associated with rubber dam use. Setting National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (NationalDentalPBRN.org). Participants 1490 network dentists. Outcome measures Dentists completed a questionnaire about their attitudes towards rubber dam use during root canal treatment. Three attitude scales comprised 33 items that used a 5-point ordinal scale to measure beliefs about effectiveness, inconvenience, ease of placement, comparison to other isolation techniques and patient factors. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysed the relationship between attitudes and rubber dam use. Results All items had responses at each point on the 5-point scale, with an overall pattern of substantial variation across dentists. Five attitudinal factors (rubber dam effectiveness; inconvenient/time-consuming; ease of placement; effectiveness compared to Isolite; patient factors) and 4 clusters of practitioners were identified. Each factor and cluster was independently and strongly associated with rubber dam use. Conclusions General dentists have substantial variation in attitudes about rubber dam use. Beliefs that rubber dam use is not effective, inconvenient, time-consuming, not easy to place or affected by patient factors, were independently and significantly associated with lower rubber dam use. These attitudes explain why there is substantial discordance between presumed standard of care and actual practice
In this paper, the literature related to the use of technology in the languages classroom will be explored. In relation to the teaching and learning methodologies and approaches past and present as well as current research, comparisons are made between the audio-lingual/visual classroom and the digital classroom by way of describing and comparing…
McLeod, Bryce D; Sutherland, Kevin S; Martinez, Ruben G; Conroy, Maureen A; Snyder, Patricia A; Southam-Gerow, Michael A
Educators are increasingly being encouraged to implement evidence-based interventions and practices to address the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of young children who exhibit problem behavior in early childhood settings. Given the nature of social-emotional learning during the early childhood years and the lack of a common set of core evidence-based practices within the early childhood literature, selection of instructional practices that foster positive social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes for children in early childhood settings can be difficult. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a study designed to identify common practice elements found in comprehensive intervention models (i.e., manualized interventions that include a number of components) or discrete practices (i.e., a specific behavior or action) designed to target social, emotional, and behavioral learning of young children who exhibit problem behavior. We conducted a systematic review of early childhood classroom interventions that had been evaluated in randomized group designs, quasi-experimental designs, and single-case experimental designs. A total of 49 published articles were identified, and an iterative process was used to identify common practice elements. The practice elements were subsequently reviewed by experts in social-emotional and behavioral interventions for young children. Twenty-four practice elements were identified and classified into content (the goal or general principle that guides a practice element) and delivery (the way in which a teacher provides instruction to the child) categories. We discuss implications that the identification of these practice elements found in the early childhood literature has for efforts to implement models and practices.
Borko, Hilda; Stecher, Brian M.
This report presents findings from two investigations of the use of classroom artifacts to measure the presence of reform-oriented teaching practices in middle-school science classes. It complements previous research on the use of artifacts to describe reform-oriented teaching practices in mathematics. In both studies, ratings based on collections…
Drawn on the sociocultural paradigm, I examined teacher-student communication with emphasis on teacher's talk and its role on international students' learning English as a Second Language in an English for Academic Purposes classroom in a global campus in the U.S. Developmental data analyses of class observations, teacher and student interviews,…
Jackson, Viola Towels
There is a plethora of research pertaining to Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation at the elementary school setting. However, research studies on teachers' perceptions relative to implementing RTI in a middle school tier-based classroom had not been conducted. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine teachers' perception…
King, Philip; Bulkeley, Kelly; Welt, Bernard
"Dreaming in the Classroom" provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about dreams and…
Creativity is socially constructed and is not an objective fact at all. How do teachers perceive students' creativity and how can they foster students' creative learning? From two case studies, one in higher education and a second on iPad-classrooms in schools, the paper reflects on didactical concepts for creativity using mobile devices.…
For language teachers who are concerned about referring to their own and students' identities other than in the roles of "teacher" and "student" in the classroom, this conversation analytic study aims to give insights into the use of identity. Detailed analysis of the data of English for a Specific Purpose (ESP) classrooms…
Brown, Joyceanne; And Others
This survey of 201 regular education teachers found that the most frequently used prereferral strategies used to facilitate classroom adjustment and achievement were consultation with other professionals, parent conferences, and behavior management techniques. Elementary teachers implemented more strategies than secondary-level teachers.…
Brown, Bettina Lankard
Group effectiveness skills, including interpersonal communication, negotiation, and teamwork, are essential in today's diverse classroom and workplace. Various ways have been identified to prepare learners to be effective in group situations and to aid teachers to prepare themselves to be skillful group facilitators. The following are some…
Current approaches and trends in writing pedagogy within the composition classroom focus on the development of students' identities through personal, cultural, or disciplinary processes. By employing writing assignments and activities that concentrate on developing certain traits or characteristics of students' identities has led to a "crisis"…
Ghousseini, Hala; Herbst, Patricio
In this paper, we argue that to prepare pre-service teachers for doing complex work of teaching like leading classroom mathematics discussions requires an implementation of different pedagogies of teacher education in deliberate ways. In supporting our argument, we use two frameworks: one curricular and one pedagogical. The curricular framework is…
Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Linder, Sandra M.
