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Sample records for actual coal gas

  1. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  2. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  3. Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-03-01

    The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

  4. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  5. Coal and coal gas resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.R.; Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; McMurray, R.G.; Nance, H.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Accurate assessment and delineation of coal and coal gas resources within basins are important aspects of resource development. Previous estimates of coal resources in the Piceance Basin range from 248 to 382 billion tons, and in-place coal gas resources are generally accepted to be 84 Tcf. Assuming no depth restrictions, we estimate coal and coal gas resources to be approximately 289 billion tons and 99 Tcf, respectively. Coal gas resources in the Piceance were calculated using two different approaches because of the topographic relief in the basin. The first method, which correlated ash-free gas content with depth, overestimated coal gas resources under topographically high areas. The second method, based on coal rank, eliminated topographic effects but underestimated coal gas resources in parts of the basin where unusually high gas contents occur owing to gas migration. Therefore, coal gas resources range between 80 and 136 Tcf, depending on the method used. Assuming no depth restrictions, 80 percent of the coal (255 billion tons) and 75 percent of the coal gas (76 Tcf) resources are found in the lower part of the Cameo-Wheeler Fairfield coal group. The regional distribution of coal gas resources generally follows net coal trends. Maximum in-place coal gas resources exceed 60 Bcf/mi[sup 2] in the deeper parts of the basin and are double the 30 Bcf/mi[sup 2] previously reported.

  6. Coal and coal gas resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.R.; Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; McMurray, R.G.; Nance, H.S.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate assessment and delineation of coal and coal gas resources within basins are important aspects of resource development. Previous estimates of coal resources in the Piceance Basin range from 248 to 382 billion tons, and in-place coal gas resources are generally accepted to be 84 Tcf. Assuming no depth restrictions, we estimate coal and coal gas resources to be approximately 289 billion tons and 99 Tcf, respectively. Coal gas resources in the Piceance were calculated using two different approaches because of the topographic relief in the basin. The first method, which correlated ash-free gas content with depth, overestimated coal gas resources under topographically high areas. The second method, based on coal rank, eliminated topographic effects but underestimated coal gas resources in parts of the basin where unusually high gas contents occur owing to gas migration. Therefore, coal gas resources range between 80 and 136 Tcf, depending on the method used. Assuming no depth restrictions, 80 percent of the coal (255 billion tons) and 75 percent of the coal gas (76 Tcf) resources are found in the lower part of the Cameo-Wheeler Fairfield coal group. The regional distribution of coal gas resources generally follows net coal trends. Maximum in-place coal gas resources exceed 60 Bcf/mi{sup 2} in the deeper parts of the basin and are double the 30 Bcf/mi{sup 2} previously reported.

  7. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  8. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  9. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  10. The marriage of gas turbines and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost.

  11. Coal gas openhole well performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas production from coal seams has been highly successful due to the use of open-hole completion techniques in the high permeability fairway of the San Juan Basin (Colorado and New Mexico) Fruitland Formation. Based upon extensive formation evaluation data collected during Gas Research Institute funded research efforts, dynamic open-hole (cavity) completion production out-performed hydraulic fracture completion production regardless of the magnitude of natural fracture permeability due to lack of formation damage. This paper will illustrate four examples of the use of open-hole completion procedures that resulted in undamaged completions in reservoirs with absolute permeability ranging from 0.9 to 95 md. The formation evaluation data upon which the conclusions were based included open-hole logs, production logs, sonar logs, single well tests, and interference tests. The latest information has not been previously reported upon in the literature.

  12. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  14. The geomechanics of gas recovery from coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, D. M.; Karev, V. I.; Kovalenko, Yu. F.

    2015-05-01

    A new approach for the creation of scientific foundations for effective and environmentally safe recovery of methane from coal seams is proposed. A virgin coal seam possesses very low permeability. Free gas is contained in isolated microscopic pores and cracks of the coal seam under a pressure close to the rock pressure. An oriented system of cracks, which forms a coupled system of filtration channels, can be formed by means of directed unloading of the rock pressure from the seam due to expanding gas energy. The parameters of the manufacturing effect on the seam are determined based on physical modeling of actual mechanical and filtration processes using the experimental installation of truly three-axial loading and mathematical modeling.

  15. Steady advance of coal and gas bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanbing, Yu

    1988-02-01

    This paper establishes a one-dimensional model to analyse the mechanism of coal and gas bursts. It is found that the intrinsic factor governing bursts is the coupling of the initiation of the moving of coal fragments with the gas seepage. A typical (strong) burst can be treated as a steady advance process. The significant dimensionless parameters concerning bursts and an approximate burst criterion are given, and they are in good agreement with the statistics of field data.

  16. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  17. Controls on coal-bed gas composition

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D. )

    1993-09-01

    Coal-bed gases are quite variable in composition. In addition to methane, they can contain significant amounts of heavier hydrocarbon gases (C2+>20%) and carbon dioxide (>99%). Coal-bed gases are also variable in their isotopic composition: [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1]:-70.4 to - 16.8 ppt, [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2]:-29.2 to -22.8 ppt, [delta]D[sub 1]:-333 to -117 ppt, and [delta]C[sub CO2]:26.6 to +18.6 ppt. the primary controls of hydrocarbon gas composition are coal rank and composition and depth/temperature. Biogenic gas is generated by the degradation of organic matter at shallow depths and low temperatures in coals of any rank and is mainly methane. Thermogenic coal-bed gas results from devolatilization of coal at ranks of high- volatile bituminous and higher. These gases can be wet at intermediate ranks (high- to medium-volatile bituminous) and are dry at higher ranks. [delta][sup 13]C and [delta]D values become more positive with increasing rank. In addition, at intermediate ranks, hydrogen-rich coals generate wetter gases than do oxygen-rich coals. Shallow coal-bed gas is relatively dry with isotopically light methane as compared to gas from deeper coal, regardless of rank. This trend results from the original gases being altered by relatively recent bacterial activity (aerobic oxidation of heavier hydrocarbons and/or anaerobic generation of biogenic methane). This alteration occurs at depths <3,000 ft and is controlled by the physical characteristics of the coal beds, burial history, and groundwater flow. Carbon dioxide generated during devolatilization commonly is not preserved in present-day coal-bed gases because it is highly reactive and soluble in water. Significant present-day amounts of carbon dioxide can be the result of several processes not related to coalification, such as recent bacterial activity, thermal destruction of carbonates, and migration from magma chambers or the upper mantle.

  18. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  19. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

  20. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

    2008-05-15

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  1. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  2. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  3. Molten carbonate fuel cells for coal and natural gas fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krumplet, M.; Ackerman, J.P.; Cook, G.M.; Pierce, R.D.

    1984-02-01

    System designs of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants are described for central stations using coal and on-site generators operating on natural gas. Fuel-to-busbar efficiencies are near 50% in coal based systems with turbine bottoming and in simple gas based systems. Coal based systems with more advanced but not fully developed components, and more complex gas based systems approach 60% efficiency.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cells for coal and natural gas fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Cook, G.M.; Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    System designs of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants are described for central stations using coal and on-site generators operating on natural gas. Fuel-to-busbar efficiencies are near 50% in coal based systems with turbine bottoming and in simple gas based systems. Coal based systems with more advanced but not fully developed components, and more complex gas based systems approach 60% efficiency.

  5. [Study on Microwave Co-Pyrolysis of Low Rank Coal and Circulating Coal Gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Xiao-feng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yu-hong; Zhao, Xi-cheng

    2016-02-01

    The pyrolysis of low rank coal to produce bluecoke, coal tar and gas is considered to be the optimal method to realize its clean and efficient utilization. However, the current mainstream pyrolysis production technology generally has a certain particle size requirements for raw coal, resulting in lower yield and poorer quality of coal tar, lower content of effective components in coal gas such as H₂, CH₄, CO, etc. To further improve the yield of coal tar obtained from the pyrolysis of low rank coal and explore systematically the effect of microwave power, pyrolysis time and particle size of coal samples on the yield and composition of microwave pyrolysis products of low rank coal through the analysis and characterization of products with FTIR and GC-MS, introducing microwave pyrolysis of low rank coal into the microwave pyrolysis reactor circularly was suggested to carry out the co-pyrolysis experiment of the low rank coal and coal gas generated by the pyrolysis of low rank coal. The results indicated that the yield of the bluecoke and liquid products were up to 62.2% and 26.8% respectively when the optimal pyrolysis process conditions with the microwave power of 800W, pyrolysis time of 40 min, coal samples particle size of 5-10 mm and circulating coal gas flow rate of 0.4 L · min⁻¹ were selected. The infrared spectrogram of the bluecoke under different microwave power and pyrolysis time overlapped roughly. The content of functional groups with -OH, C==O, C==C and C−O from the bluecoke through the pyrolysis of particle size coal samples had a larger difference. To improve microwave power, prolonging pyrolysis time and reducing particle size of coal samples were conducive to converting heavy component to light one into coal tar. PMID:27209750

  6. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  7. Coal or natural gas for ecofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, A.

    1998-04-01

    Given the extensive available resources of coal and, to a lesser extent, natural gas, the challenge to access these resources in a way that balances growth and conservation in a responsible way, is a tough technological task. On the one hand there is the inadverterable and undesirable liberation of CO{sub 2} when carbon is used and on the other hand it is reasonable to assume that hydrocarbon liquids will, for the foreseeable future, remain the backbone of the supply of energy to automotive vehicles. It is therefore necessary that options for improved environmental performance of such fuels are developed and considered for application where the economics would permit it.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  9. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  10. PERFORMANCE AND MODELING OF A HOT POTASSIUM CARBONATE ACID GAS REMOVAL SYSTEM IN TREATING COAL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance and modeling of a hot potassium carbonate (K2CO3) acid gas removal system (AGRS) in treating coal gas. Aqueous solutions of K2CO3, with and without amine additive, were used as the acid gas removal solvent in the Coal Gasification/Gas Cleaning...

  11. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  12. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

  13. Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Nguyen, Carolyn D.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2008-08-13

    This report describes efforts to characterize the interactions nickel anodes with phosphorus in coal gas using three different button cell configurations to emphasize particular degradation modes. Important parameters addressed included contaminant concentration, temperature, reaction time, fuel utilization, and current density. In addition, coupon tests in flow-through and flow-by arrangements were conducted to complement cell tests. The studies have involved extensive electrochemical testing using both dc and ac methods. Post-test analyses to determine the composition and extent of nickel modification are particularly important to understanding reactions that have occurred. This report also provides a thermodynamic assessment of contaminant reactions with nickel in a coal gas environment with regard to alteration phase formation. Contaminants addressed were phosphorus, arsenic, sulfur, selenium, and antimony. Phosphorus was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Even in button cell tests where the fuel utilization was low, phosphorus was found to be nearly completely captured by the nickel anode. For anode-supported cells, an important degradation mode involved loss of electronic percolation, the result of nickel phosphide formation, grain growth, and inducement of micro-fractures within the anode support. Even with excessive anode support conversion, electrochemical degradation rates were often very low. This is attributed to a “shadowing effect,” whereby a dense structure such as current leads prevent phosphorus from reacting with the nickel directly underneath. This effect maintains an electrical pathway to the active interface, and allows the cell to operate with minimal degradation until the anode is essentially completely consumed. In a planar stack, ribs on the interconnect plate would be expected to provide this conductive pathway in the

  14. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  15. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-11-01

    In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

  17. Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Buckius, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    There are applications where the combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers potential advantages over the use of either coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use during to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary volatiles'' to enhance the combustion. In addition, natural gas provides a clean fuel source of fuel which, in cofiring situations, can extend the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. The addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emission through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. In this research program, studies of combined coal and natural gas combustion will provide particle ignition, burnout rates and ash characterization, that will help clarify the effect of coal and natural gas and identify the controlling parameters and mechanisms.

  18. Integrated coal-fired gas turbine power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, W.B.; Lipstein, N.J.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes an apparatus for the utilization of coal. This apparatus consists of: 1.) a coal combustion system including a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier; 2.) a gas cleanup segment in flow communication with the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier; 3.) an expansion turbine in flow communication with the gas cleanup segment; 4.) a mechanism for substantially isothermally producing a pressurized fluid at a temperature below about 650/sup 0/F. This mechanism is in flow communication with the coal combustion system, including a hydraulic compressor and a regenerator connected intermediately with the hydraulic compressor and the coal combustion system. The regenerator has a heat exchange relationship with the exhaust of the expansion turbine. 5.) a supply of cooling fluid flows from the pressurized fluid producing a flow to the gas cleanup segment; 6.) a gas cleanup segment consisting of an alkali scrubber system for circulating the flow of cooling fluid.

  19. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Comparison of actual and predicted energy savings in Minnesota gas-heated single-family homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.

    1984-03-01

    Data available from a recent evaluation of a home energy audit program in Minnesota are sufficient to allow analysis of the actual energy savings achieved in audited homes and of the relationship between actual and predicted savings. The program, operated by Northern States Power in much of the southern half of the state, is part of Minnesota's version of the federal Residential Conservation Service. NSP conducted almost 12 thousand RCS audits between April 1981 (when the progam began) and the end of 1982. The data analyzed here, available for 346 homes that obtained an NSP energy audit, include monthly natural gas bills from October 1980 through April 1983; heating degree day data matched to the gas bills; energy audit reports; and information on household demographics, structure characteristics, and recent conservation actions from mail and telephone surveys. The actual reduction in weather-adjusted natural gas use between years 1 and 3 averaged 19 MBtu across these homes (11% of preprogram consumption); the median value of the saving was 16 MBtu/year. The variation in actual saving is quite large: gas consumption increased in almost 20% of the homes, while gas consumption decreased by more than 50 MBtu/year in more than 10% of the homes. These households reported an average expenditure of almost $1600 for the retrofit measures installed in their homes; the variation in retrofit cost, while large, was not as great as the variation in actual natural gas savings.

  1. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  2. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Tsay, F.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of sorption capacity of coals by microbalance in a high pressure environment requires that corrections be made for the buoyancy of the gas that is displaced by the solid coal. As the pressure increases, the gas density increases, requiring that a correction factor be applied to the weight of the sample as measured by microbalance. A brief report summarizing this correction is attached as Appendix A.

  3. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  5. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  6. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  7. Feasibility of producing a low-Btu gas from coal/briquetted coal fines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    In order to provide an essentially non-interruptible, plant-controlled, alternate fuel supply for the Noranda Aluminum, Inc. New Madrid, Missouri aluminum reduction plant, a study was commissioned by the DOE to develop a conceptual plant design to utilize coal/coal briquettes to produce Low Btu fuel gas (herein referred to as LBG). LBG equal to 1330 MM Btu per day (equivalent to 1330 M SCF per day Natural Gas) was projected to be produced from 84 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal (or 45% coal blended with 55% coal briquettes bonded with coal tar pitch binder) in one Wellman-Galusha gasifier unit. The LBG produced by this integrated processing plant is cooled, cleaned, and desulfurized to meet EPA requirements, dehydrated after compression, and odorized before transmission through a 6000 foot long pipeline to the aluminum reduction plant. Gas costs developed for a one gasifier installation show that without briquetting the net production cost for LBG is $5.07 per million Btu, while the cost with briquetting (including the coal tar pitch binder) increases the net production cost to $6.00 per million Btu. However, to obtain a 15% discounted cash flow the selling price would have to be set at $6.51/MM Btu and $7.78/MM Btu, respectively, with all values based on coal at $29.50/ton and full by-product credits. These unit costs include charges for the 6000 foot long pipeline, and compression costs to deliver the product gas to the aluminum plant's users. The financial attractiveness of this venture must be predicated on the anticipated increases in the cost of natural gas, propane and fuel oil.

  8. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  9. U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

  10. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Research continued on the study of coal permeability and gas desorption. This quarter, most of the effort involved identifying problems with the microbalance and then getting it repaired. Measurement of the amount of gas adsorbed with the microbalance involved corrections for the buoyancy change with pressure and several experiments with helium were made to determine this correction.

  11. Assessing climate benefits of natural gas and coal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Myhrvold, Nathan; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    A transition from a system of coal electricity generation to near-zero emission electricity generation will be central to any effort to mitigate climate change. Natural gas is increasingly seen as a 'bridge fuel' for transitions form coal to near-zero emission energy sources. However, various studies use different metrics to estimate the climate impact of natural gas utilization, and led to differing conclusions. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of natural gas and coal electricity production, and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiency and methane leakage rate as the key factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. We then develop a power plant GHG emission model, apply available life-cycle parameters to calculate associated CO2 and CH4 emissions and assess climate effects. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we base our discussion on temperature changes over time. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial natural gas leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than a coal plant with the same power output. If leakage rates can be made to be low and efficiency high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. However, without carbon capture and storage natural gas power plants cannot achieve the deep reductions that would be required to avoid substantial contribution to additional global warming. Achieving climate benefits from the use of natural gas depends on building high-efficiency natural gas plants, controlling methane leakage, and on developing a policy environment that assures a transition to future lower-emission technologies. For more information please see http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/9/11/114022/article .

  12. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia

  13. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2013-09-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high gas pressure in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  14. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  15. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING AND FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of evaluations of physical coal cleaning (PCC), chemical coal cleaning (CCC), and coal cleaning combined with flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It includes process descriptions, cleaning performances, comparative capital investments, and annual revenue requ...

  16. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  17. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2016-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. Surface water and groundwater modelling is now complete for two regions where coal seam gas development may proceed, namely the Clarence-Moreton and Gloucester regions in eastern New South Wales. This presentation will discuss how the results of these

  18. Evaluation of biological conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, R.K.; Mazzella, G.

    1990-09-01

    Foster Wheeler USA Corporation conducted an evaluation study on the biological conversion of synthesis gas to methane which is under development at the University of Arkansas. A conceptual design of an integrated coal-based SNG plant, employing the bioconversion process route, was developed together with the corresponding capital and operating costs. The economics were compared to those for a coal-based SNG plant design using the conventional catalytic route for shift and methanation. 5 refs., 10 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. This quarter, work was centered on design, fabrication, and testing of the combustor, cleanup, fuel specifications, and hot end simulation rig. 2 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part I--Stack gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Ge, S; Bai, Z; Liu, W; Zhu, T; Wang, T; Qing, S; Zhang, J

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM2.5, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2.5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM2.5, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study. PMID:11321909

  1. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this task is to accurately measure the elongation and shrinkage exhibited by coal as it sorbs and desorbs methane gas at elevated pressure. Our research group has discussed several possible methods to measure this strain, including: optical microscopy, laser interferometry, conventional strain gauges, and LVDT strain gauges. There are advantages and disadvantages of each method. We had planned to use optical microscopy but, on further investigation, this approach will be less satisfactory than the strain gauge method. Accordingly, we have switched our focws to the use of strain gauges. Conventional strain gauges also involve potential problems which must be overcome, including: (1) Contrast in strength between the coal and the strain gauge must be minimized, (2) The proper glue that is neither too strong or too weak must be used to affix the strain gauge to the coal or the strain in the coal will not be accurately transmitted to the gauge, and (3) We must be aware that the total strain in the coal may not be homogeneously distributed through the specimen (due either either to boundary effects or contrast in composition of the coal layers). A high pressure chamber for sorption-strain experiments is currently being tested an modified and tested. The chamber will accommodate several small blocks of coal simultaneously. This will optimize efficiency, owing to the long times required to reequilibrate the coal blocks to changes in methane pressure.

  2. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin. Topical report, September 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kelafant, J.R.; Wicks, D.E.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    Based on a geologic assessment of the Northern Appalachian Coal Basin, natural gas in place is estimated at 61 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), contained in 352,000 billion tons of coal. Over one third of the gas in place is in the deep, areally extensive Kittanning group (24.0 Tcf), although the Freeport (15.5 Tcf), Brookville/Clarion (11.0 Tcf), and Pittsburgh (7.0 Tcf) groups also hold considerable potential for coalbed gas. Five regional cross sections correlating the six major coal groups are included along with areal extent, overburden (depth of burial), coal isopach, and coal-rank maps.

  3. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  4. Combustion of coal-gas fuels in a staged combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T J; McVey, J B; Sederquist, R A; Schultz, D F

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources have been considered for use in industrial gas turbines. Such fuels generally have heating values much lower than the typical gaseous fuel, natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Additionally, coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable NO/sub x/ exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations have indicated that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low NO/sub x/ emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels containing up to 0.8-wt % nitrogen. An experimental program has been conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7% ammonia are presented. The test results permit the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Staged, rich-lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with heating values of 210 kJ/mol (238 Btu/scf) or higher. (2) Lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with low heating values (84 kJ/mol (95 Btu/scf)). (3) Staged combustion has the ability to limit NH/sub 3/ to NO/sub x/ conversion rates to less than 5%. NO/sub x/ emissions below the EPA limit can readily be achieved.

  5. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part II--Energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Ge, S; Bai, Z

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct an integrated analysis of the energy, greenhouse gas, and air quality impacts of a new type of boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) in contrast to those of the raw coal from which the BB-coal was formulated (R-coal). The analysis is based on the source emissions data and other relevant data collected in the present study and employs approaches including the construction of carbon, energy, and sulfur balances. The results show that replacing R-coal with BB-coal as the fuel for boilers such as the one tested would have multiple benefits, including a 37% increase in boiler thermal efficiency, a 25% reduction in fuel demand, a 26% reduction in CO2 emission, a 17% reduction in CO emission, a 63% reduction in SO2 emission, a 97% reduction in fly ash and fly ash carbon emission, a 22% reduction in PM2.5 mass emission, and a 30% reduction in total emission of five toxic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) metals contained in PM10. These benefits can be achieved with no changes in boiler hardware and with a relatively small amount of tradeoffs: a 30% increase in PM10 mass emission and a 9-16% increase in fuel cost. PMID:11321910

  6. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hiroyo; Shioji, Norio; Hamasaki, Akihiro

    1995-12-31

    To mitigate CO{sub 2} discharged from thermal power plants, studies on CO{sub 2} fixation by the photosynthesis of microalgae using actual exhaust gas have been carried out. The results are as follows: (1) A method is proposed for evaluating the maximum photosynthesis rate in the raceway cultivator using only the algal physical properties; (2) Outdoor cultivation tests taking actual flue gas were performed with no trouble or break throughout 1 yr using the strain collected in the test; (3) The produced microalgae is effective as solid fuel; and (4) The feasibility studies of this system were performed. The system required large land area, but the area is smaller than that required for other biomass systems, such as tree farms.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  9. Application of pattern recognition in the forecast of outburst area of coal and gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, T. W.; Zhang, H. W.; Chen, Y.; Ren, X.

    2010-08-01

    Based on the intrinsic relation between a number of outburst factors and outburst dangers, multi-factor pattern recognition model has been established. Furthermore, the prediction rules of outburst probability of coal and gas have been determined. By adopting multi-factor pattern recognition probabilistic prediction methods, the regional forecast of dangerous areas of coal and gas has been finished; risky areas, threatening areas and areas without obvious dangers of coal and gas inside the coal field has been divided; assessment has been made on the outburst danger of coal and gas; the accuracy of gas disaster prediction has been improved. The establishment of a relatively scientific prediction method of outburst areas of coal and gas would make it possible to enable coal mine safety workers to make accurate judgment and prevent the outburst of coal and gas.

  10. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. NANOMATERIAL SOLUTIONS FOR HOT COAL GAS CLEANUP - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a new coal gasification technique that efficiently uses the hot (900-1500°C) generated syngas to power both steam and gas turbines. Due to regulations, this syngas must be free of sulfur and purification is normally carried ...

  12. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  13. Advances in Ammonia Removal from Hot Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds, typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt%. During coal gasification, this fuel bound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia (NH{sub 3}). When hot coal gas is used to generate electricity in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, NH{sub 3} is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Similarly, while the efficiency of integrated gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (IGFC) power plants is not affected by NH{sub 3}, NO{sub x} is generated during combustion of the anode exhaust gas. Thus NH{sub 3} must be removed from hot coal gas before it can be burned in a turbine or fuel cell. The objective of this study is to develop a successful combination of an NH{sub 3} decomposition catalyst with a zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent so that the sorbent-catalyst activity remains stable for NH{sub 3} decomposition in addition to H{sub 2}S removal under cycle sulfidation-regeneration conditions in the temperature range of 500 to 750{degrees}C.

  14. Replacing coal with natural gas would reduce warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    A debate has raged in the past couple of years as to whether natural gas is better or worse overall than coal and oil from a global warming perspective. The back-and-forth findings have been due to the timelines taken into consideration, the details of natural gas extraction, and the electricity-generating efficiency of various fuels. An analysis by Cathles, which focuses exclusively on potential warming and ignores secondary considerations, such as economic, political, or other environmental concerns, finds that natural gas is better for electricity generation than coal and oil under all realistic circumstances. To come to this conclusion, the author considered three different future fuel consumption scenarios: (1) a business-as-usual case, which sees energy generation capacity continue at its current pace with its current energy mix until the middle of the century, at which point the implementation of low-carbon energy sources dominates and fossil fuel-derived energy production declines; (2) a gas substitution scenario, where natural gas replaces all coal power production and any new oil-powered facilities, with the same midcentury shift; and (3) a low-carbon scenario, where all electricity generation is immediately and aggressively switched to non-fossil fuel sources such as solar, wind, and nuclear.

  15. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  16. Coal or natural gas for ecofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, A.

    1998-07-01

    The paper reviews the technology of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis used in the Sasal plant in South Africa. It discusses environmental aspects and economics of new FT facilities for the production of diesel fuels. Several projects are briefly described which use this technology for natural gas conversion.

  17. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  18. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  19. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  20. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Laurens, R.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    The overall program objective is the demonstration of a full-scale, full-height IMHEX {reg sign} molten carbonate fuel cell stack in a 250 kW dual-fuel power plant test on natural gas and simulated coal gas. Issues impeding development of manufacturing and testing facilities will be addressed in support of MCFC stack research and power plant development. Issues will be identified and resolved in engineering, manufacturing, assembling, cost, performance, and endurance of the stack repeat and non-repeat components. The program is being executed by M-C Power (MCP) and several major subcontractors.

  1. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Laurens, R.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1992-09-01

    The overall program objective is the demonstration of a full-scale, full-height IMHEX {reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell stack in a 250 kW dual-fuel power plant test on natural gas and simulated coal gas. Issues impeding development of manufacturing and testing facilities will be addressed in support of MCFC stack research and power plant development. Issues will be identified and resolved in engineering, manufacturing, assembling, cost, performance, and endurance of the stack repeat and non-repeat components. The program is being executed by M-C Power (MCP) and several major subcontractors.

  2. Synthetic natural gas in California: When and why. [from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A coal gasification plant planned for northwestern New Mexico to produce 250 MMCFD of pipeline quality gas (SNG) using the German Lurgi process is discussed. The SNG will be commingled with natural gas in existing pipelines for delivery to southern California and the Midwest. Cost of the plant is figured at more than $1.4 billion in January 1978 dollars with a current inflation rate of $255,000 for each day of delay. Plant start-up is now scheduled for 1984.

  3. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  4. Gas turbine materials evaluation program utilizing coal derived gaseous fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Yates, C. C.; Manning, G. B.; Peterson, R. R.

    1981-03-01

    A gas turbine materials evaluation test facility under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy is described. The objective of the mobile test facility is to obtain dynamic and static test data on the erosion/corrosion characteristics of materials exposed to the hot products of the combustion of coal-derived fuels. The engine being utilized for the tests is the WR 24-7 aircraft turbojet unit reconfigurated to burn coke oven gas. Approximately 100 hours of engine operating time have been logged to date.

  5. A Mathematical Model of Coupled Gas Flow and Coal Deformation with Gas Diffusion and Klinkenberg Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingquan; Cheng, Yuanping; Zhou, Hongxing; Guo, Pinkun; An, Fenghua; Chen, Haidong

    2015-05-01

    The influence of gas diffusion behavior on gas flow and permeability evolution in coal seams is evaluated in this paper. Coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs differ from conventional porous media and fractured gas reservoirs due to certain unique features, which lead to two distinct gas pressures: one in fractures and the other in the coal matrix. The latter pressure, also known as the sorption pressure, will be used in calculating sorption-based volume changes. The effective stress laws for single-porosity media is not suitable for CBM reservoirs, and the effective stress laws for multi-porosity media need to be applied. The realization of the above two points is based on the study of the two-phase state of gas migration (involving Fickian diffusion and Darcy flow) in a coal seam. Then, a general porosity and permeability model based on the P-M model is proposed to fit this phenomenon. Moreover, the Klinkenberg effect has been taken into account and set as a reference object. Finally, a coupled gas flow and coal deformation model is proposed and solved by using a finite element method. The numerical results indicate that the effects of gas diffusion behavior and Klinkenberg behavior can have a critical influence on the gas pressure, residual gas content, and permeability evolution during the entire methane degasification period, and the impacts of the two effects are of the same order of magnitude. Without considering the gas diffusion effect, the gas pressure and residual gas content will be underestimated, and the permeability will be overestimated.

  6. Secondary gas emissions during coal desorption, Marathon Grassim Oskolkoff-1 Well, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska: Implications for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Dallegge, T.

