Science.gov

Sample records for actual cost savings

  1. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  2. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  3. FY 1997 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-06-01

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996.

  4. Actual and Estimated Energy Savings Comparison for Deep Energy Retrofits in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Giever, Elisabeth L.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-10-01

    -predicted to 77% over-predicted by the model with respect to monitored energy use. Many of the discrepancies were associated with occupant behavior which influences energy use, dramatically in some cases, actual versus modeled weather differences, modeling input limitations, and complex homes that are difficult to model. The discrepancy between actual and estimated energy use indicates a need for better modeling tools and assumptions. Despite the best efforts of researchers, the estimated energy savings are too inaccurate to determine reliable paybacks for retrofit projects. While the monitored data allows researchers to understand why these differences exist, it is not cost effective to monitor each home with the level of detail presented here. Therefore an appropriate balance between modeling and monitoring must be determined for more widespread application in retrofit programs and the home performance industry. Recommendations to address these deficiencies include: (1) improved tuning process for pre-retrofit energy use, which currently utilized broad-based monthly utility bills; (2) developing simple occupant-based energy models that better address the many different occupant types and their impact on energy use; (3) incorporating actual weather inputs to increase accuracy of the tuning process, which uses utility bills from specific time period; and (4) developing simple, cost-effective monitoring solutions for improved model tuning.

  5. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  6. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  7. Savings account for health care costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000864.htm Savings account for health care costs To use the sharing features on this ... can set aside tax-exempt money for your health care expenses. This means you will pay no or ...

  8. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Cherry, Bryan; Eidson, Millicent

    2007-01-01

    Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV) are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS) in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP) (90.9%), animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%), and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%). The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529). Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits. PMID:17407559

  9. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  10. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  11. Savannah River Remediation Cost Savings Initiative - 12339

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Neil R.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River enjoyed two years of increased funding as a result of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act and Department of Energy (DOE) directed scope additions. Moving into FY2012, a much lower funding level is anticipated. In the past, the first response to a reduced funding scenario was to defer scope and slow down the program. This time, Savannah River decided that a better process was needed to try to maximize value to the government. This approach was named the Cost Savings Initiative (CSI). The CSI process is similar to a zero-based budget concept. Every element of work scope was screened to eliminate everything that was not directly related to safety and regulatory compliance. Then the schedules for the regulatory-driven scope were deferred such that the regulatory milestones were achieved just in time with no acceleration. This resulted in a strategy that met regulatory requirements in FY2012-13 with some remaining funding but not in FY2014-15. The remaining funding was then invested in cost savings initiatives in FY2012-13 to reduce the future cost of doing business in the FY2014-15 timeframe and beyond. This resulted in a Strategy that: - Meets all regulatory commitments; - Meets some regulatory commitments early; and - Preserves most of the life cycle savings that were built in to the baseline plan The CSI process used at Savannah River may be considered for application elsewhere in the DOE Complex. (authors)

  12. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios.

  13. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  14. Achieving calibration cost savings through data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, A.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    Air displacement type pipettes have been used effectively at the Savannah River Site (SRS) since the mid-1980`s when they replaced expensive glass microliter pipettes. A paper presented at the 1987 INMM Annual Meeting by John P. Clark detailed the implementation at SRS. At that time, calibration frequency and required documentation were established according to regulatory and standard practice requirements. Pipettes are still being used at SRS in compliance with NQA-1-12, ``Control of Measuring and Test Equipment (M and TE)`` requirements, which includes defined calibration intervals and 5-year calibration record retention. A recent analysis of the pipette calibration historical data indicated that pipettes were rarely out of calibration when they were checked. In other words, calibration checks were being performed too frequently. As a result, pipette calibration frequencies were decreased, with the potential accompanying annual cost savings of over $30,000 in reduced labor and materials. Concurrently, the number of calibration check replicates was increased to prevent statistical errors in calibration check decision making. The benefits derived in the pipette calibration example are applicable to any M and TE where calibration history data are maintained and where analysis indicates excessive calibration checks. Details of the data analysis and cost savings are presented in the paper.

  15. Lowering medical costs through the sharing of savings by physicians and patients: inclusive shared savings.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Harald; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2014-12-01

    Current approaches to controlling health care costs have strengths and weaknesses. We propose an alternative, "inclusive shared savings," that aims to lower medical costs through savings that are shared by physicians and patients. Inclusive shared savings may be particularly attractive in situations in which treatments, such as those for gastric cancer, are similar in clinical effectiveness and have modest differences in convenience but substantially differ in cost. Inclusive shared savings incorporates features of typical insurance coverage, shared savings, and value-based insurance design but differs from value-based insurance design, which merely seeks to decrease or eliminate out-of-pocket costs. Inclusive shared savings offers financial incentives to physicians and patients to promote the use of lower-cost, but equally effective, interventions and should be evaluated in a rigorous trial or demonstration project.

  16. Cost savings of outpatient versus standard inpatient total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Adrian; Ryu, Jae-Jin; Dervin, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background With diminishing reimbursement rates and strained public payer budgets, a high-volume inpatient procedure, such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is a common target for improving cost efficiencies. Methods This prospective case–control study compared the cost-minimization of same day discharge (SDD) versus inpatient TKA. We examined if and where cost savings can be realized and the magnitude of savings that can be achieved without compromising quality of care. Outcome variables, including detailed case costs, return to hospital rates and complications, were documented and compared between the first 20 SDD cases and 20 matched inpatient controls. Results In every case–control match, the SDD TKA was less costly than the inpatient procedure and yielded a median cost savings of approximately 30%. The savings came primarily from costs associated with the inpatient encounter, such as surgical ward, pharmacy and patient meal costs. At 1 year, there were no major complications and no return to hospital or readmission encounters for either group. Conclusion Our results are consistent with previously published data on the cost savings associated with short stay or outpatient TKA. We have gone further by documenting where those savings were in a matched cohort design. Furthermore, we determined where cost savings could be realized during the patient encounter and to what degree. In carefully selected patients, outpatient TKA is a feasible alternative to traditional inpatient TKA and is significantly less costly. Furthermore, it was deemed to be safe in the perioperative period. PMID:28234591

  17. Computer/PERT technique monitors actual versus allocated costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houry, E.; Walker, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    A computer method measures the users performance in cost-type contracts utilizing the existing nasa program evaluation review technique without imposing any additional reporting requirements. progress is measured by comparing actual costs with a value of work performed in a specific period.

  18. Wall System Saves Initial HVAC Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The superior insulating characteristics of an exterior wall system has enabled a Massachusetts school district to realize a savings on electric heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. (Author/MLF)

  19. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity

  20. Cooperative vehicle routing problem: an opportunity for cost saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibaei, Sedighe; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Ghashami, Seyed Sajad

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology is proposed to solve a cooperative multi-depot vehicle routing problem. We establish a mathematical model for multi-owner VRP in which each owner (i.e. player) manages single or multiple depots. The basic idea consists of offering an option that owners cooperatively manage the VRP to save their costs. We present cooperative game theory techniques for cost saving allocations which are obtained from various coalitions of owners. The methodology is illustrated with a numerical example in which different coalitions of the players are evaluated along with the results of cooperation and cost saving allocation methods.

  1. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  2. Improving Navy’s Buying Power Through Cost Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    and aircraft procurement issues .............. 45 Savings from best practices and lean manufacturing in ship building...evaluation (T&E) $80M Reducing electricity costs $1 OM Applying lean manufacturing to Navy shipbuilding $430M Applying lean manufacturing to defense...and lean manufacturing and their application to Navy shipbuilding and the defense aircraft industry could gen- erate savings. "* The 2005 Base

  3. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  4. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  5. The costs and potential savings of telemedicine for acute care neonatal consultation: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Nigel R; Donovan, Tim; Bensink, Mark E; Smith, Anthony C

    2012-12-01

    Telemedicine was used as a substitute for the telephone (usual care) for some acute care consultations from nurseries at four peripheral hospitals in Queensland. Over a 12-month study period, there were 19 cases of neonatal teleconsultation. Five (26%) cases of avoided infant transport were confirmed by independent assessment, four of which were avoided helicopter retrievals. We conducted two analyses. In the first, the actual costs of providing telemedicine at the study sites were compared with the actual savings associated with confirmed avoided infant transport and nursery costs. There was a net saving to the health system of 54,400 Australian Dollars (AUD) associated with the use of telemedicine over the 12-month period. In the second analysis, we estimated the potential savings that might have been achieved if telemedicine had been used for all retrieval consultations from the study sites. The total projected costs were AUD 64,969 while the projected savings were AUD 271,042, i.e. a projected net saving to the health system of AUD 206,073 through the use of telemedicine. A sensitivity analysis suggested that the threshold proportion of retrievals needed to generate telemedicine-related savings under the study conditions was 5%. The findings suggest that from the health-service perspective, the use of telemedicine for acute care neonatal consultation has substantial economic benefits.

  6. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    SciTech Connect

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  7. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  8. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  9. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  10. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  11. Pollution Prevention Cost Savings Using Supply Chain Reengineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Supply chain management was explored as a tool to prevent hazardous waste and reduce operating costs. Previous research had shown that pollution prevention measures were often costly and no expectation of cost savings could be realized. The reengineering of the Air Force hazardous material supply chain brought about by the Hazardous Material Pharmacy Program was tested to evaluate if hazardous waste had been precluded in this effort and if costs had also been avoided. To date, no research had explored the use of supply chain

  12. Cost savings and clinical improvement through disease management.

    PubMed

    Kretz, S E; Pantos, B S

    1996-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an expensive chronic illness that has not historically demonstrated cost savings and quality of care improvement potential by alternate care plans using comprehensive disease management treatment modalities. This case study describes care provided over a 45-month period to an adolescent female with severe cystic fibrosis involving multiple hospitalizations and $396,000 in total cost of care. Treatment plans before and after the initiation of a comprehensive home care disease management program are described. Clinical improvement outcomes and savings of 33.4% in total costs were documented using longitudinal analysis of paid claims data and medical chart review. Guidelines are suggested for case managers desiring to initiate similar programs of care.

  13. Solid oral forms availability in children: a cost saving investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lajoinie, Audrey; Henin, Emilie; Kassai, Behrouz; Terry, David

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the suitability and potential cost savings, from both the hospital and community perspective, of prescribed oral liquid medicine substitution with acceptable solid forms for children over 2 years. Method Oral liquid medicines dispensed from a paediatric hospital (UK) in 1 week were assessed by screening for existence of the solid form alternative and evaluating the acceptability of the available solid form, firstly related to the prescribed dose and secondly to acceptable size depending on the child's age. Costs were calculated based on providing treatment for 28 days or prescribed duration for short term treatments. Results Over 90% (440/476) of liquid formulations were available as a marketed solid form. Considering dosage acceptability (maximum of 10% deviation from prescribed dosage or 0% for narrow therapeutic range drugs, maximum tablet divisions into quarters) 80% of liquids could be substituted with a solid form. The main limitation for liquid substitution would be solid form size. However, two-thirds of prescribed liquids could have been substituted with a suitable solid form for dosage and size, with estimated savings being of £5K and £8K in 1 week, respectively based on hospital and community costs, corresponding to a projected annual saving of £238K and £410K (single institution). Conclusion Whilst not all children over 2 years will be able to swallow tablets, drug cost savings if oral liquid formulations were substituted with suitable solid dosage forms would be considerable. Given the numerous advantages of solid forms compared with liquids, this study may provide a theoretical basis for investing in supporting children to swallow tablets/capsules. PMID:24965935

  14. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant

  15. Unconventional Staging Package Selection Leads to Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-06-07

    In late 2010, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Secretary of Energy, Daniel Poneman, directed that an analysis be conducted on the U-233 steel-clad, Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) fuel plates that were stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), focusing on cost savings and any potential DOE programmatic needs for the special nuclear material (SNM). The NA-162 Nuclear Criticality Safety Program requested retention of these fuel plates for use in experiments at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). A Secretarial Initiative challenged ORNL to make the first shipment to the NNSS by the end of the 2011 calendar year, and this effort became known as the U-233 Project Accelerated Shipping Campaign. To meet the Secretarial Initiative, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), the NNSS Management and Operations contractor, was asked to facilitate the receipt and staging of the U-233 fuel plates in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF). Because there were insufficient staging containers available for the fuel plates, NSTec conducted an analysis of alternatives. The project required a staging method that would reduce the staging footprint while addressing nuclear criticality safety and radiation exposure concerns. To accommodate an intermediate staging method of approximately five years, the NSTec project team determined that a unique and unconventional staging package, the AT-400R, was available to meet the project requirements. By using the AT-400R containers, NSTec was able to realize a cost savings of approximately $10K per container, a total cost savings of nearly $450K.

  16. 25 CFR 39.201 - Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations... Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations? ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations either at the local school level or in the aggregate nationally. ISEF is...

  17. 25 CFR 39.101 - Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? 39... SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula § 39.101 Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? No. ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations...

  18. Children with medical complexity and Medicaid: spending and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jay G; Hall, Matt; Neff, John; Goodman, Denise; Cohen, Eyal; Agrawal, Rishi; Kuo, Dennis; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-12-01

    A small but growing population of children with medical complexity, many of whom are covered by Medicaid, accounts for a high proportion of pediatric health care spending. We first describe the expenditures for children with medical complexity insured by Medicaid across the care continuum. We report the increasingly large amount of spending on hospital care for these children, relative to the small amount of primary care and home care spending. We then present a business case that estimates how cost savings might be achieved for children with medical complexity from potential reductions in hospital and emergency department use and shows how the savings could underwrite investments in outpatient and community care. We conclude by discussing the importance of these findings in the context of Medicaid's quality of care and health care reform.

  19. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  20. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  1. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  2. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  3. Cost Savings Analysis Guidelines for Manufacturing Technology Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-28

    Corporation .’-"- 2828 Pennsylvania Ave, N.W. ’- Washington, D.C. 20007 _ DTIC "" 28 June 1985 EECTE Final Report for 1985 MAY I .- Contract Number N00024...wae"ITI CLAMSP IgeTbm of Vg.S ph" PE.. * . *,. _d % I I- COST SAVINGS ANALYSIS GUIDELINES FOR MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS SYSCON Corporation I...Burlington. NA 01003 Candidate applications: 0 GaAs is in high dmnd for use in advanced electronic commnication . countermasure. and high speed computer

  4. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  5. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Bob S.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  6. Calculation of the Actual Cost of Engine Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) helps analysts store, retrieve, and analyze data; build cost models; analyze risk; time phase budgets; and...Tools ( ACEIT ).” n. pag. http://www.aceit.com/ 21 February 2003. • USAMC Logistics Support Activity (LOGSA). “Cost Analysis Strategy Assessment

  7. A comparison of NEAR actual spacecraft costs with three parametric cost models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Todd J.; Lao, Norman Y.; Davalos, Evelyn T.; Bearden, David A.

    1999-11-01

    Costs for modern (post-1990) U.S.-built small planetary spacecraft have been shown to exhibit significantly different trends from those of larger spacecraft. These differences cannot be accounted for simply by the change in size alone. Some have attributed this departure to NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" design approach embodied by the efficiency of smaller teams, reduced government oversight, increased focus on cost, and short development periods. With the Discovery, Mars Surveyor and New Millennium programs representing the new approach to planetary exploration, it is important to understand these current cost trends and to be able to estimate costs of future proposed missions. To address this issue, The Aerospace Corporation (hereafter referred to as Aerospace) performed a study to compare the actual costs of the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft bus (instruments were not estimated) using three different cost models; the U.S. Air Force Unmanned Spacecraft Cost Model, Version 7 (USCM-7), the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) NASA/Air Force Cost Model 1996 (NAFCOM96) and The Aerospace Corporation's Small Satellite Cost Model 1998 (SSCM98). The NEAR spacecraft was chosen for comparison because it was the first Discovery mission launched, and recently recognized with a Laurel award by Aviation Week and Space Technology as a benchmark for NASA's Discovery program [North, 1997]. It was also selected because the cost data has been released into the public domain [Hemmings, 1996]which makes it easy to discuss in a public forum. This paper summarizes the NEAR program, provides a short synopsis of each of the three cost models, and demonstrates how they were applied for this study.

  8. Assessment of Cost Savings of DOE's Return-on-Investment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.L.

    2000-05-11

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Pollution Prevention (EM-77) created a successful internally competed program to fund innovative projects based on projected returns. This is called the Return-on-Investment (ROI) program. EM-77 conducted a successful ROI pilot, developed and implemented sound management practices, and successfully transferred the program to several Operations Offices. Over the past 4 years sites have completed 262 ROI projects (costing $18.8 million) with claimed first-year savings of $88 million and claimed life cycle savings exceeding $300 million. EM-77 requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory perform an independent evaluation of the site-led, DOE-HQ-funded pollution prevention (P2) ROI program to assist the Department in determining whether claimed savings are real. The approach for conducting this evaluation was to analyze a sample of P2 projects to identify actual project cost savings and other actual benefits--e.g., amount of waste avoided. To determine the projects for review, EM-77 provided a list of EM-funded projects at two Operations Offices: Oak Ridge and Richland. Sixteen projects (eight from each Operations Office) were selected at random from this list for review. Project documentation was requested from the sites, and this was followed by face-to-face interviews with project personnel. of the 16 projects selected at random, two are still awaiting implementation, and no project interview was conducted for one project. Because the purpose of this study was to review projects after they have been implemented, the two uncompleted projects were eliminated from further consideration. The remainder of this report addresses the 13 completed projects for which we received documentation and performed interviews with project personnel. Both Oak Ridge and Richland staff pointed out that because of the selection approach used, this study did not review the most successful projects at their sites.

  9. Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The

  10. Multiple drug cost containment policies in Michigan's Medicaid program saved money overall, although some increased costs.

    PubMed

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Michigan's Medicaid program implemented four cost containment policies--preferred drug lists, joint and multistate purchasing arrangements, and maximum allowable cost--during 2002-04. The goal was to control growth of drug spending for beneficiaries who were enrolled in both Medicaid and Medicare and taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidemic prescription drugs. We analyzed the impact of each policy while holding the effect of all other policies constant. Preferred drug lists increased both preferred and generic drugs' market share and reduced daily cost--the cost per day for each prescription provided to a beneficiary. In contrast, the maximum allowable cost policy increased daily cost and was the only policy that did not generate cost savings. The joint and multistate arrangements did not affect daily cost. Despite these policy trade-offs, the cumulative effect was a 10 percent decrease in daily cost and a total cost savings of $46,195 per year. Our findings suggest that policy makers need to evaluate the impact of multiple policies aimed at restraining drug spending, and further evaluate the policy trade-offs, to ensure that scarce public dollars achieve the greatest return for money spent.