Providing students with a classroom environment that allows for meaningful learning experiences is important for students to develop deep and long lasting understanding about mathematics. This article adds to the literature on learning environments in mathematics by presenting a case study of one fifth-grade mathematics teacher and her classroom…
Measures of classroom and school environments are central to policy efforts that assess school and teacher quality. These measures are often formed by aggregating individual survey responses to form group-level measures, and assume an invariant measurement model holds across the individual and group levels. This article explores the tenability of…
Lin, Chin-Yen; Kuo, Tsung-Hsien; Kuo, Yen-Ku; Kuo, Yen-Lin; Ho, Li-An; Lin, Chien-Ting
The study investigates the effect of length of meditation history on various factors, namely learning motivation, learning outcome and classroom climate. Data were collected from working adult learners (n = 450) attending meditation classes in two large cities in Taiwan. The investigation categorized learners based on meditation experience, namely…
Husbye, Nicholas E.
As technology becomes less costly and more ubiquitous in contemporary lives, utilizing these technologies in the elementary classrooms becomes an educational imperative in the quest to prepare students for success in the larger world. There is, however, a disconnect between the meaning-making possibilities for students in elementary school spaces;…
Strom, Kathryn J.; Martin, Adrian D.
As two teachers/researchers committed to the values of social justice in the classroom, we are deeply disturbed by the explicit and implicit ways that our education system, operating through neoliberalism, reproduces the inequalities of larger society. To problematize and deterritorialize dominant neoliberal notions of schooling, education,…
Manos, Mary Ann
Many teachers in public schools find themselves increasingly unsure of what the law expects of them in the classroom. The general public and government regulators are holding them to higher and stricter standards of conduct, but their educational preparation has not kept up with the changing environment. This book is an ideal guide for teacher…
Sacramento City Coll., CA. Learning Resources Div.
With support from the California Community College Fund for Instructional Improvement, 14 classroom-based research studies were conducted in fall 1991 at American River College (ARC), Consumnes River College (CRC), Sacramento City College (SCC), San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC), Solano Community College (SoCC), and Yuba Community College (YCC).…
Wodrich, David L.; Spencer, Marsha L. S.
School psychologists (N = 161) completed a questionnaire regarding the category of other health impairment (OHI) and classroom accommodations for children with health conditions. School psychologists indicated that they were familiar with OHI and often used the category. More school psychologists were involved in OHI placements for students with…
This article intends to highlight some of the experiences that an International novice English teacher had in the classroom of some pre-degree students of Malaysia, who were in their twenties. As a student of education, the author has some theoretical background in the field of teaching, with which he realized that an eclectic teacher is the one…
Barley, Zoe; Lauer, Patricia A.; Arens, Sheila A.; Apthorp, Helen A.; Englert, Kerry S.; Snow, David; Akiba, Motoko
This report synthesizes research on helping at-risk students meet academic standards. The studies chosen had to be published after 1984, be implemented in the United States, relate to K-12 students, directly assess students' academic achievement, address strategies that could be implemented in the regular classroom, and use strategies targeting…
Cooper, Glen; Hoffman, Kent; Powell, Bert
This article describes the Circle of Security-Classroom (COS-C) approach to applying attachment theory in preschool settings. Early childhood is an incubator for a wide range of development including the underpinnings of school readiness. Secure teacher-child relationships support this process. However, most preschool staff members lack guidance…
Taylor, Carol A.
This article focuses on objects, bodies and space to explore how the mundane materialities of classrooms do crucial but often unnoticed performative work in enacting gendered power. Drawing on ethnographic data from a UK sixth form college study, the article analyses a series of "material moments" to elaborate a material feminist…
Guthrie, John T; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports were implemented within integrated literacy/history instruction in the Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework. CORI increased informational text comprehension compared with traditional instruction (TI) in a switching replications experimental design. Students' perceptions of the motivational-engagement supports were associated with increases in students' intrinsic motivation, value, perceived competence, and increased positive engagement (dedication) more markedly in CORI than in TI, according to multiple regression analyses. Results extended the evidence for the effectiveness of CORI to literacy/history subject matter and informational text comprehension among middle school students. The experimental effects in classroom contexts confirmed effects from task-specific, situated experimental studies in the literature.