    2006-01-01

    Cuttings samples of sub-bituminous humic coals from the Oligocene to Pliocene Tyonek Formation, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska show secondary gas emissions whose geochemistry is consistent with renewed microbial methanogenesis during canister desorption. The renewed methanogenesis was noted after initial desorption measurements had ceased and a canister had an air and desorbed gas mixture backflow into the canister during a measurement. About a week after this event, a secondary emission of gas began and continued for over two years. The desorbed gas volume reached a new maximum, increasing the total from 3.3 to 4.9 litres, some 48% above the pre-contamination total volume. The gases released during desorption show a shift in the isotopic signature over time of methane from ??13CCH4 of -53.60 ??? and ??DCH4 of -312.60 ??? at the first day to ??13CCH4 of -57.06 ??? and ??DCH4 of -375.80 ??? after 809 days, when the experiment was arbitrarily stopped and the canister opened to study the coal. These isotopic data, interpreted using a Bernard Diagram, indicate a shift from a mixed thermogenic and biogenic source typical of natural gases in the coals and conventional gas reservoirs of the Cook Inlet Basin to a likely biogenic acetate-fermentation methane source. However, the appearance of CO2 during the renewed gas emissions with a ??13CCO2 of +26.08 to +21.72 ???, interpreted using the carbon isotope fractions found for acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction between CO2 and CH4 by Jenden and Kaplan (1986), indicates a biogenic CO2-reduction pathway may also be operative during renewed gas emission. Adding nutrients to the coal cuttings and canister water and culturing the microbial consortia under anaerobic conditions led to additional methane-rich gas generation in the laboratory. After this anaerobic culturing, ultraviolet microscopy showed that canister water contained common, fluorescent, rod-like microbes comparable to Methanobacterium sp. Scanning electron microscope

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly SO2... = (coal SO2 emissions) + (oil SO2 emissions) (in tons) If gas is the only fuel, gas emissions...

  8. COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME II. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OPERATION WITH DEVOLATILIZED BITUMINOUS COAL AND CHILLED METHANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of initial runs of a pilot-scale coal gasification and gas cleaning plant at North Carolina State University. In these runs, a devolatilized Western Kentucky No. 11 bituminous coal was gasified with steam and oxygen, and chilled methanol was used as the a...

  9. Low NO sub x heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Combustion technology generation coal gas fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherlock, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are described. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannual swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperature and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 btu/scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were on the order of 4 percent to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 percent to 18 percent conversion efficiency when src-2 liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium btu gas (220 to 270 btu/scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. Both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and erbs fuel, and all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

  10. Microbial production of natural gas from coal and organic-rich shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component of the energy mix in the United States, producing greater energy yield per unit weight and less pollution compared to coal and oil. Most of the world’s natural gas resource is thermogenic, produced in the geologic environment over time by high temperature and pressure within deposits of oil, coal, and shale. About 20 percent of the natural gas resource, however, is produced by microorganisms (microbes). Microbes potentially could be used to generate economic quantities of natural gas from otherwise unexploitable coal and shale deposits, from coal and shale from which natural gas has already been recovered, and from waste material such as coal slurry. Little is known, however, about the microbial production of natural gas from coal and shale.

  11. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  12. Coal and the Present Energy Situation: Abundant coal reserves can be used to alleviate the oil and gas shortage.

    PubMed

    Osborn, E F

    1974-02-01

    To summarize, we must make greater use of coal, an energy resource that the nation has in great abundance, if we are to approach our former position of self-sufficiency in energy production. The first step is to move immediately to replace the oil and gas used in electric generating plants with coal and to require that coal be used in fossil fuel electric plants planned or under construction in the next few years. The technology to remove sulfur and particulates from the stack gases is at hand, and therefore environmental regulations can be met. Producing and transporting the required increased tonnages of coal are problems that can be met with appropriate incentives to the coal and transportation industries. Improved mining technology would be helpful but is not a requiremlent. Oil and gas from coal should be in significant commercial production in about a decade. Underground, or in situ, gasification of coal, now in field tests, looks promising as a practical process for recovering the energy from coal, especially in deep or thick beds that cannot be mined efficiently. Recoverable methane occurs in coal beds in the United States in an amount approximately equal to the total reserves of natural gas-about 260 trillion cubic feet. This large reserve of natural gas should be exploited as quickly as possible. Only minor investments in exploration and modest advances in technology are required. Finally, as coal production is expanded. adequate planning and the most modern technology should be used to ensure that coal is extracted with maximum recovery and with minimum damage to the environment. PMID:17773028

  13. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-29

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  14. Copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Sun, C.

    1997-12-31

    To improve the economy of the hydropyrolysis process by reducing hydrogen cost, it has been suggested to use cheaper hydrogen-rich gas (such as coke-oven gas) instead of pure hydrogen. Pyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite has been carried out with real coke-oven gas (COG) as reactive gases at 0.1--5 MPa and the final temperature of 650 C with heating rate of 5--25 C/min in an 10 g fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pressure on product yields under COG were investigated in detail and compared with coal pyrolysis with hydrogen at the same conditions. The results indicate that it is possible to use COG instead of pure hydrogen in hydropyrolysis. To optimize the yields of the valuable chemicals, the experimental conditions must be adjusted.

  15. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  16. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    PubMed

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  17. Low and medium heating value coal gas catalytic combustor characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwab, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion with both low and medium heating value coal gases obtained from an operating gasifier was demonstrated. A practical operating range for efficient operation was determined, and also to identify potential problem areas were identified for consideration during stationary gas turbine engine design. The test rig consists of fuel injectors, a fuel-air premixing section, a catalytic reactor with thermocouple instrumentation and a single point, water cooled sample probe. The test rig included inlet and outlet transition pieces and was designed for installation into an existing test loop.

  18. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, lies within the central and northern parts of the Appalachian coal field. It consists of five assessment units (AU): the Pocahontas Basin in southwestern Virginia, southern West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky, the Central Appalachian Shelf in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia, East Dunkard (Folded) in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia, West Dunkard (Unfolded) in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Of these, only the Pocahontas Basin and West Dunkard (Folded) AU were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological survey in 2002 as containing about 3.6 and 4.8 Tcf of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively (Milici and others, 2003). In general, the coal beds of this Total Petroleum System, which are both the source rock and reservoir, were deposited together with their associated sedimentary strata in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) time. The generation of biogenic (microbial) gas probably began almost immediately as the peat deposits were first formed. Microbial gas generation is probably occurring at present to some degree throughout the basin, where the coal beds are relatively shallow and wet. With sufficient depth of burial, compaction, and coalification during the late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic, the coal beds were heated sufficiently to generate thermogenic gas in the eastern part of the Appalachian basin. Trap formation began initially with the deposition of the paleopeat deposits during the Mississippian, and continued into the Late Pennsylvanian and Permian as the Appalachian Plateau strata were deformed during the Alleghanian orogeny. Seals are the connate waters that occupy fractures and larger pore spaces within the coal beds as well as the fine-grained siliciclastic sedimentary strata that are intercalated with the coal. The

  19. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  20. Thermal effects of magmatic sills on coal seam metamorphism and gas occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Cheng, Long-biao; Cheng, Yuan-ping; Yin, Guang-zhi; Cai, Chun-cheng; Xu, Chao; Jin, Kan

    2014-04-01

    Igneous intrusions in coal seams are found in 80 % of coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield, China, and coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred 11 times under a 120-m-thick sill in the Haizi mining field. The magma's heat had a significant controlling effect on coal seam gas occurrence. Based on theoretical analysis, experimental tests and site validation, we analyzed the temperature distribution following magma intrusion into coal measure strata and the variations in multiple physical parameters and adsorption/desorption characteristics between the underlying coal seams beneath the sill in the Haizi mining field and coal seams uninfluenced by magma intrusion in the adjacent Linhuan mining field. The research results show that the main factors controlling the temperature distribution of the magma and surrounding rocks in the cooling process include the cooling time and the thickness and initial temperature of the magmatic rock. As the distance from sill increases, the critical effective temperature and the duration of sustained high temperatures decrease. The sill in the Haizi mining field significantly promoted coal seam secondary hydrocarbon generation in the thermally affected area, which generated approximately 340 m3/t of hydrocarbon. In the magma-affected area, the metamorphic grade, micropore volume, amount of gas adsorption, initial speed of gas desorption, and amount of desorption all increase. Fluid entrapment by sills usually causes the gas pressure and gas content of the underlying coal seams to increase. As a result, the outburst risks from coal seams increases as well.

  1. COAL GASIFICATION/GAS CLEANUP TEST FACILITY: VOLUME I. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an integrated fluidized-bed coal gasification reactor and acid gas removal system. The gasifier operates at 100 psig at up to 2000 F, and has a coal feed capacity of 50 lb/hr. The gas cleaning system contains a cyclone, a venturi scrubber, and an absorber/fla...

  2. Overview of coal consumption and related environmental trends, and implications for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Wang, X.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reviews world and regional trends in coal consumption, and its growing contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper then discusses a number of options within the coal system where greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, can be reduced. The commercial status and environmental performance of the main power plant technology options are briefly reviewed.

  3. EVALUATION OF ANALYSIS OF GAS CONTENT AND COAL PROPERTIES OF MAJOR COAL BEARING REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compilation of quality assured data on gas content and coalbed reservoir properties for 11 major coal bearing regions in the U.S. The primary source of these data is the U.S. Bureau of Mines (BOM) gas content measurements program conducted during the 1970s and 198...

  4. An analysis of the coal-seam gas resource of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    McFall, K.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kelso, B.S.; Brandenburg, C.F.

    1988-06-01

    A detailed geologic analysis of the Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado shows that nearly 84 Tcf (2.4 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/) of coal-seam gas is in place in three target coal groups. The Cameo coal group contains the most coalbed methane with 65 Tcf (1.8 x 10/sup 12/ m/sup 3/). The more areally limited Coal Ridge and Black Diamond coal groups contain significantly less gas, 10 and 9 Tcf (280 x 10/sup 9/ and 255 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/), respectively. The areas of highest methane concentration are in the east-central portion of the Piceance basin. These areas coincide with thick deposits of high-rank coal at significant depths and their associated higher gas contents. Also, these areas appear to have been structurally (tectonically) altered, leading to enhanced permeability to gas and water. Thus, the east-central basin area appears favorable for coalbed methane production. This study relied on extensive well data to correlate and map the subsurface extent of the Cretaceous coals of the Piceance basin. Newly derived correlations of coal-rank/depth with gas content were used along with estimates of coal volume to determine gas in place.

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Methane Infiltrated Coal: the Roles of Gas Desorption, Stress Level and Loading Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shugang; Elsworth, Derek; Liu, Jishan

    2013-09-01

    We report laboratory experiments to investigate the role of gas desorption, stress level and loading rate on the mechanical behavior of methane infiltrated coal. Two suites of experiments are carried out. The first suite of experiments is conducted on coal (Lower Kittanning seam, West Virginia) at a confining stress of 2 MPa and methane pore pressures in the fracture of 1 MPa to examine the role of gas desorption. These include three undrained (hydraulically closed) experiments with different pore pressure distributions in the coal, namely, overpressured, normally pressured and underpressured, and one specimen under drained condition. Based on the experimental results, we find quantitative evidence that gas desorption weakens coal through two mechanisms: (1) reducing effective stress controlled by the ratio of gas desorption rate over the drainage rate, and (2) crushing coal due to the internal gas energy release controlled by gas composition, pressure and content. The second suite of experiments is conducted on coal (Upper B seam, Colorado) at confining stresses of 2 and 4 MPa, with pore pressures of 1 and 3 MPa, under underpressured and drained condition with three different loading rates to study the role of stress level and loading rate. We find that the Biot coefficient of coal specimens is <1. Reducing effective confining stress decreases the elastic modulus and strength of coal. This study has important implications for the stability of underground coal seams.

  6. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  7. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  8. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G.; Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W.; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  9. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  10. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  11. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  12. Silica membranes for hydrogen separation from coal gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gavalas, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    This project is a continuation of a previous DOE-UCR project (DE-FG22- 89PC89765) dealing with the preparation of silica membranes highly permselective to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, suitable for hydrogen separation from coal gas. The membranes prepared in the previous project had very high selectivity but relatively low permeance. Therefore, the general objectives of this project were to improve the permeance of these membranes and to obtain fundamental information about membrane structure and properties. The specific objectives were: (1) to explore new silylation reagents and reaction conditions with the purpose of reducing the thickness and increasing the permeance of silica membranes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), (2) to characterize the membrane structure, (3) to delineate mechanism and kinetics of deposition, (4) to measure the permeability of silica layers at different extents of deposition, and (5) to mathematically model the relationship between structure and deposition kinetics.

  13. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion sources, including those using coal for fuel, contribute a significant fraction of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. Recent field studies have shown that current flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems are relatively ineffective in controlling elemental mercury, which is a major component of the mercury emissions for many systems. Research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury in existing FGC systems. For dry processes, these studies have included evaluation of activated carbons and investigation of sorbents based upon chemical pretreatment of low-cost mineral substrates. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, the studies have looked at the effects of improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into more soluble species that can be easily absorbed.

  14. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue-gas

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    Combustion sources, including those using coal for fuel, contribute a significant fraction of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. Recent field studies have shown that current flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems are relatively ineffective in controlling elemental mercury, which is a major component of the mercury emissions for many systems. Research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury in existing FGC systems. For dry processes, these studies have included evaluation of activated carbons and investigation of sorbents based upon chemical pretreatment of low-cost mineral substrates. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, the studies have looked at the effects of improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into more soluble species that can be easily absorbed.

  15. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1995-11-01

    The primary major deposit of manganese in the US which can be readily mined by an in situ process is located in the Emily district of Minnesota. The US Bureau of Mines Research Centers at both the Twin Cities and Salt Lake City have developed a process for extracting and refining manganese in the form of a high-purity carbonate product. This product has been formulated into pellets by a multi-step process of drying, calcination, and induration to produce relatively high-strength formulations which are capable of being used for hot fuel gas desulfurization. These pellets, which have been developed at the University of Minnesota under joint sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the US Bureau of Mines, appear superior to other, more expensive, formulations of zinc titanate and zinc ferrite which have previously been studied for multi-cycle loading (desulfurization) and regeneration (evolution of high-strength SO{sub 2} and restoration of pellet reactivity). Although these other formulations have been under development for the past twelve years, their prices still exceed $7 per pound. If manganese pellets perform as predicted in fixed bed testing, and if a significant number of utilities which burn high-sulfur coals incorporate combined-cycle gasification with hot coal gas desulfurization as a viable means of increasing conversion efficiencies, then the potential market for manganese pellets may be as high as 200,000 tons per year at a price not less than $3 per pound. This paper discusses the role of manganese pellets in the desulfurization process with respect to the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) for power generation.

  16. Generation and expulsion of petroleum and gas from Almond Formation Coal, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gonzalez, M.; Surdam, R.C.; Lee, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies of coal from the Almond Formation in the Greater Green River basin demonstrate that the coal contains important volumes of stored liquid petroleum, as well as methane. Modeling indicates that at the basin center, most of the oil generated in the coal has been thermally cracked to gas, whereas at the basin flank the oil-to-gas reaction has barely proceeded. Several new concepts are presented about the mechanism of petroleum generation in coal based on (1) natural maturation trends gleaned form examination of Almond coal samples from different burial depths and (2) similar maturation trends observed in hydrous pyrolysis experiments using immature Almond coal samples. These new concepts show that the oil in the coal was generated during the alteration of desmocollinite and liptinite macerals to exsudatinite (waxy oil) and inertinite solid residue; that the waxy oil was initially stored in porous structures and subsequently in vesicles as the coal matured under increasing temperature; that primary migration of the oil occurred as the generation of a sufficient volume of exsudatinite microfractured the vitrinite-semifusinite vesicles, interconnecting vesicles and pores; and that the thermal cracking of exsudatinite generated a sufficient volume of gas to fracture the vesiculated coal as pore pressure increased and allowed migration of hydrocarbons out of the coal.

  17. Catalytic reduction of SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] in coal flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Almost half of the coal purchased by the utilities that year was not Ohio coal. The 20-plus million tons/year of non-Ohio coal consumed by Ohio generators is an indication of the order of magnitude of the potential market incentive for Ohio to supply its power plants from its indigenous coal mine. The major reason for the drop in Ohio coal production rate is that the average content of Ohio coal is 3.5 weight percent, with a range of one to six percent. Use of high-sulfur coal introduces environmental problems due to the high SO[sub 2] emission rate in the boiler flue gas. Potential solutions include use of alternative low-sulfur non-Ohio coal and addition of SO[sub 2] (and NO[sub x]) removal facilities. The substitution of non-Ohio low-sulfur coal for Ohio coal is a strong negative for the state and its coal mining industry; it means further shrinkage of the state's coal industry accompanied by loss of Ohio jobs. The Parsons FGC process is a candidate for the alternative solution, i.e., to provide high efficiency post-combustion removal of SO[sub 2] (and NO[sub x]). The Phase 2 pilot plant test results have demonstrated that the Parsons FGC process is capable to remove 99-plus percent of SO[sub 2] and 95-plus percent of NO[sub x] from coal-fired boiler flue gas. The Parsons FGC process will permit Ohio coal fired power plants to burn high-sulfur Ohio coal and achieve conformance with provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Because SO[sub 2] reduction using the Parsons FGC process will be greater than the amendment requirement, its use will provide the affected Ohio power plant with marketable net allowances having a definite economic value.

  18. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  19. Development of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for the utilization of coal mine gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groß, B.; Blum, L.; de Haart, L. G. J.; Dengel, A.

    Apart from natural gas there is another important natural source of methane. The so-called coal mine gas is a by-product of the geochemical process of the carbonization of sediments from marsh woods of the Earth's Carboniferous Period. Methane evaporates from the coal and has to be removed out of the active mines where it represents one of the main safety risks. Methane also evaporates in abandoned coal mines. In the federal state Saarland in Germany exists above ground a more than 110 km pipeline for the drained coal mine gas from 12 different sources. The content of methane varies between 25 and 90%, the oxygen content (from air) is in the range up to 10%. This wide range or variation, respectively, of fuel and oxygen content, causes a lot of problems for the use in conventional engines. Therefore the company Evonik New Energies GmbH is interested in using SOFC with coal mine gas as efficient as possible to produce electric power. For that purpose at Forschungszentrum Jülich the available SOFC technology was adapted to the use with coal mine gas and a test facility was designed to operate an SOFC stack (approximately 2 kW electrical power output) together with a pre-reformer. This paper presents the results of the coal mine gas analysis and the effect on the pre-reformer and the fuel cell. The composition of the coal mine gas was determined by means of micro-gas chromatography. The results obtained from preliminary tests using synthetic and real coal mine gas on the pre-reformer and on the fuel cell are discussed.

  20. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for

  1. Gas emissions from failed and actual eruptions from Cook Inlet Volcanoes, Alaska, 1989-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.A.; Doukas, M.P.; Kelly, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cook Inlet volcanoes that experienced an eruption between 1989 and 2006 had mean gas emission rates that were roughly an order of magnitude higher than at volcanoes where unrest stalled. For the six events studied, mean emission rates for eruptions were ~13,000 t/d CO2 and 5200 t/d SO2, but only ~1200 t/d CO2 and 500 t/d SO2 for non-eruptive events (‘failed eruptions’). Statistical analysis suggests degassing thresholds for eruption on the order of 1500 and 1000 t/d for CO2 and SO2, respectively. Emission rates greater than 4000 and 2000 t/d for CO2 and SO2, respectively, almost exclusively resulted during eruptive events (the only exception being two measurements at Fourpeaked). While this analysis could suggest that unerupted magmas have lower pre-eruptive volatile contents, we favor the explanations that either the amount of magma feeding actual eruptions is larger than that driving failed eruptions, or that magmas from failed eruptions experience less decompression such that the majority of H2O remains dissolved and thus insufficient permeability is produced to release the trapped volatile phase (or both). In the majority of unrest and eruption sequences, increases in CO2 emission relative to SO2 emission were observed early in the sequence. With time, all events converged to a common molar value of C/S between 0.5 and 2. These geochemical trends argue for roughly similar decompression histories until shallow levels are reached beneath the edifice (i.e., from 20–35 to ~4–6 km) and perhaps roughly similar initial volatile contents in all cases. Early elevated CO2 levels that we find at these high-latitude, andesitic arc volcanoes have also been observed at mid-latitude, relatively snow-free, basaltic volcanoes such as Stromboli and Etna. Typically such patterns are attributed to injection and decompression of deep (CO2-rich) magma into a shallower chamber and open system degassing prior to eruption. Here we argue that the C/S trends probably represent

  2. Comparison of non-volatile bituminous residues and coal materials by pyrolysis gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.A.; Smiley, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of non-volatile bituminous residues and coal materials by pyrolysis gas chromatography was undertaken. The objective was to determine the coal and coke precursors in a residue from the co-processing of coal and bitumen. This was investigated by quantifying 8 model aromatic compounds and their co-eluting compound groups in the pyrolysis products. Five samples consisting of a coke obtained from hydroprocessing a bitumen, a sub-bituminous coal, pitch from the co-processing of the bitumen and the coal, THF insolubles of the pitch, and a residual coal from liquefaction were pyrolysed to 900 C and the volatile products were analysed by gas chromatography. Details of the results are given.

  3. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  4. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M. K.; Worden, R. M.; Grethlein, A.

    1994-07-01

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H2-CO2; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following: butyrate production was enhanced during H2/CO2 (50/50) batch fermentation; isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress; pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability; polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support; cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8; trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing; and pervaporation system was constructed (No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up).

  5. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  6. Nature of natural gas in anomalously thick coal beds, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1989-09-01

    Anomalously thick coal beds (as much as 250 ft thick) occur in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River basin, Wyoming. These laterally discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs of fluvial environments. The coal beds include the Anderson-Canyon, Wyodak-Anderson, and Big George zones in the Powder River-Recluse area, Gillette area, and central part of the basin, respectively. The coal resources in these areas are approximately 155 billion short tons. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub 0} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amounts of CO{sub 2} (less than 10%). The methane is isotopically light ({delta}{sup 13}C{sup 1} values of {minus}56.7 to {minus}60.9%). Based on the chemical and isotopic composition of the gases and on the low rank of the coals, the gases are interpreted to be microbial in origin: they were generated by anaerobic bacteria that broke down the coals at low temperatures, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. The adsorbed amounts of methane-rich microbial gas per unit of coal in the Powder River basin are relatively low compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases from other basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource is considered to be large (as much as several trillion cubic feet) because of the vast coal resources.

  7. Ozonation of coal vitrinites of different metamorphism degrees in gas and liquid phases

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Semenova; Y.F. Patrakov

    2007-02-15

    The comparative analysis of the dynamics of accumulation of oxygen-containing groups in coals of different metamorphism degrees under their ozonation in the gas phase and in chloroform has been performed. The coals of the middle stage of metamorphism demonstrate the highest reactivity. The ozonation in chloroform proceeds with a higher intensity.

  8. Bounding the climate viability of natural gas as a bridge fuel to displace coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausfather, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas has significant potential carbon benefits over coal when used for electricity generation, but these benefits can be offset by emissions of fugitive methane or delays in the adoption of near-zero carbon technologies. We analyze the time-evolution of radiative forcing from both natural gas and coal-based electricity generation by calculating average radiative forcing over an interval of time from greenhouse gas emissions under a range of assumptions for fugitive methane leakage, electricity generation efficiency, and delays in the adoption of near-zero carbon technologies. We find that leakage rates of between 5.2% and 9.9% are required for natural gas to result in greater mean forcing than coal over the next 100 years. We show that natural gas infrastructure with modest leakage could remain in place for 1.5-2.4 times the time interval that coal generation would have persisted prior to replacement with near-zero carbon technologies before the climate benefits of replacing coal with natural gas are negated. Natural gas can serve a viable bridge away from coal-based generation if avoiding longer-term climate impacts is prioritized, fugitive methane emissions are minimized, and the large-scale transition to near-zero carbon alternatives is unlikely to happen in the near-term.

  9. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. BERNS; K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-09-15

    Mixed manganese oxide sorbents have been investigated for high-temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. The sorbents were screened by thermodynamic equilibrium considerations for sulfidation. Preliminary experimental work using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated titania to be a superior substrate than alumina. Four formulations showing superior reactivity in a TGA were then tested in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H 2 S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. Eight tests were conducted with each test consisting of five cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Sulfidation occurred at 600 o C using a simulated coal gas at an empty-bed space velocity of approximately 12,000 per hour. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H 2 S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 o C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in an air/steam mixture at 750 o C with minimal sulfate formation. The leading formulation (designated C6-2) from the fixed-bed tests was then further tested under varying sorbent induration temperature, sulfidation temperature and superficial gas velocity. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H 2 S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Testing showed that the sorbent's strength was a strong function of the sorbent induration

  10. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-06-15

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H2S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 550 and 600 °C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H2S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 °C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750 °C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the performance of the leading formulation (designated C6-2) was investigated for high temperature removal of H2S from simulated coal-derived fuel gas under varying sorbent induration temperature, reaction temperature, and superficial gas velocity. Sulfidation experiments were performed in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor between 500 °C and 600 °C. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H2S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Sorbent also showed 30 to 53% loss of its strength over four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. The former being sorbent indurated at 1115 °C and the prior being sorbent indurated at 1100 °C.

  11. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  12. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  13. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  14. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  15. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  16. One-dimensional flow model for coal-gas outbursts and initiation criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanbing, Yu

    1992-11-01

    This paper discribes a one-dimensional flow model to explain the basic mechanism of coal-gas outbursts. A break-start criterion of coal, as the elementary outburst criterion, is given approximately. In this ideal model, the tectonic pressure before excavation, as a load on coal body, affects the break-start and then the flow field. The flow field is decoupled with the stress field, so that the gas seepage through unbroken coal body, break-start and consequent two-phase flow, and pure gas flow can be analysed independently of the stress field. The tunnelling, an external disturbance that makes the seepage intensify relatively, is an essential factor for initiating outburst. Under steady tunnelling, seepage ought to tend to be steadily progressive. From its asymptotic solution initiation criterion is obtained. This is described by three conditions, possibility condition —tectonic pressure condition, incubation condition—tunnelling or gas condition and triggering condition —seepage velocity condition.

  17. Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla

    2008-11-15

    A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

  18. Effects of coal storage in air on physical and chemical properties of coal and on gas adsorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Solano-Acosta, W.; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in the high-volatile bituminous Lower Block Coal Member from Indiana owing to moisture availability and oxidation in air at ambient pressure and temperature over storage time. Specifically, it investigates changes in chemistry, in surface area, and pore structure, as well as changes in methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacities. Our results document that the methane adsorption capacity increased by 40%, whereas CO2 adsorption capacity increased by 18% during a 13-month time period. These changes in adsorption are accompanied by changes in chemistry and surface area of the coal. The observed changes in adsorption capacity indicate that special care must be taken when collecting samples and preserving coals until adsorption characteristics are measured in the laboratory. High-pressure isotherms from partially dried coal samples would likely cause overestimation of gas adsorption capacities, lead to a miscalculation of coal-bed methane prospects, and provide deceptively optimistic prognoses for recovery of coal-bed methane or capture of anthropogenic CO2. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advances in measurements and simulation of gas-particle flows and coal combustion in burners/combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. X.

    2009-02-01

    Innovative coal combustors were developed, and measurement and simulation of gas-particle flows and coal combustion in such combustors were done in the Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University. LDV/PDPA measurements are made to understand the behavior of turbulent gas-particle flows in coal combustors. Coal combustion test was done for the non-slagging cyclone coal combustor. The full two-fluid model developed by the present author was used to simulate turbulent gas-particle flows, coal combustion and NOx formation. It is found by measurements and simulation that the optimum design can give large-size recirculation zones for improving the combustion performance for all the combustors. The combustion test shows that the nonslagging coal combustor can burn 3-5mm coal particles with good combustion efficiency and low NO emission. Simulation in comparison with experiments indicates that the swirl number can significantly affect the NO formation in the swirl coal combustor.

  20. Evaluating the Climate Effects of Natural Gas Versus Coal Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Myhrvold, N. P.; Caldeira, K.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing potential climate effects of fossil-fuel electricity generations, especially natural gas versus coal electricity generation is complicated by the large number of factors reported in life cycle assessment studies, compounded by the large number of proposed climate metrics. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of fossil-fuel electricity generations (especially natural gas and coal based electricity production), and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiencies and methane emission rates as the factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. Thus, we focus on the roles of these factors in determining the relative merit of natural gas and coal power plants. We develop a simple model with estimating CH4 and CO2 emissions from natural gas and coal power plants and resulting climate effects. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we base our discussion on temperature changes over time. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial natural gas leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than a coal plant with the same power output. However, if leakage rates can be made to be low and efficiency high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. After several centuries of continuous use, natural gas power plants produce substantial warming, but in most cases substantially less warming than would occur with coal plants.

  1. Modeling of gas generation from the Cameo coal zone in the Piceance Basin Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, E.; Hill, R.J.; Katz, B.J.; Tang, Y.C.

    2008-08-15

    The gas generative potential of the Cretaceous Cameo coal in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, was evaluated quantitatively by sealed gold tube pyrolysis. The H/C and O/C elemental ratios show that pyrolyzed Cameo coal samples follow the Van Krevelen humic coal evolution pathway, reasonably simulating natural coal maturation. Kinetic parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) for gas generation and vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) changes were calculated from pyrolysis data. Experimental R{sub o} results from this study are not adequately predicted by published R{sub o} kinetics and indicate the necessity of deriving basin-specific kinetic parameters when building predictive basin models. Using derived kinetics for R{sub o}, evolution and gas generation, basin modeling was completed for 57 wells across the Piceance Basin, which enabled the mapping of coal-rank and coalbed gas potential. Quantities of methane generated at approximately 1.2% R{sub o} are about 300 standard cubic feet per ton (scf/ton) and more than 2500 scf/ton (in-situ dry-ash-free coal) at R{sub o}, values reaching 1.9%. Gases generated in both low- and high-maturity coals are less wet, whereas the wetter gas is expected where R{sub o} is approximately 1.4-1.5%. As controlled by regional coal rank and net coal thickness, the largest in-place coalbed gas resources are located in the central part of the basin, where predicted volumes exceed 150 bcf/mi, excluding gases in tight sands.