  11. Wellness incentives in the workplace: cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Jill R; Kelly, Brenna D; DiNardo, John E

    2013-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act encourages workplace wellness programs, chiefly by promoting programs that reward employees for changing health-related behavior or improving measurable health outcomes. Recognizing the risk that unhealthy employees might be punished rather than helped by such programs, the act also forbids health-based discrimination. We reviewed results of randomized controlled trials and identified challenges for workplace wellness programs to function as the act intends. For example, research results raise doubts that employees with health risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, spend more on medical care than others. Such groups may not be especially promising targets for financial incentives meant to save costs through health improvement. Although there may be other valid reasons, beyond lowering costs, to institute workplace wellness programs, we found little evidence that such programs can easily save costs through health improvement without being discriminatory. Our evidence suggests that savings to employers may come from cost shifting, with the most vulnerable employees--those from lower socioeconomic strata with the most health risks--probably bearing greater costs that in effect subsidize their healthier colleagues.

  12. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  13. Vendor agreements offer cost savings for cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Abramson, D

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals continue to search for ways to save money at the same time they provide their physicians and clinical staffs with the variety and quality of supplies needed to do their jobs. St. Joseph's Medical Center in Stockton, Calif. watched expenditures for its cath lab increase while its activity stabilized. They looked at their high-volume use of balloon catheters, says Gary Boyd, service director. At a cost of $600 to $700 apiece, it made sense to carefully manage their supply. Choosing a prime vendor was the first step in controlling inventory. Materials management, which had previously had a hands-off policy in the cath lab, took an active role in determining choices for this product. Through a lengthy selection process, medical center management and physicians reached a consensus for a single vendor. Having a prime vendor policy may increase the vendor's commitment to the hospital and provide added advantages. For St. Joseph's, selecting a prime vendor has better positioned the hospital to arrange for inventory to be stocked on consignment: the vendor owns the shelved supplies, which the hospital pays for only as they are used. However, some vendors may reduce their discounts when they enter into a consignment agreement. The best way is to get the maximum discount on the invoice price first, and then work with the vendor to manage inventories at the lowest level possible. Smaller facilities have less leverage and less flexibility, but they can often piggy-back onto large bargaining agreements by partnering with a larger institution.

  14. Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

  15. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves.

  16. Looking at IT through a New Lens: Achieving Cost Savings in a Fiscally Challenging Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claffey, George F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) departments must cut costs and justify expenditures in the face of shrinking budgets. To promote greater cost savings, it is important to look at IT through a new "lens." This article discusses four broad categories that can be evaluated to determine if IT resource alignment is appropriate and if savings can…

  17. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale - Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    In this project, IBACOS partnered with builder Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes to develop a simple and low-cost methodology by which community-scale energy savings can be evaluated based on results at the occupied test house level.Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a whole-house systems integrated measures package and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  18. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Bob S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  19. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  20. Cost Savings Appear Elusive in Push for Faculty Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2012-01-01

    If cash-strapped universities want an easy way to save money, Lawrence B. Martin, a professor of anthropology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, has an idea. By tallying faculty output in areas such as publication rates in scientific journals, Mr. Martin has concluded that there could be as much as $1-billion to $2-billion in…

  1. The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

    Rebuild America is a program of the U.S. Department of Energy that focuses on energy-savings solutions as community solutions. It works with K-12 schools, colleges and universities, state and local governments, public and multifamily housing, and commercial buildings. This guide focuses on colleges and universities. Each chapter spells out options…

  2. School Reduces Energy Costs 31% with Guaranteed Savings Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1984

    1984-01-01

    An agreement between Johnson Controls and a Maryland school district provided financing for the initial capital expenditure to upgrade and control the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment at a high school and guaranteed savings during the 5-year contract. (MLF)

  3. Cost-Saving Strategies and Shared Services among School Districts in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Jeffrey; Penska, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    School districts across New York State have implemented numerous innovative cost-saving measures in the 1990s, according to February 1993 New York State School Boards Association survey of 722 school superintendents. Districts achieved substantial savings in financial management, plant management, personnel management, and school support services…

  4. Verify by Genability - Providing Solar Customers with Accurate Reports of Utility Bill Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), partnering with Genability and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Incubator program, independently verified the accuracy of Genability's monthly cost savings.

  5. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  6. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  7. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  8. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  9. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB 12-001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was mandated by SB537 (Simitian, Chapter 650, Stats. of 2007, codified at Ed. Code Section 47613), which requires the California Research Bureau (CRB) to prepare and submit to the Legislature a report on the key elements and actual costs of charter school oversight. Charter schools are public schools that are operated by entities other…

  10. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  11. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  12. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  13. Speech Therapy Telepractice for Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD): MaineCare (Medicaid) Cost Savings.

    PubMed

    Towey, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    This Brief Communication represents an analysis of the cost savings to MaineCare (also referred to as Medicaid) directly attributable to service provided via speech therapy telepractice. Seven female (primarily adolescent) MaineCare patients consecutively referred to Waldo County General Hospital (WCGH) with suspected diagnosis of Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD) were treated by speech therapy telepractice. Outcome data demonstrated a first month cost savings of $2376.72. The analysis additionally projected thousands of dollars of potential savings each month in reduced medical costs for this patient group as a result of successful treatment via speech therapy telepractice. The study suggests that without access to speech therapy telepractice for patients with VCD, the medical costs to MaineCare will be ongoing and significant.

  14. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  15. Rightsizing HVAC Systems to Reduce Capital Costs and Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebesta, James

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every institution is faced with the situation of having to reduce the cost of a construction project from time to time through a process generally referred to as "value engineering." Just the mention of those words, however, gives rise to all types of connotations, thoughts, and memories (usually negative) for those in the…

  16. Five Smart Ways Educators Can Save Money on Benefit Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Pat

    2012-01-01

    State and local governments today face significant financial stress from the most recent recession, which makes their need to control benefit costs even greater. Revenues declined 22% from 2008 to 2009, mostly because of reduced tax income. At the same time, state and local government spending on unemployment compensation jumped 86%. It is no…

  17. The MHS Pharmacy Benefit: Efficacy of Civilian Cost Saving Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    lieu of bioequivalent generics (Motheral et al, 2000). On a partially restricted formulary, cost sharing by the patient may be increased for brand name...for adoption based on price, and the respective class is closed to other drugs on the formulary. Similarly, following bioequivalence tests, the DoD

  18. Policy Framework for Covering Preventive Services Without Cost Sharing: Saving Lives and Saving Money?

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephanie C; Pearson, Steven D

    2016-08-01

    The US Affordable Care Act mandates that private insurers cover a list of preventive services without cost sharing. The list is determined by 4 expert committees that evaluate the overall health effect of preventive services. We analyzed the process by which the expert committees develop their recommendations. Each committee uses different criteria to evaluate preventive services and none of the committees consider cost systematically. We propose that the existing committees adopt consistent evidence review methodologies and expand the scope of preventive services reviewed and that a separate advisory committee be established to integrate economic considerations into the final selection of free preventive services. The comprehensive framework and associated criteria are intended to help policy makers in the future develop a more evidence-based, consistent, and ethically sound approach.

  19. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaiopoulou, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m(3) d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m(3) d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO(2) contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO(2) content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted.

  20. Evaluation Of A Residential Retrofit Program In Omaha Nebraska: A Comparison Of Actual Energy Savings With Audit Predictions Using Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, Bradley S.

    The reEnergize Program conducted 957 energy upgrades in Omaha Nebraska from July 2010 to September 30th 2013, through a government grant within the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program. Projected program savings were provided upon program completion but it was unknown how effective the program was at actually reducing energy consumption in the homes that were upgraded. The following research report uses a PRISM analysis to remove the effect of weather and compare the actual pre and post utility usage rates to determine the actual effectiveness of the program. The housing characteristics, and individual energy upgrades were analyzed to see if any patterns or trends could be identified between consumption savings and housing type and specific upgrade measure. The results of the study showed that the program did induce savings but by much less than the engineering estimates predicted. It is likely that housing characteristics and upgrade measures play a role in inducing consumption savings but homeowner behavior is a stronger factor that influences savings.

  1. Saving Pell Grants in an Era of Cost-Cutting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the recent efforts to arrive at a federal budget, articles abound in the popular media and trade publications debating both the value of Pell Grants and their rising cost to the U.S. government. Both pros and cons of the debate hold value. Pell Grants are what enable many low-income families to send their children to college and,…

  2. Risk informed resource allocation policy: safety can save costs.

    PubMed

    Pasman, H J

    2000-01-07

    During economic doldrums, decision making on investments for safety is even more difficult than it already is when funds are abundant. This paper attempts to offer some guidance. After stating the present challenge to prevention of losses in the process industries, the systematic approach of quantified risk assessment is briefly reviewed and improvements in the methodology are mentioned. In addition, attention is given to the use of a risk matrix to survey a plant and to derive a plan of action. Subsequently, the reduction of risk is reviewed. Measures for prevention, protection, and mitigation are discussed. The organization of safety has become at least as important as technical safety of equipment and standards. It is reflected in the introduction of a safety management system. Furthermore, the design process in a pro-active approach is described and the concept of inherent safety is briefly addressed. The concept of Layer of Protection Analysis is explained and also the reason why it is relevant to provide a cost-benefit analysis. Finally, after comments regarding the cost of accidents, the basics of costing and profitability are summarized and a way is suggested to apply this approach to risk-reducing measures. An example is provided on how a selection can be made from a number of alternatives.

  3. The opt-in program: Creating opportunities for cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, A.

    1995-12-31

    The final regulation implementing the opt-in program for combustion sources will be published within the next month. This regulation will allow combustion sources (i.e., non-affected boilers, turbines, and internal combustion engines) the opportunity to enter the Acid Rain Program on a voluntary basis. Although anyone can buy and sell allowances, opt-in sources will receive their own allowance allocation and profit from the sale of excess allowances. Excess allowances can only be generated, though, through emission reductions at the opt-in source. This presentation provides an overview of the opt-in program and focuses on the program`s motivation to lower the cost of acid rain control. The opt-in program will not reduce emissions in the aggregate, but instead offers incentives for emissions reductions at non-affected sources. By creating excess allowances, an opt-in source has a means for recouping the market value of those reductions through Acid Rain allowances. Lower cost opportunities for reducing sulfur dioxide at opt-in sources can, through allowance trading, reduce the costs of compliance for affected utility units.

  4. Active management of third stage of labour saves facility costs in Guatemala and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Judith T; Frick, Kevin D; Fogarty, Linda A; Fishel, Joy D; Vivio, Donna M

    2006-12-01

    This study calculated the net benefit of using active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) rather than expectant management of the third stage of labour (EMTSL) for mothers in Guatemala and Zambia. Probabilities of events were derived from opinions of experts, publicly available data, and published literature. Costs of clinical events were calculated based on national price lists, observation of resources used in AMTSL and EMTSL, and expert estimates of resources used in managing postpartum haemorrhage and its complications, including transfusion. A decision tree was used for modelling expected costs associated with AMTSL or EMTSL. The base case analysis suggested a positive net benefit from AMTSL, with a net cost-saving of US $18,000 in Guatemala (with 100 lives saved) and US $145,000 in Zambia (with 467 lives saved) for 100,000 births. Facilities have strong economic incentives to adopt AMTSL if uterotonics are available.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  6. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  7. Minimising costs in spinal surgery: is group & save testing justified in lumbar decompression surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Adam M. H.; Fivey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar microdiscectomy and laminectomy are two of the most common neurosurgical procedures performed worldwide. Current practice still sees pre-operative group and save testing prior to this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the need for pre-operative group and save and post-operative blood checks. Methods Patient archives were reviewed to identify those undergoing primary elective lumbar decompression surgery at the Institute of Neurological Sciences, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK. Hematology results before and after surgery, whether group and save was carried out, and blood transfusion requirements, if any, were collected. Results A total of 200 patients in total were included. Ninety-one percent of microdiscectomy patients and 95% of laminectomy patients underwent group and save testing prior to surgery. No patients received a transfusion as a result of their procedure. The mean hemoglobin drop after surgery was 11 g/L for the microdiscectomy group and 17 g/L for the laminectomy group. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that pre-operative group and save is unnecessary in lumbar microdiscectomy and laminectomy. As such, we support the abandonment of routine pre-operative group and save and post-operative blood checks, with significant cost saving effects. However, O negative blood should always be available in case of major peri-operative bleeding. PMID:28097244

  8. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  9. Offering Lung Cancer Screening to High-Risk Medicare Beneficiaries Saves Lives and Is Cost-Effective: An Actuarial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pyenson, Bruce S.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Yip, Rowena; Dec, Ellynne

    2014-01-01

    Background By a wide margin, lung cancer is the most significant cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, and Medicare beneficiaries are often at increased risk. Because of its demonstrated effectiveness in reducing mortality, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) imaging will be covered without cost-sharing starting January 1, 2015, by nongrandfathered commercial plans. Medicare is considering coverage for lung cancer screening. Objective To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness (ie, cost per life-year saved) of LDCT lung cancer screening of the Medicare population at high risk for lung cancer. Methods Medicare costs, enrollment, and demographics were used for this study; they were derived from the 2012 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiary files and were forecast to 2014 based on CMS and US Census Bureau projections. Standard life and health actuarial techniques were used to calculate the cost and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening. The cost, incidence rates, mortality rates, and other parameters chosen by the authors were taken from actual Medicare data, and the modeled screenings are consistent with Medicare processes and procedures. Results Approximately 4.9 million high-risk Medicare beneficiaries would meet criteria for lung cancer screening in 2014. Without screening, Medicare patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer have an average life expectancy of approximately 3 years. Based on our analysis, the average annual cost of LDCT lung cancer screening in Medicare is estimated to be $241 per person screened. LDCT screening for lung cancer in Medicare beneficiaries aged 55 to 80 years with a history of ≥30 pack-years of smoking and who had smoked within 15 years is low cost, at approximately $1 per member per month. This assumes that 50% of these patients were screened. Such screening is also highly cost-effective, at <$19,000 per life

  10. A Cost-Savings Analysis of a Statewide Parenting Education Program in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…

  11. Annual energy usage reduction and cost savings of a school: end-use energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Roslizar, Aiman; Alghoul, M A; Bakhtyar, B; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m(2)/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm(2)/year.

  12. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  13. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Cost savings deliverables and criteria for the OST technology decision process

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, A.

    1997-04-01

    This document has been prepared to assist focus area (FA) technical and management teams in understanding the cost savings deliverables associated with a technology system during its research and development (R and D) phases. It discusses the usefulness of cost analysis in the decision-making process, and asserts that the level of confidence and data quality of a cost analysis is proportional to the maturity of the technology system`s development life cycle. Suggestions of specific investment criteria or cost savings metrics that a FA might levy on individual research projects are made but the final form of these elements should be stipulated by the FA management based on their rationale for a successful technology development project. Also, cost savings deliverables for a single FA will be more detailed than those for management of the Office of Science and Technology (OST). For example, OST management may want an analysis of the overall return on investment for each FA, while the FA program manager may want this analysis and the return on investment metrics for each technology research activity the FA supports.

  15. [Economic Loss of Remaining Contents in Molecular Target Drug Preparation and the Simulation for Cost Saving].

    PubMed

    Usami, Eiseki; Kimura, Michio; Fukuoka, Tomohiro; Okada, Kazutomo; Yoshimura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-01

    While preparing an anticancer drug, even if it is an expensive molecular target drug, the remainder is not divided and saved for use in other patients; instead, it is discarded, resulting in waste of medical resources. In this study, we examined the economic loss in terms of medical costs by calculating the discarded amounts of 12 commonly used molecular target drugs at Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Japan between January 2012 and December 2014. We found, on average, that drugs valued at ¥ 52,593,182 were discarded annually. In particular, the discarded amounts of relatively expensive drugs, such as bevacizumab, bortezomib, and rituximab, were valued at ¥ 16,646,300, ¥ 15,866,289, and ¥ 8,401,324, respectively. Among these, the average amount of waste per administration of bortezomib was particularly expensive, at a cost of ¥ 67,325. Bortezomib is a commonly used treatment, resulting in excessive cumulative discarded cost. In an effort to save cost, we should consider using small capacity standard injections. Development of a simulation that used the remaining drug contents from only 1 day showed that bevacizumab alone accounts for an average cost saving of ¥1 2,542,191(75.3%) per year. This study suggests that effectively utilizing the remaining drug contents would ensure efficient use of medical resources, thereby reducing economic losses.

  16. Cost savings of telemedicine utilization for child psychiatry in a rural Kansas community.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Ryan; Belz, Norbert; DeLurgio, Stephen; Williams, Arthur R

    2010-10-01

    The costs of pediatric telemedicine services remain underreported and understudied; however, there is evidence that telepediatric services can be cost competitive with traditional ones. For 15 years, the University of Kansas Center for Telemedicine and Telehealth has been providing telemental health outreach from the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC). One service site is located in Crawford County, Kansas, which provides telepsychiatry services to children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the costs of operating the Crawford County site relative to accessing services at KUMC, the likely alternative service location. The cost of travel time to parents who accompanied a dependent to either location also was estimated. Patients and parents were examined over a 6-month period in 2006. One hundred thirty-two patients received 257 telemedicine psychiatric consultations during this period. Cost estimates for using the pediatric telemedicine service were assessed for all patients; however, travel and related costs were collected from a sample of 26 patient-parent dyads. The estimated costs of services were obtained using standard cost-accounting procedures. An average cost per consultation in Crawford County was $168.61. The cost savings in travel time and other expenses to parents and patients were substantial between use of the county site and KUMC. Subtracting average savings in travel costs to patients and parents produced an average cost of a telepsychiatry consult in Crawford County of only $30.99. This study was conducted over 6 months with a small number of observations; it should be replicated over a longer study period, with more patients, and with more data that might capture marginal costs of services.

  17. What are the cost savings associated with providing access to specialist care through the Champlain BASE eConsult service? A costing evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liddy, Clare; Drosinis, Paul; Deri Armstrong, Catherine; McKellips, Fanny; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsult cases completed between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015. Design Costing evaluation from the societal perspective estimating the costs and potential savings associated with all eConsults completed during the study period. Setting Champlain health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Population Primary care providers and specialists registered to use the eConsult service. Main outcome measures Costs included (1) delivery costs; (2) specialist remuneration; (3) costs associated with traditional (face-to-face) referrals initiated as a result of eConsult. Potential savings included (1) costs of traditional referrals avoided; (2) indirect patient savings through avoided travel and lost wages/productivity. Net potential societal cost savings were estimated by subtracting total costs from total potential savings. Results A total of 3487 eConsults were completed during the study period. In 40% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was originally contemplated but avoided as result of eConsult. In 3% of eConsults, a face-to-face specialist visit was not originally contemplated but was prompted as a result of the eConsult. From the societal perspective, total costs were estimated at $207 787 and total potential savings were $246 516. eConsult led to a net societal saving of $38 729 or $11 per eConsult. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate potential cost savings from the societal perspective, as patients avoided the travel costs and lost wages/productivity associated with face-to-face specialist visits. Greater savings are expected once we account for other costs such as avoided tests and visits and potential improved health outcomes associated with shorter wait times. Our findings are valuable for healthcare delivery decision-makers as they seek solutions to improve care in a patient-centred and efficient manner. PMID:27338880

  18. Vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in San Jose, California.

    PubMed

    Algert, Susan J; Baameur, Aziz; Renvall, Marian J

    2014-07-01

    Urban dwellers across the United States increasingly access a variety of fresh vegetables through participation in neighborhood-level community gardens. Here we document vegetable output and cost savings of community gardens in the city of San Jose, CA, to better understand the capacity of community gardens to affect food affordability in an urban setting. A convenience sample of 83 community gardeners in San Jose completed a background survey during spring and summer 2012. On average, gardeners were aged 57 years and had a monthly income of $4,900; 25% had completed college. A representative subset of 10 gardeners was recruited to weigh vegetable output of their plots using portable electronic scales at three separate garden sites. Accuracy of each portable scale was verified by comparing the weight of a sample vegetable to weights obtained using a lab scale precise to 0.2 oz. Garden yields and cost savings were tabulated overall for each plot. Results indicate that community garden practices are more similar to biointensive high-production farming, producing 0.75 lb vegetables/sq ft, rather than conventional agricultural practices, producing 0.60 lb/sq ft. Gardens produced on average 2.55 lb/plant and saved $435 per plot for the season. Results indicate that cost savings are greatest if vertical high value crops such as tomatoes and peppers are grown in community gardens, although yields depend on growing conditions, gardener's skill, availability of water, and other factors. Future research is needed to document cost savings and yields for specific crops grown in community gardens.