Situated amid tertiary-level institutions in the city of Ahmedabad, in Gujarat, India, this article explores how particular ideologies countering English inform pedagogic choices made by language teachers teaching in "vernacular-medium" (VM) college classrooms. The ideologies under discussion are two linked "thought…
Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San
The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…
Lake, Vickie E.; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni
This article synthesizes key principles that teachers should utilize to support English language learners in mainstream early childhood classrooms. Principles include treating children fairly, which entails treating children differently; providing an appropriate language environment; providing adequate English instruction to allow basic…
Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Kroon, Sjaak
This contribution compares literacy instruction in three different scripts in Eritrea. It uses data stemming from classroom observations of beginning readers of Tigrinya (Ge'ez script), Arabic (Arabic script) and Saho (Roman alphabet), the examination of teaching materials, and teacher interviews. Our analysis focuses on literacy events. We…
Genel, Abdulkadir; Topçu, Mustafa Sami
Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle…
Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L.
Surveyed middle school teachers regarding their classroom food and eating behaviors. Using food (particularly candy) as student incentives was common. Most foods used did not support development of healthy eating habits. Many teachers did not role model healthy eating at school. Prevalent use of vending machines was reported. Correlates of…
Cochran, Connie E.
This manual was developed, as a result of a state policy establishing high school graduation requirements for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students, to provide teachers with resources for improving instruction of the LEP population. The manual describes classroom strategies based on current theory and research on second language acquisition.…
It is often perceived that learning in 21st century classrooms will involve extensive use of digital technologies. This paper, based on a qualitative research investigation at a private girls' college in Melbourne, explores the impact of teacher subjectivities on the need to change through the integration of digital technologies into classroom…
Koepsel, Erica R.
Pleasure is an important aspect of healthy sexual development. Moreover, public health researchers and feminist scholars suggest that pleasure-inclusive sex education is effective for reducing pregnancy and rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and may create a more inclusive classroom environment for underserved individuals.…
Schmidt, Patricia Ruggiano, Ed.; Lazar, Althier M., Ed.
This readable book features K-12 teachers and teacher educators who report their experiences of culturally responsive literacy teaching in primarily high poverty, culturally nondominant communities. These extraordinary teachers show us what culturally responsive literacy teaching looks like in their classrooms and how it advances children's…
Pane, Debra Mayes
Classroom discipline is a major concern of American teachers and why many leave teaching. A conventional view of learning is so deeply interrelated with schooling in the American culture it also drives the view of discipline, especially in urban contexts where students are disproportionately failed and excluded by the mainstream educational…
Mudau, Awelani V.
The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for diagnosing teaching difficulties of a science topic in the science classroom. The development of the framework is presented as well as descriptions of the features of the framework. How the framework can be used is also elaborated? Furthermore, there is a detailed indication of an…
Flanagan, Maryclare E.
This research sought to explore how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes the beliefs of pre-service teachers with respect to issues such as classroom management and student behavior. 101 pre-service teachers were recruited from undergraduate and graduate education courses at a private, mid-sized university. The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i),…
Mutch-Jones, Karen; Puttick, Gillian; Minner, Daphne
The Lesson Study for Accessible Science (LSAS) project created middle school teams comprised of both science and special education teachers who engaged in collaborative work to improve instruction in inclusive classrooms. The intervention is based on Lesson Study, a professional development approach that originated in Japan, which supports the…
Probeware is increasingly being implemented in science classrooms because it is less expensive than it used to be and improvements in hardware and software have made it more accessible to students and teachers. Many probes or sensors can now simply be connected to a computer, calculator, or other handheld device, and will immediately begin to…
In this paper I consider some of the affinities between the teacher-student dynamic in academic supervision, and the therapist-patient dynamic in the therapeutic relation. Drawing on my own experiences, I identify several difficulties that pertain to these two settings. First, in the context of the classroom, I consider how the requirement to…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students’ informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports were implemented within integrated literacy/history instruction in the Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework. CORI increased informational text comprehension compared with traditional instruction (TI) in a switching replications experimental design. Students’ perceptions of the motivational-engagement supports were associated with increases in students’ intrinsic motivation, value, perceived competence, and increased positive engagement (dedication) more markedly in CORI than in TI, according to multiple regression analyses. Results extended the evidence for the effectiveness of CORI to literacy/history subject matter and informational text comprehension among middle school students. The experimental effects in classroom contexts confirmed effects from task-specific, situated experimental studies in the literature. PMID:25506087
In striving for internationalisation, government and university policies in Catalonia promote the use of English in classrooms in two ways that often overlap: (1) as a lingua franca aiding the participation of international students and (2) through immersion approaches targeting local students. However, as the findings presented in this article…
Romero, Gabriela; DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Fradkin, Claudia
Drawing from Chicana feminist perspectives and Pérez ("Living Chicana theory." Third Woman Press, Berkeley, pp 87-101, 1998) theories of "sitios y lenguas" (space and discourses) the authors reposition understandings of teaching and learning through a qualitative case study of a first grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom.…
Blanton, Maria L.; Westbrook, Susan L.; Carter, Glenda
This study explores the use of Valsiner's zone theory as a way to interpret the zones of proximal development of three secondary school teachers in mathematics and science. Specifically, researchers used classroom discourse to identify what the participating teachers promoted (zone of promoted action) or allowed (zone of free movement) in the…
Enloe, Walter, Ed.; Simon, Ken, Ed.