  2. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (<0.044 mm). The increase in Vm/Vs is due to the increase in bulk density of the carbons. Volumetric methane adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.; Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-09-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}/O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  4. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1994-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This annual topical report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  5. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1994-10-01

    In this paper, the physical and chemical behavior of several sorbent formulations fabricated from a manganese-containing compound, alundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and a binder are addressed. The thermodynamic feasibility of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-removal from hot-simulated coal-gases using these sorbents and their subsequent regeneration with air are established. A formulation, FORM4-A, which consists of MnCO{sub 3}, alundum, and bentonite exhibits the best combination of capacity and reactivity; whereas, FORM1-A, which consists of Mn-ore, alundum, and dextrin exhibits the best combination of strength and reactivity. One important finding is that the capacity of the pellets for sulfur pickup from a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixture (at 950{degrees}C) and the kinetics of reduction, sulfidation and regeneration (at 1000{degrees}C) improve with recycling without compromising the strength. The leading formulation, FORM4-A, was subjected to 20 consecutive cycles of sulfidation and regeneration at 900{degrees}C in a 2-inch fixed bed reactor. The sulfidation gas was a simulated Tampella U-gas with an increased hydrogen sulfide content of 3% by volume to accelerate the rate of breakthrough, arbitrarily taken as 500 ppmv. Consistent with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) on individual pellets, the fixed bed tests show small improvement in capacity and kinetics with the sulfur-loading capacity being about 22% by weight of the original pellet, which corresponds to approximately 90% bed utilization.

  6. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report covers three experiments on the adsorptive properties of coal. The adsorption of methane and carbon dioxide were investigated. The results of these experiments were excellent and proved the high capacity for adsorption of the coal studied. Strain gages were used to measure the expansion of the coals. The results also indicate a higher capacity for sorption of CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. Unfortunately these excellent results have been tarnished by various containment problems.

  7. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  8. Locomotive applications of coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Braglia, B.L.; Poindexter, C.K. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The potential now exists for using one of our most abundant energy resources as a locomotive fuel. Coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine locomotives have been shown to provide a significant economic benefit to this nation's railroads, measured in terms of internal rate of return. The performance of coal-fueled locomotives will be competitive with state of the art diesel-electric locomotives and may even offer the opportunity to enhance this performance (high horsepower gas turbines). A change to coal fuels must be accomplished without any accompanying detrimental impact on our environment. The largest changes caused by the reintroduction of coal fuels will occur in the infrastructure of this nation's railroads; coal fueling facilities, fuel tenders, and modified maintenance and operating practices will be required. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Evaporation and heating of a single suspended coal-water slurry droplet in hot gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Shi-chune, Y.; Liu, L.

    1982-01-01

    The evaporation, heating, and burning of single coal-water slurry droplets are studied. The coal selected in this study is Pittsburgh Seam number 8 coal which is a medium volatile caking bituminous coal. The droplet is suspended on a microthermocouple and exposed to a hot gas stream. Temperature measurement and microscopic observation are performed in the parametric studies. The duration of water evaporation in CWS droplets decreases with the reduction of the droplet size, increasing of coal weight fraction, and increasing of gas temperature and velocity. The duration of heat-up is always significant due to the agglomeration. The CWS droplets are generally observed to swell like popcorn during heating. A model for the formation of the popped swelling is proposed and discussed.

  10. Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Bergerson, Joule A; Lave, Lester B

    2005-08-15

    We examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. PMID:16173545

  11. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  12. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  14. Materials testing in a gas turbine operating on coal-derived gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.J.; Lyell, G.D.

    1992-11-01

    An aero derived gas turbine engine, the Olympus SK30 ran for 1166 hours on coal derived (slagger) gas at the British Gas site at Westfield, Fife, Scotland. Slagger gas is low in calorific value and high in sulphur content. A ``rainbow`` HP turbine assembly, with a range of corrosion protective overlay coatings on both the vanes and blades was installed to evaluate the protection offered by the various coatings against the highly sulphurous slagger gas. A detailed metallurgical inspection was carried out on a random selection of the coated vanes and blades. None of the components examined showed evidence of any serious erosion. It was concluded that the operating time was too short to cause extensive damage to the coatings. However, the various coatings showed different degrees of degradation and may be ranked as follows: 1. Platinum Aluminide, LDC-2E, 2. Platinum Aluminide, RT22A, 3. Pack Aluminide, 4. EB-PVD* Coating Co-29Cr-5Al-O.34Y, GT-29, 5. EB-PVD* Coating Co-23Cr-lOA1-0.34Y, BC-21 Electron Beam-Plasma Vapour Deposit.

  15. Materials testing in a gas turbine operating on coal-derived gas

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.J.; Lyell, G.D. )

    1992-11-01

    An aero derived gas turbine engine, the Olympus SK30 ran for 1166 hours on coal derived (slagger) gas at the British Gas site at Westfield, Fife, Scotland. Slagger gas is low in calorific value and high in sulphur content. A rainbow'' HP turbine assembly, with a range of corrosion protective overlay coatings on both the vanes and blades was installed to evaluate the protection offered by the various coatings against the highly sulphurous slagger gas. A detailed metallurgical inspection was carried out on a random selection of the coated vanes and blades. None of the components examined showed evidence of any serious erosion. It was concluded that the operating time was too short to cause extensive damage to the coatings. However, the various coatings showed different degrees of degradation and may be ranked as follows: 1. Platinum Aluminide, LDC-2E, 2. Platinum Aluminide, RT22A, 3. Pack Aluminide, 4. EB-PVD* Coating Co-29Cr-5Al-O.34Y, GT-29, 5. EB-PVD* Coating Co-23Cr-lOA1-0.34Y, BC-21 Electron Beam-Plasma Vapour Deposit.

  16. Coal/biomass fuels and the gas turbine: Utilization of solid fuels and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    DeCorso, M.; Newby, R.; Anson, D.; Wenglarz, R.; Wright, I.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses key design and development issues in utilizing coal and other solid fuels in gas turbines. These fuels may be burned in raw form or processed to produce liquids or gases in more or less refined forms. The use of such fuels in gas turbines requires resolution of technology issues which are of little or no consequence for conventional natural gas and refined oil fuels. For coal, these issues are primarily related to the solid form in which coal is naturally found and its high ash and contaminant levels. Biomass presents another set of issues similar to those of coal. Among the key areas discussed are effects of ash and contaminant level on deposition, corrosion, and erosion of turbine hot parts, with particular emphasis on deposition effects.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  18. Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Yuan C.

    1977-03-08

    A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

  19. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. ); Turna, O. )

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  20. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F.; Turna, O.

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas` Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  1. A coal mine multi-point fiber ethylene gas concentration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Liu, Tongyu

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous combustion of the coal mine goaf is one of the main disasters in the coal mine. The detection technology based on symbolic gas is the main means to realize the spontaneous combustion prediction of the coal mine goaf, and ethylene gas is an important symbol gas of spontaneous combustion in the coal accelerated oxidation stage. In order to overcome the problem of current coal ethylene detection, the paper presents a mine optical fiber multi-point ethylene concentration sensor based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Based on the experiments and analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of ethylene, the system employed the 1.62 μm (DFB) wavelength fiber coupled distributed feedback laser as the light source. By using the wavelength scanning technique and developing a stable fiber coupled Herriot type long path gas absorption cell, a ppm-level high sensitivity detecting system for the concentration of ethylene gas was realized, which could meet the needs of coal mine fire prevention goaf prediction.

  2. The effect of a tectonic stress field on coal and gas outbursts.

    PubMed

    An, Fenghua; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts have always been a serious threat to the safe and efficient mining of coal resources. Ground stress (especially the tectonic stress) has a notable effect on the occurrence and distribution of outbursts in the field practice. A numerical model considering the effect of coal gas was established to analyze the outburst danger from the perspective of stress conditions. To evaluate the outburst tendency, the potential energy of yielded coal mass accumulated during an outburst initiation was studied. The results showed that the gas pressure and the strength reduction from the adsorbed gas aggravated the coal mass failure and the ground stress altered by tectonics would affect the plastic zone distribution. To demonstrate the outburst tendency, the ratio of potential energy for the outburst initiation and the energy consumption was used. Increase of coal gas and tectonic stress could enhance the potential energy accumulation ratio, meaning larger outburst tendency. The component of potential energy for outburst initiation indicated that the proportion of elastic energy was increased due to tectonic stress. The elastic energy increase is deduced as the cause for a greater outburst danger in a tectonic area from the perspective of stress conditions. PMID:24991648

  3. The Effect of a Tectonic Stress Field on Coal and Gas Outbursts

    PubMed Central

    An, Fenghua; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts have always been a serious threat to the safe and efficient mining of coal resources. Ground stress (especially the tectonic stress) has a notable effect on the occurrence and distribution of outbursts in the field practice. A numerical model considering the effect of coal gas was established to analyze the outburst danger from the perspective of stress conditions. To evaluate the outburst tendency, the potential energy of yielded coal mass accumulated during an outburst initiation was studied. The results showed that the gas pressure and the strength reduction from the adsorbed gas aggravated the coal mass failure and the ground stress altered by tectonics would affect the plastic zone distribution. To demonstrate the outburst tendency, the ratio of potential energy for the outburst initiation and the energy consumption was used. Increase of coal gas and tectonic stress could enhance the potential energy accumulation ratio, meaning larger outburst tendency. The component of potential energy for outburst initiation indicated that the proportion of elastic energy was increased due to tectonic stress. The elastic energy increase is deduced as the cause for a greater outburst danger in a tectonic area from the perspective of stress conditions. PMID:24991648

  4. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  5. Effects of gas temperature fluctuations on the evolution of Nitrogenous species during coal devolatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-02-15

    The effects of gas temperature fluctuations on the instantaneous evolution processes of nitrogenous species were investigated for pulverized coal particles undergoing devolatilization in a hot gas. The instantaneous mass variations of nitrogenous species released from the particles with diameters of 10-50 {mu} m were computed for different conditions. The instantaneous gas temperature was varied with time either in a simple harmonic way or in a random way. The calculated results showed that, under different time-average gas temperatures, the HCN evolution behaviors of particles with different diameters were all affected by the gas temperature fluctuations. The gas temperature fluctuations led to more rapid HCN release from the pulverized coal particles compared to the results obtained without gas temperature fluctuations. The effects were further enhanced by increasing the amplitude or intensity of the gas temperature fluctuations.

  6. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, M.M.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  7. Appraisal of heavy hydrocarbons in coal seam gas reservoirs. Annual report, September 1991-August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Vorkink, W.P.; Lee, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Five wax samples from coal-bed methane sites within the San Juan Basin were analyzed using adsorption chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry. The largest of the chemical classes was the aliphatic with the n-alkanes as the predominant aliphatic series. Branched and cyclic alkanes, alkyl substituted cyclohexane series, and several biomarker compounds were also found in aliphatic fractions of the waxes. Aromatic and polar compounds were present in the waxes, but at much lower concentrations than the aliphatics. The extracts of wax, shale, and coal samples from two of the coal-bed methane sites (Hamilton No. 3 and SUT H-1) were analyzed, and some interesting observations were made. The most striking finding was that the coal extracts of both wax-producing sites were completely devoid of n-alkanes. The wax and shale aliphatic, aromatic, and polar gas chromatograms were quite similar for samples from both sites. Extracts of coal samples obtained from a nearby non-wax-producing coal-bed methane site contained similar n-alkane distributions as observed in the five wax and two shale samples examined. The above data support the hypothesis that the waxes are coal derived.

  8. Flash pyrolysis of New Mexico sub-bituminous coal in helium-methane gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

    1986-04-01

    A New Mexico sub-bituminous coal was flash pyrolyzed in gas mixtures of helium and methane at 1000/sup 0/C and 50 psi in an 1-in. I.D. entrained down-flow tubular reactor. The mixture contained 0 to 40% helium in methane. Under tested experimental conditions, pyrolysis in gas mixtures resulted in higher yields of ethylene and BTX than in pure methane. For example, under a coal flow rate of 1.0 lb/hr and methane flow rate of 4.0 lb/hr, pyrolysis in pure methane produced 7.7% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 9.0% BTX on the basis of carbon contained in coal; under similar coal and methane flow rates, as high as 14.8% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 15.3% BTX were obtained on pyrolysis in 25% He + 75% CH/sub 4/ gas mixture. The data show that the coal flow rate and methane flow rate both independently effect the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTS. At constant methane flow rate, increase in coal flow rate decreases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX; at constant coal flow rate, increase in methane flow rate increases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Flash pyrolysis of New Mexico sub-bituminous coal in helium-methane gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

    1986-01-01

    A New Mexico sub-bituminous coal was flash pyrolyzed in gas mixtures of helium and methane at 1000/sup 0/C and 50 psi in an 1-in. I.D. entrained down-flow tubular reactor. The mixture contained 0 to 40% helium in methane. Under tested experimental conditions, pyrolysis in gas mixtures resulted in higher yields of ethylene and BTX than in pure methane. For example, under a coal flow rate of 1.0 lb/hr and methane flow rate of 4.0 lb/hr, pyrolysis in pure methane produced 7.7% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 9.0% BTX on the basis of carbon contained in coal; under similar coal and methane flow rates, as high as 14.8% C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and 15.3% BTX were obtained on pyrolysis in 25% He + 75% CH/sub 4/ gas mixture. The data show that the coal flow rate and methane flow rate both independently affect the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX. At constant methane flow rate, increase in coal flow rate decreases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX; at constant coal flow rate, increase in methane flow rate increases the yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and BTX.

  10. Silica membranes for hydrogen separation in coal gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gavalas, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The general objective of this project was to synthesize permselective membranes suitable for hydrogen separation from coal gas. The specific objectives were: (i) to synthesize membranes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of SiO[sub 2] or other oxides on porous support tubes, (ii) characterize the membranes by permeation measurements of various gases and by electron microscopy, and (iii) obtain information about the mechanism and kinetics Of SiO[sub 2] deposition, and model the process of membrane formation. Silica glass and certain other glasses, in dense (nonporous) form, are highly selective to hydrogen permeation. Since this high selectivity is accompanied by low permeability, however, a practical membrane must have a composite structure consisting of a thin layer of the active oxide supported on a porous tube or plate providing mechanical support. In this project the membranes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of SiO[sub 2], TiO[sub 2], Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and B[sub 2]O[sub 3] layers inside the walls of porous Vycor tubes (5 mm ID, 7 mm OD, 40 [Angstrom] mean pore diameter). Deposition of the oxide layer was carried out using the reaction of SiCl[sub 4] (or TiCl[sub 4], AlCl[sub 3], BCl[sub 3]) and water vapor at elevated temperatures. The porous support tube was inserted concentrically into a larger quartz tube and fitted with flow lines and pressure gauges. The flow of the two reactant streams was regulated by mass flow controllers, while the temperature was controlled by placing the reactor into a split-tube electric furnace.

  11. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  12. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  13. Comparative study of the influence of minerals in gas sorption isotherms of three coals of similar rank

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, C.; Inheiro, H.J.; de Sousa, M.J.L.

    2008-07-15

    This investigation compares the gas adsorption behaviour and capacity of three bituminous coals from South Africa, of similar rank, by assessing the characteristics of the raw coal, as well as the resulting float and sink fractions (at 1.80 cm{sup 3}/g) obtained by density separation of crushed coal samples. Calculations were also made to obtain the raw coal gas storage capacity from the weighted contribution of both float and sink fractions results, thereby permitting comparison with the analysed results of the raw coal. The study demonstrated that the clean fraction of a coal has the highest capacity to retain gas in the sorbed state, followed by raw coal, and lastly the sink fraction, and re-confirmed previous investigations that showed minerals to be inhibitors of gas adsorption and retention.

  14. Selection of the most advantageous gas turbine air filtration system: Comparative study of actual operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gilani, S.I.; Mehr, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses relative merits of three types of air filtration systems used by Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Ltd. (Pakistan), on its gas turbine compressor packages. These Filtration systems are: (i) Two stage inertial plus auto oil bath type multi-duty filters by AAF used on Saturn Mark-1 packages manufactured by Solar Turbines Inc. (ii) Three stage high efficiency barrier filters by AAF used on Centaur packages by Solar. (iii) Single stage pulse-jet self-cleaning filter by Donaldson again used on a Centaur package. The selection is primarily based in package performance data collected over a 15 month period analyzing power loss due to fouling effects and related operation and maintenance costs for the three systems. The Company's operating experience indicates that on new installations the pulse clean system offers the best advantage both in terms of filtration costs as well as availability of additional horse power when operating under moderate to severe environmental conditions.

  15. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  16. Evaluation of coalbed gas potential of the Seelyville Coal Member, Indiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drobniak, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Rupp, J.; Eaton, N.

    2004-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation in Indiana potentially contains 0.03 trillion m3 (1.1 TCF) of coalbed gas. The gas content determined by canister desorption technique ranges from 0.5 to 5.7 cm3/g on dry ash free basis (15.4 to 182.2 scf/ton). The controls on gas content distribution are complex, and cannot be explained by the coal rank alone. Ash content and the lithology of the overlying strata, among other factors, may influence this distribution. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Method to measure gas levels during auger mining of coal. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Volkwein, J.C.; Prokop, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a method to measure methane and other gases during the auger mining of coal. An intrinsically safe commercial gas detector with a built-in data logger was mounted in the center of the hollow conveying auger. A sample head through the wall of the auger conducted a gas sample to the detector. Results showed that gas levels can be monitored on a continuous basis during the auger mining of coal and the data retrieved upon completion of the hole.

  18. Potential Flue Gas Impurities in Carbon Dioxide Streams Separated from Coal-fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    For geological sequestration of CO2 separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This s...

  19. Numerical investigation of coal seam gas detection using airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Mohamed

    The use of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) techniques has been mostly utilized in the mining industry. The various AEM systems enable fast data acquisition to detect zones of interest in exploration and in some cases are used to delineate targets on a production scale. For coal seam gas (CSG) reservoirs, reservoir thickness and the resistivity contrast present a new challenge to the present AEM systems in terms of detectability. Our research question began with the idea of using AEM methods in the detection of thin reservoirs. CSG reservoirs resemble thin reservoirs that have been and are currently being produced. In this thesis we present the results of a feasibility analysis of AEM study on coal seam reservoirs using synthetic models. The aim of the study is to contribute and bridge the gap of the scientific literature on AEM systems in settings such as CSG exploration. In the models we have chosen to simulate both in 1-D and 3-D, the CSG target resistivity was varied from a resistive to a conductive target (4 ohm.m, 150 ohm.m, and 667 ohm.m) to compare the different responses while the target thickness was fixed to resemble a stack of coal seams at that interval. Due to the differences in 1-D and 3-D modelling, we also examine the differences resulting from each modelling set up. The results of the 1-D forward modeling served as a first order understanding of the detection depths by AEM for CSG reservoirs. Three CSG reservoir horizontally layered earth model scenarios were examined, half-space, conductive/resistive and resistive/conductive. The response behavior for each of the three scenarios differs with the differing target resistivities. The 1-D modeling in both the halfspace and conductive/resistive models shows detection at depths beyond 300 m for three cases of target resistivity outlined above. After the 300-m depth, the response falls below the assumed noise floor level of 5% response difference. However, when a resistive layer overlies a conductive host

  20. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  1. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

  2. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-28

    This report describes progress on three fronts of the project. First in studies to elucidate optimal growing conditions for the consortia of coal degraders employed indicates that best growth occurs with 0. 2% w/v Shefton T. Secondly in comparing the biodegradative properties of the coal degraders, isolates identified as Mic-1 and Mic-4 were the best performers. And lastly bioreactors studies in batch mode are related.

  3. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  4. Coal as a source rock of petroleum and gas - a comparison between natural and artificial maturation of the Almond Formation coals, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gonzalez, M.; MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Organic petrological and geochemical studies demonstrate that the Almond Formation coals contain great unrecognized volumes of stored gas and oil. Oil is generated during maturation of hydrogen-rich vitrinite (desmocollinite) and liptinite macerals into exsudatinite (waxy oil) and inertinite solid residue. The waxy oil is initially stored in pores and vesicles. As the coal thermally matures, stored hydrocarbons are expelled from the pores and vesicles. This phase change causes a significant volume increase, which may overcome the storage capacity of these coals, fracturing them and allowing primary migration of hydrocarbons. Kinetic modeling, based on hydrous pyrolysis experiments, indicates that at the basin center, most oil generated and expelled from Almond coals has been thermally cracked to gas, whereas at the basin flank the oil-to-gas reaction is unimportant. During hydrous pyrolysis these coals expel up to 0.17 barrels of oil and 404 cubic feet of gas per ton of coal, indicating excellent generative capacity. Calculations of the volume of Upper Cretaceous coals in the Greater Green River at vitrinite reflectances between 0.9 and 1.7 percent indicate that these coals may have generated 24 billion barrels of oil and 66 trillion cubic feet of gas. 39 refs., 51 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Fiber optic sensing system for temperature and gas monitoring in coal waste pile combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, J.; Lopez-Albada, A.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Silva, S. O.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    It is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires.

  6. Environmental trends in Asia are accelerating the introduction of clean coal technologies and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the changing energy mix for Asia to 2020, and impacts of increased coal consumption on Asia`s share of world SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Stricter SO{sub 2} emissions laws are summarized for eight Asian economies along with implications for fuel and technology choices. The paper compares the economics of different technologies for coal and natural gas in 1997 and in 2007. Trends toward introducing clean coal technologies and the use of natural gas will accelerate in response to tighter environmental standards by 2000. The most important coal conversion technology for Asia, particularly China, in the long term is likely to be integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), but only under the assumption of multiple products.

  7. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  8. Airfoil cooling hole plugging by combustion gas impurities of the type found in coal derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    The plugging of airfoil cooling holes by typical coal-derived fuel impurities was evaluated using doped combustion gases in an atmospheric pressure burner rig. Very high specific cooling air mass flow rates reduced or eliminated plugging. The amount of flow needed was a function of the composition of the deposit. It appears that plugging of film-cooled holes may be a problem for gas turbines burning coal-derived fuels.

  9. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Belisle, F.H.; Maxwell, G.P.

    1993-11-01

    This program has the objectives to: A. Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition. B. Determine emissions characteristics including NO, NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents, and C. Operate with at least two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions. As a result of this program: 1. GE Engineering is now confident that the syngas fuels produced by all currently--viable coal gasifiers can be accommodated by the GE advanced (``F`` Technology) combustion system, and 2. For proposed syngas fuels with varying amounts of steam, nitrogen or CO{sub 2} diluent, the combustion and emissions characteristics can be reasonably estimated without undertaking expensive new screening tests for each different fuel.

  11. The coal gas story. United Kingdom suicide rates, 1960-71.

    PubMed Central

    Kreitman, N

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of suicide rates between 1960 and 1971 for England and Wales and for Scotland confirms that all age-sex subgroups have shown a marked decline in suicide due to domestic gas, corresponding in time to the fall in the CO content. After considering data on the effects of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) Eighth Revision, accident mortality, some personal characteristics of coal gas suicides, and the use of coal gas in parasuicide it was concluded that a simple casual explantation was likely. Suicide due to non-gas methods has in general increased, markedly so in some groups. It was suggested that neither improved psychiatric services nor voluntary agencies could have produced such changes. The 'compensatory' trend of gas and non-gas suicide rates was indicated for certain age-sex subgroups. The continuing need for suicide research was pointed out, and questions were raised concerning the psychological meaning of the epidemiological data. PMID:953381

  12. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-02-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that employ coal and natural gas and produce electric power and clean transportation fuels. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at Research Triangle Institute (RTI) in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. Specifically, we aim to: Measure the kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur over selective catalysts in the presence of major

  13. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Quarterly report, August 16, 1989--November 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The goal of this task is to accurately measure the elongation and shrinkage exhibited by coal as it sorbs and desorbs methane gas at elevated pressure. Our research group has discussed several possible methods to measure this strain, including: optical microscopy, laser interferometry, conventional strain gauges, and LVDT strain gauges. There are advantages and disadvantages of each method. We had planned to use optical microscopy but, on further investigation, this approach will be less satisfactory than the strain gauge method. Accordingly, we have switched our focws to the use of strain gauges. Conventional strain gauges also involve potential problems which must be overcome, including: (1) Contrast in strength between the coal and the strain gauge must be minimized, (2) The proper glue that is neither too strong or too weak must be used to affix the strain gauge to the coal or the strain in the coal will not be accurately transmitted to the gauge, and (3) We must be aware that the total strain in the coal may not be homogeneously distributed through the specimen (due either either to boundary effects or contrast in composition of the coal layers). A high pressure chamber for sorption-strain experiments is currently being tested an modified and tested. The chamber will accommodate several small blocks of coal simultaneously. This will optimize efficiency, owing to the long times required to reequilibrate the coal blocks to changes in methane pressure.

  14. Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H.

    1992-12-31

    Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals (or chars) derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Also, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program addresses the contributions and the mechanisms of cofiring natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization.

  15. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  16. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  17. Characterizing thermogenic coalbed gas from Polish coals of different ranks by hydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotarba, M.J.; Lewan, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    To provide a better characterization of origin and volume of thermogenic gas generation from coals, hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 360??C for 72 h on Polish coals ranging in rank from lignite (0.3% R r) to semi-anthracite (2.0% Rr). Under these conditions, the lignites attained a medium-volatile bituminous rank (1.5% Rr), high-volatile bituminous coals attained a low-volatile bituminous rank (1.7% Rr), and the semi-anthracite obtained an anthracite rank (4.0% R r). Hydrous pyrolysis of a coal, irrespective of rank, provides a diagnostic ??13C value for its thermogenic hydrocarbon gases. This value can be used quantitatively to interpret mixing of indigenous thermogenic gas with microbial methane or exogenous thermogenic gas from other sources. Thermogenic methane quantities range from 20 dm3/kg of lignite (0.3% Rr) to 0.35 dm3/kg of semi-anthracite (2.0% Rr). At a vitrinite reflectance of 1.7% Rr, approximately 75% of the maximum potential for a coal to generate thermogenic methane has been expended. At a vitrinite reflectance of 1.7% Rr, more than 90% of the maximum potential for a coal to generate CO2 has been expended. Assuming that these quantities of generated CO2 remain associated with a sourcing coal bed as uplift or erosion provide conditions conducive for microbial methanogenesis, the resulting quantities of microbial methane generated by complete CO2 reduction can exceed the quantities of thermogenic methane generated from the same coal bed by a factor of 2-5. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biogenic gas(?) in fluid inclusions from sandstones in contact with oil-mature coals

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, S.E.; Karlsen, D.A.

    2007-05-15

    This study was initiated to investigate if coals on the Norwegian offshore continental shelf (NOCS) expel petroleum and in which form. The results revealed that equally isotopically light methane (C{sub 1}) was released from fluid inclusions in sandstones and from adjacent coal (-60.9 to -72.7 parts per thousand). The analyzed samples were collected from cored northern North Sea and mid-Norwegian shelf wells in the depth interval 3924-5095 m. The vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of the coals range between 0.53 and 1.12%, with most values between 0.8 and 1.0%. The light C{sub 1} isotope values released both from the coals and from the fluid inclusions in the adjacent sandstones suggest that the origin of the gas is the coal, and that no isotope fractionation occurs during release of the gas in nature. Traditional isotope interpretation schemes suggest the C{sub 1} to have a biogenic origin, whereas recently published data also show the possibility for an early mature thermogenic origin. The isotope values represent averages of the total gas released from all the individual disintegrated fluid inclusions in each sample. These did not form simultaneously, but during multiple events potentially covering several million years. We speculate that significant volumes of isotopically light C{sub 1} have been expelled from the analyzed coals over time. The expelled isotopically light C{sub 1}, may mix with mature thermogenically produced gas and skew the overall methane isotope values of gas accumulations toward lighter values, thus explaining the isotopically lighter-than-expected gas accumulations on the NOCS (e.g., Troll, Frigg, and Draugen fields).

  19. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while

  20. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  1. Adult Education and Radical Habitus in an Environmental Campaign: Learning in the Coal Seam Gas Protests in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollis, Tracey; Hamel-Green, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the adult learning dimensions of protestors as they participate in a campaign to stop coal seam gas exploration in Gippsland in Central Victoria, Australia. On a global level, the imposition of coal seam gas exploration by governments and mining companies has been the trigger for movements of resistance from environmental…

  2. Vulnerability of industrial natural-gas markets to electricity and coal: a context for R and D planning. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, M.O.; Kothari, V.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1982-11-01

    Current trends in electric- and coal-technology developments and the outlook for natural-gas prices indicate the possibility of strong competition and possible natural-gas market-share losses in the industrial sector. The report develops an initial classification of industrial energy-consuming processes and estimates the extent to which future natural-gas consumption in each class is vulnerable to competition from electricity and coal. The discussion also addresses reasons why specific gas markets are considered vulnerable.

  3. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Rice, C.A.; Stricker, G.D.; Warden, A.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C1/(C2 + C3) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane ??13C and ??D, carbon dioxide ??13C, and water ??D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO2 reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO2 reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane ??13C is distributed along the basin margins where ??D is also depleted, indicating that both CO2-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and decrease of methane composition of the coal-bed gas. Other geologic factors, such as

  4. The role of chlorides and alkalis in high temperature coal gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelberg, A.S.; Ayala, R.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Toman, D.

    1994-12-31

    Reusable zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbents are being developed for high temperature (1,000 F) coal gas desulfurization applications. Bench scale and pilot scale tests reveal that zinc-based sorbents chemisorb HCl present in low Btu fuel. Volatile chlorides (ZnCl{sub 2} and HCl) are released when the sorbents are regenerated in a higher-temperature oxidizing atmosphere. As a result of these chloride/sorbent interactions, solid ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnCl{sub 2} deposit in downstream process equipment and degrade process operability. The HCI concentration in coal gas can be reduced to about 1 ppmv with sodium bicarbonate, which decomposes in hot coal gas and reacts with HCl to form solid sodium chloride. Models and laboratory scale tests indicate these low HCl concentrations can be achieved with reasonable reactor sizes. Equilibrium calculations and pilot plant measurements show that contacting hot coal gas with large quantities of sodium bicarbonate will result in fuel vapor phase sodium levels that are well below gas turbine limits.