  19. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  20. Assessment of cost savings of DOE's return-on-investment program

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.L.; Tonn, B.; Morris, M.

    1999-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Pollution Prevention (EM-77) created is successful internally competed program to fund innovative projects based on projected returns. This is called the Return-on-Investment (ROI) program. EM-77 conducted a successful ROI pilot, developed and implemented sound management practices, and successfully transferred the program to several Operations Offices. Over the past 4 years sites have completed 262 ROI projects (costing $18.8 million) with claimed first-year savings of $88 million and claimed life cycle savings exceeding $300 million. EM-77 requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory perform an independent evaluation of the site-led, DOE-HQ-funded pollution prevention (P2) ROI program to assist the Department in determining whether claimed savings are real.

  1. Communicative diagnosis of cost-saving options for reducing nitrogen emission from pig finishing.

    PubMed

    Van Meensel, Jef; Lauwers, Ludwig; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2010-11-01

    Reducing nitrogen emission from livestock production is usually perceived as costly. Nevertheless, production process related measures addressing the transformation of input(s) into output(s) may result in a cost-saving reduction of nitrogen emission. This paper explores the separate and combined use of traditional key performance indicators and an environmentally adjusted Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to reveal firm-specific cost-saving mechanisms for pig-finishing farms. Traditional key performance indicators are easy to communicate but have shortcomings when assessing benchmarks for comparative farm analysis. The environmentally adjusted DEA decomposes both cost and environmental efficiencies into technical and allocative efficiency components, separating the physical production analysis from price and nutrient content information. DEA makes efficiency benchmarks and improvement paths explicit, but the practical value of such efficiency scores is low. This paper proposes to take advantage of both methods: concrete benchmarks and eligible improvement paths are assessed using frontier methods, while the decision variables that steer farmers towards changes are described in terms of traditional key performance indicators. This leads to an improved diagnosis that is easy to communicate to farmers and may therefore facilitate decision support. Our pig-finishing case study shows that farms can achieve economic-environmental win-win situations through improving technical, cost allocative and cost efficiencies, which are mainly driven by feed conversion. Less technical efficient farms are found to require a lower delivery weight in order to minimize costs, which shows the farm-specificity of economic-environmental improvement advice.

  2. Costs, effects, and savings of screening for cystic fibrosis gene carriers

    PubMed Central

    Wildhagen, M. F.; Hilderink, H. B.; Verzijl, J. G.; Verheij, J. B.; Kooij, L.; Tijmstra, T.; ten, K; Habbema, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the costs, effects, and savings of several strategies for cystic fibrosis (CF) gene carrier screening. DESIGN: A general model for evaluating prenatal, preconceptional, school, and neonatal carrier screening was constructed. For prenatal and preconceptional screening, two strategies were evaluated: single entry and double entry two step couple screening. Firstly, the Dutch situation was evaluated prospectively; subsequently the results were generalised to other carrier frequencies. SETTING: Prospective simulation model. MAIN RESULTS: Of all screening strategies, neonatal carrier screening gives most carrier couples an informed choice concerning reproduction. If the parents of carrier newborns would not be tested however, prenatal screening detects most carrier couples. Prenatal and single entry preconceptional screening programmes have a favourable cost-savings balance in the Netherlands under a wide range of assumptions. For double entry preconceptional screening and neonatal screening, high enough values of uptake of screening, prenatal diagnosis, and induced abortion are necessary. School carrier screening does not have a favourable cost-savings balance. CONCLUSIONS: If a CF screening programme is judged to be useful on individual and social grounds, costs considerations are no obstacle for prenatal and single entry preconceptional screening.   PMID:9799881

  3. Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

  4. Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

  5. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  6. Tankering Fuel on U.S. Air Force Transport Aircraft: An Assessment of Cost Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    software to determine whether their flights should tanker fuel to reduce operating costs. Since the Arabian oil embargo of 1973, air carriers have...Iraq and Afghanistan. The amounts of fuel that could potentially be tankered on these selected flights as well as the corresponding savings generated...possible need for compensation mechanisms within DoD as well as possible externalities that may result from an AMC tankering program. Our results

  7. Potentially preventable events: an actionable set of measures for linking quality improvement and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Norbert; Kelly, William P; Patel, Kavita

    2012-01-01

    Rising health care costs will result in reduced payments to providers, but across-the-board provider payment reductions are not the answer. Instead, existing payment systems should be reformed to strengthen value for the dollars spent. This can be accomplished by increasing efficiency, improving quality and outcomes, and lowering costs. Payment system reforms must be practical, transparent, identify opportunities for care improvement, and demonstrate material cost savings. Most importantly, because the current growth in health care costs is unsustainable, these reforms must be able to be implemented today. A set of comprehensive measures is being used by state government and private payers in the United States to adjust payment, based on improved outcomes quality. This article details the use of this set of measures, referred to as potentially preventable events, and demonstrates how they are being applied to achieve health care value.

  8. Graphic Warning Labels and the Cost Savings from Reduced Smoking among Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Peck, Richard M; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-02-08

    Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U.S. Data and Methods: This study uses several data sources. It uses Natality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 2013 to estimate the impact of prenatal smoking on the likelihood of having a low-birth-weight baby, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics as well as medical and non-medical risk factors. Using these estimates, along with the estimates of Huang et al. (2014) regarding the effect of GWLs on smoking, we calculate the change in the number of LBW (low birth weight) babies resulting from decreased prenatal smoking due to GWLs. Using this estimated change and the estimates from Russell et al. (2007) and AHRQ (2013) on the excess hospital costs of LBW babies, we calculate cost saving that arises from reduced prenatal smoking in response of GWLs. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicated that GWLs for this population could lead to hospital cost savings of 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion dollars over a 30 year horizon.

  9. Graphic Warning Labels and the Cost Savings from Reduced Smoking among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Peck, Richard M.; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has estimated the economic impact of Graphic Warning Labels (GWLs). By omitting the impact on tobacco consumption by pregnant women, the FDA analysis underestimates the economic benefits that would occur from the proposed regulations. There is a strong link between the occurrence of low birth weight babies and smoking while pregnant. Low birth weight babies in turn generate much higher hospital costs than normal birth weight babies. This study aims to fill the gap by quantifying the national hospital cost savings from the reductions in prenatal smoking that will arise if GWLs are implemented in the U.S. Data and Methods: This study uses several data sources. It uses Natality Data from the National Vital Statistics System of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 2013 to estimate the impact of prenatal smoking on the likelihood of having a low-birth-weight baby, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics as well as medical and non-medical risk factors. Using these estimates, along with the estimates of Huang et al. (2014) regarding the effect of GWLs on smoking, we calculate the change in the number of LBW (low birth weight) babies resulting from decreased prenatal smoking due to GWLs. Using this estimated change and the estimates from Russell et al. (2007) and AHRQ (2013) on the excess hospital costs of LBW babies, we calculate cost saving that arises from reduced prenatal smoking in response of GWLs. Results and Conclusions: Our results indicated that GWLs for this population could lead to hospital cost savings of 1.2 billion to 2.0 billion dollars over a 30 year horizon. PMID:28208749

  10. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  11. Rhode Island Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Rhode Island homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Rhode Island homeowners will save $11,011 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $629 for the 2012 IECC.

  12. Texas Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Texas homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Texas homeowners will save $3,456 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $259 for the 2012 IECC.

  13. Simulations Show Diagnostic Testing For Malaria In Young African Children Can Be Cost-Saving Or Cost-Effective

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Victoria; Njau, Joseph; Li, Shang; Kachur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria imposes a substantial global disease burden. It disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africans, particularly young children. In an effort to improve disease management, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended in 2010 that countries test children younger than age five who present with suspected malaria fever to confirm the diagnosis instead of treating them presumptively with antimalarial drugs. Costs and concerns about the overall health impact of such diagnostic testing for malaria in children remain barriers to full implementation. Using data from national Malaria Indicator Surveys, we estimated two-stage microsimulation models for Angola, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the policy’s cost-effectiveness. We found that diagnostic testing for malaria in children younger than five is cost-saving in Angola. In Tanzania and Uganda the cost per life-year gained is $5.54 and $94.28, respectively. The costs projected for Tanzania and Uganda are less than the WHO standard of $150 per life-year gained. Our results were robust under varying assumptions about cost, prevalence of malaria, and behavior, and they strongly suggest the pursuit of policies that facilitate full implementation of testing for malaria in children younger than five. PMID:26153315

  14. Mission science value-cost savings from the Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS) was proposed in the mid-1970s as an alternative to the Voyager data/communication system architecture. The AICS achieved virtually error free communication with little loss in the downlink data rate by concatenating a powerful Reed-Solomon block code with the Voyager convolutionally coded, Viterbi decoded downlink channel. The clean channel allowed AICS sophisticated adaptive data compression techniques. Both Voyager and the Galileo mission have implemented AICS components, and the concatenated channel itself is heading for international standardization. An analysis that assigns a dollar value/cost savings to AICS mission performance gains is presented. A conservative value or savings of $3 million for Voyager, $4.5 million for Galileo, and as much as $7 to 9.5 million per mission for future projects such as the proposed Mariner Mar 2 series is shown.

  15. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  16. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  17. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  18. Cost savings associated with 10 years of road safety policies in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Suelves, Josep M; Barbería, Eneko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the road safety policies introduced between 2000 and 2010 in Catalonia, Spain, which aimed primarily to reduce deaths from road traffic collisions by 50% by 2010, were associated with economic benefits to society. Methods A cost analysis was performed from a societal perspective with a 10-year time horizon. It considered the costs of: hospital admissions; ambulance transport; autopsies; specialized health care; police, firefighter and roadside assistance; adapting to disability; and productivity lost due to institutionalization, death or sick leave of the injured or their caregivers; as well as material and administrative costs. Data were obtained from a Catalan hospital registry, the Catalan Traffic Service information system, insurance companies and other sources. All costs were calculated in euros (€) at 2011 values. Findings A substantial reduction in deaths from road traffic collisions was observed between 2000 and 2010. Between 2001 and 2010, with the implementation of new road safety policies, there were 26 063 fewer road traffic collisions with victims than expected, 2909 fewer deaths (57%) and 25 444 fewer hospitalizations. The estimated total cost savings were around €18 000 million. Of these, around 97% resulted from reductions in lost productivity. Of the remaining cost savings, 63% were associated with specialized health care, 15% with adapting to disability and 8.1% with hospital care. Conclusion The road safety policies implemented in Catalonia in recent years were associated with a reduction in the number of deaths and injuries from traffic collisions and with substantial economic benefits to society. PMID:23397348

  19. Potential Cost Savings and Cost Avoidances Associated With Security Cooperation Training Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    WITH SECURITY COOPERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS December 2015 By: Michael J. Carroll Advisors: Latika Hartmann Ryan Sullivan...ASSOCIATED WITH SECURITY COOPERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael J. Carroll 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...particular focus on training of foreign military forces under 10 U.S. Code § 2282. Specifically, I analyze whether the cost of such training programs

  20. Standard Tools for Measuring Post Implementation TECH MOD (Technology Modernization) Cost Savings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AD-A±59 751 STANDARD TOOLS FOR MEASURING POST IMPLEMENTATION TECH 1/1 MOD (TECHNOLOGY MOD..(U) INFORMATION SPECTRUM INC RRLINGTON VA T SEARS 05 AUG...84-5082 AD-A 158 751 STANDARD TOOLS FOR MEASURING POST IMPLEMENTATION TECH MOD COST SAVINGS Information Spectrum, Inc. 1745 S. Jefferson Davis Highway...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. NO. 71113 11 11. TITLE (Incide Security Classi ication) 7suin P m (U) Standar T or Measuring Post Imple- 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  1. Existing Whole-House Case Study: Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations.

  2. Saving the cost and energy by an interactive multimedia system with ISDN 128 Kbps for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, T; Nakajima, I; Inagaki, T

    1999-10-01

    The telemedicine systems offer many potential advantages for health care delivery. In 1997, we implemented Phoenix, the interactive multimedia system of the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) for clinical application involving teleconsultations over a wide area for delivery of special care in emergency medicine at Tokai University linking with eight hospitals via the Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) 128 Kbps. This study was designed to determine the potential saving of the cost and energy through the interactive multimedia network. By using the interactive multimedia system with some modifications, we achieved a satisfactory real-time contact regarding clinical matters. We believe that this network has allowed appropriate transfer of information between medical centers. This system has also significantly reduced the estimated cost for clinical meetings.

  3. Extracorporeal life support: utilization, cost, controversy, and ethics of trying to save lives.

    PubMed

    Crow, Sheri; Fischer, Anne C; Schears, Raquel M

    2009-09-01

    Since the first successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in 1972, ECMO's role in the management of respiratory and circulatory collapse continues to be refined and debated. Randomized clinical trials aimed at establishing efficacy and patient selection criteria have been fraught with ethical challenges. Growing concerns over rising health care costs require that careful evaluations of cost, utilization, and ethical issues surrounding heroic life-saving interventions such as ECMO are undertaken. Continued analyses of ECMO's place in the medical management of respiratory and circulatory failure will help ensure that ECMO is used for not only prolonging life but also for providing a chance for "quality of life" following recovery from near-fatal illnesses.

  4. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-09

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE’s cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

  5. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

    2003-12-01

    This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

  6. Cost saving and safety issues in the Billings Area of the Western Area Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-11

    This report concerns possible cost savings that would result from a proposed transfer of power-dispatch functions from Fort Peck, Montana to Jamestown, North Dakota, in the Billings Area of the Western Area Power Administration (the Power Administration) and related issues concerning the reliability of service and the safety of personnel in the operation of the Billings Area of the Power Administration. Each of the three requests to the Inspector General (IG) raised the following questions: (1) Will the proposed transfer of the power dispatch function result in cost savings. (2) Will any detriment to the Power Administration's service to its Montana customers result from the transfer. (3) Will the safety of people who work on the electrical power systems in Montana be jeopardized by the transfer. IG recommended: (a) that the Power Administration reevaluate the adequacy of the plan to staff the Jamestown facility with a sufficient number of experienced power dispatchers familiar with the Montana power distribution system, and (b) that the Power Administration strictly enforce its published procedures for training, testing, and certifying operations and maintenance personnel.

  7. Mobile clinic in Massachusetts associated with cost savings from lowering blood pressure and emergency department use.

    PubMed

    Song, Zirui; Hill, Caterina; Bennet, Jennifer; Vavasis, Anthony; Oriol, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health clinics are in increasingly wide use, but evidence of their clinical impact or cost-effectiveness is limited. Using a unique data set of 5,900 patients who made a total of 10,509 visits in 2010-12 to the Family Van, an urban mobile health clinic in Massachusetts, we examined the effect of screenings and counseling provided by the clinic on blood pressure. Patients who presented with high blood pressure during their initial visit experienced average reductions of 10.7 mmHg and 6.2 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, during their follow-up visits. These changes were associated with 32.2 percent and 44.6 percent reductions in the relative risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively, which we converted into savings using estimates of the incidence and costs of these conditions over thirty months. The savings from this reduction in blood pressure and patient-reported avoided emergency department visits produced a positive lower bound for the clinic's return on investment of 1.3. All other services of the clinic-those aimed at diabetes, obesity, and maternal health, for example-were excluded from this lower-bound estimate. Policy makers should consider mobile clinics as a delivery model for underserved communities with poor health status and high use of emergency departments.

  8. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  9. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1) a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2) the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices). Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity. PMID:21999434

  10. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  11. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  12. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  13. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-08-06

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is $6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient.

  14. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2014-02-15

    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option.

  15. Vehicle Lightweighting: 40% and 45% Weight Savings Analysis: Technical Cost Modeling for Vehicle Lightweighting

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarin, Anthony; Hannibal, Ted; Raghunathan, Anand; Ivanic, Ziga; Francfort, James

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, Materials area commissioned a study to model and assess manufacturing economics of alternative design and production strategies for a series of lightweight vehicle concepts. The strategic targets were a 40% and a 45% mass reduction relative to a standard North American midsize passenger sedan at an effective cost of $3.42 per pound (lb) saved. The baseline vehicle was an average of several available vehicles in this class. Mass and cost breakdowns from several sources were used, including original equipment manufacturers’ (OEMs’) input through U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office programs and public presentations, A2Mac1 LLC’s teardown information, Lotus Engineering Limited and FEV, Inc. breakdowns in their respective lightweighting studies, and IBIS Associates, Inc.’s decades of experience in automotive lightweighting and materials substitution analyses. Information on lightweighting strategies in this analysis came from these same sources and the ongoing U.S. Department of Energy-funded Vehma International of America, Inc. /Ford Motor Company Multi-Material Lightweight Prototype Vehicle Demonstration Project, the Aluminum Association Transportation Group, and many United States Council for Automotive Research’s/United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC lightweight materials programs.

  16. The efficacy of fetal fibronectin testing in minimising hospital admissions, length of hospital stay and cost savings in women presenting with symptoms of pre-term labour.

    PubMed

    Dutta, D; Norman, J E

    2010-01-01

    The following review includes a number of studies on the effect of fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing and non-testing, as well as the positive and negative test results, some combining with transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length primarily to reduce hospital admissions and length of hospital stay (with associated reduction in health service costs), in women presenting to hospital with symptoms of pre-term labour. English language medical literature was analysed using the search parameters: fetal fibronectin, cervical length, preterm labour, hospital admissions and length of stay. A total of 19 studies were included. Ten of these discussed the role of fFN in decreasing hospital admissions, transfers, length of stay and interventions like corticosteroids and tocolytics. Seven studies demonstrated a correlation of fFN testing with an actual estimate of cost savings of health resources. Five studies explored the combined predictability of fetal fibronectin and cervical length with regards to pre-term labour.