The articles of this collection offer a window into the classrooms of teachers who provide activities that support multicultural and global education. "Intercultural" is used rather than multicultural because it suggests interacting in a way that increases the understanding and respect we have for our many cultures. The following papers…
McGrew, Christopher N.
The current study focused on how six participants of a 2009 professional development activity at Yellowstone National Park described their experience and classroom instructional impact. The author focused on words and phrases illustrating perspective gathering, reflection and public performance to determine the impact of both the experience at…
Dingle, Rosa T.
According to Chadwell (2009), South Carolina leads the nation in single-gender classrooms as a means to offer parents school choice. South Carolina teachers who recognize and know the gender differences between girls and boys can ensure that students reach their full potential as it relates to education. The concern is that there are a number of…
Sawada, Daiyo; Piburn, Michael D.; Judson, Eugene; Turley, Jeff; Falconer, Kathleen; Benford, Russell; Bloom, Irene
Describes the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP), a 25-item classroom observation protocol that is standards-based, inquiry-oriented, and student-centered. Provides the definition for reform and the basis for evaluation of the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (ACEPT). Concludes that reform, as defined…
Munoz, Marco A.
This literature review is about the application of the ideas of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the academic side of higher learning institutions (classrooms). The methodology is solely document analysis. Findings show that TQM is a possible avenue for achieving national goals of quality for undergraduate and graduate education. The TQM…
Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit
Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…
Cajkler, Wasyl; Hall, Bernadette
This study explored the language capability of two groups of new teachers in a multilingual city: the first in their initial teacher education year, and the second near the end of their induction year. Almost all teachers in the city face the challenge of teaching English as an additional language in classrooms characterised by super-diversity and…
Gere, Anne Ruggles, Ed.; Shaheen, Peter, Ed.
This book is a collection of classroom-tested ideas for helping students explore how literature and "the canon" are made, what the term "American" means, and how the phrase "American literature" obscures the presence of multiple "literatures" that are both individually compelling and mutually enriching. Each…
Alvermann, Donna E.
When teachers, teacher educators, and researchers tap into young people's interests in producing online content, they open themselves to appreciating a wide range of skills that might otherwise go unmarked in the everyday routines of the classroom. These skills are central to the development of critical readers and writers that teachers say they…
Pane, Debra Mayes
Exclusionary school discipline results in students being removed from classrooms as a consequence of their disruptive behavior and may lead to subsequent suspension and/or expulsion. Literature documents that nondominant students, particularly Black males, are disproportionately impacted by exclusionary discipline, to the point that researchers…
Dwyer, David C.; And Others
Beginning in 1985, Apple Computer, Inc., and several school districts began a collaboration to examine the impact of computer saturation on instruction and learning in K-12 classrooms. The initial guiding question was simply put: What happens when teachers and students have constant access to technology? To provide "constant access,"…
In the context of the tension between classroom observation as a form of empowerment and as an instrument of control, the partnership between three 16-19 colleges and a university School of Education in delivering a programme of sustained observation over eight years is explicated. Drawing on the literature about continuing professional…
In this thematic case study in a rural primary school, young children of diverse socio-cultural origins use transformative and transmodal redesign in music as they explore new conceptual meanings through self-reflexive interaction in classroom music events. A focus on music dialogue created by interaction between modes is seen to promote…
Doll, Beth; Zucker, Steven; Brehm, Katherine
Grounded in cutting-edge theory and research, this book presents innovative, classroom-based strategies for promoting the academic competence and mental health of students at risk. Easy-to-implement procedures are described that enlist the involvement of school practitioners, teachers, and students in creating nurturing, success-oriented classroom…
Wolery, Mark; Brashers, Margaret Sigalove; Neitzel, Jennifer C.