  5. Ignition of a coal particle at the low temperature of gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Dmitrii O.; Sharypov, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    Regularities of physical and chemical processes occurring during the heating of the coal dust particles by low-temperature air flow are investigated by means of thermogravimetric analyzer TA SDT Q600 and experimental setup of optical diagnostics of multiphase flows based on PIV method. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were established for the processes of the coal particle inert heating, moisture evaporation, thermal decomposition, combustible gas mixture formation, oxidation of volatiles and carbon. It was revealed that the temperature of the oxidizer required for the coal particle ignition is higher than 500 ∘C. The experimental data can be used to develop predictive mathematical models of technological processes fire hazard in pulverized coal systems of thermal power plants.

  6. Technique of estimation of actual strength of a gas pipeline section at its deformation in landslide action zone

    SciTech Connect

    Tcherni, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The technique is given which permits determination of stress and strain state (SSS) and estimation of actual strength of a section of a buried main gas pipeline (GP) in the case of its deformation in a landslide action zone. The technique is based on the use of three-dimensional coordinates of axial points of the deformed GP section. These coordinates are received by a full-scale survey. The deformed axis of the surveyed GP section is described by the polynomial. The unknown coefficients of the polynomial can be determined from the boundary conditions at points of connection with contiguous undeformed sections as well as by use of minimization methods in mathematical processing of full-scale survey results. The resulting form of GP section`s axis allows one to determine curvatures and, accordingly, bending moments along all the length of the considered section. The influence of soil resistance to longitudinal displacements of a pipeline is used to determine longitudinal forces. Resulting values of bending moments and axial forces as well as the known value of internal pressure are used to analyze all necessary components of an actual SSS of pipeline section and to estimate its strength by elastic analysis.

  7. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  8. Combustion of coal in an opposed gas-particle jet with regenerative pyrolysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Durbetaki, P.

    1980-08-31

    The burning of coal particles is the coupled effect of the interlinked processes of pyrolysis, ignition and combustion of the volatiles and char. The specific objectives for the current research program are: (i) to establish an operating system with regenerative pyrolysis, (ii) to identify the primary parameters which effect the pyrolysis, ignition and combustion of the particles in this system, (iii) to identify measurements which are needed and techniques to be developed for these measurements, and (iv) to establish a preliminary basis for a modeling analysis. The present studies carried out with the flat flame burner and the opposed gas-particle jet have shown the feasibility of studying the ignition of pyrolyzate and coal particles. These were found to be affected by the level of preheating, composition of carrier gas and type of fuel particle. The behavior of lignite particles compared to bituminous particles were found to be distinctly different. Pyrolysis experiments carried out on the two coals at heating rates near those experienced with regenerative pyrolysis, have shown that self-ignition temperatures of fuel lean mixtures are not effected by the variable considered in this investigation. Sooting was found to accompany the combustion of bituminous coal particles and not of the lignite particles. Also higher gas-particle rates were found to be needed to self-sustain the combustion of bituminous coal particles than those required for lignite coal particles. These preliminary studies in the three areas of ignition, pyrolysis and combustion have shown the need to use additional instrumentation to further quantify the behavior of these coal particles under regenerative pyrolysis conditions.

  9. Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buckinus, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H.

    1992-08-01

    The combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantageous compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Additionally, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. In this research program, studies of combined Illinois coal and natural gas combustion provide particle ignition, burnout rates and ash characterization, helping clarify the effect of coal and natural gas and identify the controlling parameters and mechanisms. The Drop Tube Furnace Facility allows detailed measurements of coal particle combustion under well-controlled conditions. The combustion characteristics of single coal particles are determined through a novel set of diagnostic techniques including in situ simultaneous measurements of particle morphology, temperature and velocity. The emphasis of the effort in the second quarter of this project was on the understanding of the ignition enhancement, burning rate processes during cofiring, and sulfur retention in the ash.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  12. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-09-30

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

  13. Controls on bacterial gas accumulations in thick Tertiary coal beds and adjacent channel sandstones, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Coal beds, as much as 250 ft thick, and adjacent sandstones in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation are reservoirs for coal-derived natural gas in the Powder River basin. The discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs about 3 mi{sup 2} in size, adjoining networks of fluvial channels infilled by sand. Coal-bed thickness was controlled by basin subsidence and depositional environments. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub o} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Although the coals are relatively low rank, they display fracture systems. Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amount of Co{sub 2} ({lt}10%). The methane is isotopically light and enriched in deuterium. The gases are interpreted to be generated by bacterial processes and the fermentation pathway, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. Large amounts of bicarbonate water generated during early stages of coalification will have to be removed from the fracture porosity in the coal beds before desorption and commercial gas production can take place. Desorbed amounts of methane-rich, bacterial gas in the Powder River basin are relatively low ({lt}60 Scf/ton) compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases (hundreds of Scf/ton) from other Rocky Mountain basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource in both the coal beds and the adjacent sandstones is considered to be large (as much as 40 Tcf) because of the vast coal resources (as much as 1.3 trillion tons).

  14. A Reusable Calcium-Based Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Hasler, D.J.L.

    2002-09-19

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. The sorbent should be strong, durable, inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of being reused many times. To achieve these objectives the project has focused on the development of the very promising core-in-shell sorbent.

  15. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  16. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

  17. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  18. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  19. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  20. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  1. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, Raymond

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  2. Coal-packed methane biofilter for mitigation of green house gas emissions from coal mine ventilation air.

    PubMed

    Limbri, Hendy; Gunawan, Cindy; Thomas, Torsten; Smith, Andrew; Scott, Jason; Rosche, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Methane emitted by coal mine ventilation air (MVA) is a significant greenhouse gas. A mitigation strategy is the oxidation of methane to carbon dioxide, which is approximately twenty-one times less effective at global warming than methane on a mass-basis. The low non-combustible methane concentrations at high MVA flow rates call for a catalytic strategy of oxidation. A laboratory-scale coal-packed biofilter was designed and partially removed methane from humidified air at flow rates between 0.2 and 2.4 L min-1 at 30°C with nutrient solution added every three days. Methane oxidation was catalysed by a complex community of naturally-occurring microorganisms, with the most abundant member being identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence as belonging to the methanotrophic genus Methylocystis. Additional inoculation with a laboratory-grown culture of Methylosinus sporium, as investigated in a parallel run, only enhanced methane consumption during the initial 12 weeks. The greatest level of methane removal of 27.2±0.66 g methane m-3 empty bed h-1 was attained for the non-inoculated system, which was equivalent to removing 19.7±2.9% methane from an inlet concentration of 1% v/v at an inlet gas flow rate of 1.6 L min-1 (2.4 min empty bed residence time). These results show that low-cost coal packing holds promising potential as a suitable growth surface and contains methanotrophic microorganisms for the catalytic oxidative removal of methane. PMID:24743729

  3. Coal-Packed Methane Biofilter for Mitigation of Green House Gas Emissions from Coal Mine Ventilation Air

    PubMed Central

    Limbri, Hendy; Gunawan, Cindy; Thomas, Torsten; Smith, Andrew; Scott, Jason; Rosche, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Methane emitted by coal mine ventilation air (MVA) is a significant greenhouse gas. A mitigation strategy is the oxidation of methane to carbon dioxide, which is approximately twenty-one times less effective at global warming than methane on a mass-basis. The low non-combustible methane concentrations at high MVA flow rates call for a catalytic strategy of oxidation. A laboratory-scale coal-packed biofilter was designed and partially removed methane from humidified air at flow rates between 0.2 and 2.4 L min−1 at 30°C with nutrient solution added every three days. Methane oxidation was catalysed by a complex community of naturally-occurring microorganisms, with the most abundant member being identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence as belonging to the methanotrophic genus Methylocystis. Additional inoculation with a laboratory-grown culture of Methylosinus sporium, as investigated in a parallel run, only enhanced methane consumption during the initial 12 weeks. The greatest level of methane removal of 27.2±0.66 g methane m−3 empty bed h−1 was attained for the non-inoculated system, which was equivalent to removing 19.7±2.9% methane from an inlet concentration of 1% v/v at an inlet gas flow rate of 1.6 L min−1 (2.4 min empty bed residence time). These results show that low-cost coal packing holds promising potential as a suitable growth surface and contains methanotrophic microorganisms for the catalytic oxidative removal of methane. PMID:24743729

  4. New high efficiency low capital coal fueled combined cycle using existing CFBs and large gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Advanced Coal Power Technologies (IGCC, PFBII, and HIPPS) despite over two decades of technical development, have seen a disappointing lack of commercial (unsubsidized) utilization. Pulverized coal (PC) steam cycles still dominate because of the intrinsic high capital cost of advanced coal technologies. Recent studies have shown that partial gasification combined cycles yield higher efficiencies than full gasification IGCC cycles. They also show that atmospheric CFB combustors suffer little or no efficiency penalty versus pressurized combustors (and have substantially lower capital costs) because turbine exhaust heat can be fully recovered as the combustion air supply for atmospheric combustors. One new atmospheric partial gasification combined cycle is particularly promising from both a capital cost and efficiency basis. It integrates existing coal atmospheric CFB boiler technology with conventional simple cycle high temperature gas turbines. The CFB boiler also supplies hot bed material to an inexpensive raw coal devolatilizer riser tube which produces a medium-high BTU turbine fuel gas without the need for an expensive power robbing oxygen plant.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  6. Method of producing synthesis gas by underground gasification of coal using specific well configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, B.W.; Arri, L.E.; Hunt, E.B. Jr.; Parrish, D.R.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described of producing synthesis gas by the underground gasification of coal in individual noninteracting cavities formed by the gasification of the coal in a thick coal seam which is generally horizontal under an overburden and wherein loose coal and char formed from the combustion of the coal in the seam have a known angle of repose. The seam is provided with an injection well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of less than the angle of repose and with a production well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of greater than the angle of repose but less than 90/sup 0/. The distance between the wells decreases toward the bottom of the seam. The method comprises linking the wells, initiating combustion near the bottom of the seam and thereby producing a cavity in the seam, introducing an oxygen-containing gas mixture into the seam through the injection well, and removing combustion products through the production well.

  7. Investigation of mercury transformation by HBr addition in a slipstream facility with real flue gas atmospheres of bituminous coal and Powder River Basin Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Quanhai Wang; Chien-wei Chen; Bobby Chen; Martin Cohron; Yi-chuan Tseng; Cheng-chung Chiu; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-09-15

    An investigation of speciated mercury transformation with the addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) at elevated temperatures was conducted in a slipstream reactor with real flue gas atmospheres. Test results indicated that adding HBr into the flue gas at several parts per million strongly impacted the mercury oxidation and adsorption, which were dependent upon temperature ranges. Higher temperatures (in the range of 300-350 C) promoted mercury oxidation by HBr addition but did not promote mercury adsorption. Lower temperatures (in a range of 150-200 C) enhanced mercury adsorption on the fly ash by adding HBr. Test results also verified effects of flue gas atmospheres on the mercury oxidation by the addition of HBr, which included concentrations of chlorine and sulfur in the flue gas. Chlorine species seemed to be involved in the competition with bromine species in the mercury oxidation process. With the addition of HBr at 3 ppm at a temperature of about 330 C, the additional mercury oxidation could be reached by about 55% in a flue gas atmosphere by burning PRB coal in the flue gas and by about 20% in a flue gas by burning bituminous coal. These are both greater than the maximum gaseous HgBr2 percentage in the flue gas (35% for PRB coal and 5% for bituminous coal) by thermodynamic equilibrium analysis predictions under the same conditions. This disagreement may indicate a greater complexity of mercury oxidation mechanisms by the addition of HBr. It is possible that bromine species promote activated chlorine species generation in the flue gas, where the kinetics of elemental mercury oxidation were enhanced. However, SO{sub 2} in the flue gas may involve the consumption of the available activated chlorine species. Thus, the higher mercury oxidation rate by adding bromine under the flue gas by burning PRB coal may be associated with its lower SO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct

  9. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Tsay, F.

    1989-11-19

    Sampling Procedure: This project requires a carefully coordinated sample preparation procedure that will ensure that specimens of the proper size and physical characteristics are available for the various measurement methods used. Coherent blocks of coal will be collected in the field, with subsamples being removed in the lab by 1 inch-diameter core drill. At least 5 separate cores will be drilled from each block. Coal blocks sampled in the field will be approximately 10 inches (times) 10 inches {times} 6 inches. Distinctive compositional lithologies should be selected for sampling. For example, a section of the seam containing particularly thick vitrain or durain bands might be selected; or the block might include a mineral matter rich layer. If necessary, several blocks should be selected to represent a range in compositions. Sampling procedure must include a method for retaining moisture. The sample must not be allowed to dry out. Exposure to atmospheric oxygen should be limited as much as possible. The samples must carefully packed for shipment so as to preserve their integrity.

  10. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Buckius, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies at UIUC have shown that natural gas co-firing with coal has the effect of sulfur retention in the ash, and researchers have suggested that co-firing could reduce ash deposition problems. This project will study (1) the overall sulfur retention as a function of combustion conditions (temperature, coal type, residence time, etc.), (2) the effects of types of sulfur species and sulfur transformations (pyrite, organic, sulphates, etc.) on sulfur retention, and (3) the transformation of ash constituents important to fouling (iron, magnesium, potassium, etc.). The Drop Tube Furnace Facility (DTFF) is to be used for this study.

  11. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  12. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nie, W.; Peng, S. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, L. R.; Wang, G.; Geng, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa) or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa) improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%); the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6%) improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa) induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8%) caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate. PMID:25162042

  13. NOx results from two combustors tested on medium BTU coal gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherlock, T. P.; Carl, D. E.; Vermes, G.; Schwab, J.; Notardonato, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of tests of two combustor configurations using coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are reported. The trials were run with a ceramic-lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannular swirl burner (MASB) using a range of temperatures and pressures representative of industrial turbine inlet conditions. A lean mixture was examined at 104, 197, and 254 Btu/Scf, yielding NO(x) emissions of 5, 20, and 70 ppmv, respectively. The MASB was employed only with a gas rated at 220-270 Btu/Scf, producing 80 ppmv NO(x) at rated engine conditions. The results are concluded to be transferrable to current machines. Further tests on the effects of gas composition, the scaling of combustors to utility size, and the development of improved wall cooling techniques and variable geometry are indicated.

  14. A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Boiko; S.V. Pachkovskii

    2008-12-15

    A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the burnout dynamics of Kansk-Achinsk coals in the pulverized state at different treatment conditions and different model parameters are presented. The mathematical model describes the dynamics of thermochemical conversion of solid organic fuels with allowance for complex physicochemical phenomena of heat-and-mass exchange between coal particles and the gaseous environment.

  15. Controls of coal fabric on coalbed gas production and compositional shift in both field production and canister desorption tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M.

    2006-03-15

    The production rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly, even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable, although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO, through the production life of a reservoir, such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast, it is generally observed that the ratio of CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study, we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric, namely cleat spacing and aperture width, on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability, the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cleat) with narrower apertures or more widely spaced fractures (cleat) with wider apertures. There is a lower fracture porosity for coal with widely spaced fractures than for coal with closely spaced fractures. Therefore, the relative permeability to gas increases more rapidly for coals with more widely spaced cleats as less dewatering from fractures is required, assuming that the fractures are initially water saturated. The enrichment of CO{sub 2} in the production gas with time occurs because of the stronger adsorption of coals for CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. However, during desorption of coal cores, CO{sub 2} desorbs more rapidly than methane because desorption rate is governed more by diffusion than by sorption affinity, and CO{sub 2} has much higher effective diffusivity in microporous coals than CH{sub 4}.

  16. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  17. New-generation diesel fuel from coal, natural gas, and other carbonaceous feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, J.C.; Venkataraman, V.K.; Driscoll, D.J.; Nowak, M.; Srivastava, R.D.

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. economic security will continue to be vitally linked to an efficient transportation system of air, rail, and highway vehicles that depend on a continuous supply of liquid fuels at a reasonable price and with characteristics that can help vehicle manufacturers meet increasingly strict environmental regulations. This market offers an important opportunity to improve efficiency and lower emissions. One element of an overall strategy to address this energy security issue and help meet emissions requirements is to produce, via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) and other synthesis-gas conversion technologies, premium transportation fuels from non-petroleum feedstocks, such as coal, natural gas, and biomass. Significant advances have been, and are continuing to be made, in F-T technology development to achieve the performance and cost targets necessary for commercial deployment. The key drivers, which form the basis for this paper, include capital cost reduction, efficiency improvements, energy optimization, and exploitation of novel, high-quality products generated by the F-T conversion process. The paper discusses the development of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), a critical activity that has led to the successful demonstration of methanol production from coal-derived synthesis gas at Eastman Chemical Company's Kingsport, Tennessee, facilities. Research and development currently in place is building on this success in order to apply the SBCR technology to the production of other high value fuels and fuel additives. A concept for the efficient use of coal and natural gas to coproduce electric power and high quality liquid transportation fuels in one integrated facility has also been proposed. In addition, the development of novel ceramic membrane reactor systems for conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas will be discussed. This novel process holds the potential for reducing the cost of synthesis gas production from natural gas by 25% to 50% over current the

  18. Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1984-03-01

    This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  20. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  2. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  3. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix B: Medium B+U gas design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A four module, 20,000 TPD, based on KT coal gasification technology was designed. The plant processes Kentucky No. 9 coal with provisions for up to five percent North Alabama coal. Medium BTU gas with heat content of 305 BTU/SCF and not more than 200 ppm sulfur is the primary plant product. Sulfur is recovered for scale as prilled sulfur. Ash disposal is on site. The plant is designed for zero water discharge. Trade studies provided the basis for not using boiler produced steam to drive prime movers. Thus process derived steam in excess of process requirements in superheated for power use in prime movers. Electricity from the TVA grid is used to supply the balance of the plant prime mover power requirements. A study of the effect of mine mouth coal cleaning showed that coal cleaning is not an economically preferred route. The design procedure involved defining available processes to meet the requirements of each system, technical/economic trade studies to select the preferred processes, and engineering design and flow sheet development for each module. Cost studies assumed a staggered construction schedule for the four modules beginning spring 1981 and a 90% on stream factor.

  5. Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mastalerz, Maria; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Rupp, John A

    2012-01-01

    Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (<2 nm) size distribution. Micropore and mesopore volumes correlate with organic matter content in the samples. Accessibility of pores in coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

  6. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested. PMID:17544578

  7. Gas-phase mercury reduction to measure total mercury in the flue gas of a coal-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Meischen, Sandra J; Van Pelt, Vincent J; Zarate, Eugene A; Stephens, Edward A

    2004-01-01

    Gaseous elemental and total (elemental + oxidized) mercury (Hg) in the flue gas from a coal-fired boiler was measured by a modified ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer. Challenges to Hg measurement were the spectral interferences from other flue gas components and that UV measures only elemental Hg. To eliminate interference from flue gas components, a cartridge filled with gold-coated sand removed elemental Hg from a flue gas sample. The Hg-free flue gas was the reference gas, eliminating the spectral interferences. To measure total Hg by UV, oxidized Hg underwent a gas-phase, thermal-reduction in a quartz cell heated to 750 degrees C. Simultaneously, hydrogen was added to flash react with the oxygen present forming water vapor and preventing Hg re-oxidation as it exits the cell. Hg concentration results are in parts per billion by volume Hg at the flue gas oxygen concentration. The modified Hg analyzer and the Ontario Hydro method concurrently measured Hg at a field test site. Measurements were made at a 700-MW steam turbine plant with scrubber units and selective catalytic reduction. The flue gas sampled downstream of the selective catalytic reduction contained 2100 ppm SO2 and 75 ppm NOx. Total Hg measured by the Hg analyzer was within 20% of the Ontario Hydro results. PMID:14871013

  8. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  10. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The following tasks are included in this project: Commercialization; Power plant development; Manufacturing facilities development; Test facility development; Stack research; and Advanced research and technology development. This report briefly describes the subtasks still to be completed: Power plant system test with reformed natural gas; Upgrading of existing, US government-owned, test facilities; and Advanced MCFC component research.

  11. Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Buckius, R.O.

    1991-12-31

    There are applications where the combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers potential advantages over the use of either coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use during to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. In addition, natural gas provides a clean fuel source of fuel which, in cofiring situations, can extend the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. The addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emission through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. In this research program, studies of combined coal and natural gas combustion will provide particle ignition, burnout rates and ash characterization, that will help clarify the effect of coal and natural gas and identify the controlling parameters and mechanisms.

  12. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system. PMID:10680354

  13. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Barton

    2006-03-01

    The reduction of mercury emission from fossil fuel applications is an increasing priority for the US power industry due to regulatory pressure. While mercury removal during combustion is well studied, mercury removal in gasification is less so. The increasing application of coal gasification in future plant designs supplies the incentive for more study of mercury removal gasification processes. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. Absorption of elemental mercury at high temperature has not been shown to be effective. The carbon is best injected downstream where the temperature has moderated and an independent collector can be established. Experiments have been conducted at 400 F to compare mercury absorption on activated carbon as received and ''super'' activated carbon. The ''super'' activated carbon was prepared by soaking the carbon in 6M nitric acid followed by neutralization and washing. Each absorption experiment has been run for 16 hours of exposure time to the gasifier product stream. The carbon samples were tested for mercury absorption by ICP hydride generation. The two carbon samples which had been washed in nitric acid then exposed to the gasifier slipstream showed higher concentrations of mercury even at this elevated absorption temperature when compared to the as received activated carbon.

  14. Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.

    1991-05-01

    The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

  15. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Second quarterly report, November 15, 1989--February 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Tsay, F.

    1990-12-31

    Measurement of sorption capacity of coals by microbalance in a high pressure environment requires that corrections be made for the buoyancy of the gas that is displaced by the solid coal. As the pressure increases, the gas density increases, requiring that a correction factor be applied to the weight of the sample as measured by microbalance. A brief report summarizing this correction is attached as Appendix A.

  16. METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

  17. Adsorption of iodine from COIL waste gas on soaked coal-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junbo; Hao, Shan; Gao, Liping

    2014-04-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has wide application prospects in military, industrial and medical treatment fields as a second generation gas chemical laser to follow the first HF/DF chemical laser. However, a COIL releases large amounts of gas, such as helium, oxygen, chlorine and iodine. Chlorides have a serious corrosive effect on the system, especially iodine vapor crystallization, which seriously endangers the normal use of vacuum systems, and radioactive methyl iodide, which is hazardous to operators and pollutes the environment. The use of soaked coal-based activated carbon as an adsorbent for removing methyl iodine is proposed, while it is proposed that coal-based activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for removing stable iodine. The research conducted in this work shows that iodine residues are less than 0.5 μg ml-1 after the adsorption treatment and the decontamination factor of the coal-based activated carbon for removing stable iodine is more than 1000. Using this method can achieve the purpose of removing harmful iodine, satisfy the requirements for engineering applications, and also be applied to other nuclear power plant flue gas treatments.

  18. Alternate routes for the production of fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A.

    1994-06-01

    Almost all transportation worldwide is powered by high energy-density liquid hydrocarbon fuels produced from crude oil. Transportation fuels currently use over 50 percent of total world petroleum demand of 66 million barrels per day. Prior MITRE studies indicate that crude oil supply will become severely limited after the year 2030 as increasing world energy demand, driven by population growth and economic development, depletes oil resources. If conventional liquid hydrocarbon fuels that can use existing production and distribution infrastructures are still needed for transportation in the future, then alternate sources of these fuels will have to be utilized. Two such sources are natural gas and coal. Natural gas reserves worldwide are expected to last well into the 21st century, and coal resources are enormous. This paper examines the technologies for producing environmentally superior liquid transportation fuels from coal and natural gas using modern conversion technologies. Estimates of the costs of fuels from these sources are given, and the potential environmental impacts of these fuels are examined.

  19. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The

  20. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an

  1. Acoustic emission and sorptive deformation induced in coals of various rank by the sorption-desorption of gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, Zofia; Ziętek, Jerzy

    2007-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of acoustic emission (AE) and expansion/contraction of coal samples subjected to gas sorption-desorption processes were conducted on high-and medium-rank coal. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the coal rank and type of sorbate on measured AE and strain characteristics. The experimental equipment employed in this study consisted of a pressure vessel and associated pressurisation and monitoring units. The arrangement of pressure-vacuum valves permitted the coal sample to be pressurised and depressurised. Carbon-dioxide and methane were used as sorbats. Acoustic emission and strains were recorded continuously for a period of 50 hours during sorption and for at least 12 hours during the desorption process. Tests were conducted on cylindrical coal samples at 298 K. The experimental data were presented as plots of AE basic parameters versus time and in strain diagrams. These studies lead to the following conclusions: 1. There are significant differences in AE and strain characteristics for the two systems (coal-CO2 and coal-CH4); 2. There is a direct influence of rank and type of coal on its behaviour during the sorption-desorption of gas. An attempt has been made to interpret the results obtained on the grounds of the copolymer model of coal structure. More research is needed into this topic in order to get a quantitative description of the observed facts.

  2. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  3. The Texaco coal gasification process for manufacture of medium BTU gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process is discussed with particular emphasis on its close relationship to the fully commercialized Texaco synthesis gas generation process for residual oil gasification. The end uses of the product gas are covered, with special attention to electric power generation via combined cycle technology. Control of SO2, NOx, and particulate emissions in the power generating mode is also covered. The application of this technology in a proposed Texaco-Southern California Edison demonstration project is mentioned. Investment information released for a 1000-megawatt advanced combined cycle gasification facility, is also reviewed.

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry of coal liquids produced during a coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Jacqui F. Hamilton; Alistair. C. Lewis; Marcos Millan; Keith D. Bartle; Alan A. Herod; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-01-15

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) has been applied to the analysis of coal-derived liquids from the former British Coal Point-of-Ayr coal liquefaction plant. The feed to the hydrocracker and the resulting product were analyzed. The results refer almost exclusively to the plant-derived recycle solvent, known as the liquefaction solvent; the molecular mass range of the GC does not exceed that of the solvent. The method allows for the resolution of the numerous structural isomers of tetralin and methyl indan, one pair of hydrogen-donor (necessary for the dissolution of coal) and isomeric nondonor (that reduce the hydrogen donors) components of the recycle solvent. In addition, the n-alkanes that concentrate in the recycle solvent are easily observed in comparison with the results from one-dimensional GC-MS. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  6. PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CO2 SEPARATION AND STORAGE PROPERTIES OF COAL GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    John Kemeny; Satya Harpalani

    2004-03-01

    An attractive alternative of sequestering CO{sub 2} is to inject it into coalbed methane reservoirs, particularly since it has been shown to enhance the production of methane during near depletion stages. The basis for enhanced coalbed methane recovery and simultaneous sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep coals is the preferential sorption property of coal, with its affinity for carbon dioxide being significantly higher than that for methane. Yet, the sorption behavior of coal under competitive sorptive environment is not fully understood. Hence, the original objective of this research study was to carry out a laboratory study to investigate the effect of studying the sorption behavior of coal in the presence of multiple gases, primarily methane, CO{sub 2} and nitrogen, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in displacement of methane and its movement in coal. This had to be modified slightly since the PVT property of gas mixtures is still not well understood, and any laboratory work in the area of sorption of gases requires a definite equation of state to calculate the volumes of different gases in free and adsorbed forms. This research study started with establishing gas adsorption isotherms for pure methane and CO{sub 2}. The standard gas expansion technique based on volumetric analysis was used for the experimental work with the additional feature of incorporating a gas chromatograph for analysis of gas composition. The results were analyzed first using the Langmuir theory. As expected, the Langmuir analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} is more than three times as sorptive as methane. This was followed by carrying out a partial desorption isotherm for methane, and then injecting CO{sub 2} to displace methane. The results indicated that CO{sub 2} injection at low pressure displaced all of the sorbed methane, even when the total pressure continued to be high. However, the displacement appeared to be occurring due to a combination of the preferential

  7. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  8. A Combined Micro-CT Imaging/Microfluidic Approach for Understating Methane Recovery in Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaghimi, P.; Armstrong, R. T.; Gerami, A.; Lamei Ramandi, H.; Ebrahimi Warkiani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coal seam methane is a form of natural gas stored in coal beds and is one of the most important unconventional resources of energy. The flow and transport in coal beds occur in a well-developed system of natural fractures that are also known as cleats. We use micro-Computed Tomography (CT) imaging at both dry and wet conditions to resolve the cleats below the resolution of the image. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for calibration of micro-CT data. Using soft lithography technique, the cleat system is duplicated on a silicon mould. We fabricate a microfluidic chip using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to study both imbibition and drainage in generated coal structures for understating gas and water transport in coal seam reservoirs. First, we use simple patterns observed on coal images to analyse the effects of wettability, cleat size and distribution on flow behaviour. Then, we study transport in a coal by injecting both distilled water and decane with a rate of 1 microliter/ min into the fabricated cleat structure (Figure 1), initially saturated with air. We repeat the experiment for different contact angles by plasma treating the microfluidic chip, and results show significant effects of wettability on the displacement efficiency. The breakthrough time in the imbibition setup is significantly longer than in the drainage. Using rapid video capturing, and high resolution microscopy, we measure the saturation of displacing fluid with respect to time. By measuring gas and liquid recovery in the outlet at different saturation, we predict relative permeability of coal. This work has important applications for optimising gas recovery and our results can serve as a benchmark in the verification of multiphase numerical models used in coal seam gas industry.

  9. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Eventually, the weight stabilized and the measurements commenced. Helium pressure was increased slowly and carefully, first to 15 psig then to 28 psig. The readout for the balance unit continued to exhibit unexplained fluctuation and output. Buoyancy of the empty pan was measured at pressures ranging up to 800 psig measured at approximately 100 psig increments. The balance weighing unit exhibited a progressive increase in weight with increasing pressure demonstrating that the displacement volume of the tare weight side of the balance was greater than the displacement volume of the weighing pan side of the balance. Therefore, the increased gas pressure produced a greater buoyancy of the tare side, producing a net increase in weight. The carefully collected data showed a linear change in weight with pressure (see accompanying diagram). A schematic diagram of the new configuration of the sorption apparatus is depicted in the accompanying figure.