  17. Color tunable low cost transparent heat reflector using copper and titanium oxide for energy saving application.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Chua, Sing Teng; Sharma, Mohit; Wong, Ten It; Tan, Hui Ru; Chi, Dongzhi

    2016-02-05

    Multilayer coating structure comprising a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between titanium dioxide (TiO2) were demonstrated as a transparent heat reflecting (THR) coating on glass for energy-saving window application. The main highlight is the utilization of Cu, a low-cost material, in-lieu of silver which is widely used in current commercial heat reflecting coating on glass. Color tunable transparent heat reflecting coating was realized through the design of multilayer structure and process optimization. The impact of thermal treatment on the overall performance of sputter deposited TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film on glass substrate is investigated in detail. Significant enhancement of transmittance in the visible range and reflectance in the infra-red (IR) region has been observed after thermal treatment of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film at 500 °C due to the improvement of crystal quality of TiO2. Highest visible transmittance of 90% and IR reflectance of 85% at a wavelength of 1200 nm are demonstrated for the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film after annealing at 500 °C. Performance of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 heat reflector coating decreases after thermal treatment at 600 °C. The wear performance of the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer structure has been evaluated through scratch hardness test. The present work shows promising characteristics of Cu-based THR coating for energy-saving building industry.

  18. Color tunable low cost transparent heat reflector using copper and titanium oxide for energy saving application

    PubMed Central

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Chua, Sing Teng; Sharma, Mohit; Wong, Ten It; Tan, Hui Ru; Chi, Dongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer coating structure comprising a copper (Cu) layer sandwiched between titanium dioxide (TiO2) were demonstrated as a transparent heat reflecting (THR) coating on glass for energy-saving window application. The main highlight is the utilization of Cu, a low-cost material, in-lieu of silver which is widely used in current commercial heat reflecting coating on glass. Color tunable transparent heat reflecting coating was realized through the design of multilayer structure and process optimization. The impact of thermal treatment on the overall performance of sputter deposited TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film on glass substrate is investigated in detail. Significant enhancement of transmittance in the visible range and reflectance in the infra-red (IR) region has been observed after thermal treatment of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film at 500 °C due to the improvement of crystal quality of TiO2. Highest visible transmittance of 90% and IR reflectance of 85% at a wavelength of 1200 nm are demonstrated for the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer thin film after annealing at 500 °C. Performance of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 heat reflector coating decreases after thermal treatment at 600 °C. The wear performance of the TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayer structure has been evaluated through scratch hardness test. The present work shows promising characteristics of Cu-based THR coating for energy-saving building industry. PMID:26846687

  19. Public Savings from the Prevention of Unintended Pregnancy: A Cost Analysis of Family Planning Services in California

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Gorette; Foster, Diana Greene; Biggs, M Antonia; Jasik, Carolyn Bradner; Judd, Signy; Brindis, Claire D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the short-term economic savings associated with the prevention of unintended pregnancies through California's Medicaid family planning demonstration project. Data Sources Secondary data from health and social service programs available to pregnant or parenting women at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level in California in 2002 and data on the quantity and type of contraceptives dispensed to clients of California's 1115 Federal Medicaid demonstration project. Study Design The cost of providing publicly funded family planning services was compared with an estimate of public savings resulting from the prevention of unintended pregnancies. Data Collection To estimate costs and participation rates in each health and social service program, we examined published program reports, government budgetary data, analyses conducted by federal and state level program managers, and calculations from national datasets. Findings The unintended pregnancies averted by California's family planning demonstration project in 2002 would have incurred $1.1 billion in public expenditures within 2 years and $2.2 billion within 5 years, significantly more than the $403.8 million spent on the project. Each dollar spent generated savings of $2.76 within 2 years and $5.33 within 5 years. Conclusions The California 1115 Medicaid family planning demonstration project resulted in significant public cost savings. The cost of the project was substantially less than the public sector health and social service costs which would have occurred in its absence. PMID:17850528

  20. Potential hospital cost-savings attributed to improvements in outcomes for colorectal cancer surgery following self-audit

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the potential benefits of surgical audit is improved hospital cost-efficiencies arising from lower resource consumption associated with fewer adverse events. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential cost-savings for Australian hospitals from improved surgical performance for colorectal surgery attributed to a surgical self-audit program. Methods We used a mathematical decision-model to investigate cost differences in usual practice versus surgical audit and synthesized published hospital cost data with epidemiological evidence of adverse surgical events in Australia and New Zealand. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess post-operative outcomes from colorectal surgery and effectiveness of surgical audit. Results were subjected to both one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to address uncertainty in model parameters. Results If surgical self-audit facilitated the reduction of adverse surgical events by half those currently reported for colorectal cancer surgery, the potential cost-savings to hospitals is AU$48,720 (95% CI: $18,080-$89,260) for each surgeon treating 20 cases per year. A smaller 25% reduction in adverse events produced cost-savings of AU$24,960 per surgeon (95%CI: $1,980-$62,980). Potential hospital savings for all operative colorectal cancer cases was estimated at AU$30.3 million each year. Conclusions Surgical self-audit has the potential to create substantial hospital cost-savings for colorectal cancer surgery in Australia when considering the widespread incidence of this disease. The study is limited by the current availability and quality of data estimates abstracted from the published literature. Further evidence on the effectiveness of self-audit is required to substantiate these findings. PMID:20105290

  1. Return on Investment: A Fuller Assessment of the Benefits and Cost Savings of the US Publicly Funded Family Planning Program

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Jennifer J; Sonfield, Adam; Zolna, Mia R; Finer, Lawrence B

    2014-01-01

    Context Each year the United States’ publicly supported family planning program serves millions of low-income women. Although the health impact and public-sector savings associated with this program's services extend well beyond preventing unintended pregnancy, they never have been fully quantified. Methods Drawing on an array of survey data and published parameters, we estimated the direct national-level and state-level health benefits that accrued from providing contraceptives, tests for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Pap tests and tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccinations at publicly supported family planning settings in 2010. We estimated the public cost savings attributable to these services and compared those with the cost of publicly funded family planning services in 2010 to find the net public-sector savings. We adjusted our estimates of the cost savings for unplanned births to exclude some mistimed births that would remain publicly funded if they had occurred later and to include the medical costs for births through age 5 of the child. Findings In 2010, care provided during publicly supported family planning visits averted an estimated 2.2 million unintended pregnancies, including 287,500 closely spaced and 164,190 preterm or low birth weight (LBW) births, 99,100 cases of chlamydia, 16,240 cases of gonorrhea, 410 cases of HIV, and 13,170 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease that would have led to 1,130 ectopic pregnancies and 2,210 cases of infertility. Pap and HPV tests and HPV vaccinations prevented an estimated 3,680 cases of cervical cancer and 2,110 cervical cancer deaths; HPV vaccination also prevented 9,000 cases of abnormal sequelae and precancerous lesions. Services provided at health centers supported by the Title X national family planning program accounted for more than half of these benefits. The gross public savings attributed to these services totaled approximately

  2. National and State Cost Savings Associated With Prohibiting Smoking in Subsidized and Public Housing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Richard M.; Babb, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite progress in implementing smoke-free laws in indoor public places and workplaces, millions of Americans remain exposed to secondhand smoke at home. The nation’s 80 million multiunit housing residents, including the nearly 7 million who live in subsidized or public housing, are especially susceptible to secondhand smoke infiltration between units. Methods We calculated national and state costs that could have been averted in 2012 if smoking were prohibited in all US subsidized housing, including public housing: 1) secondhand smoke-related direct health care, 2) renovation of smoking-permitted units; and 3) smoking-attributable fires. Annual cost savings were calculated by using residency estimates from the Department of Housing and Urban Development and cost data reported elsewhere. Data were adjusted for inflation and variations in state costs. National and state estimates (excluding Alaska and the District of Columbia) were calculated by cost type. Results Prohibiting smoking in subsidized housing would yield annual cost savings of $496.82 million (range, $258.96–$843.50 million), including $310.48 million ($154.14–$552.34 million) in secondhand smoke-related health care, $133.77 million ($75.24–$209.01 million) in renovation expenses, and $52.57 million ($29.57–$82.15 million) in smoking-attributable fire losses. By state, cost savings ranged from $0.58 million ($0.31–$0.94 million) in Wyoming to $124.68 million ($63.45–$216.71 million) in New York. Prohibiting smoking in public housing alone would yield cost savings of $152.91 million ($79.81–$259.28 million); by state, total cost savings ranged from $0.13 million ($0.07–$0.22 million) in Wyoming to $57.77 million ($29.41–$100.36 million) in New York. Conclusion Prohibiting smoking in all US subsidized housing, including public housing, would protect health and could generate substantial societal cost savings. PMID:25275808

  3. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  4. Potential Savings in Rural Public School Non-Instructional Costs through Shared Services Arrangements: A Regional Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ECM, Inc., Williamsville, NY.

    A study was undertaken in 16 rural New York school districts to determine the feasibility of sharing noninstructional services as an avenue to achieving cost savings and enhanced services. The districts involved were within the Delaware/Chenango/Madison/Otsego BOCES (Board of Cooperative Educational Services) in a rural mountainous region of…

  5. How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This guide addresses contributions that school facility administrators and business officials can make in an effort to reduce operating costs and free up money for capital improvements. The guide explores opportunities available to utilize energy-saving strategies at any stage in a building's life, from its initial design phase through renovation.…

  6. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  7. The energy consumption and cost savings of truck electrification for heavy duty vocational applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Lin, Zhenhong; Franzese, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks. A simulation tool based on vehicle tractive energy methodology and component efficiency for addressing component and system performance was developed to evaluate the energy consumption and performance of the trucks. As part of this analysis, various battery sizes combined with different charging powers on the E-Trucks for local delivery and utility bucket applications were investigated. The results show that the E-Truck applications not only reduce energy consumption but also achieve significant energy cost savings. For delivery E-Trucks, the results show that periodic stops at delivery sites provide sufficient time for battery charging, and for this reason, a high-power charger is not necessary. For utility bucket PHEV trucks, energy consumption per mile of bucket truck operation is typically higher because of longer idling times and extra high idling load associated with heavy utility work. The availability of on-route charging is typically lacking at the work sites of bucket trucks; hence, the battery size of these trucks is somewhat larger than that of the delivery trucks studied.

  8. Home palliative care as a cost-saving alternative: evidence from Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Serra-Prat, M; Gallo, P; Picaza, J M

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comparative assessment of the health care resources consumed during the final month of life of patients undergoing palliative treatment and who died from cancer in the town of Mataró, Spain, in 1998, with respect to whether they benefited from home care teams or not. Relevant differences in the use of health care resources were found between the groups. Patients in the standard care group presented more hospital care admissions and longer length of stay, higher use of emergency and outpatient visits, and greater use of palliative care units within nursing homes than patients in the home care group. The monetary quantification of the use of the above-mentioned resources showed a 71% increase in the cost per patient in the standard care when compared to home care. According to the results of this study, home care teams for terminal cancer patients allow for savings to the health care system. A series of policy making and health services research implications are discussed.

  9. Real-time data collection technologies: Enhanced decision-making and cost savings January, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, T.L.; Vu, H.Q.

    2006-07-01

    Hand-held computers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and wireless communication devices are rapidly replacing traditional methods for field monitoring and data collection. Although pencil and paper remain important means of data transcription, field technicians can now use Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to record their field notes and monitoring data. As data are uploaded wirelessly from the field, decision-makers can view realtime reports and maps that identify sample locations and monitoring results. The combination of PDAs, wireless communications, and web-based GIS provides field personnel and decision-makers many benefits throughout the life cycle of a project, including improved data consistency, real-time transfer of data from field locations to centralized databases, input validation, elimination of transcription errors, and cost savings. Concerns have been expressed however, about investing in hardware, software, and training for a new technology. This paper, based on several years of experience using wireless technologies for dozens of projects, is focused specifically on two case studies. The first case study is a large lead removal site in the Midwest at which real-time data collection technologies were used throughout the project to collect thousands of data points. The second is the Hurricane Katrina/Rita emergency response requiring rapid data collection under extraordinary circumstances. At both sites, the use of real-time data collection technologies significantly improved the data management process which reduced overall costs and increased efficiency. These results could not have been achieved using traditional data collection procedures. The oral presentation will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the real-time data collection technologies, lessons learned, and planning considerations. A live demonstration, following a typical data collection scenario in which data are collected and plotted on a GIS map in near real

  10. 76 FR 22410 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Mortgagor's Certificate of Actual Cost

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. This Notice... profits. Its provides a base for evaluating housing programs, labor costs, and ] physical improvements in.... Estimation of the total numbers of hours needed to prepare the information collection including number...

  11. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB Briefly Stated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    The Legislature mandated the California Research Bureau (CRB) explore known best practices for charter school authorizers and survey California authorizers about their practices and costs. Additionally, the Legislature mandated CRB provide an analysis of current reimbursement for charter school oversight and include suggestions for improving…

  12. Operations and Maintenance Costs for New Major U.S. Coast Guard Platforms: Projected Versus Actual Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    expected OG-41 costs during two years out of the four years of data available. Even so, the budget predictions were sig - nificantly higher in the...the t-distribution table for a 0.05 sig - nificance level is used to identify the critical value, denoted as tdf . This test is called a two-tailed...the unusually high degree. Multiple regressions were conducted for the cutters and more sig - nificant results were obtained. 48 TABLE 8 CORRELATION

  13. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  14. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  15. Rumble over jailhouse healthcare. As states broaden outsourcing to private vendors, critics question quality of care and cost savings.

    PubMed

    Kutscher, Beth; Meyer, Harris

    2013-09-02

    The trend for states to outsource prison healthcare has met opposition from inmate advocates and legal aid groups. They fear quality of care will suffer, while others debate whether outsourcing care saves any money. Corizon, the largest U.S. private prison healthcare provider, says it definitely delivers savings. "We are the model because we've been doing capitated rates since we've been in business. Our cost per individual is significantly less than in the 'free world,' "says Corizon CEO Rich Hallworth.

  16. Standardization and program effect analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment commonality analysis. [cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokari, T.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum mission, and (5) Tiros-N. It is concluded that flight-proven hardware can be used with not-too-extensive modification, and significant savings can be realized. The cost savings for each component are presented.

  17. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  18. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  19. Cost/Value Approach to Insulation Produces Savings at Sibley School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An energy savings study revealed that adding insulation to an existing building and reducing ventilation loads would enable the school to heat both the existing building and the addition with existing boiler equipment. (Author/MLF)

  20. Michigan Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the Michigan Uniform Energy Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Michigan homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the Michigan Uniform Energy Code is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Michigan homeowners will save $10,081 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $604 for the 2012 IECC.

  1. Scope-of-practice laws for nurse practitioners limit cost savings that can be achieved in retail clinics.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Joanne; Parente, Stephen T; Town, Robert J; Bazarko, Dawn

    2013-11-01

    Retail clinics have the potential to reduce health spending by offering convenient, low-cost access to basic health care services. Retail clinics are often staffed by nurse practitioners (NPs), whose services are regulated by state scope-of-practice regulations. By limiting NPs' work scope, restrictive regulations could affect possible cost savings. Using multistate insurance claims data from 2004-07, a period in which many retail clinics opened, we analyzed whether the cost per episode associated with the use of retail clinics was lower in states where NPs are allowed to practice independently and to prescribe independently. We also examined whether retail clinic use and scope of practice were associated with emergency department visits and hospitalizations. We found that visits to retail clinics were associated with lower costs per episode, compared to episodes of care that did not begin with a retail clinic visit, and the costs were even lower when NPs practiced independently. Eliminating restrictions on NPs' scope of practice could have a large impact on the cost savings that can be achieved by retail clinics.

  2. Defense Health Care Reform: Actions Needed to Help Realize Potential Cost Savings from Medical Education and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    that the creation of the Directorate serves more as a functional realignment than a cost savings endeavor. Without a fully developed business case...responsibility for numerous functions of its medical health care system, support the services in carrying out their medical missions, manage the...oversight functions , including management of online courses and modeling and simulation programs; and (3) management of academic and administrative

  3. Energy Efficiency and Least-Cost Planning: The Best Way to Save Money and Reduce Energy Use in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mowris, Robert J.

    1990-05-21

    If the 500 MW geothermal project on the Big Island of Hawaii is developed as planned, the Wao Kele O Puna rain forest will be severely damaged or destroyed. If this happens the State will lose one of its most precious resources. It would be tragic for this to happen, since on a least-cost basis, the geothermal project does not make economic sense. Improving energy efficiency in the commercial and residential sectors of Hawaii can save about 500 MW of power at a cost of $700 million.

  4. Illustration of Cost Saving Implications of Lower Extremity Nerve Decompression to Prevent Recurrence of Diabetic Foot Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Timothy M.; Miller, John D.; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Nickerson, D. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The US diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) incidence is 3-4% of 22.3 million diagnosed diabetes cases plus 6.3 million undiagnosed, 858 000 cases total. Risk of recurrence after healing is 30% annually. Lower extremity multiple nerve decompression (ND) surgery reduces neuropathic DFU (nDFU) recurrence risk by >80%. Cost effectiveness of hypothetical ND implementation to minimize nDFU recurrence is compared to the current $6.171 billion annual nDFU expense. A literature review identified best estimates of annual incidence, recurrence risk, medical management expense, and noneconomic costs for DFU. Illustrative cost/benefit calculations were performed assuming widespread application of bilateral ND after wound healing to the nDFU problem, using Center for Medicare Services mean expense data of $1143/case for unilateral lower extremity ND. Calculations use conservative, evidence-based cost figures, which are contemporary (2012) or adjusted for inflation. Widespread adoption of ND after nDFU healing could reduce annual DFU occurrences by at least 21% in the third year and 24% by year 5, representing calculated cost savings of $1.296 billion (year 3) to $1.481 billion (year 5). This scenario proffers significant expense reduction and societal benefit, and represents a minimum 1.9× return on the investment cost for surgical treatment. Further large cost savings would require reductions in initial DFU incidence, which ND might achieve by selective application to advanced diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). By minimizing the contribution of recurrences to yearly nDFU incidence, ND has potential to reduce by nearly $1 billion the annual cost of DFU treatment in the United States. PMID:26055081

  5. Building America Case Study: Low-Cost Evaluation of Energy Savings at the Community Scale, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    A new construction pilot community was constructed by builder-partner Wathen-Castanos Hybrid Homes (WCHH) based on a single occupied test house that was designed to achieve greater than 30% energy savings with respect to the House Simulation Protocols (Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn (2010). Building America House Simulation Protocols. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.). Builders face several key problems when implementing a whole-house systems integrated measures package (SIMP) from a single test house into multiple houses. Although a technical solution already may have been evaluated and validated in an individual test house, the potential exists for constructability failures at the community scale. This report addresses factors of implementation and scalability at the community scale and proposes methodologies by which community-scale energy evaluations can be performed based on results at the occupied test house level. Research focused on the builder and trade implementation of a SIMP and the actual utility usage in the houses at the community scale of production. Five occupants participated in this community-scale research by providing utility bills and information on occupancy and miscellaneous gas and electric appliance use for their houses. IBACOS used these utility data and background information to analyze the actual energy performance of the houses. Verification with measured data is an important component in predictive energy modeling. The actual utility bill readings were compared to projected energy consumption using BEopt with actual weather and thermostat set points for normalization.