This article explains how educators can use the ecological congruence assessment process for identifying functional goals for young children with disabilities. Process steps include: teacher collects information about functioning in usual classroom activities, routines, and transitions; summarizes the collected information; and shares the…
Halpin, Peter F.; Kieffer, Michael J.
The authors outline the application of latent class analysis (LCA) to classroom observational instruments. LCA offers diagnostic information about teachers' instructional strengths and weaknesses, along with estimates of measurement error for individual teachers, while remaining relatively straightforward to implement and interpret. It is…
Cothron, Julia H.; And Others
This book was written to make it easier for classroom teachers to teach students the skills they need to successfully conduct, analyze, and report an experiment and to carry out independent research; it also presents strategies for holding successful science competitions. Part 1 contains field-tested teaching strategies for developing student…
Singer, Jonathan; Lotter, Christine; Feller, Robert; Gates, Harry
A hallmark of current science education reform involves teaching through inquiry. However, the widespread use of inquiry-based instruction in many classrooms has not occurred (Roehrig and Luft in "Int J Sci Educ" 26:3-24, 2004; Schneider et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 42:283-312, 2005). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a…
Filcheck, Holly A.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
Behavior problems are increasing in frequency among preschool children. Thus, preschool teachers must be prepared to manage the increasing disruptive behaviors exhibited in their classrooms. Because positive behavioral management strategies are accepted by teachers and have been proven effective, token economies may be promising interventions to…
In this commentary, I interpret Xinying Yin and Gayle Ann Buck's collaborative action research from a social-cultural perspective. Classroom implementation of formative assessment is viewed as interaction between this assessment method and the local learning culture. I first identify Yin and Buck's definition of the formative assessment, and then…
Martinez, Jose Felipe; Borko, Hilda; Stecher, Brian M.
With growing interest in the role of teachers as the key mediators between educational policies and outcomes, the importance of developing good measures of classroom processes has become increasingly apparent. Yet, collecting reliable and valid information about a construct as complex as instruction poses important conceptual and technical…
Bertsche, Harriet; Silvestri, Holly
A series of both daily classroom activities and a long-term assignment in which secondary school language students actively use the Internet and the World Wide Web are described. Class activities target each of three proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate, advanced). They include having students check the weather, check out major…
Literature abounds on professional development. However, teacher change is not so much the result of professional development, but rather successful implementation of strategies learned into the classroom: a mastery experience. Mastery experience, after all, is the most influential predicator of teacher efficacy, which is equated to student…
Hong, Eunsook; Greene, Mary T.; Higgins, Kyle
An instrument to measure teachers' instructional practices, the Instructional Practice Questionnaire, was developed and validated in three phases. The questionnaires focused on three domains of instructional practices: cognitive, interpersonal, and interpersonal. First, an initial questionnaire was developed for a pilot study, and data were…
Peace Corps, 2008
This book was written in response to feedback from volunteer teachers who feel that the time spent dealing with classroom management issues detracts from the time they spend actually teaching the content. Volunteers and staff members provided practical strategies for dealing with the most commonly reported challenges. Chapters include teaching in…
Wight, D; Abraham, C
This paper describes the development of a theoretically based sex education programme currently undergoing a randomized controlled trial in the UK. It considers some of the practical difficulties involved in translating research-based conclusions into acceptable, replicable and potentially effective classroom lessons. The discussion acknowledges that the implications of social psychological research and the requirements of rigorous evaluation may conflict with accepted principles inherent in current sex education practice. It also emphasizes that theoretical ideas must be carefully embedded in lessons which are informed by an awareness of classroom culture, and the needs and skills of teachers. For example, the use of same-sex student groups to reflect on the gendered construction of sexuality may be problematic. Materials must be tailored to recipients' circumstances, which may require substituting for limited experience with the use of detailed scripts and scenarios. Furthermore, role-play techniques for sexual negotiation that work elsewhere may not be effective in the UK. The use of trigger video sessions and other techniques are recommended. Finally, the problems involved in promoting condom-related skills are discussed. The paper concludes that, if an intervention is to be sustainable beyond the research stage, it must be designed to overcome such problems while remaining theoretically informed.