  10. Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

    2012-05-15

    The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. PMID:22325640

  11. Copyrolysis of coal and waste plastics under coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B.

    1998-12-31

    A way for increasing oil and decreasing water (IODW) in copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas (COG) by adding waste plastics was suggested and the effects of pressure, heating rate and final temperature on the yields of char, oil and water obtained from copyrolysis of coal and waste plastics under COG were investigated in detail. Copyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite and waste plastics under COG were carried out in a 10g fixed-bed reactor under pressures of 0.1--3MPa, heating rate from 5--25 K/min and final temperatures of 723--923K. The results indicated that by adding 5% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), the oil yield increased 4.5% (excluding the oil yield from HDPE pyrolysis) more than that of coal pyrolysis without HDPE, and water decreased about 2.2%. The yields of increased oil and decreased water accounted for 21.2% and 13% of Xianfeng lignite pyrolysis alone, respectively. With increasing pressure and final temperature, the total conversion, oil yields and water increased in varying degrees. Decreasing heating rate is beneficial to improve oil yield and reduce water. Adding waste plastics in copyrolysis of coal with COG not only improves the economic interest but also creates a way for high effective treatment of waste plastics.

  12. Impact of arterial blood gas analysis in disability evaluation of the bituminous coal miner with simple pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.L.; Roy, T.M.; Dow, F.T.; Anderson, W.H. )

    1992-04-01

    The Department of Labor has set guidelines for the use of resting arterial blood gas analysis in determination of total and permanent disability for coal workers' pneumoconiosis. To determine the prevalence with which bituminous coal miners fall below the arterial tensions of both oxygen and carbon dioxide published in the Federal Register, we studied 1012 miners who had both reproducible spirometry and arterial blood gas analysis as part of their disability evaluation. Eighty-seven percent of impaired miners could be identified by the spirometric criteria. Thirteen percent of impaired bituminous coal miners had acceptable pulmonary function but were eligible for black lung benefits by the blood gas guidelines. This population would have been missed if blood gas analysis were excluded from the evaluation process. On the other hand, approximately 25% of the blood gas analyses that were performed could be eliminated if a policy was adopted to do this test only on miners with spirometry that exceed the federal guidelines.

  13. Committing to coal and gas: Long-term contracts, regulation, and fuel switching in power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Michael

    Fuel switching in the electricity sector has important economic and environmental consequences. In the United States, the increased supply of gas during the last decade has led to substantial switching in the short term. Fuel switching is constrained, however, by the existing infrastructure. The power generation infrastructure, in turn, represents commitments to specific sources of energy over the long term. This dissertation explores fuel contracts as the link between short-term price response and long-term plant investments. Contracting choices enable power plant investments that are relationship-specific, often regulated, and face uncertainty. Many power plants are subject to both hold-up in investment and cost-of-service regulation. I find that capital bias is robust when considering either irreversibility or hold-up due to the uncertain arrival of an outside option. For sunk capital, the rental rate is inappropriate for determining capital bias. Instead, capital bias depends on the regulated rate of return, discount rate, and depreciation schedule. If policies such as emissions regulations increase fuel-switching flexibility, this can lead to capital bias. Cost-of-service regulation can shorten the duration of a long-term contract. From the firm's perspective, the existing literature provides limited guidance when bargaining and writing contracts for fuel procurement. I develop a stochastic programming framework to optimize long-term contracting decisions under both endogenous and exogenous sources of hold-up risk. These typically include policy changes, price shocks, availability of fuel, and volatility in derived demand. For price risks, the optimal contract duration is the moment when the expected benefits of the contract are just outweighed by the expected opportunity costs of remaining in the contract. I prove that imposing early renegotiation costs decreases contract duration. Finally, I provide an empirical approach to show how coal contracts can limit

  14. Preliminary technical data report: WyCoalGas project water system. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The WyCoalGas, Inc. Proposed coal gasification plant site is approximately 16 miles north of Douglas, Wyoming, located generally in Sections 27 and 34, T35N, R70W of the sixth prinicpal meridian. The plant site is located in typical high plateau plains of central Wyoming. Climate in the area is typical of semi-arid central Wyoming and is subject to wide variations in temperature. Precipitation in the area averages about 14 inches per year, of which about 10 inches fall during the April-September irrigation season. Projected water requirements at the plant site are 6020 acre-feet per year. Since the proposed plant site is not near any major streams or rivers, water must be transported to it. Water will be supplied from four sources - two surface water and two groundwater. The two surface water sources are LaPrele Reservoir and flood flows from the North Platte River with a 1974 appropriations date. LaPrele Reservoir is located approximately 14 miles west of Douglas, Wyoming, and is shown on Figure A-1. Water will be released from LaPrele Reservoir and flow down LaPrele Creek to the North Platte River. Water from the North Platte River will be diverted at a point in Section 7 of T33N, R71W. The LaPrele water and excess water from the North Platte will be pumped from the river and stored in Panhandle Reservoir No. 1, which is also referred to as Combs Reservoir. A pipeline will convey water from Panhandle Reservoir No. 1 to the coal gasification plant site. The two groundwater sources are located north of Douglas and west of Douglas.

  15. Evaluation and analysis of gas content and coal properties of major coal bearing regions of the united states. Final report, September 1993-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Masemore, S.; Piccot, S.; Ringler, E.; Diamond, W.P.

    1996-06-01

    The report is a conpilation of quality assured data on gas content and coal-bed reservoir properties for 11 major coal bearing regions in the U.S. The primary source of these data is the U.S. Bureau of Mines (BOM) gas content measurements program conducted during the 1970s and 1980s. In order to enhance the utility of the BOM data, an evaluation was conducted to compile and quality assure the original data, and to adjust the data as needed to improve quality and representativeness. The raw data were digitized to allow a computer to accurately and consistently perform routine quality assurance checks, consistently determine lost gas and total gas contents for each sample, and examine various corrections to the data. In addition, desorption constants for each coal sample were determined from time series desorption curves generated from the original data. Additional data presented include the results of equilibrium adsorptionn isotherm tests performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1983 for approximately 100 of the BOM coal samples.

  16. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  17. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  18. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Cogasification of Coal and Biomass in an Intermittent Fluidized Bed

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed reactor, aiming to investigate the influences of operation parameters such as gasification temperature (T), steam to biomass mass ratio (SBMR), and biomass to coal mass ratio (BCMR) on hydrogen-rich (H2-rich) gas production. The results show that H2-rich gas free of N2 dilution is produced and the H2 yield is in the range of 18.25~68.13 g/kg. The increases of T, SBMR, and BCMR are all favorable for promoting the H2 production. Higher temperature contributes to higher CO and H2 contents, as well as H2 yield. The BCMR has a weak influence on gas composition, but the yield and content of H2 increase with BCMR, reaching a peak at the BCMR of 4. The H2 content and yield in the product gas increase with SBMR, whilst the content of CO increases first and then decreases correspondingly. At a typical case, the relative linear sensitivity coefficients of H2 production efficiency to T, SBMR, and BCMR were calculated. The results reveal that the order of the influence of the operation parameters on H2 production efficiency is T > SBMR > BCMR. PMID:24174911

  19. Clean Coal Technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Gas Suspension Absorber was initially developed as a calciner for limestone used for cement production. It has been successfully to clean the gases from commercial waste to energy plants in Denmark where it has also captured chloride emissions. The GSA system brings coal combustion gases into contact with a suspended mixture of solids, including sulfur-absorbing lime. After the lime absorbs the sulfur pollutants, the solids are separated from the gases in a cyclone device and recirculated back into the system where they capture additional sulfur pollutant. The cleaned flue gases are sent through a dust collector before being released into the atmosphere. The key to the system's superior economic performance with high sulfur coals is the recirculation of solids. Typically, a solid particle will pass through the system about one hundred times before leaving the system. Another advantage of the GSA system is that a single spray nozzle is used to inject fresh lime slurry.

  20. Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A.

    2009-07-01

    Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Clean Coal Technology III (CCT III) 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-07

    The Gas Suspension Absorber (GSA) system brings coal combustion gases into contact with a suspended mixture of solids, including sulfur-absorbing lime. After the lime absorbs the sulfur pollutants, the solids are separated from the gases in a cyclone device and recirculated back into the system where they capture additional sulfur pollutant. The cleaned flue gases are sent through a dust collector before being released into the atmosphere. The key to the system's superior economic performance with high sulfur coals is the recirculation of solids. Typically, a solid particle will pass through the system about one hundred times before leaving the system. Another advantage of the GSA system is that a single spray nozzle is used to inject fresh lime slurry. The GSA system is expected to be the answer to the need of the US industry for an effective, economic and space efficient solution to the SO{sub 2} pollution problem.

  2. Design of the atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustor for cogeneration gas-turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.S.; Berman, P.A.; Gorrell, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The AFB Coal Combustor for Cogeneration Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for a fluidized bed coal combustion system to provide a source of high-temperature air for power generation with gas turbines and for process heating in industrial plants. The program is directed toward systems in the size range of 5 to 50 MW(e) and is being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its subcontractors. The major effort in the program is the design of a generic reference plant cogeneration system and the design and construction of a test system that will incorporate the salient features of the reference plant. The design work was initiated in June 1980.

  3. Clean coal technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Gas Suspension Absorber system brings coal combustion gases into contact with a suspended mixture of solids, including sulfur- absorbing lime. After the lime absorbs the sulfur pollutants, the solids are separated from the gases in a cyclone device and recirculated back into the system where they capture additional sulfur pollutant. The cleaned flue gases are sent through a dust collector before being released into the atmosphere. The key to the system's superior economic performance with high sulfur coals is the recirculation of solids. Typically, a solid particle will pass through the system about one hundred times before leaving the system. Another advantage of the GSA system is that a single spray nozzle is used to inject fresh lime slurry. The GSA system is expected to be the answer to the need of the US industry for an effective, economic and space efficient solution to the SO{sub 2} pollution problem.

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  5. Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H.

    1992-10-01

    Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Additionally, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program seeks to clarify the contributions and to identify the controlling mechanisms of coining natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization. The first two quarters focused on the ignition delay measurements and their analysis, along with the incorporation of particle porosity into the burning rate model. The emphasis of the third quarter was on a more detailed understanding of the burning rate process, as well as understanding of cofiring`s effects on sulfur retention. The contributions of particle burning area to the quantification of the particle burning mechanisms have been shown to be important and continue to be investigated. Ash samples for various methane concentrations under similar other conditions have shown positive trends in reducing S0{sub 2} emission through increased sulfur capture in the ash.

  6. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  7. Novel carbons from Illinois coal for natural gas storage. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Sun, Jian; Lizzio, A.A.; Fatemi, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a technology for producing microengineered adsorbent carbons from Illinois coal and to evaluate the potential application of these novel materials for storing natural gas for use in emerging low pressure, natural gas vehicles (NGV). The focus of the project is to design and engineer adsorbents that meet or exceed the performance and cost targets established for low-pressure natural gas storage materials. Potentially, about two million tons of adsorbent could be consumed in natural gas vehicles by year 2000. If successful, the results obtained in this project could lead to the use of Illinois coal in a sowing and profitable market that could exceed 6 million tons per year. During this reporting period, a series of experiments were made to evaluate the effect of coal pre-oxidation, coal pyrolysis, and char activation on the surface area development and methane adsorption capacity of activated carbons/chars made from IBC-102. The optimum production conditions were determined to be: coal oxidation in air at 225C, oxicoal (oxidized coal); devolatilization in nitrogen at 400C; and char gasification in 50% steam in nitrogen at 850C. Nitrogen BET surface areas of the carbon products ranged from 800--1100 m{sup 2}/g. Methane adsorption capacity of several Illinois coal derived chars and a 883 m{sup 2}/g commercial activated carbon were measured using a pressurized thermogaravimetric analyzer at pressures up to 500 psig. Methane adsorption capacity (g/g) of the chars were comparable to that of the commercial activated carbon manufactured by Calgon Carbon. It was determined that the pre-oxidation is a key processing step for producing activated char/carbon with high surface area and high methane adsorption capacity. The results to date are encouraging and warrant further research and development in tailored activated char from Illinois coal for natural gas storage.

  8. Clean coal technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This project will be the first North American demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) System in its application for flue gas desulfurization. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency as well as the cost effectiveness of the GSA system. GSA is a novel concept for flue gas desulfurization developed by F.L. Smidth miljo (FLS miljo). The GSA system is distinguished in the European market by its low capital cost, high SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and low operating cost. The specific technical objectives of the GSA demonstration project are to: effectively demonstrate SO{sub 2} removal in excess of 90% using high sulfur US coal. Optimize recycle and design parameters to increase efficiencies of lime reagent utilization and SO{sub 2} removal. Compare removal efficiency and cost with existing Spray Dryer/Electrostatic Precipitator technology.

  9. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  10. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Tenth quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.M.

    1992-12-31

    Research continued on the study of coal permeability and gas desorption. This quarter, most of the effort involved identifying problems with the microbalance and then getting it repaired. Measurement of the amount of gas adsorbed with the microbalance involved corrections for the buoyancy change with pressure and several experiments with helium were made to determine this correction.

  11. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  12. The evolution of particles in the plume from a large coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, R E; Tanner, R L; Valente, R J; Luria, M

    2000-07-01

    Airborne measurements were made of gaseous and particulate species in the plume of a large coal-fired power plant after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls were installed. These measurements were compared with measurements made before the controls were installed. The light scattering and number and volume distributions of plume excess particles were determined by nephelometry and optical particle counting techniques. The plume impact based on optical techniques was much lower than that observed in earlier measurements. Indeed, plume excess volumes as a function of particle size were of the same magnitude as the variability of the background volume distribution. In situ excess plume scattering actually decreased with distance from the source, in contrast to pre-FGD conditions. The upper limit for the dry rate of SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion was estimated from plume excess volume measurements to be about 4% hr-1. This is slightly greater than the upper limit, 3.5% hr-1, estimated by earlier researchers, but the same as that estimated using the present technique with the earlier data. The cross-plume profile of volume suggests SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion is highest at the plume edges. The greatest benefit of SO2 reduction on plume excess volume and visibility appears to occur far down-wind of the source. PMID:10939213

  13. Structural Impairments of Hippocampus in Coal Mine Gas Explosion-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Xu; Li, Huabing; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on hippocampal and amygdalar volume have revealed inconsistent results in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about the structural covariance alterations between the hippocampus and amygdala in PTSD. In this study, we evaluated the alteration in the hippocampal and amygdalar volume and their structural covariance in the coal mine gas explosion related PTSD. High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on coal mine gas explosion related PTSD male patients (n = 14) and non-traumatized coalminers without PTSD (n = 25). The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method was used to test the inter-group differences in hippocampal and amygdalar volume as well as the inter-group differences in structural covariance between the ipsilateral hippocampus and amygdala. PTSD patients exhibited decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in the bilateral hippocampi compared to controls (p<0.05, FDR corrected). GMV covariances between the ipsilateral hippocampus and amygdala were significantly reduced in PTSD patients compared with controls (p<0.05, FDR corrected). The coalminers with gas explosion related PTSD had decreased hippocampal volume and structural covariance with the ipsilateral amygdala, suggesting that the structural impairment of the hippocampus may implicate in the pathophysiology of PTSD. PMID:25000505

  14. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry. PMID:25783163

  15. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  17. Simulation of fluidized bed combustors. I - Combustion efficiency and temperature profile. [for coal-fired gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Wen, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical engineering analysis is made of fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) performance, with FBC models developed to aid estimation of combustion efficiency and axial temperature profiles. The FBC is intended for combustion of pulverized coal and a pressurized FBC version is intended for firing gas turbines by burning coal. Transport phenomena are analyzed at length: circulation, mixing models, drifting, bubble wake lift, heat transfer, division of the FB reactor into idealized mixing cells. Some disadvantages of a coal FBC are pointed out: erosion of immersed heat-transfer tubing, complex feed systems, carryover of unburned coal particles, high particulate emission in off-streams. The low-temperature bed (800-950 C) contains limestone, and flue-gas-entrained SO2 and NOx can be kept within acceptable limits.

  18. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas using regenerable sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C.S.; Albiston, J.; Broderick, T.E.; Stewart, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA estimates that coal-fired power plants constitute the largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the US. The Agency has contemplated emission regulations for power plants, but the large gas-flow rates and low mercury concentrations involved have made current treatment options prohibitively expensive. ADA Technologies, Inc. (Englewood, Colorado), in conjunction with the US DOE, is developing regenerable sorbents for the removal and recovery of mercury from flue gas. These sorbents are based on the ability of noble metals to amalgamate mercury at typical flue-gas temperatures and release mercury at higher temperatures. The process allows for recovery of mercury with minimal volumes of secondary wastes and no impact on fly ash quality. In 1997 and 1998, ADA tested a 20-cfm sorbent unit at CONSOL Inc.'s coal-combustion test facility in Library, PA. Results from the 1997 tests indicated that the sorbent can remove elemental and oxidized mercury and can be regenerated without loss of capacity. Design changes were implemented in 1998 to enhance the thermal efficiency of the process and to recover the mercury in a stable form. Testing during autumn, 1998 demonstrated 60% to 90% removal efficiency of mercury from a variety of different coals. However, contradictory removal results were obtained at the end of the test period. Subsequent laboratory analyses indicated that the sorbent had lost over half its capacity for mercury due to a decrease in available sites for mercury sorption. The presence of sulfur compounds on the sorbent suggests that thermal cycling may have condensed acid gases on the sorbent leading to deterioration of the active sorption sites. The regeneration time/temperature profile has been altered to minimize this potential in the upcoming power plant tests.

  19. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-10-01

    New coal gasification processes are now being developed which can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency either in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or in a fuel cell (MCFC). Both of these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the coal-gas. This project investigates the effect of HCl, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by the HCI, both in absorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes. The work activity during the third quarter of this project involved the performance of the second block-set of experiments in the bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. These experiments were designed to study the effect of HCl in the desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas. Nine single-cycle experiments were performed, at operating temperature of 538, 650, and 750{degrees}C, with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppMv. The presence of HCl in the coal gas significantly enhanced the desulfurization efficacy of the sorbent. A 10-cycle sulfidation-regeneration sequence is currently being performed at 650{degrees}C with 800 ppMv HCl in the simulated fuel gas to determine any adverse effects on the sorbent structure or its desulfurization capability.

  20. Method for removing HCL and HF from coal derived fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Gal, E.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes a process stream for removing sulfur compounds from a hot coal derived fuel gas stream containing H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF upstream of a power plant. This patent describes improvement in introducing a sorbent material at a location and in an amount effective to break down at least the HCl and HF constituents into solid salts and gaseous CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at least partially concurrently with the removal of the sulfur compounds; and removing the solid salts from the stream.

  1. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation's urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  2. Atmospheric radon, CO2 and CH4 dynamics in an Australian coal seam gas field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, D. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane concentrations (CH4) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) were used to gain insight into atmospheric chemistry within an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). A˜3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 2 km to 4 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to point sources (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffse soil sources due to changes in the soil structural and hydrological characteristics. A rapid qualitative assessment of CH4 and CO2 concentration, and carbon isotopes using a mobile cavity ring-down spectrometer system showed a widespread enrichment of both CH4 and CO2 within the production gas field. Concentrations of CH4 and CO2 were as high as 6.89 ppm and 541 ppm respectively compared average concentrations of 1.78 ppm (CH4) and 388 ppm (CO2) outside the gas field. The δ13C values showed distinct differences between areas inside and outside the production field with the δ13C value of the CH4 source within the field matching that of the methane in the CSG.

  3. The monitoring system of the pipeline safety of the coal mine gas drainage based on the optic fiber sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-fang; Wei, Yubin; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yanjie; Lv, Lei; Liu, Tong-yu

    2013-09-01

    Based on the technology of the spectrum absorption and the FBG, the monitoring system realize on line detection of the concentration of methane and oxygen, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline, and in order to improve the accuracy of the gas detection, we induce the compensation to the gas concentration using the data of the temperature and the pressure. In order to have a effective utilization of the methane in the coal mine gas drainage system, we have to have a accurate measurements of the concentration, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline. At the same time the dynamic monitoring of the concentration of Oxygen is a sign of the leakage of the pump. This paper gave some data detected in the field of the coal mine gas drainage system.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  5. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  6. Numerical investigations on mapping permeability heterogeneity in coal seam gas reservoirs using seismo-electric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, L.; Shaw, S.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping the horizontal distribution of permeability is a key problem for the coal seam gas industry. Poststack seismic data with anisotropy attributes provide estimates for fracture density and orientation which are then interpreted in terms of permeability. This approach delivers an indirect measure of permeability and can fail if other sources of anisotropy (for instance stress) come into play. Seismo-electric methods, based on recording the electric signal from pore fluid movements stimulated through a seismic wave, measure permeability directly. In this paper we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that the seismo-electric method is potentially suitable to map the horizontal distribution of permeability changes across coal seams. We propose the use of an amplitude to offset (AVO) analysis of the electrical signal in combination with poststack seismic data collected during the exploration phase. Recording of electrical signals from a simple seismic source can be closer to production planning and operations. The numerical model is based on a sonic wave propagation model under the low frequency, saturated media assumption and uses a coupled high order spectral element and low order finite element solver. We investigate the impact of seam thickness, coal seam layering, layering in the overburden and horizontal heterogeneity of permeability.

  7. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Ronald; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  8. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  9. Effects of igneous intrusion on microporosity and gas adsorption capacity of coals in the Haizi Mine, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120 m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (R(o)) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054 cm(3)/g to a maximum of 0.0146 cm(3)/g and then decreased to 0.0079 cm(3)/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60-160 m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

  10. Effects of Igneous Intrusion on Microporosity and Gas Adsorption Capacity of Coals in the Haizi Mine, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of igneous intrusions on pore structure and adsorption capacity of the Permian coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, China. Twelve coal samples were obtained at different distances from a ~120 m extremely thick sill. Comparisons were made between unaltered and heat-affected coals using geochemical data, pore-fracture characteristics, and adsorption properties. Thermal alteration occurs down to ~1.3 × sill thickness. Approaching the sill, the vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increased from 2.30% to 2.78%, forming devolatilization vacuoles and a fine mosaic texture. Volatile matter (VM) decreased from 17.6% to 10.0% and the moisture decreased from 3.0% to 1.6%. With decreasing distance to the sill, the micropore volumes initially increased from 0.0054 cm3/g to a maximum of 0.0146 cm3/g and then decreased to 0.0079 cm3/g. The results show that the thermal evolution of the sill obviously changed the coal geochemistry and increased the micropore volume and adsorption capacity of heat-affected coal (60–160 m from the sill) compared with the unaltered coals. The trap effect of the sill prevented the high-pressure gas from being released, forming gas pocket. Mining activities near the sill created a low pressure zone leading to the rapid accumulation of methane and gas outbursts in the Haizi Mine. PMID:24723841

  11. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Yoon, Kyung J.

    2010-10-15

    The performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was evaluated in synthetic coal gas containing HCl in the temperature range 650 to 850oC. Exposure to up to 800 ppm HCl resulted in reversible poisoning of the Ni/zirconia anode by chlorine species adsorption, the magnitude of which decreased with increased temperature. Performance losses increased with the concentration of HCl to ~100 ppm, above which losses were insensitive to HCl concentration. Cell voltage had no effect on poisoning. No evidence was found for long-term degradation that can be attributed to HCl exposure. Similarly, no evidence of microstructural changes or formation of new solid phases as a result of HCl exposure was found. From thermodynamic calculations, solid nickel chloride phase formation was shown to be highly unlikely in coal gas. Further, the presence of HCl at even the highest anticipated concentrations in coal gas would minimally increase the volatility of nickel.

  12. Kinetics of MN based sorbents for hot coal gas. Quarterly report, September--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In a previous report, the sulfidation results were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. In this report, the regeneration results will be presented. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. 16 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Economical production of transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, and other carbonaceous feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G.; Winslow, J.C.; Venkataraman, V.K.; Driscoll, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    The Nation`s economy and security will continue to be vitally linked to an efficient transportation system of air, rail, and highway vehicles that depend on a continuous supply of liquid fuels at a reasonable price and with characteristics that can help the vehicle manufacturers meet increasingly strict environmental regulations. However, an analysis of US oil production and demand shows that, between now and 2015, a significant increase in imported oil will be needed to meet transportation fuel requirements. One element of an overall Department of Energy`s (DOE) strategy to address this energy security issue while helping meet emissions requirements is to produce premium transportation fuels from non-petroleum feedstocks, such as coal, natural gas, and biomass, via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) and other synthesis gas conversion technologies.

  14. Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

  15. Cooling of dried coal

    SciTech Connect

    Siddoway, M.A.

    1988-06-14

    This patent describes a process for noncombustibly drying particulate coal comprising: separating the coal into two wet coal streams; passing one wet coal system into a dryer to form a bed; heating air in a furnace; admitting the heated air to the dryer to fluidize the bed; withdrawing dryer exhaust gas; passing the exhaust gas through a cyclone and withdrawing coal fines from the cyclone; withdrawing a hot, dry coal stream from the dryer; blending the drier hot dry coal stream with the cyclone coal fines; withdrawing cyclone exhaust gas; wet scrubbing the cyclone exhaust gas to form a coal fines slurry and scrubber exhaust gas; passing the coal fines slurry to a sedimentation pool; blending the second wet coal stream with the drier hot dry coal stream and the cyclone coal fines; passing the latter blended stream to a cooler to form a bed; fluidizing the latter bed with ambient air; withdrawing cooler exhaust gas and passing the gas to a cyclone; passing exhaust gas from the latter cyclone to a baghouse and collecting coal fines therein; passing the latter coal fines to the furnace as fuel for heating the air; and withdrawing cooled coal from the cooler and blending the cooled coal with coal fines from the latter cyclone.

  16. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection - Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOx. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOx to diatomic nitrogen (N2). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (SI) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve

  17. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were

  18. Study on the stability of sorbents removing H{sub 2}S from hot coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Li-Ping Chang; Zong-You Zhang; Xiu-Rong Ren; Fan Li; Ke-Chang Xie

    2009-01-15

    Mixed metal oxide containing iron with the high-sulfur capacity and reactivity is considered as one of the most favorable sorbents for desulfurization in hot gas. The stability and life of iron-based sorbents are the main challenges for the hot gas cleanup techniques. Not only the effect of gas atmosphere but also the effect of ZnO and MgO on the stability of iron-based sorbent was studied in this work. The mechanism and factors influencing sorbent stability are discussed. The results showed that the coexistence of CO and H{sub 2} result in the instability of the zinc-iron-based sorbents. The reaction of carbon deposit is the crucial step affecting the stability of sorbent for hot gas desulfurization. ZnO in the sorbent is adverse to the physical stability of the iron-based sorbents. MgO in the sorbent hardly affects the physical stability of the iron-based sorbents but improves the capacity of removing the hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas at 773 K. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Geologic assessment of natural gas from coal seams in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Topical report, September 1985-September 1986. Final geologic report

    SciTech Connect

    McFall, K.S.; Wicks, D.E.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Sedwick, K.B.

    1986-11-01

    To evaluate the natural gas potential of coal seams in the major coal groups of the Piceance Basin (Colorado), an analysis of the subsurface geology of the Black Diamond, Cameo, and Coal Ridge of the Iles and Williams Formations was completed along with new correlations of gas content to coal rank and depth. Natural gas in place is estimated to be 84 TCF (Cameo Group, 65 TCF; Coal Ridge Group, 10 TCF; and Black Diamond Group, 9 TCF). Within the Cameo Group, the A and D seams account for about half or 38 TCF of the gas in place. The most-concentrated areas of methane in place are in the east-central portion of the Piceance Basin around the Divide Creek Anticline and Grand Hogback Monocline, areas which have thick accumulations of high-rank coals and appear to have been tectonically altered.

  20. A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B.

    2008-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

  1. Combustion of ultrafine coal/water mixtures and their application in gas turbines: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toqan, M.A.; Srinivasachar, S.; Staudt, J.; Varela, F.; Beer, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    The feasibility of using coal-water fuels (CWF) in gas turbine combustors has been demonstrated in recent pilot plant experiments. The demands of burning coal-water fuels with high flame stability, complete combustion, low NO/sub x/ emission and a resulting fly ash particle size that will not erode turbine blades represent a significant challenge to combustion scientists and engineers. The satisfactory solution of these problems requires that the variation of the structure of CWF flames, i.e., the fields of flow, temperature and chemical species concentration in the flame, with operating conditions is known. Detailed in-flame measurements are difficult at elevated pressures and it has been proposed to carry out such experiments at atmospheric pressure and interpret the data by means of models for gas turbine combustor conditions. The research was carried out in five sequential tasks: cold flow studies; studies of conventional fine-grind CWF; combustion studies with ultrafine CWF fuel; reduction of NO/sub x/ emission by staged combustion; and data interpretation-ignition and radiation aspects. 37 refs., 61 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Thermal preconditioning of coal/water mixtures for gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roffe, G.; Miller, G.

    1985-03-01

    Thermal preconditioning of coal/water mixtures (CWM) is a process proposed for use with stationary gas turbine engines. The CWM is heated before delivery to the combustor to vaporize the water and to pyrolyze and devolatilize the coal prior to injection. The process offers a number of potential advantages. Engines can be started without the use of an auxiliary fuel system, atomizing nozzles are eliminated, flame stability is increased, and char burnout is accelerated as a result of increased initial flame intensity. This project was an initial examination of technical questions affecting the feasibility and utility of the process. Heat transfer rates were measured for high solids loadings CWM in tubular heaters, the influence of the boiling process was studied, devolatilization rates were measured for the conditions of interest in gas turbine applications, the potential for organic sulfur volatilization was assessed and the effect of the process on heat rate for a combined cycle power plant was examined. The results of this initial examination showed the process to be both technically and economically feasible. CWM was vaporized and devolatilized in a small heat exchanger and a clearly defined steam/char/volatile suspension was produced. Temperatures of 750K to 870K and residence times of less than 1 second were found to be adequate to complete the process.