  6. Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= = = Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D ...oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ã= ëéçåëçêÉÇ=oÉéçêí=pÉêáÉë= Potential Cost Savings for Use of 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and

  7. National Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: A Comparison of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 Editions of the IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yield positive benefits for U.S. homeowners and significant energy savings for the nation. Moving from a baseline of the 2006 IECC to the 2009 IECC reduces average annual energy costs by 10.8%, while moving from the same baseline to the 2012 IECC reduces them by 32.1%. These reductions amount to annual energy cost savings of $168 and $497, respectively. The 2012 IECC saves $329 in energy costs compared to the 2009 IECC.

  8. Standardization: Hardware and Software Standardization Can Reduce Costs and Save Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Young, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Sadly, technical support doesn't come cheap. One money-saving strategy that's gained popularity among school technicians is equipment and software standardization. When it works, standardization can be very effective. However, standardization has its drawbacks. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of standardization.

  9. 25 CFR 900.134 - At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost-reimbursement contract? 900.134 Section 900.134 Indians BUREAU OF... At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a...

  10. 25 CFR 900.134 - At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost-reimbursement contract? 900.134 Section 900.134 Indians BUREAU OF... At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a...

  11. 25 CFR 900.134 - At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost-reimbursement contract? 900.134 Section 900.134 Indians BUREAU OF... At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a...

  12. 25 CFR 900.134 - At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost-reimbursement contract? 900.134 Section 900.134 Indians BUREAU OF... At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a...

  13. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  14. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  15. Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High-Energy-Saving Dynamic Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    greenhouse gas HVAC heating, ventilation, air-conditioning IGU insulated glass unit ISO International Organization for Standardization JCI Johnson...from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 24%, representing an annual savings of ~$680M. At the same time, replacing existing...If broadly adopted, View’s dynamic windows technology could reduce global DoD energy consumption from buildings by 15% and greenhouse gas (GHG

  16. Colorado Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-04

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) yield positive benefits for Colorado homeowners. Moving to either the 2009 or 2012 IECC from the 2006 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Colorado homeowners will save $1,528 over 30 years under the 2009 IECC, with savings still higher at $5,435 under the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2009 and 2 years with the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $119 for the 2009 IECC and $392 for the 2012 IECC.

  17. Cost-Savings Achieved in Two Semesters through the Adoption of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John Levi, III; Robinson, Jared; Wiley, David; Ackerman, J. Dale

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks represent a significant portion of the overall cost of higher education in the United States. The burden of these costs is typically shouldered by students, those who support them, and the taxpayers who fund the grants and student loans which pay for textbooks. Open educational resources (OER) provide students a way to receive…

  18. Mississippi Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) yield positive benefits for Mississippi homeowners. Moving to either the 2009 or 2012 IECC from the 2006 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Mississippi homeowners will save $2,022 over 30 years under the 2009 IECC, with savings still higher at $5,400 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for both the 2009 and 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $164 for the 2009 IECC and $422 for the 2012 IECC.

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  20. California Federal Facilities: Rate-Responsive Building Operation for Deeper Cost and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic pricing electricity tariffs, now the default for large customers in California (peak demand of 200 kW and higher for PG&E and SCE, and 20 kW and higher for SDG&E), are providing Federal facilities new opportunities to cut their electricity bills and help them meet their energy savings mandates. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has created this fact sheet to help California federal facilities take advantage of these opportunities through “rate-responsive building operation.” Rate-responsive building operation involves designing your load management strategies around your facility’s variable electric rate, using measures that require little or no financial investment.

  1. Cost/benefit of synbiotics in acute infectious gastroenteritis: spend to save.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Y; De Hert, S

    2012-09-01

    The cost/benefit ratio of probiotics in the ambulatory treatment of acute infectious gastro-enteritis with or without a synbiotic food supplement (containing fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic strains of Streptoccoccus thermophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium infantis) has been studied. 111 children (median age 37 and 43 months for the synbiotic and placebo group, respectively) with acute infectious gastroenteritis were included in a randomised, prospective placebo-controlled trial performed in primary health care. All children were treated with an oral rehydration solution and with the synbiotic food supplement (n=57) or placebo (n=54). Physicians were allowed to prescribe additional medication according to what they considered as 'necessary'. Cost of add-on medication and total healthcare cost were calculated. Median duration of diarrhoea was 1 day shorter (95% confidence interval -0.6 to -1.9 days) in the symbiotic than in the placebo group (P<0.005). Significantly more concomitant medication (antibiotics, antipyretics, antiemetics) was prescribed in the placebo group (39 prescriptions in 28 patients) compared to the synbiotic group (12 prescriptions in 7 patients) (P<0.001). The difference was most striking for antiemetics: 28 vs. 5 prescriptions. The cost of add-on medication in the placebo group was evaluated at € 4.04/patient (median 4.97 (interquartile (IQ) 25-75: 0-4.97)) vs. € 1.13 /patient in the synbiotic arm (P<0.001). If the cost of the synbiotic is considered, median cost raised to € 7.15/patient (IQ 25-75: 7.15-7.15) (P<0.001). The extra consultations needed to prescribe the concomitant medication resulted in a higher health care cost in the placebo group (€ 14.41 vs. € 10.74/patient, P<0.001). Synbiotic food supplementation resulted in a 24 h earlier normalisation of stool consistency. Although use of the synbiotic supplementation increased cost, add-on medication and

  2. Cost-Savings Analysis of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Community-Based Project for Young Children and Their Families: A 10-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ray DeV; Petrunka, Kelly; Khan, Shahriar; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Nelson, Geoffrey; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the long-term cost-savings of the Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) initiative, a community-based early intervention project for young children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods during their transition to primary school. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal two-group design was used to compare costs and outcomes for children and families in three BBBF project neighborhoods (n = 401) and two comparison neighborhoods (n = 225). A cost-savings analysis was conducted using all project costs for providing up to 4 years of BBBF programs when children were in junior kindergarten (JK) (4 years old) to grade 2 (8 years old). Data on 19 government service cost measures were collected from the longitudinal research sample from the time the youth were in JK through to grade 12 (18 years old), 10 years after ending project participation. The average family incremental net savings to government of providing the BBBF project was $6331 in 2014 Canadian dollars. When the BBBF monetary return to government as a ratio of savings to costs was calculated, for every dollar invested by the government, a return of $2.50 per family was saved. Findings from this study have important implications for government investments in early interventions focused on a successful transition to primary school as well as parenting programs and community development initiatives in support of children's development.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  4. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  6. Energy savings and cost-benefit analysis of the new commercial building standard in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shanguo; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Shicong; Hou, Jing; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark

    2015-10-07

    In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the commercial building energy efficiency standard between the previous 2005 version and the new proposed version is conducted, including the energy efficiency analysis and cost-benefit analysis. To better understand the tech-economic performance of the new Chinese standard, energy models were set up based on a typical commercial office building in Chinese climate zones. The building energy standard in 2005 is used as the baseline for this analysis. Key building technologies measures are analyzed individually, including roof, wall, window, lighting and chiller and so on and finally whole building cost-benefit analysis was conducted. Results show that the new commercial building energy standard demonstrates good cost-effective performance, with whole building payback period around 4 years.

  7. Energy savings and cost-benefit analysis of the new commercial building standard in China

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Shanguo; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Shicong; ...

    2015-10-07

    In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the commercial building energy efficiency standard between the previous 2005 version and the new proposed version is conducted, including the energy efficiency analysis and cost-benefit analysis. To better understand the tech-economic performance of the new Chinese standard, energy models were set up based on a typical commercial office building in Chinese climate zones. The building energy standard in 2005 is used as the baseline for this analysis. Key building technologies measures are analyzed individually, including roof, wall, window, lighting and chiller and so on and finally whole building cost-benefit analysis was conducted. Resultsmore » show that the new commercial building energy standard demonstrates good cost-effective performance, with whole building payback period around 4 years.« less

  8. A Simple Cost Saving Measure: 2.5% Mafenide Acetate Solution

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Amir; Fagan, Shawn; Keaney, Tim; Sarhane, Karim A.; Hursey, Derek A; Chang, Philip; Sheridan, Rob; Ryan, Colleen; Tompkins, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Objective The optimal concentration of mafenide acetate solution for use in the treatment of burns is unknown. Despite data supporting the use of a 2.5% solution, 5% formulation is traditionally used, and has been the highest costing medication on formulary. The aim of the current study is to evaluate cost and patient outcomes associated with a new policy implementing the use of 2.5% solution in burn patients and restricting the 5% formulation to specific indications only. Methods A retrospective review of all patients receiving mafenide acetate solution at a single pediatric burn hospital was performed before and after the initiation of the new policy on the use of 5% versus 2.5% solution. Duration of therapy, adverse events, cost, incidence of wound infection and bacteremia were analysed. Results In 2009, 69 patients were treated with 5% mafenide acetate solution for a total cost of $125,000 ($1811/patient). In 2010, following the initiation of the policy, 48 patients were treated: 19 received 5% mafenide acetate solution with appropriate indication, while the remaining 29 received 2.5% solution for a total cost of $38,632 ($804/patient). There were no significant changes in the incidence of bacteremia or wound infection. No side effects of either solution were noted. Conclusions Under certain conditions, a 2.5% mafenide acetate solution appears sufficient. In this multinational pediatric burn hospital, the use of a 2.5% solution was not associated with increased bacteremia or wound infection and proved to be more cost-effective. PMID:24043238

  9. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  10. Costs for integrating wind into the future ERCOT system with related costs for savings in CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Sluzas, Nora A

    2011-04-01

    Wind power can make an important contribution to the goal of reducing emissions of CO2. The major problem relates to the intrinsic variability of the source and the difficulty of reconciling the supply of electricity with demand particularly at high levels of wind penetration. This challenge is explored for the case of the ERCOT system in Texas. Demand for electricity in Texas is projected to increase by approximately 60% by 2030. Considering hourly load data reported for 2006, assuming that the pattern of demand in 2030 should be similar to 2006, and adopting as a business as usual (BAU) reference an assumption that the anticipated additional electricity should be supplied by a combination of coal and gas with prices, discounted to 2007 dollars of $2 and $6 per MMBTU respectively, we conclude that the bus-bar price for electricity would increase by about 1.1 ¢/kWh at a wind penetration level of 30%, by about 3.4 ¢/kWh at a penetration level of 80%. Corresponding costs for reductions in CO2 range from $20/ton to $60/ton. A number of possibilities are discussed that could contribute to a reduction in these costs including the impact of an expanded future fleet of electrically driven vehicles.

  11. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year.

  12. Pooling Ocular Swab Specimens from Tanzania for testing by Roche Amplicor and Aptima Combo 2 Assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis: Accuracy and Cost Savings

    PubMed Central

    Dize, Laura; West, Sheila; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular swabs collected in Tanzania were evaluated by Amplicor CT and Aptima Combo2 assays for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) to determine if pooling could be used to reduce the cost of detection. Pooling would be an accurate method and so far resulted in a cost-savings of 62.2%. PMID:24079951

  13. Colleges Curtail Costs but Rarely Count How Much They Have Saved, Report Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    As higher-education institutions across the country struggle with constrained sources of funds, more than 80 percent of state institutions said they rely on energy-management programs to reduce operating costs, according to a report released by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (Aascu). The report, based on a survey of…

  14. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-29

    Texas A&M University is operating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at its district energy campus in College Station, Texas. Texas A&M received $10 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for this project. Private-sector cost share totaled $40 million.

  15. Cost Savings Threshold Analysis of a Capacity-Building Program for HIV Prevention Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauner, Kim Nichols; Oglesby, Willie H.; Richter, Donna L.; LaRose, Christopher M.; Holtgrave, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Although the incidence of HIV each year remains steady, prevention funding is increasingly competitive. Programs need to justify costs in terms of evaluation outcomes, including economic ones. Threshold analyses set performance standards to determine program effectiveness relative to that threshold. This method was used to evaluate the potential…

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  17. The Penumbra 5MAX ACE Catheter Is Safe, Efficient, and Cost Saving as a Primary Mechanical Thrombectomy Device for Large Vessel Occlusions in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Gabriel A.; Milburn, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reperfusion of large vessel occlusions in acute stroke can improve patient outcomes. The purposes of this study were to assess the safety and efficacy of the Penumbra 5MAX ACE catheter for revascularization of large vessels and to compare its cost to the cost of stent retrievers. Methods: In this retrospective, single-center case review study, data were captured on consecutive patients treated with the Penumbra 5MAX ACE as first-line therapy during an 11-month period. Good functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2 at discharge. Results were directly compared with previously published data for stent retrievers, and length of stay was analyzed in relation to revascularization. Results: The 31 patients studied had a mean age of 66.3 ± 17.8 years and a mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 19.4 ± 5.7. Intravenous tissue recombinant plasminogen activator therapy was initiated in 35.5% (11/31) of patients. A Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) grade of 2b-3 reperfusion after endovascular therapy was achieved in 26/31 (83.9%) of cases; TICI grade 3 was achieved in 19/31 (61.3%) patients. The average time from groin puncture to TICI grade 2b-3 reperfusion was 40 minutes. The average estimated cost for aspiration with the 5MAX ACE alone was $4,916 per case compared with an estimated cost of $9,620 if a stent retriever was used as the primary device. Our actual average cost per case, including all adjunctive devices used in the neurointerventional procedure, was $6,997. Good functional outcome was achieved in 19/31 (61.3%) patients. Two patients experienced symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (6.5%), and 1 (3.2%) patient died. The length of stay was significantly shorter among patients with TICI grade 2b-3 reperfusion compared to patients with TICI grade <2 (6.8 ± 5.34 days vs 15.8 ± 11.32 days, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that direct aspiration with the large-bore 5MAX ACE

  18. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This guide was prepared to help those involved in the manufacturing of soap, detergent, and related products to identify potential process improvements that will reduce production costs and conserve resources. The guide offers a series of generic process descriptions and checklists of improvement opportunities specific to each of five major processes used in the industry: Soap production, surfactant production, solid cake product formulation, liquid product formulation, and granulated powdered product formulation. The checklists identify thermal, electrical, environmental, water use, and low- or no-cost measures that can be implemented, as well as retrofit technology options. A variety of new technologies that may exhibit future potential are also described. Appendices include a glossary, background information on the Ontario soap/detergent industry, and description of the four major categories of ingredients used in the industry.

  19. Evidence-based, cost-effective interventions: how many newborn babies can we save?

    PubMed

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cousens, Simon; Adam, Taghreed; Walker, Neff; de Bernis, Luc

    In this second article of the neonatal survival series, we identify 16 interventions with proven efficacy (implementation under ideal conditions) for neonatal survival and combine them into packages for scaling up in health systems, according to three service delivery modes (outreach, family-community, and facility-based clinical care). All the packages of care are cost effective compared with single interventions. Universal (99%) coverage of these interventions could avert an estimated 41-72% of neonatal deaths worldwide. At 90% coverage, intrapartum and postnatal packages have similar effects on neonatal mortality--two-fold to three-fold greater than that of antenatal care. However, running costs are two-fold higher for intrapartum than for postnatal care. A combination of universal--ie, for all settings--outreach and family-community care at 90% coverage averts 18-37% of neonatal deaths. Most of this benefit is derived from family-community care, and greater effect is seen in settings with very high neonatal mortality. Reductions in neonatal mortality that exceed 50% can be achieved with an integrated, high-coverage programme of universal outreach and family-community care, consisting of 12% and 26%, respectively, of total running costs, plus universal facility-based clinical services, which make up 62% of the total cost. Early success in averting neonatal deaths is possible in settings with high mortality and weak health systems through outreach and family-community care, including health education to improve home-care practices, to create demand for skilled care, and to improve care seeking. Simultaneous expansion of clinical care for babies and mothers is essential to achieve the reduction in neonatal deaths needed to meet the Millennium Development Goal for child survival.

  20. EPA evaluation of the Malpassi Filter King device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Malpassi Filter King' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the 'Malpassi Filter King' device was conducted upon receiving an application from the marketer. The device is a gasoline pressure regulator. The 'Malpassi Filter King' device is claimed to save gasoline by improving the fuel economy of carburetor-equipped, automotive engines.

  1. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Schiller, Steven R.; Todd, Annika; Billingsley, Megan A.; Goldman, Charles A.; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  2. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.W.; Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C.

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  3. United States menhaden oil could save billions in U.S. health care costs and improve IQ in children.

    PubMed

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2016-02-01

    The United States menhaden oil annual production is sufficient to supply all of the recommended long chain Omega-3s for Americans over 55 with coronary heart disease (CHD) and pregnant and lactating women. According to a recent study, the utilization of preventable intake levels could potentially save up to $1.7 billion annually in hospital costs alone. In addition, the remaining oil could be used to support a culture of enough Atlantic salmon to provide every pregnant and lactating woman in the U.S. with 8-12 ounces of fish per week, as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), throughout the duration of pregnancy and lactation. Based on the FDA's quantitative assessment, this may result in a net increase of IQ by 5.5 points in children and improve their early age verbal development.

  4. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  5. How important are airfreight rates and vaccine packaging in cost-saving efforts for the Expanded Programme on Immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, B.; Arentsen, H.; Matosse, M.

    1997-01-01

    Vaccines constitute the single most important cost factor in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in Mozambique and in view of future new disease-control initiatives, the proportional expenditure on vaccines will only increase. Airfreight may contribute up to at least 25% of the total cost of delivered vaccine. Air transport of vaccine provided by UNICEF was arranged by the vaccine supplier. As a result of a lack of control mechanisms, airfreight rates were unnecessarily high and showed considerable variation. By negotiating rates directly with the airlines, the EPI management team in Mozambique succeeded in reducing them from an average of about US$ 12 per kg to US$ 4 per kg, equivalent to an annual saving of US$ 100,000. Vaccine vials are typically packaged in one of the following types of boxes: small colourful boxes containing 5-10 vials or bigger more functional boxes containing 50-100 vials. The packaging of vials in smaller boxes can double airfreight costs compared with bigger boxes. The EPI management team for Mozambique recommends that UNICEF should take over from suppliers the arrangements for shipping vaccine and negotiate airfreight rates centrally; further, WHO should tighten current vaccine-packaging standards for net packaging volume per dose, so that packaging in uneconomical small boxes can be eliminated. PMID:9342890

  6. Low cost drip irrigation: Impact on sugarcane yield, water and energy saving in semiarid tropical agro ecosystem in India.