  3. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-22

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.

  4. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  5. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 60-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a PFA differential fixed-bed micro reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.01-0.047 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, moisture concentrations, reaction pressures on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 61-89 v% hydrogen, 2,300-9,200-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-4,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 2.6-13.7 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 100-110 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 28-127 psia. The following results were obtained based on experimental data generated from the differential reactor system, and their interpretations, (1) Concentration of moisture and concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction

  6. Zero-Headspace Coal-Core Gas Desorption Canister, Revised Desorption Data Analysis Spreadsheets and a Dry Canister Heating System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Charles E.; Dallegge, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    Coal desorption techniques typically use the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) canister-desorption method as described by Diamond and Levine (1981), Close and Erwin (1989), Ryan and Dawson (1993), McLennan and others (1994), Mavor and Nelson (1997) and Diamond and Schatzel (1998). However, the coal desorption canister designs historically used with this method have an inherent flaw that allows a significant gas-filled headspace bubble to remain in the canister that later has to be compensated for by correcting the measured desorbed gas volume with a mathematical headspace volume correction (McLennan and others, 1994; Mavor and Nelson, 1997).

  7. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping )

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] -35.5 [approximately] -39.9[per thousand], and [delta][sup 13]C[sub 2] -24.0 [approximately] -26.8[per thousand]. The [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4[per thousand] to -26.8[per thousand]. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] of the gases there is -37.9 [approximately] -37. l[per thousand], with the [delta][sup 13]C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 [approximately] -26.6[per thousand]. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH[sub 4] content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with [delta][sup 13]C[sub 1] from - 38.7 to -43.7[per thousand] and [delta] [sup 13]C[sub 2] from -25.9[per thousand] to -29.9[per thousand]. The [delta] [sup 13]C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3[per thousand] to 27.8[per thousand].

  8. Coal-type gas provinces in China and their geochemical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaobao; Xu Yonghang; Shen Ping

    1996-12-31

    The distribution of coal - type gases in China can be divided into the east gas province, the central gas province and the west gas province the east gas province lies in the East China Meso - Cenozoic Rift Belt, including Donghai Basin and Bohaiwan Basin. The ages of gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Tertiary. The types of gas reservoirs are a anticline or a hidden mountain - fault block combination reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content ofthe gases there is 83 -90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} -35.5 {approximately} -39.9{per_thousand}, and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2} -24.0 {approximately} -26.8{per_thousand}. The {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oils associated with the gases ranges from -25.4{per_thousand} to -26.8{per_thousand}. The central gas province is inside the Central China Paleozoic Plates, including Orclos Basin and Sichuan Basin. The gas source rocks are Carbo - Permian and Triassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline-fault combination or a lithological-tectonic combination reservoir. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} of the gases there is -37.9 {approximately} -37. l{per_thousand}, with the {delta}{sup 13}C of condensate oil accompanying them - 25.1 {approximately} -26.6{per_thousand}. The west gas province is within the West China Late Paleozoic Intracontinental Compressive Belt, including Tarim Basin, Jungar Basin and Tuna Basin. The age of gas source rocks is Jurassic. The types of gas reservoirs are an anticline or an anticline-fault reservoir. The CH{sub 4} content of the gases there varies from 60 to 90%, with {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} from - 38.7 to -43.7{per_thousand} and {delta} {sup 13}C{sub 2} from -25.9{per_thousand} to -29.9{per_thousand}. The {delta} {sup 13}C of light oils and condensate oils accompanying the gases changes from 24.3{per_thousand} to 27.8{per_thousand}.

  9. Coal burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.C.; Cowan, T.L.

    1980-02-05

    This process is for devolatilizing coal to produce a volatile hydrocarbon gas leaving a residue of unburned coal. The volatile hydrocarbon gas and other coal or said residual coal are thereafter burned together in a common furnace. The volatilization of the coal may be carried out substantially endothermically, and preferably on the plant site where the burning of the volatilized hydrocarbon takes place together with other coal or the residue coal. The volatile matter is removed from the coal in a volatile state before the residue coal exits from the burner nozzle and then enters the combustion chamber where the volatilized hydrocarbon gas and residue coal are burned together. The removed volatilized hydrocarbon gas can be placed within the same coal burning plant to join with the unburned residual coal, passing to the burner to burn therewith.

  10. Sulfur Transfer via Gas Phase in Iron-making Blast Furnace under Intensive Coal Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiyuki, Matsui; Rikizou, Tadai; Kenji, Ito; Tadasu, Matsuo; Korehito, Kadoguchi; Reiji, Ono

    The steel industry will move toward more value additive products in the future. In order to support the value additive steel products, iron sources have to be secured with stable operation of furnaces and control of furnace have to be evolved. Environment consciousness including CO2 reduction leads more toward lower reducing agents ratio operation. It is common technical issue on both the more value additive products the environment consciousness to control the sulfur in the hot metal, slag and gas phase.In the present study, the amount of sulfur gasification was measured by combustion experiments with the attention on the simultaneous gasification of sulfur with carbon. By description of sulfurization from gas to burden materials based on the temperature distribution measured in actual furnace, the amount of sulfur transferred to gas was evaluated.

  11. Assessment of the Coal-Bed Gas Total Petroleum System in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouse, William A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Cook Inlet-Susitna region of south-central Alaska contains large quantities of gas-bearing coal of Tertiary age. The U.S. Geological Survey in 2011 completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable coal-bed gas resources underlying the Cook Inlet-Susitna region based on the total petroleum system (TPS) concept. The Cook Inlet Coal-Bed Gas TPS covers about 9,600,000 acres and comprises the Cook Inlet basin, Matanuska Valley, and Susitna lowland. The TPS contains one assessment unit (AU) that was evaluated for coal-bed gas resources between 1,000 and 6,000 feet in depth over an area of about 8,500,000 acres. Coal beds, which serve as both the source and reservoir for natural gas in the AU, were deposited during Paleocene-Pliocene time in mires associated with a large trunk-tributary fluvial system. Thickness of individual coal beds ranges from a few inches to more than 50 feet, with cumulative coal thickness of more than 800 feet in the western part of the basin. Coal rank ranges from lignite to subbituminous, with vitrinite reflectance values less than 0.6 percent throughout much of the AU. The AU is considered hypothetical because only a few wells in the Matanuska Valley have tested the coal-bed reservoirs, so the use of analog coal-bed gas production data was necessary for this assessment. In order to estimate reserves that might be added in the next 30 years, coal beds of the Upper Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana were selected as the production analog for Tertiary coal beds in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region. Upper Fort Union coal beds have similar rank (lignite to subbituminous), range of thickness, and coal-quality characteristics as coal beds of the Tertiary Kenai Group. By use of this analog, the mean total estimate of undiscovered coal-bed gas in the Tertiary Coal-Bed Gas AU is 4.674 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas.

  12. Preliminary investigation of biogenic gas production in Indonesian low rank coals and implications for a renewable energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Rita; Papendick, Sam L.; Gilcrease, Patrick C.; Esterle, Joan S.; Golding, Suzanne D.; Mares, Tennille E.

    2013-11-01

    Indonesia has abundant coal resources at depths suitable to contain substantial volumes of naturally occurring methane, which are currently being explored. Most Indonesian coals are thermally immature, but are composed of hydrogen-rich organic components that are presumed to make them excellent substrates for biogenic methane production. Gas isotope results from pilot wells in South Sumatra, reported in this study, are interpreted to indicate biogenic origins for the methane. Corresponding formation water samples were collected and incubated, and show the presence of indigenous microbial communities capable of producing methane from Indonesian and Australian coal. Although these results are only preliminary, they are promising and support the possibility of Indonesia developing bio renewable energy from coal seams.

  13. Coal conversion engineering analysis for Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation, Danskammer Generating Station, Units 3 and 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of converting the Danskammer Power Plant at Roseton, NY from oil- to coal-firing was examined. This plant, built in 1950, was converted from coal- to oil-firing in 1971. Evaluation of the plant showed that oil-to-coal conversion is technically feasible, but modifications or additions to existing plant equipment would be required to meet coal handling needs and pollution control regulations. With no flue gas desulfurization equipment the 1980 cost of plant reconversion is estimated as $50.3 million. A FGD system would require an additional $40 million in direct costs. The total time estimated for engineering, construction, and licensing is 57 months. (LCL)

  14. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  15. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, H.J.; Judkins, R.R.

    1995-06-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of carboniferous materials in a gasifier consists predominantly of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and, for air-blown units, N{sub 2} in various proportions at temperatures ranging from about 400 to 1000{degree}C. Depending on the source of the fuel, smaller concentrations of H{sub 2}S, COS, and NH{sub 3} can also be present. The gas phase is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials used in the gasifier can occur. Therefore, there are numerous concerns about materials performance in coal gasification systems, particularly at the present time when demonstration-scale projects are in or nearing the construction and operation phases. This study focused on the subset of materials degradation phenomena resulting from carbon formation and carburization processes, which are related to potential operating problems in certain gasification components and subsystems. More specifically, it examined the current state of knowledge regarding carbon deposition and a carbon-related degradation phemonenon known as metal dusting as they affect the long-term operation of the gas clean-up equipment downstream of the gasifier and addressed possible means to mitigate the degradation processes. These effects would be primarily associated with the filtering and cooling of coal-derived fuel gases from the gasifier exit temperature to as low as 400{degree}C. However, some of the consideratins are sufficiently general to cover conditions relevant to other parts of gasification systems.

  16. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO[sub x] to molecular nitrogen (N[sub 2]) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO[sub x] emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO[sub x]. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO[sub 4], an injection temperature of about 1230[degrees]C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H[sub 2]0 added for humidification. The calcium sulfate or sulfite products are collected together with unreacted sorbent fly ash by the electrostatic precipitator. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

  17. Measurement of slurry droplets in coal-fired flue gas after WFGD.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Cheng; Zhao, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Zheng, Cheng-Hang; Gao, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    China owns the world's largest capacity of coal-fired power units. By the end of 2012, the capacity of installed national thermal power has been 819.68 million kilowatts. The latest standard requires that newly built power plants emit SO2 in no more than 100 mg/m(3) and the emission of old ones be lower than 200 mg/m(3) while in some key areas the emission should be controlled under 50 mg/m(3). So by the end of 2012, 90% of the active coal-fired units have been equipped with flue gas desulfurization devices. Among the desulfurization methods adopted, limestone-gypsum wet flue gas desulphurization accounts for 92%, causing the problem of fine droplets in the exhaust gas after defogger, which may even form "gypsum rain." At present, sampling methods are widely used at home and abroad, such as magnesium ion tracer method, modified magnesium ion tracer method and chemical analysis. In addition, some scholars use aerodynamic methods, such as ELPI, to measure the diameter distribution and concentration. The methods mentioned above all have their own demerits, such as the inability to on-line, continuous measurements and the need of prolonged measuring time. Thus, in this paper some potential optical on-line methods are presented, such as Fraunhofer diffraction pattern analysis and wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction. Also brought up are their measuring scope and merits. These methods have already been utilized to measure small liquid droplets and their demonstrations and evaluations are as well stated. Finally, a 3D imaging method based on digital holographic microscope is proposed for in-line measurement of size and concentration of slurry droplets. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by preliminary experimental investigation. PMID:25252634

  18. Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of instantaneous gas generated from shaly coal during hydrous pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Yu; Sun, Chih-Hsien; Huang, Wuu-Liang

    2010-05-01

    Isotopes of natural gases have provided important information for indicating their maturation, origins and influencing factors during the generation processes. In order to distinguish compositions of gas generated at different intervals of maturities, the present study investigates the variation of compound-specific carbon isotope (CSI) ratios of hydrocarbon gases from a shaly coal by instantaneous hydrous pyrolysis, during which the earlier generated gas was evacuated before the start of next maturation stage. The experiments were conducted at ten different maturity stages (0.65 to 2.02 % Ro) from a terrestrial shaly coal with 0.48 % Ro. The gas products were analyzed by GC-IR-MS. The results show that, in general, the δ13C values of methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3) slightly increase, then decrease and finally increase with increasing maturities. This reverse phenomenon indicates the heterogeneous and complex compositions of the kerogen. The isotope compositions of gases exhibit three distinct clusters in natural gas plot of δ13C values versus 1/n (where n is carbon number of the gaseous molecule), corresponding to three different groups of maturity stages. By linking the same maturity stage of δ13C values, all lines show nearly parallel in each group with consistently reverse trend of δ13C3 < δ13C2 > δ13C1. These three distinct clusters were also observed in the cross plotting of iC4/nC4 versus iC5/nC5 isomer ratios. This may imply that the kerogen is composed of three discrete structural domains which were progressively cracked at three major groups of maturity stages. The reverse trend was inconsistent with data for gas collected cumulatively in most prior pyrolysis experiments and the linear relationship predicted from kinetic isotope effect (KIE) model. Although the non-linear relationship or reverse trend, δ13C3 < δ13C2, was also reported for some natural gases, it was interpreted as a result of mixing from different source rocks or other

  19. Oxidation and stabilization of elemental mercury from coal-fired flue gas by sulfur monobromide.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yongfu; Jia, Jinping

    2010-05-15

    Sulfur monobromide (S(2)Br(2)) was employed as a task-specific oxidant to capture and stabilize elemental mercury from coal-fired flue gas. Its performances on the removal of Hg(0) were investigated with respect to the gas-phase reaction and particle-involved reactions. It was found that the gas-phase reaction between Hg(0) and S(2)Br(2) was rapid, and the determined second-rate constant was about 1.2(+/-0.2) x 10(-17)cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) at 373 K, which was about 30 times higher than that with sulfur monochloride. The pilot tests showed that the presence of fly ash in flue gas can accelerate the removal of Hg(0) significantly. It was predicted that about 90% of Hg(0) removal efficiency can be obtained with 0.6 ppmv S(2)Br(2) and 30 g/m(3) fly ash in flue gas, and the unburned carbon in fly ash played an important role for Hg(0) removal. The fates of S(2)Br(2) and mercury in the process were evaluated, and the product analysis and leaching tests indicated that mercuric sulfide was the main product of the converted Hg(0) by the direct reaction and consequent series reactions, which is more stable and less toxic than other mercury species. Also, the surplus S(2)Br(2) in flue gas could be captured and neutralized effectively by the alkali components in fly ash or FGD liquor, and its hydrolysis products (elemental sulfur and sulfide) were also helpful to the stabilization of mercury. The result indicated that S(2)Br(2) is a promising oxidant for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation and stabilization for mercury emission control. PMID:20408537

  20. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  1. Proceedings of the seventh annual coal-fueled heat engines and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, H.A.; Rekos, N.F.; Kothari, V.P.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-03-01

    The seventh Annual Coal-Fueled Heat Engines and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting was held March 26--28, 1990, at the Lakeview Resort and Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this annual meeting is to provide an opportunity for scientists and engineers working in heat engines and gas stream cleanup technologies to present their research results, exchange ideas, and discuss their future plans. About 300 attendees from industry, academia, and Government participated in this 3-day meeting. Almost 60 papers and poster presentations were given on the following topics: proof of concept, systems assessment; advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems; gas stream cleanup, two sessions; panel discussion: turbine emissions; panel discussion: diesel emissions; panel discussion: low cost fuels; and poster presentations. Individual projects were processed separately for the data bases.

  2. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres. PMID:25079999

  3. EVALUATION OF THE DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS CLEANING WASTES IN COAL MINES AND AT SEA: REFINED ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a refined assessment of the feasibility of disposing of flue gas cleaning (FGC) wastes in coal mines and at sea. Its focus is on specific impact areas identified in an earlier assessment. These areas were further investigated through laboratory studies as well as...

  4. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Cretaceous-Tertiary Coal Beds of the Gulf Coast Region, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 4.06 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas in Cretaceous-Tertiary coal beds of the onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  5. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W. J. ,

    2003-01-01

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  6. Sensitivity of detection of fugitive methane emissions from coal seam gas fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitz, A. J.; Berko, H.; Wilson, P.; Jenkins, C.; Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that minimising methane emissions from the oil and gas sector is a key step in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions in the near term. Atmospheric monitoring techniques are likely to play an important future role in measuring the extent of existing emissions and verifying emission reductions. They can be very suitable for monitoring gas fields as they are continuous and integrate emissions from a number of potential point and diffuse sources that may vary in time. Geoscience Australia and CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research have collected three years of continuous methane and carbon dioxide measurements at their atmospheric composition monitoring station ('Arcturus') in the Bowen Basin, Australia. Methane signals in the Bowen Basin are likely to be influenced by cattle production, landfill, coal production, and conventional and coal seam gas (CSG) production. Australian CSG is typically 'dry' and is characterised by a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source with an absence of C3-C6+ alkanes. The range of δ13C isotopic signatures of the CSG is similar to methane from landfill gas and cattle emissions. The absence of standard in-situ tracers for CSG fugitive emissions suggests that having a comprehensive baseline will be critical for successful measurement of fugitive emissions using atmospheric techniques. In this paper we report on the sensitivity of atmospheric techniques for the detection of fugitive emissions from a simulated new CSG field against a three year baseline signal. Simulation of emissions was performed for a 1-year period using the coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model TAPM at different fugitive emission rates (i.e. estimates of <1% to up to 10% of production lost) and distances (i.e. 10 - 50 km) from the station. Emissions from the simulated CSG field are based on well density, production volumes, and field size typical of CSG fields in Australia. The distributions of the perturbed and

  7. Photochemical transformation of flue gas from a coal-fired power plant: a smog chamber study

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna, K.J.; Luria, M.; Meagher, J.F.

    1982-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between the formation of sulfate aerosols and other secondary products and various environmental parameters is reported. Actual flue gas is used in these experiments which were conducted in smog chambers. Smog chamber techniques and instrumentation have progressed recently and are being utilized for the purposes of this study to simulate urban smog with emphasis on the photochemistry of sulfur dioxide. The purpose for examining the oxidation process of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate aerosols is because of the implication of sulfates in health effects, visibility degradation, and acidic precipitation.

  8. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C; Yang, Y Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    For geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO2 stream separated from a CO2 control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO2 and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO2 could be included in the separated CO2 stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO2 of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO2 concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO2 stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO2 streams. In addition to SO2, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO2 streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning

  9. Capture and mineralization of carbon dioxide from coal combustion flue gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attili, Viswatej

    (Proprietary information: PCT/US/2006/49411 and WO/2007/ 081561A) Enormous amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) released by human activity (anthropogenic), may lead to climate changes that could spread diseases, ruin crops, cause intense droughts and floods, and dramatically raise the sea levels, thereby submerging the low lying coastal regions. The objective of this study was to test whether CO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gases can be directly captured and converted into carbonate and sulfate minerals respectively through the mineralization process of alkaline solid wastes. A flow-through carbonation process was designed to react flue gases directly with alkaline fly ash, under coal combustion power plant conditions. For the first time, CO2 levels in the flue gas were reduced from 13.6% to 9.7% after the reaction with alkaline fly ash in a reaction time of less than 1 minute. Using a combination of Orion RTM plus multi-gas detector, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, flue gas CO2 mineralization on fly ash particles was detected. This method can simultaneously help in separate, capture, and mineralize anthropogenic CO2 and SO2. Moreover, this process may be environmentally safe and a stable storage for anthropogenic CO2. Capturing anthropogenic CO2 using this mineralization process is an initial step towards developing more efficient methods of reducing industrial point source CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

  10. PROOF OF PRINCIPAL TEST TO FEED AND METER GRANULAR COAL INTO 450 PSIG GAS PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Derek L. Aldred

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of principal to feed and meter granular coal into 450 psig gas pressure for use with pressurized fluidized bed combustors. This report summarizes work undertaken in the first quarter of 1999 in support of that objective. Materials testers have been designed and built to assess properties relevant to performance in the Stamet pump. Testing has been carried out to evaluate these properties for materials to be pumped. A small scale pump has been modified and preliminary testing has been carried out to assess the effectiveness of the sealing and venting modifications, and the effect of outlet material sealing plug length on required HP and gas leakage. The sealing and venting modifications worked well, and measurements of gas leakage and power requirements were in line with predictions made from the measured materials properties and pump geometry. Changes to the large scale pump test rig to upgrade to the necessary 450 psig pressure rating have been defined and components ordered. The data from the materials and small scale pump testing is being used to define the necessary changes to the large scale SBIR test pump to reach the 450 psig target.

  11. Long-term testing of the zinc titanate for desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluidized-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.C.; Gupta, R.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown energy Technology Center has recently completed a long-term test consisting of 100 sulfidation-regeneration cycles on a zinc titanate material intended for use as a high-temperature, regenerable sorbent to desulfurize coal-derived gas. The primary motivation for this development is to generate a more economical, environmentally superior, and reliable process to purify the product gas of coal gasifiers for use in gas turbines and fuel cells. This zinc titanate formulation (designated as ZT-4 and containing Zn-to-Ti in a molar ratio of 1.5) exhibited the best overall performance in terms of chemical reactivity, sulfur capacity, regenerability, structural properties and, most importantly, the attrition resistance based on multicycle testing of a number of sorbent formulations in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor. The conditions in the test were -- desulfurization temperature: 750C (1382F); pressure: 1.52 MPa (220 psia); coal gas: simulated Texaco entrained-bed oxygen-blown gasifier gas containing 12,000 ppmv of H{sub 2}S; superficial gas velocity: 15 cm/s (0.49 ft/s). The ZT-4 sorbent used in this test was prepared using a granulation technique and 500 g of the sorbent in the 100 to 300 microns particle diameter range were used in a 5.1-cm (2-inch) i.d. stainless steel reactor.

  12. Environmental assessment survey of the vegetation surrounding a Lower Wilcox Group coal gas well site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This environmental assessment was conducted to examine the impacts on vegetation of the drilling and operation of a coal gas well located along Hwy 134 about 5 miles (8 km) east of Fairbanks, La. The drill site is 85 meters north of Hwy 134 and operations at the well were performed by EnerVest Operating LLC. The site (privately owned) was formerly a mixed hardwood/pine forest that was clear-cut in 1998 and planted with loblolly pine. Once completed, the well site, with its associated pipeline covered about 1,560 m2 (11.5 percent of the survey area). This survey was conducted in coordination with Peter D. Warwick, Research Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Jim York, contract geologist for EnerVest Operating, LLC.

  13. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  14. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  15. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  16. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  17. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  18. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  19. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  20. Economic considerations in coverting from oil/gas firing to coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Economic considerations involved in fuel conversion such as from oil and/or gas firing to coal are discussed including investments costs for new facilities and equipment (including air pollution control equipment), operation and maintenance costs, and purchased fuel costs. An analytical approach to assessing the cost effectiveness of fuel conversion in terms of the annual net cost of conversion, the equivalent annual number of barrels of oil saved, and the integral rate of return of the conversion investment is presented. Illustrative numerical examples are presented for typical utility boilers and industrial boiler facilities. A further consideration addressed deals with the impacts of these costs on the overall financial structure of the firm and the ability of the firm to raise the necessary investment captial.

  1. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

  2. Toxic gas phase emissions from the combustion of pulverized coal mixed with powders of waste plastics or tire crumb

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Courtemanche, B.; Atal, A.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents results on the gas phase emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative waste fuels (plastics and automobile tires). The plastics examined were poly(ethylene) and poly(styrene). All fuels were burned in powder form. Mixtures (50- 50 by weight) of the above waste fuels with coal were also burned. Results are reported on the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and CO{sub 2} emissions. For a limited number of cases results are also presented on the release of organic air toxics, in particular the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Experiments were conducted under well-controlled conditions in bench-scale laboratory facilities. Coal particles, {approx}100 {mu}m, and particles of pulverized alternative fuels, {approx}200 {mu}m, were injected and burned in an electrically-heated droptube furnace. The furnace temperature was set to 1250{degrees}C. The residence time of the gas was 1 s. Experiments spanned a range of fuel-lean ({phi} < 1), stoichiometric ({phi} = 1) and fuel-rich ({phi} > 1) conditions. Results showed that (a) the NO{sub x} emissions of tires were a few times lower than those of coal and those of plastics were even lower. Thus, blending these alterative fuels with coal drastically reduced NO{sub x} emissions.

  3. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 3 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit at Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the as found baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu and to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an SO{sub 2} limit of 1.8 lb/MBtu, the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with SO{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The system was designed to inject sorbent at a rate corresponding to a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 2.0. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

  4. Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

  5. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A base case flow sheet for the production of higher alcohols from coal derived synthesis gas has been completed, including an economic analysis. The details of the flow sheet and economics are in Appendix 1. The pay back period for the capital investment for the plant has been calculated as a function of the market price of the product, and this figure is also shown as Figure I in Appendix 1. The estimated installed cost is almost $500 MM, and the estimated annual operating cost is $64 MM. At a price in the vicinity of $1.00/gal for the alcohol product, the pay back period for construction of the plant is four years. These values should be considered preliminary, since many of the capital costs were obtained from other paper studies sponsored by DOE and TVA and very few values could be found from actual plants which were built. This issue is currently being addressed. The most expensive capital costs were found to be the gasifier, the cryogenic air separation plant, the steam/power generation plant and the acid gas/sulfur removal processes taken as a whole. It is planned to focus attention on alternatives to the base case. The problem is that it is less expensive to make syngas from natural gas. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the cost of syngas from coal. This is where the energy park concept becomes important. In order for this process to be economical (at current market and political conditions) a method must be found to reduce the cost of syngas manufacture either by producing energy or by-products. Energy is produced in the base case, but the amount and method has not been optimized. The economic arguments for this concept are detailed in Appendix 2.

  6. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  7. Influence of Combined Water in Coal on Pre-reduction of Iron Oxide with Coal Carbonization Gas in Low, Middle and High Volatile Matter Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Noriyoshi; Usui, Tateo

    Volatile matter, which occupies more than 20 mass% in non-coking coal, is not utilized when the coal is fed directly into the smelting furnace. Its presence may even cause adverse effects in the operation. Therefore, the fundamental study on pre-reduction of iron oxide was carried out in order to investigate the conditions for efficient use of volatile matter in an iron bath smelting reduction total process. The final fractional reduction, F, was calculated from the loss in weight of pellets after reduction. Presence of combined water in coal affected F and caused a decrease in F at higher temperatures. However, when the combined water was removed from coal, F increased. In each coal, when the combined water was removed from volatile matter, F increased linearly from about 0.08 to 0.20 at the reduction temperatures from 773K up to 1073 K, beyond which F increased more than the linear relation, such as F about 0.30 at 1173 K and 0.40 at 1273 K. This may be due to caused by the contribution of hydrocarbons in the reduction reaction at high temperatures.

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  10. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  11. Low NO subx heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Coal gas addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T.; Sederquist, R.

    1982-01-01

    The performance and emissions from a rich-lean combustor fired on simulated coal gas fuels were investigated using a 12.7-cm diameter axially-staged burner originally designed for operation with high heating value liquid fuels. A simple, tubular fuel injector was substituted for the liquid fuel nozzle; no other combustor modifications were made. Four test fuels were studied including three chemically bound nitrogen-free gas mixtures with higher heating values of 88, 227, and 308 kj/mol (103, 258 and 349 Btu/scf), and a 227 kj/mol (258 Btu/scf) heating value doped with ammonia to produce a fuel nitrogen content of 0.5% (wt). Stable, ultra-low nitrogen oxide, smoke-free combustion was attained for the nitrogen-free fuels. Results with the doped fuel indicated that less than 5% conversion of NH3 to nitrogen oxide levels below Environmental Protection Agency limits could be achieved. In some instances, excessive CO levels were encountered. It is shown that use of a burner design employing a less fuel-rich primary zone than that found optimum for liquid fuels would yield more acceptable CO emissions.

  12. The study of electron beam flue gas treatment for coal-fired thermal plant in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Aoki, Shinji; Suzuki, Ryoji

    1993-10-01

    The fundamental research work with simulated coal-fired flue gas was performed in JAERI to get basic data for electron beam treatment of flue gas from thermal power plants in Japan. The standard condition of the experiments was set to be the same as that of next large scale pilot test in Nagoya. The concentrations of NO x and SO x were 225 ppm and 800 ppm, respectively. The temperature of the system was 65°C. The effect of multiple irradiation was observed for NO x removal. The target SO x and NO x removals (94% and 80%, respectively) with low NH 3 leakage (less than 10 ppm) were achieved at 9 kGy irradiation with 0.9 NH 3 stoichiometry during 7 hours continuous operation. The facility for the pilot plant (12,000 Nm 3/hr) has just built at the site of Shin-Nagoya power plant of Chubu Electric Power Company and will be started in full operation in November 1992.

  13. Clean coal technology III 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Final public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report provides the nonproprietary design information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA)`` Demonstration Project at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emission Research (CER). The 10 MW Demonstration of GSA program is designed to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating the flue gas from a boiler burning high sulfur coal. This project involves design, manufacturing, construction and testing of a retrofitted GSA system. This report presents a nonproprietary description of the technology and overall process performance requirements, plant location and plant facilities. The process, mechanical, structural and electrical design of the GSA system as well as project cost information are included. It also includes a description the modification or alterations made during the course of construction and start-up. Plant start-up provisions, environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety considerations are also addressed for the process. This report, initially drafted in 1993, covers design information available prior to startup of the demonstration project. It does not reflect the results obtained in that project, which is now complete.

  14. Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, A.; Ortiz, J.; Longoria, L.C.

    2004-10-06

    In the case of new nuclear power stations, it is necessary to pay special attention to the financial strategy that will be applied, time of construction, investment cost, and the discount and return rate. The levelized cost quantifies the unitary cost of the electricity (the kWh) generated during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant; and allows the immediate comparison with the cost of other alternative technologies. The present paper shows levelized cost for different nuclear technologies and it provides comparison among them as well as with gas and coal electricity plants. For the calculations we applied our own methodology to evaluate the levelized cost considering investment, fuel and operation and maintenance costs, making assumptions for the Mexican market, and taking into account the gas prices projections. The study also shows comparisons using different discount rates (5% and 10%), and some comparisons between our results and an OECD 1998 study. The results are i n good agreement and shows that nuclear option is cost competitive in Mexico on the basis of levelized costs.

  15. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  16. Coal pump development phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Sankur, V. D.; Gerbracht, F. G.; Mahajan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for achieving continuous coal sprays were studied. Coazial injection with gas and pressure atomization were studied. Coal particles, upon cooling, were found to be porous and fragile. Reactivity tests on the extruded coal showed overall conversion to gases and liquids unchanged from that of the raw coal. The potentials for applications of the coal pump to eight coal conversion processes were examined.

  17. BioCoComb -- Gasification of biomass and co-combustion of the gas in a pulverized-coal-boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, H.; Zotter, T.; Mory, A.

    1999-07-01

    In a demonstration project supported by an European Community Thermie Fund a biomass gasifier for bark, wood chips, saw dust, etc. has been installed by Austrian Energy and Environment at the 137 MW{sub el} pulverized-coal fired power station in Zeltweg, Austria. The project title BioCoComb is an abbreviation for Preparation of Biofuel for Co-Combustion, where co-combustion means combustion together with coal in existing power plants. According to the thermal capacity of 10 MW the produced gas substitutes approx. 3% of the coal fired in the boiler. Only the coarse fraction of the biomass has to pass a shredder and is then fed together with the fine fraction without any further pretreatment into the gasifier. In the gasification process the biomass will combust in a substoichiometric atmosphere, create the necessary temperature of 820 C and partly gasify due to the lack of oxygen in the combustion chamber (autothermal operation). The gasifier uses circulating fluidized bed technology, which guarantees even relatively low temperatures in all parts of the gasifier to prevent slagging. The intense motion of the bed material also favors attrition of the biomass particles. Via a hot gas duct the produced low calorific value (LCV) gas is directly led into the furnace of the existing pulverized coal fired boiler for combustion. The gas also contains fine wood char particles, that can pass the retention cyclone and burn out in the furnace of the coal boiler. The main advantages of the BioCoComb concept are: low gas quality sufficient for co-firing; no gas cleaning or cooling; no predrying of the biomass; relatively low temperatures in the gasifier to prevent slagging; favorable effects on power plant emissions (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}); no severe modifications of the existing coal fired boiler; and high flexibility in arranging and integrating the main components into existing plants. The plant started its trial run in November 1997 and has been in successful commercial

  18. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  19. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Modeling high-pressure adsorption of gas mixtures on activated carbon and coal using a simplified local-density model

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.E.; Robinson, R.L.; Gasem, K.A.M.

    2006-11-07

    The simplified local-density (SLD) theory was investigated regarding its ability to provide accurate representations and predictions of high-pressure supercritical adsorption isotherms encountered in coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration. Attention was focused on the ability of the SLD theory to predict mixed-gas adsorption solely on the basis of information from pure gas isotherms using a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). An extensive set of high-pressure adsorption measurements was used in this evaluation. These measurements included pure and binary mixture adsorption measurements for several gas compositions up to 14 MPa for Calgon F-400 activated carbon and three water-moistened coals. Also included were ternary measurements for the activated carbon and one coal. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on dry activated carbon, the SLD-PR can predict the component mixture adsorption within about 2.2 times the experimental uncertainty on average solely on the basis of pure-component adsorption isotherms. For the adsorption of methane, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} on two of the three wet coals, the SLD-PR model can predict the component adsorption within the experimental uncertainties on average for all feed fractions (nominally molar compositions of 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, and 80/20) of the three binary gas mixture combinations, although predictions for some specific feed fractions are outside of their experimental uncertainties.

  1. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-06-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears to be a strong contender to zincbased sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Also manganese chlorides are much less stable and volatile than zinc chlorides. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Seventh Quarterly Report documents progress in bench-scale testing of a leading manganese-based sorbent pellets (FORM4-A). This formulation is a high-purity manganese carbonate-based material. This formulation was subjected to 20 consecutive cycles of sulfidation and regeneration at 900{degrees}C in a 2-inch fixed bed reactor. The sulfidation gas was a simulated Tampella U-gas with an increased hydrogen sulfide content of 3% by volume to accelerate the rate of breakthrough, arbitrarily taken as 500 ppmv. Consistent with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) on individual pellets, the fixed bed tests show small improvement in capacity and kinetics with the sulfur-loading capacity being about 22% by weight of the original pellet, which corresponds to approximately 90% bed utilization!

  2. Systems Study for Improving Gas Turbine Performance for Coal/IGCC Application

    SciTech Connect

    Ashok K. Anand

    2005-12-16

    IGCC plant level parameters (IGCC Net Efficiency, IGCC Net Output, GT Output, NOx Emissions) of 11 GT identified cycle parameters were determined. Results indicate that IGCC net efficiency HHV gains up to 2.8 pts (40.5% to 43.3%) and IGCC net output gains up to 35% are possible due to improvements in GT technology alone with single digit NOx emission levels. Task 5.0--Recommendations for GT Technical Improvements: A trade off analysis was conducted utilizing the performance results of 18 gas turbine (GT) conceptual designs, and three most promising GT candidates are recommended. A roadmap for turbine technology development is proposed for future coal based IGCC power plants. Task 6.0--Determine Carbon Capture Impact on IGCC Plant Level Performance: A gas turbine performance model for high Hydrogen fuel gas turbine was created and integrated to an IGCC system performance model, which also included newly created models for moisturized syngas, gas shift and CO2 removal subsystems. This performance model was analyzed for two gas turbine technology based subsystems each with two Carbon removal design options of 85% and 88% respectively. The results show larger IGCC performance penalty for gas turbine designs with higher firing temperature and higher Carbon removal.

  3. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  4. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian open-cut coal mines: contribution from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation.

    PubMed

    Day, Stuart J; Carras, John N; Fry, Robyn; Williams, David J

    2010-07-01

    Spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation of waste coal and other carbonaceous material at open-cut coal mines are potentially significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the magnitude of these emissions is largely unknown. In this study, emissions from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation were estimated for six Australian open-cut coal mines with annual coal production ranging from 1.7 to more than 16 Mt. Greenhouse emissions from all other sources at these mines were also estimated and compared to those from spontaneous combustion and low-temperature oxidation. In all cases, fugitive emission of methane was the largest source of greenhouse gas; however, in some mines, spontaneous combustion accounted for almost a third of all emissions. For one mine, it was estimated that emissions from spontaneous combustion were around 250,000 t CO(2)-e per annum. The contribution from low-temperature oxidation was generally less than about 1% of the total for all six mines. Estimating areas of spoil affected by spontaneous combustion by ground-based surveys was prone to under-report the area. Airborne infrared imaging appears to be a more reliable method. PMID:19572109

  6. Determination of flue gas alkali concentrations in fluidized-bed coal combustion by excimer-laser-induced fragmentation fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Hartinger, K.T.; Monkhouse, P.B.; Wolfrum, J.; Baumann, H.; Bonn, B.

    1994-12-31

    Gas-phase sodium concentrations were measured for the first time in situ in the flue gas of a fluidized-bed reactor by the excimer-laser-induced fragmentation fluorescence (ELIF) technique. This method involves using ArF-excimer laser light at 193 nm to simultaneously photodissociate the alkali compounds of interest and excite electronically the alkali atoms formed. The resulting fluorescence from Na (3{sup 2}P) atoms can he readily detected at 589 nm. Measured signals were converted to absolute concentrations using a calibration system that monitors alkali compounds under known conditions of temperature, pressure, and composition and rising the same optical setup as at the reactor. Several different coals were investigated under a specific set of reactor conditions at total pressures close to 1 bar. Sodium concentrations ranging from the sub-ppb region to 20 ppb were obtained, and a detection limit for sodium of 0.1 ppb under the present conditions was estimated. Over the course of the reactor program, contrasting concentration histories were observed for the two lignites and the hard coal investigated. In particular, significantly higher sodium concentrations were found for the hard coal, consistent with both the higher chlorine and sodium contents determined in the corresponding coal analysis.

  7. Competitiveness of small power plants using ambient pressure, air-blown gasifiers. Final report. [Seven 50 MW designs using fuel gas, fuel oil, natural gas and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boulay, R.B.; Chen, H.T.; Harvey, L.E.; Losovsky, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Small power plants have become more attractive to utilities recently for a variety of reasons, including the desire to minimize new plant investment and to tailor increases in generation base to smaller annual load growths. The study presented herein is an analysis and comparison of seven different 50 MW commercially available power plants designs, including four utilizing ambient pressure, air-blown, fixed-bed coal gasifiers for fuel supply. Plant designs, capital costs, and busbar electricity costs for each plant are presented. The results of the study indicate that nominal 50 MW coal gasification based power plants, when using commercially available, ambient pressure, air-blown, fixed-bed gasifiers, are not competitive with conventional coal-fired steam plants or combined cycle plants fueled with fuel oil or natural gas. Capital costs, heat rates, and operating costs are higher for the coal gasification based plants. This leads to costs-of-electricity for gasification based plants that range from 18 to 59% higher than costs of electricity produced in conventional plants. The two major influences leading to high costs of the gasification based plants are the small size of a gasification train (about 5 MW) and the need to compress the ambient pressure gas to required combustion pressure. 47 figs., 89 tabs.

  8. Interaction of coal-derived synthesis gas impurities with solid oxide fuel cell metallic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Cramer, Carolyn N.

    Oxidation-resistant alloys find use as interconnect materials, heat exchangers, and gas supply tubing in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, especially when operated at temperatures below ∼800 °C. If fueled with synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass, such metallic components could be exposed to impurities contained in those fuel sources. In this study, coupons of ferritic stainless steels Crofer 22 APU and SS 441, austenitic nickel-chromium superalloy Inconel 600, and an alumina-forming high nickel alloy alumel were exposed to synthesis gas containing ≤2 ppm phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, and reaction products were tested. Crofer 22 APU coupons coated with a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 protective layer were also evaluated. Phosphorus was found to be the most reactive. On Crofer 22 APU, the (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 passivation layer reacted to form an Mn-P-O product, predicted to be manganese phosphate from thermochemical calculations, and Cr 2O 3. On SS 441, reaction of phosphorus with (Mn,Cr) 3O 4 led to the formation of manganese phosphate as well as an Fe-P product, predicted from thermochemical calculations to be Fe 3P. Minimal interactions with antimony or arsenic in synthesis gas were limited to Fe-Sb and Fe-As solid solution formation. Though not intended for use on the anode side, a (Mn,Co) 3O 4 spinel coating on Crofer 22 APU reacted with phosphorus in synthesis gas to produce products consistent with Mn 3(PO 4) 2 and Co 2P. A thin Cr 2O 3 passivation layer on Inconel 600 did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides and arsenides and of iron phosphides and arsenides, though no reaction with Cr 2O 3 was apparent. On alumel, an Al 2O 3 passivation layer rich in Ni did not prevent the formation of nickel phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, though no reaction with Al 2O 3 occurred. This work shows that unprotected metallic components of an SOFC stack and system can provide a sink for P, As and Sb impurities that may be present in fuel gases, and thus complicate

  9. Measurement of ultrafine particle size distributions from coal-, oil-, and gas-fired stationary combustion sources.

    PubMed

    Chang, M C Oliver; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Hopke, Philip K; Yi, Seung-Muk; England, Glenn C

    2004-12-01

    Currently, we have limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of emitted primary combustion aerosols and the changes in those properties caused by nucleation, condensation growth of volatile species, and particle coagulations under dilution and cooling in the ambient air. A dilution chamber was deployed to sample exhaust from a pilot-scale furnace burning various fuels at a nominal heat input rate of 160 kW/h(-1) and 3% excess oxygen. The formation mechanisms of particles smaller than 420 nm in electrical mobility diameter were experimentally investigated by measurement with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) as a function of aging times, dilution air ratios, combustion exhaust temperatures, and fuel types. Particle formation in the dilution process is a complex mixture of nucleation, coagulation, and condensational growth, depending on the concentrations of available condensable species and solid or liquid particles (such as soot, ash) in combustion exhausts. The measured particle size distributions in number concentrations measured show peaks of particle number concentrations for medium sulfur bituminous coal, No. 6 fuel oil, and natural gas at 40-50 nm, 70-100 nm, and 15-25 nm, respectively. For No. 6 fuel oil and coal, the particle number concentration is constant in the range of a dilution air ratio of 50, but the number decreases as the dilution air ratio decreases to 10. However, for natural gas, the particle number concentration is higher at a dilution air ratio of 10 and decreases at dilution air ratios of 20-50. At a dilution air ratio of 10, severe particle coagulation occurs in a relatively short time. Samples taken at different combustion exhaust temperatures for these fuel types show higher particle number concentrations at 645 K than at 450 K. As the aging time of particles increases, the particles increase in size and the number concentrations decrease. The largest gradient of particle number distribution occurs within the

  10. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  11. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  12. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  13. Characteristics of Pyrolytic Topping in Fluidized Bed for Different Volatile Coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, R.; Dong, L.; Xu, G. W.

    Coal is generally combusted or gasified directly to destroy completely the chemical structures, such as aromatic rings containing in volatile coals including bituminite and lignite. Coal topping refers to a process that extracts chemicals with aromatic rings from such volatile coals in advance of combustion or gasification and thereby takes advantage of the value of coal as a kind of chemical structure resource. CFB boiler is the coal utilization facility that can be easily retrofitted to implement coal topping. A critical issue for performing coal topping is the choice of the pyrolytic reactor that can be different types. The present study concerns fluidized bed reactor that has rarely been tested for use in coal topping. Two different types of coals, one being Xiaolongtan (XLT) lignite and the other Shanxi (SX) bituminous, were tested to clarify the yield and composition of pyrolysis liquid and gas under conditions simulating actual operations. The results showed that XLT lignite coals had the maximum tar yield in 823-873K and SX bituminite realized its highest tar yield in 873-923K. Overall, lignite produced lower tar yield than bituminous coal. The pyrolysis gas from lignite coals contained more CO and CO2 and less CH4, H2 and C2+C3 (C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8) components comparing to that from bituminous coal. TG-FTIR analysis of tars demonstrated that for different coals there are different amounts of typical chemical species. Using coal ash of CFB boiler, instead of quartz sand, as the fluidized particles decreased the yields of both tar and gas for all the tested coals. Besides, pyrolysis in a reaction atmosphere simulating the pyrolysis gas (instead of N2) resulted also in higher production of pyrolysis liquid.

  14. Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, September 1987--January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.

    1991-05-01

    The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

  15. Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

    2010-09-30

    One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to < 35% for new coal-based power plants which include CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration addresses both the growing social concern for global climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gas and in particular CO{sub 2} and the need to control cost increases to power production necessary to meet this social objective. Similar improvements to technologies for trace contaminants are getting similar pressure to reduce environmental emissions and reduce production costs for the syngas to enable production of chemicals from coal that is cost competitive with oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this

  16. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from < 1 to 100 μg/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound class for most CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 μg/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after

  17. Obtaining of gas, liquid, and upgraded solid fuel from brown coals in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, A. A.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Dubov, D. Yu.; Shishkin, A. V.; Sokol, M. Ya.

    2013-12-01

    Two new conversion methods of brown coals in water steam and supercritical water (SCW) are proposed and investigated. In the first method, water steam or SCW is supplied periodically into the array of coal particles and then is ejected from the reactor along with dissolved conversion products. The second method includes the continuous supply of water-coal suspension (WCS) into the vertically arranged reactor from above. When using the proposed methods, agglomeration of coal particles is excluded and a high degree of conversion of coal into liquid and gaseous products is provided. Due to the removal of the main mass of oxygen during conversion in the composition of CO2, the high heating value of fuels obtained from liquid substantially exceeds this characteristic of starting coal. More than half of the sulfur atoms transfer into H2S during the SCW conversion already at a temperature lower than 450°C.

  18. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  19. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2005-08-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power, and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  20. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

  1. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, ``Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.`` This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft{sup 2} cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  2. Simulated Coal-Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This final report summarizes the technical work performed under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-91MC27393, Simulated Coal- Gas-Fueled Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Development Program.'' This work consists of five major tasks and their respective subtasks as listed below. A brief description of each task is also provided. The Stack Design Requirements task focused on requirements and specification for designing, constructing, and testing a nominal 100-kilowatt integrated stack and on requirements for the balance-of-plant equipment to support a 1000-kilowatt integrated stack demonstrator. The Stack Design Preparation task focused on the mechanical design of a 100-kilowatt stack comprised of 8-ft[sup 2] cells incorporating the new cell configuration and component technology improvements developed in the previous DOE MCFC contract. Electrode Casting focused on developing a faster drying solvent for use in the electrode tape casting process. Electrode Heat Treatment was directed at scaling up the laboratory continuous debinding process to a new full-size IFC debinding oven coupled to a continuous belt furnace that will both debind and sinter the electrodes in one continuous process train. Repeat Part Quality Assurance and Testing provided the appropriate effort to ensure consistent, high-quality, reproducible and comparable repeat parts.

  3. Red soil as a regenerable sorbent for high temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tzu-Hsing; Chu, Hsin; Lin, Hsiao-Ping; Peng, Ching-Yu

    2006-08-25

    In this study, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was removed from coal gas by red soil under high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor. Red soil powders were collected from the northern, center and southern of Taiwan. They were characterized by XRPD, porosity analysis and DCB chemical analysis. Results show that the greater sulfur content of LP red soils is attributed to the higher free iron oxides and suitable sulfidation temperature is around 773K. High temperature has a negative effect for use red soil as a desulfurization sorbent due to thermodynamic limitation in a reduction atmosphere. During 10 cycles of regeneration, after the first cycle the red soil remained stable with a breakthrough time between 31 and 36 min. Hydrogen adversely affects sulfidation reaction, whereas CO exhibits a positive effect due to a water-shift reaction. COS was formed during the sulfidation stage and this was attributed to the reaction of H(2)S and CO. Results of XRPD indicated that, hematite is the dominant active species in fresh red soil and iron sulfide (FeS) is a product of the reaction between hematite and hydrogen sulfide in red soils. The spinel phase FeAl(2)O(4) was found during regeneration, moreover, the amount of free iron oxides decreased after regeneration indicating the some of the free iron oxide formed a spinel phase, further reducting the overall desulfurization efficiency. PMID:16469434

  4. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours. PMID:22841594

  5. Synthesis of functional xLayMn/KIT-6 and features in hot coal gas desulphurization.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hong; Zhang, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhaofei; Liu, Bingsi

    2015-08-28

    To enhance the stability of sorbents during continuous desulphurization-regeneration cycles, KIT-6 with 3D pore channels was used as a support for the sorbents. A series of mesoporous xLayMn/KIT-6 sorbents with different La/Mn atomic ratios were fabricated using a sol-gel method and their desulphurization properties of hot coal gas were investigated at 700-850 °C. 3La97Mn/KIT-6 performed the best at 800 °C with a breakthrough sulphur capacity of 11.56 g sulphur per 100 g sorbent. The eight successive desulphurization (800 °C)-regeneration (600 °C) cycles revealed that 3La97Mn/KIT-6 with endurable regeneration abilities could retain 80% of the initial sulphur capacity. It indicated a better desulphurization performance compared to pure 3La97Mn and 3La97Mn/MCM-41. The fresh and used xLayMn/KIT-6 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, HRTEM, XPS and H2-TPR techniques. The XRD patterns and HRTEM images of fresh and used 3La97Mn/KIT-6 verified that the utilization of KIT-6 effectively suppressed the aggregation of Mn2O3 particles and improved the stability of the sorbent. PMID:26204251

  6. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, June--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of work being performed on hot coal gas desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears to be a strong contender to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc; hence, it is not as likely to undergo zinc-depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron; hence, the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Also manganese chlorides are much less stable and volatile than zinc chlorides. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Eighth Quarterly Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  7. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate

  8. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  9. Method for Detection of Trace Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Coal-Generated Fuel Gas Using Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J.; Stanko, Dennis C.

    2010-07-15

    There exists an increasing need to develop a reliable method to detect trace contaminants in fuel gas derived from coal gasification. While Hg is subject to current and future regulations, As, Se, and P emissions may eventually be regulated. Sorbents are the most promising technology for the removal of contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas, and it will be important to develop a rapid analytical detection method to ensure complete removal and determine the ideal time for sorbent replacement/regeneration in order to reduce costs. This technical note explores the use of a commercial gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry system for the detection of four gaseous trace contaminants in a simulated fuel gas. Quantitative, repeatable detection with limits at ppbv to ppmv levels were obtained for arsine (AsH3), phosphine (PH3), and hydrogen selenide (H2Se), while qualitative detection was observed for mercury. Decreased accuracy and response caused by the primary components of fuel gas were observed.

  10. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.

    1993-07-16

    The overall objective of the project is to develop two stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, B .methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: Development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syn gas; optimization of process conditions for fermentation of syn gas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syn gas; and optimization of process conditions for reducing carbon and electron loss by H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} fermentation.

  11. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  13. Hydrogen from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Hydrogen production from coal by hydrogasification is described. The process involves the solubilization of coal to form coal liquids, which are hydrogasified to produce synthetic pipeline gas; steam reforming this synthetic gas by a nuclear heat source produces hydrogen. A description is given of the hydrogen plant, its performance, and its effect on the environment.

  14. Experimental investigation of mobile small-scale liquefier for 10000 NM3/D of coal bed methane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaohu; Wu, J. F.; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Ping

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing recognition that unconventional sources of gas, such as shale gas, coal bed methane (CBM) and deep tight gas will contribute a significant component of future gas supplies as technologies evolve. In recent years, the interest in such source of gas utilization technologies based on small-scale LNG production has been rising steeply. In this paper, a mobile liquefier prototype for 10000 Nm3/d of CBM has been designed, constructed and tested. It has two cascade refrigeration systems. The high-temperature refrigeration system will pre-cool the resource gas to 5oC, and the low-temperature refrigeration system will continue to cool the resource gas to the liquefied point with a Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (MRC). The kernel compressor is a conventional oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressor with the discharge pressure of 2.0 MPa. The main heat exchanger is plate-fin heat exchanger with four passages. A series of experiments have been done on the prototype liquefier at different resource gas pressures and environmental temperatures. It is less than one hour from the start of the equipment to the existence of LNG. The maximum production of LNG is about 20 m3/d when a stream of about 12500 Nm3/d of pure CBM at a process pressure of 1.3 MPa is liquefied. The energy consumption of liquefying 1 Nm3 methane is 0.612 kWh.

  15. High temperature gas cleaning using honeycomb barrier filter on a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Raskin, N.

    1996-12-31

    An efficient particulate hot gas cleaning equipment is a must for the successful commercialization of high efficiency pressurized coal-fired energy conversion systems. Many types of ceramic barrier filter systems are under development during the past decade. Significant progress has been made on the mechanical packaging of ceramic materials at high temperature (up to 900 C) environment. However, there is still considerable difficulty in operating the candle type filters at temperatures close to 900 C. CeraFilter Systems, Inc., and CeraMem Corporation are developing a new type of monolith honeycomb filters for high temperature and high pressure applications. The honeycomb filters have been tested downstream of a coal-fired atmospheric circulating fluidized bed combustor. Coal was fired with limestone as the SO{sub 2} control sorbent. Two test runs were conducted, each at 870 C and at a filtration velocity of 2.2--2.3 cm/s. The testing included both high speed and conventional data acquisition to monitor effects of the cleaning pulses and long term pressure drop characteristics. Dust loadings were measured before and after the filter by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) of Grand Forks, North Dakota. The dust capture efficiency of the Filter was very high and could easily meet the strict particulate emission level requirements and the allowable dust loading into a gas turbine stream.

  16. Peculiarities of distribution of gas-dynamic manifestations in mines of the Kuznetsk coal basin by days of the weekly cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oparin, V.N.; Ludzish, V.S.; Kulakov, G.I.; Rudakov, V.A.

    2005-04-01

    The peculiarities of the origin of gas-dynamic events (rock, coal, and gas outbursts, methane ignition) in the Kuznetsk Basin mines in 1988 - 2004 are analyzed. A review is presented for information on recent accident and injury rate caused by disastrous gas-dynamic manifestations. The effect of bimodal frequency distribution of gas-dynamic events generated by explosion and burning of methane is revealed within a generalized weekly cycle.

  17. Impact of Contaminants Present in Coal-Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas on Water-gas Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-02-15

    Co-gasification of biomass and coal in large-scale, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants increases the efficiency and reduces the environmental impact of making synthesis gas ("syngas") that can be used in Coal-Biomass-to-Liquids (CBTL) processes for producing transportation fuels. However, the water-gas shift (WGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts used in these processes may be poisoned by multiple contaminants found in coal-biomass derived syngas; sulfur species, trace toxic metals, halides, nitrogen species, the vapors of alkali metals and their salts (e.g., KCl and NaCl), ammonia, and phosphorous. Thus, it is essential to develop a fundamental understanding of poisoning/inhibition mechanisms before investing in the development of any costly mitigation technologies. We therefore investigated the impact of potential contaminants (H2S, NH3, HCN, AsH3, PH3, HCl, NaCl, KCl, AS3, NH4NO3, NH4OH, KNO3, HBr, HF, and HNO3) on the performance and lifetime of commercially available and generic (prepared in-house) WGS and FT catalysts.

  18. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  19. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  20. Trace element chemistry of coal bed natural gas produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Jackson; K.J. Reddy

    2007-09-15

    Coal bed natural gas (CBNG) produced water is usually disposed into nearby constructed disposal ponds. Geochemistry of produced water, particularly trace elements interacting with a semiarid environment, is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to collect produced water samples at outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds and monitor pH, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), boron (B), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), and barium (Ba). Outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds were sampled from five different watersheds including Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), Little Powder River (LPR), Powder River (PR), and Tongue River (TR) within the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming from 2003 to 2005. Paired tests were conducted between CBNG outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds for each watershed. Results suggest that produced water from CBNG outfalls is chemically different from the produced water from corresponding disposal ponds. Most trace metal concentrations in the produced water increased from outfall to disposal pond except for Ba. In disposal ponds, Ba, As, and B concentrations increased from 2003 to 2005. Geochemical modeling predicted precipitation and dissolution reactions as controlling processes for Al, Cu, and Ba concentrations in CBNG produced water. Adsorption and desorption reactions appear to control As, Mo, and B concentrations in CBNG water in disposal ponds. Overall, results of this study will be important to determine beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation, livestock/wildlife water, and aquatic life) for CBNG produced water in the PRB, Wyoming. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Laser-absorption sensing of gas composition of products from coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Jay B.; Sur, Ritobrata; Sun, Kai; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2014-06-01

    A prototype in-situ laser-absorption sensor for the real-time composition measurement (CO, CH4, H2O and CO2) of synthesis gas products of coal gasification (called here syngas) was designed, tested in the laboratory, and demonstrated during field-measurement campaigns in a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier at the University of Utah and in an engineering-scale, fluidized-bed transport gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The prototype design and operation were improved by the lessons learned from each field test. Laser-absorption measurements are problematic in syngas flows because efficient gasifiers operate at elevated pressures (10-50 atm) where absorption transitions are collision broadened and absorption transitions that are isolated at 1 atm become blended into complex features, and because syngas product streams can contain significant particulate, producing significant non-absorption scattering losses of the transmission of laser light. Thus, the prototype sensor used a new wavelength-scanned, wavelength-modulation spectroscopy strategy with 2f-detection and 1f-normalization (WMS-2f/1f) that can provide sensitive absorption measurements of species with spectra blended by collision broadening even in the presence of large non-absorption laser transmission losses (e.g., particulate scattering, beam steering, etc.). The design of the sensor for detection of CO, CH4, H2O and CO2 was optimized for the specific application of syngas monitoring at the output of large-scale gasifiers. Sensor strategies, results and lessons learned from these field measurement campaigns are discussed.

  2. Central Arkansas Energy Project: coal to medium-Btu gas. Volume 1. Feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The gasification plant will be located adjacent to AP and L's existing White Bluff Steam Electric Station near Redfield, Arkansas. A comprehensive 14-month study was performed to investigate the project feasibility. The study included preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system descriptions, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities were determined. Detailed design and construction schedules and manpower loadings were developed. Site characteristics and site suitability as well as an evaluation of the environmental safety, health and socioeconomic issues were performed. The results of these evaluations indicate that the gasification plant and pipeline are licensable and will have a minimal effect on the environment. An overall schedule for construction of the gasification plant was developed which indicated a 76 month requirement for design engineering and construction, including a 10 month start-up period. The estimated 1981 dollar project capital cost is $964 million. The escalated 1988 project capital cost is $1.370 billion. Financial analyses have indicated the plant would provide a 25% after-tax return on investment, based upon a 1988 MBG price of $11.02 MM Btu.

  3. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  4. Silica membranes for hydrogen separation in coal gas processing. Final report, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gavalas, G.R.

    1993-03-01

    The general objective of this project was to synthesize permselective membranes suitable for hydrogen separation from coal gas. The specific objectives were: (i) to synthesize membranes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of SiO{sub 2} or other oxides on porous support tubes, (ii) characterize the membranes by permeation measurements of various gases and by electron microscopy, and (iii) obtain information about the mechanism and kinetics Of SiO{sub 2} deposition, and model the process of membrane formation. Silica glass and certain other glasses, in dense (nonporous) form, are highly selective to hydrogen permeation. Since this high selectivity is accompanied by low permeability, however, a practical membrane must have a composite structure consisting of a thin layer of the active oxide supported on a porous tube or plate providing mechanical support. In this project the membranes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers inside the walls of porous Vycor tubes (5 mm ID, 7 mm OD, 40 {Angstrom} mean pore diameter). Deposition of the oxide layer was carried out using the reaction of SiCl{sub 4} (or TiCl{sub 4}, AlCl{sub 3}, BCl{sub 3}) and water vapor at elevated temperatures. The porous support tube was inserted concentrically into a larger quartz tube and fitted with flow lines and pressure gauges. The flow of the two reactant streams was regulated by mass flow controllers, while the temperature was controlled by placing the reactor into a split-tube electric furnace.