    PubMed

    Surendran, U; Jayakumar, M; Marimuthu, S

    2016-12-15

    Low cost drip irrigation (LCDI) has been a recent introduction to India and it may be an inexpensive means of expanding irrigation into uncultivated areas, thereby increasing land productivity. This paper is structured into two phases. The first phase, presents an assessment of different irrigation methods (LCDI, conventional drip irrigation (CDI) with single row and paired row, siphon and flood irrigation) on sugarcane production. The results showed that cane yield and water productivity was significantly increased in both plant and ratoon crop of sugarcane owing to the methods of irrigation. Among the methods, LCDI recorded 118.6tha(-1) of cane yield and it was on par with the single row CDI, which recorded the highest mean yield of 120.4tha(-1) and both are found to be significantly superior to the rest of the treatments. The lowest yield was recorded in the treatment of flood irrigation (94.40tha(-1)). Benefit Cost Ratio analysis confirmed that LCDI performed better compared to other irrigation methods. The second phase deals with the farmer participatory research demonstrations at multi location on evaluation of LCDI with flood irrigation. LCDI out performed flood irrigation under all the locations in terms of sugarcane yield, soil moisture content, postharvest soil fertility, reduction in nutrient transport to surface and ground water, water and energy saving. These results suggest that LCDI is a feasible option to increase the sugarcane production in water scarcity areas of semiarid agro ecosystems, and have long-term sustained economic benefits than flood irrigation in terms of water productivity, energy saving and environmental sustainability.

  7. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  8. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  9. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  10. Prime focus architectures for large space telescopes: reduce surfaces to save cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Lillie, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Conceptual architectures are now being developed to identify future directions for post JWST large space telescope systems to operate in the UV Optical and near IR regions of the spectrum. Here we show that the cost of optical surfaces within large aperture telescope/instrument systems can exceed $100M/reflection when expressed in terms of the aperture increase needed to over come internal absorption loss. We recommend a program in innovative optical design to minimize the number of surfaces by considering multiple functions for mirrors. An example is given using the Rowland circle imaging spectrometer systems for UV space science. With few exceptions, current space telescope architectures are based on systems optimized for ground-based astronomy. Both HST and JWST are classical "Cassegrain" telescopes derived from the ground-based tradition to co-locate the massive primary mirror and the instruments at the same end of the metrology structure. This requirement derives from the dual need to minimize observatory dome size and cost in the presence of the Earth's 1-g gravitational field. Space telescopes, however function in the zero gravity of space and the 1- g constraint is relieved to the advantage of astronomers. Here we suggest that a prime focus large aperture telescope system in space may have potentially have higher transmittance, better pointing, improved thermal and structural control, less internal polarization and broader wavelength coverage than Cassegrain telescopes. An example is given showing how UV astronomy telescopes use single optical elements for multiple functions and therefore have a minimum number of reflections.

  11. Cost Savings Realized by Implementation of Routine Microbiological Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Alby, Kevin; Kerr, Alan; Jones, Melissa; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging technology for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. In comparison to conventional methods, this technology is much less labor intensive and can provide accurate and reliable results in minutes from a single isolated colony. We compared the cost of performing the bioMérieux Vitek MALDI-TOF MS with conventional microbiological methods to determine the amount saved by the laboratory by converting to the new technology. Identification costs for 21,930 isolates collected between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, were directly compared for MALDI-TOF MS and conventional methodologies. These isolates were composed of commonly isolated organisms, including commonly encountered aerobic and facultative bacteria and yeast but excluding anaerobes and filamentous fungi. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rapidly growing mycobacteria were also evaluated for a 5-month period during the study. Reagent costs and a total cost analysis that included technologist time in addition to reagent expenses and maintenance service agreement costs were analyzed as part of this study. The use of MALDI-TOF MS equated to a net savings of $69,108.61, or 87.8%, in reagent costs annually compared to traditional methods. When total costs are calculated to include technologist time and maintenance costs, traditional identification would have cost $142,532.69, versus $68,886.51 with the MALDI-TOF MS method, resulting in a laboratory savings of $73,646.18, or 51.7%, annually by adopting the new technology. The initial cost of the instrument at our usage level would be offset in about 3 years. MALDI-TOF MS not only represents an innovative technology for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates, it also provides a significant cost savings for the laboratory. PMID:25994167

  12. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  13. Can Digital Pathology Result In Cost Savings? A Financial Projection For Digital Pathology Implementation At A Large Integrated Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonhan; Ahlers, Stefan M.; Stratman, Curtis; Aridor, Orly; Pantanowitz, Liron; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Kuzmishin, John A.; Montalto, Michael C.; Parwani, Anil V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology “slide less” clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. Aim: As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS). Methods: Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1) Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2) avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. Results: When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity impacted by

  14. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  15. Regulatory and cost barriers are likely to limit biosimilar development and expected savings in the near future.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Henry G; Guha, Rahul; Salgado, Maria

    2014-06-01

    In March 2010 Congress established an abbreviated Food and Drug Administration approval pathway for biosimilars-drugs that are very similar but not identical to a reference biological product and cost less. Because bringing biosimilars to the market currently requires large investments of money, fewer biosimilars are expected to enter the biologics market than has been the case with generic drugs entering the small-molecule drug market. Additionally, given the high regulatory hurdles to obtaining interchangeability-which would allow pharmacists to substitute a biosimilar for its reference product, subject to evolving state substitution laws-most biosimilars will likely compete as therapeutic alternatives instead of as therapeutic equivalents. In other words, biosimilars will need to compete with their reference product on the basis of quality; price; and manufacturer's reputation with physicians, insurers, and patient groups. Biosimilars also will face dynamic competition from new biologics in the same therapeutic class-including "biobetters," which offer incremental improvements on reference products, such as extended duration of action. The prospects for significant cost savings from the use of biosimilars appear to be limited for the next several years, but their use should increase over time because of both demand- and supply-side factors.

  16. [Image tracking system. A new technique for safe and cost-saving laparoscopic operation].

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, H; Born, O

    2000-05-01

    The potential for improvement of the results of laparoscopic operations as well as necessity of enhanced efficiency in the health-care systems are the main reasons for development and practical use of robotic systems in the field of laparoscopic surgery. While robotic systems imitate the human camera-holder the Image Tracking System (ImagTrac, Olympus, Tokio) is based on another principle: A voice-activated zoom function allows change between overview and detailed view. In the zoom-in position it is possible to select four different fields of view. The results of a clinical trial with control group show that the system: 1. Makes it possible to dispense with the human camera-holder without compromising patient safety, sometimes at greater convenience to the surgeon. 2. Makes it possible for routine laparoscopic operations such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy and laparoscopic hernia repair to be performed (as solo surgery) by a team of a surgeon and a nurse only. 3. Is more cost-effective than robotic systems with a similar range of features.

  17. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  18. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  19. A Preliminary Examination of the Cost Savings and Learning Impacts of Using Open Textbooks in Middle and High School Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David; Hilton, John Levi, III; Ellington, Shelley; Hall, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of open educational resources claim that significant cost savings are possible when open textbooks displace traditional textbooks in the classroom. Over a period of two years, we worked with 20 middle and high school science teachers (collectively teaching approximately 3,900 students) who adopted open textbooks to understand the…

  20. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the HYDRO-VAC device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-08-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the HYDRO-VAC device under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the HYDRO-VAC device was conducted upon the application of the manufacturer. The product is claimed to improved fuel economy and performance for both gasoline and diesel fueled vehicles.

  1. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  2. The French nuclear power plant reactor building containment contributions of prestressing and concrete performances in reliability improvements and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Rouelle, P.; Roy, F.

    1998-12-31

    The Electricite de France`s N4 CHOOZ B nuclear power plant, two units of the world`s largest PWR model (1450 Mwe each), has earned the Electric Power International`s 1997 Powerplant Award. This lead NPP for EDF`s N4 series has been improved notably in terms of civil works. The presentation will focus on the Reactor Building`s inner containment wall which is one of the main civil structures on a technical and safety point of view. In order to take into account the necessary evolution of the concrete technical specification such as compressive strength low creep and shrinkage, the HSC/HPC has been used on the last N4 Civaux 2 NPP. As a result of the use of this type of professional concrete, the containment withstands an higher internal pressure related to severe accident and ensures higher level of leak-tightness, thus improving the overall safety of the NPP. On that occasion, a new type of prestressing has been tested locally through 55 C 15 S tendons using a new C 1500 FE Jack. These updated civil works techniques shall allow EDF to ensure a Reactor Containment lifespan for more than 50 years. The gains in terms of reliability and cost saving of these improved techniques will be developed hereafter.

  3. Measuring cost savings in the operating room: a matter of FOCUS (follow-through, obsolescence, control, utilization, standardization).

    PubMed

    Blake, W; Duerkop, L; McNally, P

    1990-11-01

    In summary, changes came slowly at first in the OR. The biggest inventory reduction came about a year after the effort had begun. It would seem that tackling obsolescence, standardizing products, etc. would give an initial "big chunk" savings, with small amounts coming later as inventories are lowered. What we expected did not occur, due to the inherent nature of practices and what was customarily being used. For example, previously, some equipment purchases were paid for by purchasing product, which resulted in long-term commitments and high supply costs. The OR at times seemed more like a process of managing change, not just supplies. FOCUS is a daily process. How many times can you afford to overlook this process? How often are the mistakes of the past repeated? In review, we suggest this simple outline: Follow-through (review each case from start to finish), Obsolescence (schedule inventories every six months), Control (achieve inventory management by adjusting PAR levels to needs), Utilization (utilize product/equipment with your control), and Standardization (standardize products and measure results).

  4. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  5. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  6. The use of generic drugs in prevention of chronic disease is far more cost-effective than thought, and may save money.

    PubMed

    Shrank, William H; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Liberman, Joshua N; Brennan, Troyen A

    2011-07-01

    In this article we highlight the important role that medication therapy can play in preventing disease and controlling costs. Focusing on coronary artery disease, we demonstrate that prevention, with the appropriate use of generic medications, appears far more cost-effective than previously documented, and it may even save on costs. For example, an earlier study estimated that reducing blood pressure to widely established clinical guidelines in nondiabetic patients cost an estimated $52,983 per quality-adjusted life-year if a brand-name drug was used. However, we estimate that the cost is just $7,753 per quality-adjusted life-year at generic medication prices. As the nation attempts to find strategies to improve population health without adding to the unsustainably high cost of care, policy makers should focus on ensuring that patients have access to essential generic medications.

  7. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended.

  8. Rohm and Haas: Chemical Plant Uses Pinch Analysis to Quantify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities at Deer Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    An assessment team conducted a pinch analysis on major production processes at a Rohm and Haas chemical plant. Several potential projects were identified, which could yield annual savings totaling 2.2 million MMBtu and almost$7.7 million.

  9. Rohm and Haas: Chemical Plant Uses Pinch Analysis to Quantify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities at Deer Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    An assessment team conducted a pinch analysis on major production processes at a Rohm and Haas chemical plant. Several potential projects were identified, which could yield annual savings totaling 2.2 million MMBtu and almost $7.7 million.

  10. LAT Software Induced Savings on Medical Costs of Alcohol Addicts' Care - Results from a Matched-Pairs Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jovanovic, Mirjana; Rancic, Nemanja; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Lesch Alcoholism Typology (LAT) is one of the most widely used clinical typologies of alcohol addiction. Study tested whether introduction of LAT software in clinical practice leaded to improved outcomes and reduced costs. Retrospective matched-pairs case-control cost comparison study was conducted at the Regional Addiction Center of the University Clinic in Serbia involving 250 patients during the four-year period. Mean relapse frequency followed by outpatient detoxification was 0.42±0.90 vs. 0.70±1.66 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.267). Adding relapses after inpatient treatment total mean-number of relapses per patient was 0.70±1.74 vs. 0.97±1.89 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.201). However, these relapse frequency differentials were not statistically significant. Total hospital costs of Psychiatry clinic based non-LAT addicts' care (€54,660) were significantly reduced to €36,569 after initiation of LAT. Mean total cost per patient was reduced almost by half after initiation of LAT based treatment: €331±381 vs. €626±795 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.001). Mean cost of single psychiatry clinic admission among non-LAT treatment group was €320±330 (CI 95% 262–378) and among LAT €197±165 (CI 95% 168–226) (p = 0.019). Mean LAT software induced net savings on psychiatric care costs were €144 per patient. Total net savings on hospital care including F10 associated somatic co-morbidities amounted to €295 per patient. More sensitive diagnostic assessment and sub-type specific pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy following implementation of LAT software lead to significant savings on costs of hospital care. PMID:25379730

  11. LAT software induced savings on medical costs of alcohol addicts' care--results from a matched-pairs case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jovanovic, Mirjana; Rancic, Nemanja; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Lesch Alcoholism Typology (LAT) is one of the most widely used clinical typologies of alcohol addiction. Study tested whether introduction of LAT software in clinical practice leaded to improved outcomes and reduced costs. Retrospective matched-pairs case-control cost comparison study was conducted at the Regional Addiction Center of the University Clinic in Serbia involving 250 patients during the four-year period. Mean relapse frequency followed by outpatient detoxification was 0.42 ± 0.90 vs. 0.70 ± 1.66 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.267). Adding relapses after inpatient treatment total mean-number of relapses per patient was 0.70 ± 1.74 vs. 0.97 ± 1.89 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.201). However, these relapse frequency differentials were not statistically significant. Total hospital costs of Psychiatry clinic based non-LAT addicts' care (€ 54,660) were significantly reduced to € 36,569 after initiation of LAT. Mean total cost per patient was reduced almost by half after initiation of LAT based treatment: € 331 ± 381 vs. € 626 ± 795 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.001). Mean cost of single psychiatry clinic admission among non-LAT treatment group was € 320 ± 330 (CI 95% 262-378) and among LAT € 197 ± 165 (CI 95% 168-226) (p = 0.019). Mean LAT software induced net savings on psychiatric care costs were € 144 per patient. Total net savings on hospital care including F10 associated somatic co-morbidities amounted to € 295 per patient. More sensitive diagnostic assessment and sub-type specific pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy following implementation of LAT software lead to significant savings on costs of hospital care.

  12. High-dose inactivated influenza vaccine is associated with cost savings and better outcomes compared to standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccine in Canadian seniors

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Debbie L.; Chit, Ayman; DiazGranados, Carlos A.; Maschio, Michael; Yau, Eddy; Drummond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Seasonal influenza infects approximately 10–20% of Canadians each year, causing an estimated 12,200 hospitalizations and 3,500 deaths annually, mostly occurring in adults ≥65 years old (seniors). A 32,000-participant, randomized controlled clinical trial (FIM12; Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01427309) showed that high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV-HD) is superior to standard-dose vaccine (SD) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness in seniors. In this study, we performed a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of IIV-HD versus SD in FIM12 participants from a Canadian perspective. Healthcare resource utilization data collected in FIM12 included: medications, non-routine/urgent care and emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Unit costs were applied using standard Canadian cost sources to estimate the mean direct medical and societal costs associated with each vaccine (2014 CAD). Clinical illness data from the trial were mapped to quality-of-life data from the literature to estimate differences in effectiveness between vaccines. Time horizon was one influenza season, however, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost due to death during the study were captured over a lifetime. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was also performed. Average per-participant medical costs were $47 lower and societal costs $60 lower in the IIV-HD arm. Hospitalizations contributed 91% of the total cost and were less frequent in the IIV-HD arm. IIV-HD provided a gain in QALYs and, due to cost savings, dominated SD in the CUA. The PSA indicated that IIV-HD is 89% likely to be cost saving. In Canada, IIV-HD is expected to be a less costly and more effective alternative to SD, driven by a reduction in hospitalizations. PMID:27669017

  13. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  14. 100 Ways To Cut the High Cost of Attending College: Money-Saving Advice for Students and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viollt, Michael P.

    This guide explains how to make the most of scholarships, financial aid, and savings, and it reveals lesser-known ways to augment these common resources. The guide is especially useful to families with too much income to qualify for need-based aid, and not enough to pay high tuition rates. The chapters are: (1) "The Three Elements of College…

  15. Save Energy: Save Money!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  16. Effects of a computerized provider order entry and a clinical decision support system to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis: a cost saving analysis

    PubMed Central

    Veroneze, Izelandia; Burgardt, Celia I.; Fragoso, Marta F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) help practitioners to choose evidence-based decisions, regarding patients’ needs. Despite its use in developed countries, in Brazil, the impact of a CPOE/CDSS to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis was not assessed yet. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of a CDSS to improve the use of prophylactic cefazolin and to assess the cost savings associated to inappropriate prescribing. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that compared two different scenarios: one prior CPOE/CDSS versus after software implementation. We conducted twelve years of data analysis (3 years prior and 9 years after CDSS implementation), where main outcomes from this study included: cefazolin Defined Daily Doses/100 bed-days (DDD), crude costs and product of costs-DDD (cost-DDD/100 bed-days). We applied a Spearman rho non-parametric test to assess the reduction of cefazolin consumption through the years. Results: In twelve years, 84,383 vials of cefazolin were dispensed and represented 38.89 DDD/100 bed-days or USD 44,722.99. Surgical wards were the largest drug prescribers and comprised >95% of our studied sample. While in 2002, there were 6.31 DDD/100 bed-days, 9 years later there was a reduction to 2.15 (p<0.05). In a scenario without CDSS, the hospital would have consumed 75.72 DDD/100 bed-days, which is equivalent to USD 116 998.07. It is estimated that CDSS provided USD 50,433.39 of cost savings. Conclusion: The implementation of a CPOE/CDSS helped to improve prophylactic cefazolin use by reducing its consumption and estimated direct costs. PMID:27785159

  17. Safety and cost savings of an improved three-day rule for stool culture in hospitalised children and adults.

    PubMed

    Seyler, L; Lalvani, A; Collins, L; Goddard, L; Bowler, I C J W

    2007-10-01

    Stools sent for culture from patients after three days of hospitalisation have a low yield (<1%) for bacterial enteric pathogens (BEP), excluding Clostridium difficile, and are expensive to process. A 'three-day rule' for rejection of specimens has previously been validated in adults. We evaluated a three-day rule for paediatric stool samples by retrospective review of all stool culture results from 1995 to 2002. Excluding C. difficile, yield for BEP in samples sent within three days following admission was 97/3751 (2.59%) compared with 3/1511 (0.2%) in samples sent more than three days after admission. The criteria for culture would have been met if the rule had been applied for these three samples. We prospectively evaluated potential savings if the rule were applied for both children and adults over a two-month period in 2000. Savings were greater for adults than for children. Of 490 stools from children, 38 (7.8%) samples did not meet the criteria for culture and of 206 stools from adult patients, 64 (31%) did not meet the criteria for culture. We implemented the rule between 1 March 2003 and 31 March 2006. A total of 14 439 stool samples were received from inpatients requesting culture for BEP, excluding C. difficile. Of these, 5744 (39.8%) were rejected because the criteria for culture were not met. This was estimated as an annual saving of 11,848 pounds to the Trust laboratory. If extrapolated to all NHS Trusts, the potential savings could be in the order of 1.18 million pounds annually.