  5. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  6. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese based sorbents. Quarterly report, August 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-10-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermogravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. Preliminary results indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  7. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt% ore + 25 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Fifth Quarterly Report documents progress in pellet testing via thermogravimetric analysis of pellet formulation FORM4-A of a manganese ore/alumina combination. This formulation, described more fully in the Quarterly Technical Progress Report of October 15, 1993, consists of manganese carbonate combined with alundum. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration; however, a minor problem has arisen during the regeneration cycle in that sulfur tends to form and plug the exit tube during the early stage of regeneration. This problem is about to be overcome by increasing the flow rate of air during the regeneration cycle resulting in more oxidizing conditions and hence less tendency for sulfide sulfur (S{sup =}) to oxidize to the intermediate elemental form (S{sup o}) rather than to 4-valent (S{sup +4}).

  8. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  9. Effect of experimental conditions on gas quality and solids produced by sewage sludge cogasification. 1. Sewage sludge mixed with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Rui Neto Andre; Mario Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

    2007-09-15

    Cogasification of sewage sludge mixed with coal showed that the amount of sewage sludge supplied to the gasifier, depending on its availability, could vary without affecting the gasifier performance; however, it had an influence on the syngas composition. The use of sewage sludge during coal gasification gave rise to an increasing gas yield and energy conversion, mainly because the gas produced had a greater hydrocarbon content. H{sub 2}S, HCl, and especially NH{sub 3} were also found to increase, due to higher contents of nitrogen in the sewage sludge compared with coal. The rise of both the temperature and the air flow rate resulted in the production of more gas and a lowering of hydrocarbon, char, and tar contents. A decrease in NH{sub 3} content was also observed, as the increase of these parameters promoted the destruction of this compound. The rise in the equivalent ratio also led to lower contents of H{sub 2}S and HCl, probably due to the partial oxidation of these compounds; however, the total amount of these elements released to the gas phase was not considerably affected. On the other hand, H{sub 2}S formation was favored by the rise in temperature up to 850{sup o}C, while the HCl concentration was not significantly affected. Heavy metals supplied with the fuel were mostly retained in solid residues, with Pb and Hg being the most volatile at 850{sup o}C. However, the leachability of these metals was found to be below the analytical detection levels, and only small quantities of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} were released. 28 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

  11. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  12. Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ∼390 ppm at the control site to ∼467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ∼3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  13. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linwei; Lucas, Donald; Fischer, Susan L; Lee, S C; Hammond, S Katharine; Koshland, Catherine P

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO2, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higherfor bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. PMID:18504988

  14. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Eighth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-28

    This report describes progress on three fronts of the project. First in studies to elucidate optimal growing conditions for the consortia of coal degraders employed indicates that best growth occurs with 0. 2% w/v Shefton T. Secondly in comparing the biodegradative properties of the coal degraders, isolates identified as Mic-1 and Mic-4 were the best performers. And lastly bioreactors studies in batch mode are related.

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Nineth quarterly report, [July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    Laboratory scale studies examining biogasification of Texas lignite at various coal solids loadings have been completed. Bench scale bioreactors are currently being used to scale up the biogasification process to higher coal solids loadings (5% and 10%) Specific observations reported this quarter are that methane production was not curtailed when B-vitamin solution was not added to the biogasification medium and that aeration of Mic-1 did not sufficiently oxidize the medium to eliminate strict anaerobic bacteria including methanogens.

  17. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  18. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    PubMed Central

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  19. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-11-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity.

  20. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium.

    PubMed

    Iverach, Charlotte P; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E; France, James L; Nisbet, Euan G; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F J

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ(13)C-CH4), groundwater tritium ((3)H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ(13)C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and (3)H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  1. A predictive mechanism for mercury oxidation on selective catalytic reduction catalysts under coal-derived flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara

    2005-12-15

    This paper introduces a predictive mechanism for elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts in coal-fired utility gas cleaning systems, given the ammonia (NH{sub 3})/nitric oxide (NO) ratio and concentrations of Hg{sup 0} and HCl at the monolith inlet, the monolith pitch and channel shape, and the SCR temperature and space velocity. A simple premise connects the established mechanism for catalytic NO reduction to the Hg{sup 0} oxidation behavior on SCRs: that hydrochloric acid (HCl) competes for surface sites with NH{sub 3} and that Hg{sup 0} contacts these chlorinated sites either from the gas phase or as a weakly adsorbed species. This mechanism explicitly accounts for the inhibition of Hg{sup 0} oxidation by NH{sub 3}, so that the monolith sustains two chemically distinct regions. In the inlet region, strong NH{sub 3} adsorption minimizes the coverage of chlorinated surface sites, so NO reduction inhibits Hg{sup 0} oxidation. But once NH{sub 3} has been consumed, the Hg{sup 0} oxidation rate rapidly accelerates, even while the HCl concentration in the gas phase is uniform. Factors that shorten the length of the NO reduction region factors that enhance surface chlorination, promote Hg{sup 0} oxidation. This mechanism accurately interprets the reported tendencies for greater extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation on honeycomb monoliths with smaller channel pitches and hotter temperatures and the tendency for lower extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation for hotter temperatures on plate monoliths. The mechanism reproduces the reported extents of Hg{sup 0} oxidation on a single catalyst for four coals that generated HCl concentrations from 8 to 241 ppm, which covers the entire range encountered in the U.S. utility industry. Similar performance is also demonstrated for full-scale SCRs with diverse coal types and operating conditions. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Douglas Way

    2001-07-31

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H2 separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({approx}1 mm) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H2 separation, and resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 4}0 alloy membranes on porous supports for H{sub 2} separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H{sub 2} flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H{sub 2} flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems.

  3. Simultaneous removal of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} from coal gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Portzer, J.W.

    1998-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) are the primary sulfur and nitrogen contaminants released when coal is gasified. Before coal gas can be utilized in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant to produce electricity, these contaminants need to be removed. The objective of this research was to develop sorbent-catalysts with the ability to simultaneously remove H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} from coal gas. Microreactor tests with HART-49, a zinc-based sorbent-catalyst with Ni, Co, and Mo as catalyst additives, showed that this material had the potential to remove 90% NH{sub 3} and reduce H{sub 2}S to <20 ppmv at 1 atm and 550 to 700 C. HART-49 was prepared in attrition-resistant fluidizable form (HART-56) using up to 75 wt% binder. Bench-scale fluidized-bed multicycle tests were conducted with the attrition-resistant sorbent-catalyst, HART-56, at 20 atm and 550 C. The H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal performance over the first two cycles was good in the presence of 5% steam but deteriorated thereafter when steam level was increased to 15%. The results point to a complex mechanism for simultaneous H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, potentially involving both chemisorption and catalytic decomposition of NH{sub 3}. Further research and development is needed to develop a sorbent-catalyst for simultaneous H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal at IGCC hot-gas cleanup conditions.

  4. Optical Thin Films for Gas Sensing in Advanced Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ohodnicki, Paul; Brown, Thomas; Baltrus John; Chorpening, Benjamin

    2012-08-09

    Even for existing coal based plants, the opportunity for sensors and controls to improve efficiency is great. A wide range of gas species are of interest for relevant applications. Functional sensor layers for embedded sensing must be compatible with extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, corrosive). Au incorporated metal oxides have been looked at by a number of other authors previously for gas sensing, but have often focused on temperatures below 500{degree}C. Au nanoparticle incorporated metal oxide thin films have shown enhanced gas sensing response. In prior work, we have demonstrated that material systems such as Au nanoparticle incorporated TiO{sub 2} films exhibit a potentially useful optical response to changing gas atmospheres at temperatures up to ~800-850{degree}C. Current work is focused on sputter-deposited Au/TiO{sub 2} films. Au and Ti are multi-layered sputter deposited, followed by a 950{degree}C oxidation step. Increasing Au layer thickness yields larger particles. Interband electronic transitions significantly modify the optical constants of Au as compared to the damped free electron theory. A high temperature oxidation (20%O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment was performed at 700{degree}C followed by a reduction (4%H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) treatment to illustrate the shift in both absorption and scattering with exposure to reducing gases. Shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak in changing gas atmospheres is well documented, but shift in the peak associated with diffuse scattering is a new observation. Increasing Au layer-thickness results in an increase in LSPR absorption and a shift to longer wavelengths. Diffuse scattering associated with the LSPR resonance of Au shows a similar trend with increasing Au thickness. To model the temperature dependence of LSPR, the modification to the plasmon frequency, the damping frequency, and the dielectric constant of the oxide matrix must be accounted for. Thermal expansion of Au causes

  5. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  6. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  7. Controlling mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and (Hg{sup 2}) from coal-fired utility flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1998-12-31

    Mercury is one of listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated as a potential concern for coal-fired utilities. EPA has indicated in their two Congressionally mandated reports that coal-fired utilities are the major anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the United States. There are still many issues and questions to be answered regarding the relative risk of the bioaccumulation of mercury from utilities and the subsequent adverse health effects. The Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) has worked closely with EPA to answer these and other questions regarding the control of mercury emissions from the utility industry. The presentation will focus on the Department`s mercury measurement and control programs, while addressing the issues and problems associated with the control of the relatively small concentrations of mercury and its different forms in the large volumes of flue gas as a result of coal combustion. Costs of controlling mercury under the various control scenarios will also be presented.

  8. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  9. High Conversion of Coal to Transportation Fuels for the Future With Low HC Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Alex G. Oblad; Wendell H. Wiser

    1996-07-01

    An announced objective of the Department of Energy in funding this work, and other current research in coal liquefaction, is to produce a synthetic crude from coal at a cost lower than $30.00 per barrel (Task A). A second objective, reflecting a recent change in direction in the synthetic fuels effort of DOE, is to produce a fuel which is low in aromatics, yet of sufficiently high octane number for use in the gasoline- burning transportation vehicles of today. To meet this second objective, research was proposed, and funding awarded, for conversion of the highly-aromatic liquid product from coal conversion to a product high in isoparaffins, which compounds in the gasoline range exhibit a high octane number (Task B).

  10. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  11. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  12. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, September 15 - December 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In a previous report, the sulfidation results were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. In this report, the regeneration results will be presented. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. 16 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Kinetics of MN-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Semiannual report, December 15, 1996--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1997-03-01

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 600{degrees}C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios >1:1 Mn:substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the results from the cyclic crush strength tests, sulfur profile test, and cyclic testing done after 5 cycles showed decreases in strength from 12.6% to 57.9%. Cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C showed pre-breakthrough concentrations as low as 10 ppmv. Cyclic testing done at 2 L/min and 3 L/min did not show any significant difference in pre-breakthrough concentrations or capacity.

  14. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  15. Evaluation of undiscovered natural gas in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Coal/Wasatch Plateau Total Petroleum System, Wasatch Plateau and Castle Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, M.E.; Finn, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Total Petroleum System approach was used to estimate undiscovered gas potential of the Wasatch Plateau and Castle Valley, central Utah. The Ferron Coal/Wasatch Plateau Total Petroleum System was geologically defined and subdivided into seven assessment units, six of which were formally evaluated. Geologic data considered in defining the assessment unit boundaries included thermal maturity, coal presence and thickness, overburden thickness, and faulting intensity. Historical production data were also used to estimate volumes of gas from undrilled areas. The one conventional assessment unit includes almost the entire area of the petroleum system and is characterized by known accumulations that occur in structural or combination traps in sandstone reservoirs. The estimated undiscovered conventional producible gas that may be added to reserves of this unit ranges from a low (F95) of 14.8 billion cubic feet (BCFG) [419 million cubic meters (Mm3)] of gas to a high (F5) of 82 BCFG [2321 Mm3] and a mean value of 39.9 BCFG [1130 Mm3]. Continuous gas accumulations are those in which the entire assessment unit is considered to be gas-charged. Within these assessment units, there may be wells drilled that are not economic successes but all are expected to contain gas. Coalbed gas is in this continuous category. Mean estimates of undiscovered gas for the five continuous assessment units are: (1) Northern Coal Fairway/Drunkards Wash-752.3 BCFG [21,323 Mm3]; (2) Central Coal Fairway/Buzzard Bench-536.7 BCFG [15,194 Mm3]; (3) Southern Coal Fairway-152.6 BCFG [4320 Mm3]; (4) Deep (6000 feet plus) Coal and Sandstone-59.1 BCFG [1673 Mm3]; (5) Southern Coal Outcrop-10.6 BCFG [300 Mm3]; and Joes Valley and Musinia Grabens-not assessed.The mean estimate of undiscovered gas for the entire TPS is 1551.2 BCFG [43,914 Mm3]. There is a 95% chance that at least 855.7 BCFG [24,225 Mm3] and a 5% chance that at least 2504 BCFG [70,888 Mm3] of undiscovered producible gas remain in the TPS

  16. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature

  17. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  18. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) gas to methanol and MTG-gasoline: An economic and sensitivity study, task B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the production of methanol and gasoline using gas from an underground coal gasification (UCG) facility are discussed. The economics of producing gasoline is studied as well as a number of other aspects of the economics of upgrading UCG gas. Capital and operating costs for three different capacities of gasoline plants are presented. These are 1600 barrels per day (BPD), 4800 BPD, and 9600 BPD. These capacities are equivalent to fuel grade methanol plants having capacities of 4000 BPD, 12,000 BPD, and 24,000 BPD - the methanol capacities considered in the previous studies. The economics of the gasoline plant were developed using published information and the best estimate of the processing steps in the gasoline process. Several sensitivity studies were undertaken to examine the sensitivity of both methanol and gasoline product costs to changes in technical and economic parameters.

  19. Reduced emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2 from U.S. power plants owing to switch from coal to natural gas with combined cycle technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.

    2014-02-01

    Since 1997, an increasing fraction of electric power has been generated from natural gas in the United States. Here we use data from continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS), which measure emissions at the stack of most U.S. electric power generation units, to investigate how this switch affected the emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2. Per unit of energy produced, natural gas power plants equipped with combined cycle technology emit on an average 44% of the CO2 compared with coal power plants. As a result of the increased use of natural gas, CO2 emissions from U.S. fossil-fuel power plants were 23% lower in 2012 than they would have been if coal had continued to provide the same fraction of electric power as in 1997. In addition, natural gas power plants with combined cycle technology emit less NOx and far less SO2 per unit of energy produced than coal power plants. Therefore, the increased use of natural gas has led to emission reductions of NOx (40%) and SO2 (44%), in addition to those obtained from the implementation of emission control systems on coal power plants. These benefits to air quality and climate should be weighed against the increase in emissions of methane, volatile organic compounds, and other trace gases that are associated with the production, processing, storage, and transport of natural gas.

  20. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  1. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    2011-02-27

    The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

  2. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  3. Gas chromatographic techniques for the analysis of hydrocarbons in low-rank coal liquefaction products. Part II. Instrumental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Raynie, D.E.; Farnum, S.A.; Potts, Y.R.

    1984-01-01

    Two long Continuous Processing Unit (CPU) runs were carried out to: (1) study the effect of two different start-up solvents on the composition of the recycle product; and (2) thoroughly characterize any change caused by the start-up solvent during the recycle process. Capillary gas chromatography has been chosen as the major analytical tool in these line-out studies of coal liquefaction products. Initial separations of distillate oils from CPU passes were carried out by the silical gel chromatographic method previously reported. The resulting hydrocarbon fractions were combined into four groups for gas chromatographic analysis. The four groups were chromatographed against the appropriate calibration mixture. Some components of the distillate oil were identified but not quantified due to insufficient amounts of some standards. Over 300 samples also necessitated the use of up to 30 components in a calibration standard. Resulting chromatograms showed near-ideal peak shapes. Peak areas were integrated, ratioed to the internal standard and compared to the appropriate calibration curve. Components were identified by comparing retention times and were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Parameters such as threshold, peak width, and baseline construction mode were adjusted for optimum sensitivity. For valid comparisons to be made conditions were carefully reproduced. Although chromatography is not often thought of as an exact science, chromatographic systems can be optimized for a given analytical situation. In this case, we have successfully used capillary gas chromatography for the automated identification and quantification of up to 30 species in a single coal liquefaction fraction. We have quantified 87 compounds in the distillate oil. This method may also serve as the basis for analysis of other complex samples.

  4. Role of SO{sub 2} for elemental mercury removal from coal combustion flue gas by activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    M. Azhar Uddin; Toru Yamada; Ryota Ochiai; Eiji Sasaoka

    2008-07-15

    In order to clarify the role of SO{sub 2} in the removal of mercury from coal combustion flue gas by activated carbon, the removal of Hg{sup 0} vapor from simulated coal combustion flue gas containing SO{sub 2} by a commercial activated carbon (AC) was studied. The Hg{sup 0} removal experiments were carried out in a conventional flow type packed bed reactor system with simulated flue gases having a composition of Hg{sup 0} (4.9 ppb), SO{sub 2} (0 or 500 ppm), CO{sub 2} (10%), H{sub 2}O (0 or 15%), O{sub 2} (0 or 5%), and N{sub 2} (balance gas) at a space velocity (SV) of 6.0 x 104 h{sup -1} in a temperature rang 60-100 {sup o}C. It was found that, for SO{sub 2} containing flue gas, the presence of both O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O was necessary for the removal of Hg{sup 0} and the Hg{sup 0} removal was favored by lowering the reaction temperature in the order of 60 > 80 > 100{sup o}C. The presence of SO{sub 2} in the flue was essential for the removal of Hg{sup 0} by untreated activated carbon. The activated carbons pretreated with SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prior to the Hg{sup 0} removal also showed Hg{sup 0} removal activities even in the absence of SO{sub 2}; however, the presence of SO{sub 2} also suppressed the Hg{sup 0} removal of the SO{sub 2}-pretreated AC or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} preadded AC. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  5. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  6. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubert, Emily A.; Beach, Fred C.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs.

  7. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  8. User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

  9. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project, Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Assessment has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate environmental issues associated with a project that will be cost-shared by DOE and private industry under the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program. The proposed action is a coke oven gas cleaning technology demonstration project proposed to be installed and operated at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Sparrows Point Plant, in Baltimore County, Maryland. Alternatives to the proposed action, which include no action, delayed action, and the use of alternate sites or technologies, are discussed. Three basic steel manufacturing operations are carried out at the Sparrows Point Plant: (1) pyrolytic conversion of coal to coke (carbon) in coke ovens; (2) combination of coke, iron ore, and limestone in a blast furnace to produce iron; and (3) refinement of iron to steel in oxygen or open-hearth furnaces. The Coke Works at the plant consists of three operational coke batteries and two Coal Chemicals plants. Bituminous coal is heated in a coke oven in the absence of air to remove its volatile components. About 70% of the coal feed is converted to coke; the remaining 30% consists of by-product gases and vapors. These by-product gases are treated in the Coal Chemicals plants to recover usable and marketable products, including coke oven gas, which is used to fuel the ovens and furnaces within the plant. The analysis concluded that no significant, environmental impacts would result from the proposed project. 12 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.

    2005-07-01

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  12. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  13. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. Development of silica/vanadia/titania catalysts for removal of elemental mercury from coal-combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Murphy, Patrick D; Wu, Chang-Yu; Powers, Kevin W; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2008-07-15

    SiO2/V2O5/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized for removing elemental mercury (Hg0) from simulated coal-combustion flue gas. Experiments were carried out in fixed-bed reactors using both pellet and powder catalysts. In contrast to the SiO2-TiO2 composites developed in previous studies, the V2O5 based catalysts do not need ultraviolet light activation and have higher Hg0 oxidation efficiencies. For Hg0 removal by SiO2-V2O5 catalysts, the optimal V2O5 loading was found between 5 and 8%, which may correspond to a maximum coverage of polymeric vanadates on the catalyst surface. Hg0 oxidation follows an Eley-Rideal mechanism where HCI, NO, and NO2 are first adsorbed on the V2O5 active sites and then react with gas-phase Hg0. HCI, NO, and NO2 promote Hg oxidation, while SO2 has an insignificant effect and water vapor inhibits Hgo oxidation. The SiO2-TiO2-V2O5 catalysts exhibit greater Hg0 oxidation efficiencies than SiO2-V2O5, may be because the V-O-Ti bonds are more active than the V-O-Si bonds. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to power plants equipped with wet-scrubbers where oxidized Hg can be easily captured. The findings in this work revealed the importance of optimizing the composition and microstructures of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts for Hg0 oxidation in coal-combustion flue gas. PMID:18754385

  15. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  16. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  17. Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2006-05-15

    Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process); 14th Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-28

    Reported here is the progress on the Development of Biological Coal Gasification for DOE contract No. DE-AC21-90MC27226 MOD A006. Task 1, NEPA Compliance and Updated Test Plan has been completed. Progress toward Task 2, Enhanced Methane Production, is reported in the areas of bacterial strain improvement, addition of co-substrates, and low cost nutrient amendment. Conclusions reached as a result of this work are presented. Plans for future work are briefly outlined.

  19. Comparison of intergrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants with current and advanced gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, B.M.; Evans, T.F.; McCone, A.I.; Westisik, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Two recent conceptual design studies examined ''grass roots'' integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) plants for the Albany Station site of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. One of these studies was based on the Texaco Gasifier and the other was developed around the British Gas Co.-Lurgi slagging gasifier. Both gasifiers were operated in the ''oxygen-blown'' mode, producing medium Btu fuel gas. The studies also evaluated plant performance with both current and advanced gas turbines. Coalto-busbar efficiencies of approximately 35 percent were calculated for Texaco IGCC plants using current technology gas turbines. Efficiencies of approximately 39 percent were obtained for the same plant when using advanced technology gas turbines.

  20. A predictive mechanism for mercury oxidation on selective catalytic reduction catalysts under coal-derived flue gas.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-12-01

    This paper introduces a predictive mechanism for elemental mercury (Hg(o)) oxidation on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts in coal-fired utility gas cleaning systems, given the ammonia (NH3)/nitric oxide (NO) ratio and concentrations of Hg(o) and HCl at the monolith inlet, the monolith pitch and channel shape, and the SCR temperature and space velocity. A simple premise connects the established mechanism for catalytic NO reduction to the Hg(o) oxidation behavior on SCRs: that hydrochloric acid (HCl) competes for surface sites with NH3 and that Hg(o) contacts these chlorinated sites either from the gas phase or as a weakly adsorbed species. This mechanism explicitly accounts for the inhibition of Hg(o) oxidation by NH3, so that the monolith sustains two chemically distinct regions. In the inlet region, strong NH3 adsorption minimizes the coverage of chlorinated surface sites, so NO reduction inhibits Hg(o) oxidation. But once NH3 has been consumed, the Hg(o) oxidation rate rapidly accelerates, even while the HCl concentration in the gas phase is uniform. Factors that shorten the length of the NO reduction region, such as smaller channel pitches and converting from square to circular channels, and factors that enhance surface chlorination, such as higher inlet HCl concentrations and lower NH3/NO ratios, promote Hg(o) oxidation. This mechanism accurately interprets the reported tendencies for greater extents of Hg(o) oxidation on honeycomb monoliths with smaller channel pitches and hotter temperatures and the tendency for lower extents of Hg(o) oxidation for hotter temperatures on plate monoliths. The mechanism also depicts the inhibition of Hg(o) oxidation by NH3 for NH3/NO ratios from zero to 0.9. Perhaps most important for practical applications, the mechanism reproduces the reported extents of Hg(o) oxidation on a single catalyst for four coals that generated HCl concentrations from 8 to 241 ppm, which covers the entire range encountered in the U

  1. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Technical progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  3. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOEpatents

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  4. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  5. The characteristics of a wall gas layer and their influence on slagging of furnace waterwalls during the combustion of Berezovo coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, S. G.; Skuratov, A. P.

    2010-07-01

    Results from an experimental research work on studying the structure of wall gas layer at furnace waterwalls and their slagging are presented. It is established that the temperature of gases in close vicinity of waterwalls has a dominating effect on the nature and formation rate of primary deposits during the combustion of Berezovo coal.

  6. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  7. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  8. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly report, December 15, 1993--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1997-03-03

    Manganese-based sorbents have been investigated for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases prior to its use in combined cycle turbines. Four formulations of Mn-based sorbents were tested in an ambient-pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H{sub 2}S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. In previous reports, the sulfidation and regeneration results from cyclic testing done at 600{degrees}C were presented. Manganese-based sorbents, with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be fully regenerated in air/steam mixture at 750{degrees}C with minimal sulfate formation. In this report, the results from cyclic crush strength tests, Sulfur profile tests and cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C and lower flowrate cyclic testing are presented. Crush strength testing done after 5 cycles showed decreases in strength from 12.6% to 57.9%. Cyclic testing at 550{degrees}C showed pre breakthrough concentrations as low as 10 ppmv. Cyclic testing done at 2 L/min and 3 L/min did not show any significant difference in pre breakthrough concentrations or capacity.

  9. Optical fiber evanescent wave adsorption sensors for high-temperature gas sensing in advanced coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Buric, M.; Ohodnicky, P.; Duy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Modern advanced energy systems such as coal-fired power plants, gasifiers, or similar infrastructure present some of the most challenging harsh environments for sensors. The power industry would benefit from new, ultra-high temperature devices capable of surviving in hot and corrosive environments for embedded sensing at the highest value locations. For these applications, we are currently exploring optical fiber evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy (EWAS) based sensors consisting of high temperature core materials integrated with novel high temperature gas sensitive cladding materials. Mathematical simulations can be used to assist in sensor development efforts, and we describe a simulation code that assumes a single thick cladding layer with gas sensitive optical constants. Recent work has demonstrated that Au nanoparticle-incorporated metal oxides show a potentially useful response for high temperature optical gas sensing applications through the sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance absorption peak to ambient atmospheric conditions. Hence, the simulation code has been applied to understand how such a response can be exploited in an optical fiber based EWAS sensor configuration. We demonstrate that interrogation can be used to optimize the sensing response in such materials.

  10. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Annual report, September 29, 1992--September 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1993-10-21

    The overall objective of the project is to develop and optimize a two-stage fermentation process for the conversion of coal derived synthesis gas in an mixture of alcohols. The goals include the development of superior strains with high product tolerance and productivity, optimization of process conditions for high volumetric productivity and product concentrations, integration and optimization of two stage syngas fermentation, evaluation of bioreactor configurations for enhanced mass transfer, evaluation of syngas conversion by a culture of Butyribacterium methyltrophicum and Clostridium acetobutylicum, development of a membrane based pervaporation system for in situ removal of alcohols, and development of a process for reduction of carbon and electron loss. The specific goals for year one (September 1992 - September 1993) were (1) development of a project work plan, (2) development of superior CO-utilizing strains, (3) optimization of process conditions for conversion of synthesis gas to a mixture of acids in a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR), (4) evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for maximization of mass transfer of synthesis gas, (5) development of a membrane based pervaporation system, and (6) reduction of carbon and electron loss via H{sub 2}CO{sub 2} fermentation. Experimentation and progress toward these goals are described in this report.

  11. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

  12. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro's estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  13. Effects of Steam and CO2 in the Fluidizing Gas when Using Bituminous Coal in Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leion, H.; Lyngfelt, A.; Mattisson, T.

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel in order to avoid direct contact between air and fuel. Thus, the CO2 is inherently separated from the flue gases with a potential for considerably lower energy penalty and cost compared to other techniques for CO2 separation. The oxygen carrier is circulated between two reactors, a fuel and an air reactor, where the flue gas from the air reactor contains oxygen depleted air and the flue gas from the fuel reactor contains mainly CO2 and H2O. The water can easily be condensed and the remaining CO2 can be transported for underground storage. Most of the prior work with CLC has focused on using natural gas and syngas as fuel and oxygen carrying material normally produced from pure chemicals. However, recent work on adapting the CLC process for solid fuels with ores and natural minerals as oxygen carrier shows promising results. This paper will present results from reactivity investigations in a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor system using previously investigated natural mineral ilmenite as oxygen carrier and a bituminous Colombian coal as fuel. Experiments were conducted at a temperature of 970°C with N2, steam, and/or CO2 in the fluidizing gas. Synergy effects between steam and CO2 on fuel conversion was noted. The results show that the fuel conversion was a roughly a factor 5 faster with steam as compared to CO2 in the fluidizing gas.

  14. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  15. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

  16. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Production of oxygenates from synthesis gas---A technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report concentrates on the production of oxygenates from coal via gasification and indirect liquefaction. At the present the majority of oxygenate synthesis programs are at laboratory scale. Exceptions include commercial and demonstration scale plants for methanol and higher alcohols production, and ethers such as MTBE. Research and development work has concentrated on elucidating the fundamental transport and kinetic limitations governing various reactor configurations. But of equal or greater importance has been investigations into the optimal catalyst composition and process conditions for the production of various oxygenates.

  17. Investigation into the gas-dynamic state of a coal seam under degassing and moistening

    SciTech Connect

    Ruban, A.D.; Zaburdyaev, G.S.; Zaburdyaev, V.S.

    2005-04-01

    Statistics are cited for the violation of gas and dust conditions in mines of Russia and the material damage caused by gas and dust explosions. It is shown that degassing and moistening of a seam is the most efficiently conducted by the hydraulic pulse action.

  18. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Thermobaric investigation of coal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kosinskii, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the dynamics of gas emission during the heating in vacuo of different grades of Donbass coal included a study of binary and ternary mixtures of these coals. Discrete gas emission was established at temperatures depending principally on the ratio of coals within the mixtures. The data obtained could be used as a basis for commercial processes.

  20. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.