  18. Evaluation of Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracting -- Methodology for Comparing Processes and Costs of ESPC and Appropriatins-Funded Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    2002-10-08

    Federal agencies have had performance contracting authority since 1985, when Congress first authorized agencies to enter into shared energy savings agreements with Public Law 99-272, the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. By the end of FY 2001, agencies had used energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) to attract private-sector investment of over $1 billion to improve the energy efficiency of federal buildings. Executive Order 13123 directs agencies to maximize their use of alternative financing contracting mechanisms such as ESPCs when life-cycle cost effective to reduce energy use and cost in their facilities and operations. Continuing support for ESPCs at the Administration and Congressional levels is evident in the pending comprehensive national energy legislation, which repeals the sunset provision on ESPC authority and extends ESPC authority to water savings projects. Despite the Congressional and Presidential directives to use ESPCs, some agencies have been reluctant to do so. Decision makers in these agencies see no reason to enter into long-term obligations to pay interest on borrowed money out of their own operating budgets if instead Congress will grant them appropriations to pay for the improvements up front. Questions frequently arise about whether pricing in ESPCs, which are negotiated for best value, is as favorable as prices obtained through competitive sourcing, and whether ESPC as a means of implementing energy conservation projects is as life-cycle cost effective as the standard practice of funding these projects through appropriations. The lack of any quantitative analysis to address these issues was the impetus for this study. ESPCs are by definition cost-effective because of their ''pay-from-savings'' requirement and guarantee, but do their interest costs and negotiated pricing extract an unreasonably high price? Appropriations seem to be the least-cost option, because the U.S. Treasury can borrow money at lower interest rates

  19. Helmet use among motorcyclists who died in crashes and economic cost savings associated with state motorcycle helmet laws--United States, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-06-15

    In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for <1% of all vehicle miles traveled. Helmet use consistently has been shown to reduce motorcycle crash-related injuries and deaths, and the most effective strategy to increase helmet use is enactment of universal helmet laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).

  20. Skilled iv therapy clinicians' product evaluation of open-ended versus closed-ended valve PICC lines: a cost savings clinical report.

    PubMed

    Hinson, E K; Blough, L D

    1996-01-01

    The IV therapy clinician team at Florida Hospital has become active product selectors of IV therapy materials for the institution. It is recognized for its expertise, experience, and knowledge in IV therapy. As end users of many IV therapy products, members are well-qualified to act as principal product selectors of these patient care items. These clinicians identified costly problems with the performance of a conventional open-ended peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) product being used. A market search for a better product was done and the Bard Groshong closed-ended valve PICC (Bard Access Systems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) was selected. These PICCs were used for a 6-week trial period. The 58 inserted Groshong closed-ended valve PICCs were compared with the last 58 open-ended PICCs inserted. Greater quality assessment was apparent in its performance. A substantial cost savings of 21% also was achieved by using the Groshong closed-ended valve PICCs. A clinical report comparing these two products was presented to the value analysis committee. The validated superior performance of the Groshong closed-ended valve PICC with the cost savings for the 6-week trial period won the committee's approval and the change was made to the Groshong closed-ended valve PICC.

  1. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the gyroscopic wheel cover device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover device was conducted upon the application of Simmer Wheels, Incorporated. The device is a mechanical assembly which replaces each of the standard wheel covers on a vehicle. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy, handling and braking characteristics, and the life of the brakes and tires.

  2. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device was conducted upon receiving an application from the marketer. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and driveability and to reduce exhaust emissions. EPA fully considered all of the information submitted by the applicant. The evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device was based on that information, EPA's engineering judgement, and its experience with other air bleed devices.

  3. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the P. S. C. U. 01 device under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-08-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'P.S.C.U. 01' device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the P.S.C.U. 01 was conducted upon the application of Dutch Pacific, Incorporated. The device is comprised of several mechanical and electrical components and is intended to generate steam and deliver it to the combustion chamber via an inline catalyst. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and to reduce exhaust emissions. The P.S.C.U. 01 is classified by EPA as a Vapor bleed device.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry: An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Plant and Energy Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Therkelsen, Peter; Worrell, Ernst

    2012-12-28

    The U.S. baking industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of commercial bakery products such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, and cookies and crackers—consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in food processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. A summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency is also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. baking industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  6. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  7. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  8. Estimating Energy and Cost Savings and Emissions Reductions for the State Energy Program Based on Enumeration Indicators Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    2003-02-06

    As part of an effort to produce metrics for quantifying the effects of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) State Energy Program (SEP), staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a classification scheme for describing the various state activities supported by SEP funds. This involved identifying a number of distinct program areas into which all of the various state SEP activities could be placed. Then, a set of ''enumeration indicators'' was developed to describe key activities within each of those areas. Although originally developed to count program activities, the enumeration indicators are used here as a basis for estimating the savings and emissions reductions achieved by the SEP. While there are additional benefits associated with the SEP, such as increased energy security and economic well-being, they are not addressed in this study.

  9. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by... new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  10. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by... new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  11. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents.

  12. Retrofitting for energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Elshout, R.V.

    1982-07-01

    An energy audit is a useful tool for assessing energy usage within a plant or individual unit. Comparison of measured energy usage with guideline values for the industry or particular processes will indicate energy inefficiency. Energy efficiency is a function of plant age, operating severity, feedstock type and the skill level of the operational personnel. As part of the audit, means for improving energy efficiency should be identified. Both capital costs for process modifications to improve energy usage and resulting operating cost savings can be quantified. With this information, individual energy saving projects can be evaluated along with other capital improvements to determine the merits of implementation. Generally speaking, most energy conservation projects can be justified by operating cost savings, particularly if future energy costs are considered. Physical space limitations within the plant and the cost of downtime for plant modifications must be considered.

  13. Extract BIG savings from physician preference items. Use a data-driven, team-based approach to drive down costs.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    As baby boomers reach retirement age, the demand for cardiac, spine and orthopedic implants is expected to escalate rapidly. Containing spending on these physician preference items (PPI) will be crucial for hospitals, which are facing reduced revenue streams due to bundled payments and other factors. Materials managers will play a lead role in devising cost-reduction strategies. They'll need to establish benchmarking data to share with physicians to build consensus on how to best cut PPI costs without sacrificing the quality of care. Follow these steps to get started.

  14. The Use of a Collaborative Common Parts Catalog to Achieve Increased Efficiency and Cost Savings in the Fleet Modernization Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Modernization, Return on Investment, ROI, Return on Knowledge, ROK, Information Technology, Collaboration, Navy Shipyards, PLM , Product Life cycle...18  3.  Lean Six Sigma and PLM ..................................................................18  4.  Lean Six Sigma and KVA...Cost of PLM Technology ...................................................................43  3.  Reengineered Process

  15. Reducing Idle Power Consumption in Office Spaces Saves U.S. Navy in Energy Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of a two-year project to demonstrate energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified advanced plug load controls as a promising technology for reducing energy use and related costs in the U.S. Navy's Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) office spaces.

  16. Analysis of Base Services Structure and Development of Cost-Saving Strategies to Counterattack Decreasing Funding Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    41 B. TRADITIONAL APPROACHES FOR INCLUDING SERVICE COSTS IN PLANNING...us salivating for more. This quality cuisine was second only to Kathy’s always phenomenal culinary masterpieces. Thank you, cutie! xviii...and their interests and views may evolve, new actors may appear on the scene, or central issues and stakes may shift over time. The notion that SA

  17. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  18. Decreased Length of stay, cost savings and descriptive findings of enhanced patient care resulting from and integrated traumatic brain injury programme.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saad; Khan, Asad; Feyz, Mitra

    2002-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has enormous economic consequences. The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of implementation of an integrated TBI programme on patient-care. The research design was a retrospective institutional review for which 1875 patient records were reviewed, healthcare professionals were interviewed, patient care was observed, and a literature review of the prognostic variables for mild, moderate and severe TBI was conducted. The implementation of an integrated TBI programme has reduced the average length of stay from 30.5 to 12 days and resulted in tremendous cost savings of $21.8 million over 6 years. 'Blueprinting' the continuum of TBI patients' care identified the weakest links to be the transfer of patients from the tertiary-care TBI programme to rehabilitation institutions and provision of long-term rehabilitative care due to information asymmetry. This was addressed by the development of comprehensive on-line TBI transfer documents. This study emphasizes the importance of comprehensive neurotrauma programmes.

  19. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluation of the Super-Mag Fuel Extender under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Super-Mag Fuel Extender' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. On December 10, 1980, the EPA received a written request from the Metropolitan Denver District Attorney's Office of Consumer Fraud and Economic Crime to test at least one 'cow magnet' type of fuel economy device. Following a survey of devices being marketed, the Metropolitan Denver District Attorney's Office selected the 'Super-Mag' device as typical of its category and on April 13, 1981 provided EPA with units for testing. The EPA evaluation of the device using three vehicles showed neither fuel economy nor exhaust emissions were affected by the installation of the 'Super-Mag' device. In addition, any differences between baseline test results and results from tests with the device installed were within the range of normal test variability.

  20. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Adrian; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  4. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected.

  5. Design and development of an F/A-18 inlet distortion rake: A cost and time saving solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, Andrew J.; Ray, Ronald J.; Burley, Richard R.; Steenken, William G.; Lechtenberg, Leon; Thornton, Don

    1995-01-01

    An innovative inlet total pressure distortion measurement rake has been designed and developed for the F/A-18 A/B/C/D aircraft inlet. The design was conceived by NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines personnel. This rake has been flight qualified and flown in the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The eight-legged, one-piece, wagon wheel design of the rake was developed at a reduced cost and offered reduced installation time compared to traditional designs. The rake features 40 dual-measurement ports for low- and high-frequency pressure measurements with the high-frequency transducer mounted at the port. This high-frequency transducer offers direct absolute pressure measurements from low to high frequencies of interest, thereby allowing the rake to be used during highly dynamic aircraft maneuvers. Outstanding structural characteristics are inherent to the design through its construction and use of lightweight materials.

  6. Telecardiology application in jordan: its impact on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings.

    PubMed

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life.

  7. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs.

    PubMed

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Ruckerbauer, David E; Gerstl, Matthias P; Hanscho, Michael; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle.

  8. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs

    PubMed Central

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Ruckerbauer, David E.; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Hanscho, Michael; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle. PMID:26091045

  9. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  10. Improved access to subspecialist diabetes care by telemedicine: cost savings and care measures in the first two years of the FITE diabetes project.

    PubMed

    Malasanos, Toree H; Burlingame, Julie B; Youngblade, Lise; Patel, Bhavin D; Muir, Andrew B

    2005-01-01

    We have used telemedicine clinics supplemented by online education to provide effective care for children with diabetes. Before the programme began, the mean interval between visits was 149 days; in year 1 of the programme it was 98 days, and in year 2 it was 89 days. Before the programme, there were on average 13 hospitalizations a year (47 days) and this decreased to 3.5 hospitalizations a year (5.5 days). Emergency department visits decreased from 8 to 2.5 per year. On 10 occasions after the programme started, ketosis was managed by telephone intervention alone, relying on family-initiated calls. Over 90% of patients and family members expressed satisfaction with the telemedicine service and wished to continue using it. In all, 95% felt little self-consciousness. Over 90% felt their privacy was respected. The programme saved US dollar 27,860 per year. The present study demonstrated improved access to specialized health care via telemedicine in combination with online education improved health status and reduced costs by reducing hospitalizations and emergency department visits.

  11. Lighting up Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Suggests group relamping in educational facilities as a more efficient method than spot replacement of failed lamps. It can reduce operating costs, improve lighting quality, and help with federal and state regulations compliance. The implementation of group relamping is discussed in terms of planning, energy savings, and environmental issues. (RE)

  12. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  13. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  14. Ouantification of carbon savings from improved biomass cookstove projects.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael; Edwards, Rufus; Ghilardi, Adrián; Berrueta, Victor; Gillen, Dan; Frenk, Claudio Alatorre; Masera, Omar

    2009-04-01

    In spite of growing interest, a principal obstacle to wider inclusion of improved cookstove projects in carbon trading schemes has been the lack of accountability in estimating CO2-equivalent (CO2-e) savings. To demonstrate that robust estimates of CO2-e savings can be obtained at reasonable cost, an integrated approach of community-based subsampling of traditional and improved stoves in homes to estimate fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, combined with spatially explicit community-based estimates of the fraction of nonrenewable biomass harvesting (fNRB), was used to estimate CO2-e savings for 603 homes with improved Patsari stoves in Purépecha communities of Michoacán, Mexico. Mean annual household CO2-e savings for CO2, CH4, CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons were 3.9 tCO2-e home(-1) yr(-1) (95% Cl +/- 22%), and for Kyoto gases (CO2 and CH4) were 3.1 tCO2-e home(-1) yr(-1) (95% Cl +/- 26%), respectively, using a weighted mean fNRB harvesting of 39%. CO2-e savings ranged from 1.6 (95% Cl +/- 49%) to 7.5 (95% Cl +/- 17%) tCO2-e home(-1) yr(-1) for renewable and nonrenewable harvesting in individual communities, respectively. Since emission factors, fuel consumption, and fNRB each contribute significantly to the overall uncertainty in estimates of CO2-e savings, community-based assessment of all of these parameters is critical for robust estimates. Reporting overall uncertainty in the CO2-e savings estimates provides a mechanism for valuation of carbon offsets, which would promote better accounting that CO2-e savings had actually been achieved. Cost of CO2-e savings as a result of adoption of Patsari stoves was U.S. $8 per tCO2-e based on initial stove costs, monitoring costs, and conservative stove adoption rates, which is approximately 4 times less expensive than use of carbon capture and storage from coal plants, and approximately 18 times less than solar power. The low relative cost of CO2-e abatement of improved stoves combined with substantial

  15. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school…

  16. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Savings-to-investment ratio. 436.21 Section 436.21 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or...

  17. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Savings-to-investment ratio. 436.21 Section 436.21 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or...

  18. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and...

  19. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and...

  20. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  1. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances...) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries...

  2. Designing shared-savings incentive programs for energy efficiency: Balancing carrots and sticks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D. . Div. of Ratepayer Advocates); Eto, J. )

    1990-12-01

    One promising approach for stimulating utility participation in the acquisition of cost-effective demand-side resources is called shared savings. In a shared-savings arrangement, the difference between the cost of a demand-side resource and its value measured in avoided supply-side resources is shared by utility shareholders and ratepayers. A shared-savings incentive mechanism consists of the three major components; the cost of the demand-side program, the amount of energy saved by the program, and the value of the supply-side activities avoided by the program. Measuring energy savings is an imperfect science. In principle, it should be performed after a demand-side program has been put in place and observed for some time. A particularly difficult measurement issue lies in properly accounting for effects that are not within the control of the utility but which affect energy savings (such as weather or occupant behavior). The collaborative decided to rely on prespecified engineering estimates of savings for individual measures, but to base aggregate savings on the actual numbers of installations made by the utility. This decision protects the utilities from uncertainties in the performance of individual measures while providing an incentive to increase program participation. The utilities also agreed to initiate comprehensive measurement programs to improve future estimates of the performance of energy efficiency measures. Avoided costs, like conservation program performance, are a subject to a large number of influences, only some which are under the control of the utility. Recovering the benefits of demand-side programs over a time period that closely parallels the realization of savings, means the utility will have to wait a considerable period of time before recovering its full share. The collaborative resolved this issue in a manner analogous to contractual agreements that pay qualifying facilities for non-utility generated power. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  4. 25 CFR 900.134 - At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false At the end of a self-determination construction contract... SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.134 At the end of a self-determination construction contract, what happens to savings on a...

  5. The design and application of shared savings programs: lessons from early adopters.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Joel S; Bailit, Michael; D'Andrea, Guy; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-09-01

    Different forms of physician payment result in different levels of financial risk for health care payers and providers, and can affect clinical decision making and the cost of care. Shared savings programs reward providers for holding spending below specific targets, thus introducing a level of financial accountability not present in strictly volume-based payment models, such as fee-for-service. Here we examine the design and application of shared savings formulas across a range of actual programs. We also present a more detailed description of one particular shared savings program-the Massachusetts Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative-focusing on key trade-offs between payers and providers that eventually led to agreement on specific aspects of the program. We conclude with principles for the design of future shared savings arrangements and consideration of issues that will confront decision makers as these efforts mature and expand.

  6. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for... new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an alternative design and the life cycle costs of the basic design....

  7. Empirical impact evaluation of the energy savings resulting from BPA's Stage II irrigation system retrofit program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Tawil, J.W.; Lyke, A.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Edin, E.S.; Bailey, B.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the impacts on irrigation system energy consumption of conservation measures installed under the Bonneville Power Administration's Stage II retrofit program. Historical billing data and other farm records provided the basis for this evaluation. A number of different statistical techniques were used to estimate the actual energy savings resulting from the Stage II conservation measures. Results of the study reveal that the methodology used in predicting energy savings resulting from the Stage II program is accurate. The basis for energy savings predictions in the Stage II program are changes in brake horsepower, and, in this study, a 1% change in brake horsepower was found to result in slightly more than a 1% change in energy consumption. Overall, Stage II program conservation measures were found to reduce irrigation system energy use by an average of 34%. The average costs of obtaining these savings were 6 mills (.6 cents) per kWh saved.

  8. Saving Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide offers information on how schools can implement an energy saving action plan to reduce their energy costs. Various low-cost energy-saving measures are recommended covering heating levels and heating systems, electricity demand reduction and lighting, ventilation, hot water usage, and swimming pool energy management. Additional…

  9. Save Energy $.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Thomas E., III; Shapiro, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    Large institutional energy users can reduce energy costs by constructing and operating steam and electricity cogeneration facilities and purchasing their own gas at lower prices rather than relying on local distributors. (MSE)

  10. Does the Congressional Budget Office underestimate savings from reform? A review of the historical record.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon R

    2010-01-01

    When the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) "scores" legislation, or assesses the likely cost impact, it requires substantial evidence that a cost-saving initiative has historically achieved savings. The agency has difficulty addressing the impact of multiple changes made simultaneously without historical precedent where there is an interaction effect among proposed changes. This study examines CBO scoring of major reform legislation enacted during each of the past three decades, including the prospective payment system for hospitals in the 1980s, the Balanced Budget Act of the 1990s, and the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003. In contrasting actual spending with predicted spending, CBO, in all three cases, substantially underestimated savings from these reform measures.

  11. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Gemmer, Bob; Scheihing, Paul; Quinn, James

    2007-09-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants

  12. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua R; Garrett, Aaron; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Yu

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance, roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.

  13. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Chola, Lumbwe; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Kerber, Kate; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. Design We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. Results By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita) will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. Conclusions The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority setting tools and the

  14. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Kerber, Kate; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. Design We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. Results By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita) will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. Conclusions The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority setting tools and the

  15. Ongoing Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevington, E. Milton

    2002-01-01

    Education institutions rely heavily on good HVAC systems. Maintaining these systems can be expensive and are a significant factor in operating costs. Energy conservation is a real resource that is often overlooked. This article addresses what causes energy waste, how schools can find sources of energy waste, and how schools can improve…

  16. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  17. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  18. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  19. Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program brochure informs industrial audiences about Save Energy Now, part of ''Easy Ways to Save Energy'', a national campaign to save energy and ensure energy security.

  20. Fourteen Ways To Save Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    School districts have come up with some money-saving practices that include auditing utility bills, turning off lights, installing light fixtures that are more cost-efficient, keeping track of what the district owns, and shopping for better deals with utilities. (MLF)

  1. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  2. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  3. How Not to Choose a (Fully Integrated, User-Friendly, Minicomputer-Based, Search-Flexible, Modifiable, Ergonomic, Cost-Saving) Lemon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James C.

    1985-01-01

    This discussion of methods for selecting an integrated, public-access library system highlights the traditional idealized selection model; participation by the library director, consultant, task force, committees, and vendors; fads and cost figures; selection of the wrong system; and suggestions for an informal approach to purchasing. Five sources…

  4. Is there scope for cost savings and efficiency gains in HIV services? A systematic review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Siapka, Mariana; Remme, Michelle; Obure, Carol Dayo; Maier, Claudia B; Dehne, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To synthesize the data available – on costs, efficiency and economies of scale and scope – for the six basic programmes of the UNAIDS Strategic Investment Framework, to inform those planning the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in low- and middle-income countries. Methods The relevant peer-reviewed and “grey” literature from low- and middle-income countries was systematically reviewed. Search and analysis followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Findings Of the 82 empirical costing and efficiency studies identified, nine provided data on economies of scale. Scale explained much of the variation in the costs of several HIV services, particularly those of targeted HIV prevention for key populations and HIV testing and treatment. There is some evidence of economies of scope from integrating HIV counselling and testing services with several other services. Cost efficiency may also be improved by reducing input prices, task shifting and improving client adherence. Conclusion HIV programmes need to optimize the scale of service provision to achieve efficiency. Interventions that may enhance the potential for economies of scale include intensifying demand-creation activities, reducing the costs for service users, expanding existing programmes rather than creating new structures, and reducing attrition of existing service users. Models for integrated service delivery – which is, potentially, more efficient than the implementation of stand-alone services – should be investigated further. Further experimental evidence is required to understand how to best achieve efficiency gains in HIV programmes and assess the cost–effectiveness of each service-delivery model. PMID:25110375

  5. Managing costs and managing care.

    PubMed

    Rivers, P A; Tsai, K L

    2001-01-01

    With a defined population served, contracted provider panels and the nature of care delivery integration, managed care has provided a solution, though not a panacea, to provide equitable services, standardized and prevention oriented cares to its enrolled members. Combined with the earmarked capitation reimbursement system and a series of cost containment and utilization review techniques, managed care has also demonstrated potently its capacity in cost-saving and quality promotion. Presents steps and measures related to managed care that federal government has taken to manage care and contain cost. It is crucial to identify and promulgate best practices continually, while managing utilization of resources for improving health care, containing cost, and equalizing medical care access to a greater proportion of the population. Concludes that it may take time for a universal adoption of managed care. However, Americans may actually benefit more from having a standard level of health care that managed care could achieve and provide.

  6. Utilization of agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as cost-saving raw materials in Scenedesmus acutus for lipid accumulation and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Rattanapoltee, Panida; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to optimize the lipid accumulation in microalgae by using two agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as low-cost organic carbon sources. Green microalgae Scenedesmus acutus was isolated and selected for cultivation. Effects of three initial sugar concentrations and the stage for adding sugar during cultivation on biomass and lipid production were investigated. The results clearly showed that two-stage cultivation is more suitable than one-stage. The maximum biomass concentration and productivity were obtained at 3.85 g/L and 160.42 mg/L/day when sugarcane bagasse was used. The highest lipid content and lipid yield was reached at 28.05 % and 0.93 g/L when pineapple peels were used, while in the case of sugarcane bagasse, 40.89 % and 1.24 g/L lipid content and yield were obtained. Lipid content was found in normal condition (autotrophic) at 17.71 % which was approximately 2.13-fold lower than when sugarcane bagasse was used (40.89 %). Biodiesel production via in situ transesterification was also investigated; the main fatty acids of palmitic acid and oleic acid were found. This work indicates that using agricultural residues as organic carbon sources could be able to increase lipid content and reduce the cost of biofuel production.

  7. Costs and benefits of polio eradication: a long-run global perspective.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Mahmud; Ehreth, Jennifer

    2003-01-30

    Pre-vaccination polio incidence rates in USA and Italy were used to predict the cases that would have occurred in the world for the years 1970-2050 in the absence of immunization. Globally, polio program will cost about US dollars 67 billion if vaccination is discontinued after 2010. The medical care cost savings achieved will be more than US dollars 128 billions, implying that polio eradication activities actually pay for itself in the longer run. In addition to the cost savings, the program will prevent 855000 deaths, 4 million paralysis cases and 40 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) over the years 1970-2050.

  8. Small investments, huge savings.

    PubMed

    Rose, Ewen

    2015-03-01

    Writing on behalf of the Building & Engineering Services Association (B&ES), Ewen Rose, an experienced journalist specialising in building engineering services, reports on a number of presentations at October's IHEEM Healthcare Estates 2014 conference where the focus was very much on how healthcare estates and facilities and healthcare engineering teams can save energy and cut carbon emissions through more efficient monitoring, and, if necessary, subsequent adjustment, of key HVAC plant. Among the key conclusions were that basic energy efficiency measures could 'shave millions of pounds from NHS estates' running costs', and that hospitals and other healthcare buildings face both 'an air-conditioning legal crisis', and a growing threat from outdoor air pollution.

  9. Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC): FEMP Assistance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-01

    An ESPC is a working relationship between a Federal agency and an energy service company (ESCO). The ESCO conducts a comprehensive energy audit for the Federal facility and identifies improvements to save energy. In consultation with the Federal agency, the ESCO designs and constructs a project that meets the agency’s needs and arranges the necessary funding. The ESCO guarantees the improvements will generate energy cost savings sufficient to pay for the project over the term of the contract. After the contract ends, all additional cost savings accrue to the agency.

  10. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  11. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and…

  12. Savings from energy efficient windows: Current and future savings from new fenestration technologies in the residential market

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, K.; Arasteh, D.; Eto, J.

    1993-04-01

    Heating and cooling energy lost through windows in the residential sector (estimated at two-thirds of the energy lost through windows in all sectors) currently accounts for 3 percent (or 2.8 quads) of total US energy use, costing over $26 billion annually in energy bills. Installation of energy-efficient windows is acting to reduce the amount of energy lost per unit window area. Installation of more energy efficient windows since 1970 has resulted in an annual savings of approximately 0.6 quads. If all windows utilized existing cost effective energy conserving technologies, then residential window energy losses would amount to less than 0.8 quads, directly saving $18 billion per year in avoided energy costs. The nationwide installation of windows that are now being developed could actually turn this energy loss into a net energy gain. Considering only natural replacement of windows and new construction, appropriate fenestration policies could help realize this potential by reducing annual residential window energy losses to 2.2 quids by the year 2012, despite a growing housing stock.

  13. Shared Savings Financing for College and University Energy Efficiency Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Shared savings arrangements for campus energy efficient investments are discussed. Shared savings is a term for an agreement in which a private company offers to implement an energy efficiency program, including capital improvements, in exchange for a portion of the energy cost savings. Attention is directed to: types of shared savings…

  14. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  15. Computation of Production Leadtime Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    cost in order to conform to SAMMS calculations. SAMMS uses the Presutti- Trepp formula, without significant modification, to compute safety levels...This formula was developed in 1970 by Messrs. Victor Presutti and Richard Trepp of Air Force Logistics Command. The Presutti- Trepp safety level formula...and the Presutti- Trepp safety level formula (Appendix D). B-3 4. Stated another way, PLT savings is the difference in TVC due to changed PLT and price

  16. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  17. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr-1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr-1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture.

  18. Opinion: Composition Studies Saves the World!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzell, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Stanley Fish in his new book ["Save the World on Your Own Time" (New York: Oxford UP,2008)] says that composition studies presents "the clearest example" of what is desperately wrong in the academy, because in writing classrooms, he says, "more often than not anthologies of provocative readings take center stage and the actual teaching of writing…

  19. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (life-saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be packed in accordance with § 173.185 and Special...

  20. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that do not exceed those appropriate for the actual appliance when in use. (b) Life saving appliances... and illumination signal flares; (3) Electric storage batteries and lithium batteries (Life saving appliances containing lithium batteries must be transported in accordance with § 173.185, and...

  1. Fast approach for toner saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

    2011-01-01

    Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

  2. Tankering Fuel: A Cost Saving Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    NORTHCOM Scotia AF New York US ANG NORTHCOM Scott AFB KBLV AF Illinois US AMC NORTHCOM Scott ANG Chicago AF Illinois US ANG NORTHCOM...Academy KAFF AF Colorado US DRU NORTHCOM USNS Alan T Shepard T-AKE-3 NAVY FLOATING US NULL NORTHCOM USNS Amelia Earhart T-AKE-6 NAVY FLOATING US...CHERRY CAPITAL KTVC MI 3.83062 CHEYENNE RGNL JERRY OLSON FLD KCYS WY 3.9192 CHIANG MAI IAP VTCC OS 2.545 CHICAGO MIDWAY INTL KMDW IL 3.7014 CHICAGO

  3. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Bowden, Mr. Bruce Eberhard, Mrs. Janice Eberhard, Mr. Doug “Zing” Fogel, Mr. David Horn, Mr. Hank Houtman, Professor Keebom Kang, Mr. Don Keeton ...engines. Engine competition between PW and GEAE begins in fiscal year 2011 , when production is expected to have delivered less that 100 aircraft...supported at the 70 percent service level (D. Keeton , personal communication, August 29, 2007). A more thorough discussion of the modeling

  4. Rule emphasizes quality and cost savings.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) emphasizes improving quality and efficiencies across settings in the Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) final rule for 2012. Hospitals will receive a 1% market basket increase in reimbursement. CMS announced a Medicare spending-per-beneficiary measures that will be used in the Value-Based Purchasing program and the Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting program. CMS is adding new quality measures involving infection control in 2014 and 2015.

  5. Cost Savings Enhancements Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2012-02-09

    02/09/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Outsourcing: A cost-savings perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Riser, M.A.; McGough, M.E. )

    1992-01-01

    What is outsourcing There is no such word according to Webster's dictionary; however, as used in the business world, outsourcing is a partnership or contract by a corporation with a third party to have the third party completely manage a particular corporate function or operations area. A common example of outsourcing that occurs in today's commercial marketplace can be seen in the management information systems field. Many large corporations (i.e., banks, insurance companies, utilities, etc.) are required to maintain vast computer networks and information systems to process the voluminous amounts of information that flow through the company each day. This computer center maintenance is usually a support function to the business's main line of work, but it is a necessary tool to allow the corporation to function efficiently in today's information-dominated society. While it is a fact that information is a crucial part of any business operation, processing and distributing that information is not and need not be and usually hinders a company in effectively pursuing its main line of work (e.g., making electricity). One western nuclear utility has outsourced its vendor engineering services to free its engineers from the humdrum task of updating and maintaining vendor technical manual (VTM) information and to allow them to concentrate on maintaining the plant at power, thereby increasing the overall plant capacity rating (i.e., increased profits). Having correct and accurate technical manual information is important for proper plant maintenance; however, on a day-to-day basis, VTMs do not directly support the plant at power and are therefore just one more administrative nightmare a systems engineer or maintenance engineer must deal with in his job.

  7. A simulation shows limited savings from meeting quality targets under the Medicare Shared Savings Program.

    PubMed

    Eddy, David M; Shah, Roshan

    2012-11-01

    The Medicare Shared Savings Program, created under the Affordable Care Act, will reward participating accountable care organizations that succeed in lowering health care costs while improving performance. Depending on how the organizations perform on several quality measures, they will "share savings" in Medicare Part A and B payments-that is, they will receive bonus payments for lowering costs. We used a simulation model to analyze the effects of the Shared Savings Program quality measures and performance targets on Medicare costs in a simulated population of patients ages 65-75 with type 2 diabetes. We found that a ten-percentage-point improvement in performance on diabetes quality measures would reduce Medicare costs only by up to about 1 percent. After the costs of performance improvement, such as additional tests or visits, are accounted for, the savings would decrease or become cost increases. To achieve greater savings, accountable care organizations will have to lower costs by other means, such as through improved use of information technology and care coordination.

  8. Save Energy, Save Dollars. Information Bulletin 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    This cooperative extension publication from Cornell University is a guide for energy conservation in homes, apartments, and transportation. Written in non-technical language, this guide provides the layperson with information about weatherization, home appliance use, recreation and transportation practices to conserve energy and, thus, save money.…

  9. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  10. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  11. Virtual reality as telemedicine tool: technology, ergonomics and actual applications.

    PubMed

    Riva, G; Gamberini, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the state of the art in telemedicine applications of virtual environments (VEs) and related technologies for health care. The possible use of VEs as telemedicine tool has attracted much interest in medicine. Actually this technology is commonly used in remote or augmented surgery, and surgical training, which are critically dependent upon eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use VEs in anatomic learning and for the assessment and rehabilitation in neuro-psychology. To date, such applications have improved the quality of health care, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. Tools that respond to the needs of present VE systems are being refined or developed. However, the possible use of VEs in telemedicine is not linked to the solution of technical problems only. In fact telemedicine is not simply a technology but a complex process whose successful exploitation needs significant attention to ergonomics, human factors and organizational changes in the structure of the relevant health service.

  12. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance sheets to self

  13. Saving the "library of life".

    PubMed Central

    Benford, G

    1992-01-01

    A broad program of freezing species in threatened ecospheres could preserve biodiversity for eventual use by future generations. Sampling without studying can lower costs dramatically. Local labor can do most of the gathering. Plausible costs of collecting and cryogenically suspending the tropical rain forest species, at a sampling fraction of 10(-6), are about 2 billion dollars for a full century. Much more information than species DNA will be saved, allowing future biotechnology to derive high information content and perhaps even resurrect then-extinct species. Parallel programs of in situ and other ex situ preservation are essential to allow later expression of frozen genomes in members of the same genus. This is a broad proposal that should be debated throughout the entire scientific community. PMID:1438320

  14. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  15. Thermostatistics: Proven Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasnoski, John

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus simulating residential thermostat control was developed to test claim that lowering house thermostats saves energy and to give students a better understanding of how thermostats work. The apparatus (includes diagram of same) and student activity are described. (JN)

  16. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  17. Underestimation of Project Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  18. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  19. 100 Ways To Save Money & Raise Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Carla, Comp.; Smith, Ruth Mercedes, Comp.

    Compiled by the Commission on Small and/or Rural Colleges of the American Association of Community Colleges, this document provides over 100 tips for saving money and suggestions for fundraising activities for community college practitioners across the nation. Ideas cover such topics as reducing staff and operational costs, innovative fundraising…

  20. Saving Water. Managing School Facilities, Guide 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide examines typical water costs for schools and points out financial and environmental benefits of using water economically. The guide explains the make-up of a typical water bill, including standing charges and sewerage rates. Ways of saving water are described, including use of self-closing and spray taps and urinal flush controllers. A…

  1. Use staff wisely to save NHS money.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2015-12-09

    The NHS could save up to £ 2 billion a year by improving workflow and containing workforce costs, according to Labour peer Lord Carter's review of NHS efficiency. Changes in areas such as rostering and management of annual leave must avoid increasing the pressure on staff.

  2. Hidden Savings in your Bus Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    School transportation industry statistics show the annual average costs for operating and maintaining a single school bus range from $34,000 to $38,000. Operating a school bus fleet at high efficiency has a real impact on the dollars saved for a school district and the reliability of transportation service to students. In this article, the author…

  3. Shared services centers can drive significant savings.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jim

    2011-06-01

    A study of more than 30 U.S. integrated delivery systems (IDSs) found that implementing effective shared services centers can drive significant cost savings in human resources, accounts payable, and procurement. Many IDSs have not adopted effective shared services strategies. Implementing administrative shared services involves low risk and a relatively low start-up investment.

  4. Camp Pendleton Saves 91% in Parking Lot Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base replaced high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures in one parking lot with high-efficiency induction fixtures for 91% savings in energy use and $5,700 in cost savings annually. This parking lot is estimated to have a simple payback of 2.9 years. Sitewide up-grades yielded annual savings of 1 million kWh.

  5. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Enterprises (International English Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This fact sheet provides information about the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now energy audit process, software tools, training, energy management standards, and energy efficient technologies to help U.S. companies identify energy cost savings.

  6. Plant-wide assessment summary: $1.6 million in savings identified in Augusta Newsprint assessment

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-08-01

    Augusta Newsprint and its partners conducted a systematic plant-wide assessment (PWA) to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities at the company's plant in Augusta, Georgia. The assessment team identified $1.6 million in potential annual savings.

  7. Cost-effective Alternative for Negative-pressure Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Franczyk, Mieczyslawa; Gottlieb, Lawrence J.; Song, David H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current predominantly used equipments for negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) are expensive. In current healthcare climate continually emphasizing cost containment, importance in developing more cost-effective alternatives cannot be understated. Previously, therapeutically equivalent methods of providing NPWT was demonstrated using just low-cost, universally available supplies, coined Gauze-SUCtion (GSUC). Here, we examine long-term potential financial savings of utilizing GSUC over commercialized products. Methods: A retrospective cost analysis was performed at the University of Chicago Medical Center between 1999 and 2014. All NPWT was provided via either GSUC or commercialized vacuum-assisted closure (VAC, KCI) device. Sum of all material component costs were reviewed to determine theoretical average daily cost. For the VAC group, recorded institutional spend to KCI was also reviewed to determine actual daily cost. In the GSUC group, this figure was extrapolated using similar ratios. Labor costs for each method were determined using analysis from prior study. Patient demographics, etiology, wound location, and treatment length were also reviewed. Results: Total of 35,871 days of NPWT was provided during the 15-year span. Theoretical average cost of VAC was $94.01/d versus $3.61/d for GSUC, whereas actual average was $111.18/d versus $4.26/d. Average labor cost was $20.11/dressing change versus $12.32. Combined, total cost of VAC therapy was estimated at $119,224 per every 1,000 days of therapy versus $9,188 for the GSUC. Conclusions: There is clear and significant cost savings from utilization of GSUC method of NPWT. Furthermore, the added advantage of being able to provide NPWT from universally accessible materials cannot be overstated. PMID:28280658

  8. Qualified Tuition Savings Programs: The Impact on Household Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Julia Lynn; McIntosh, Susan Hume

    This study analyzed the impact tuition savings plans are likely to have on household savings. State-sponsored college savings programs rely mainly on tax incentives to motivate parents to save for their children's education in earmarked accounts. The first such programs were prepaid tuition plans, and other types of qualified tuition savings…

  9. 48 CFR 48.104-2 - Sharing acquisition savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-2 Sharing acquisition savings. (a... value engineering clause or alternate used, and the type of savings, as follows: Government/Contractor... percent for cost-reimbursement contracts. Value engineering sharing does not apply to...

  10. Insuring That Families Plan and Save for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belvin, James

    1995-01-01

    Because so many Americans can afford to save for children's college costs but do not, it is proposed that employers take a more active role in promoting college financial planning. Possible solutions include company-sponsored contributory accounts, educational savings plans; payroll deduction plans, educational annuity programs, subsidized or…

  11. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is the ratio of the present value savings to the present value costs of an energy or water conservation measure. The numerator of the ratio is the present value of net savings in energy or water and non... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment...

  12. Money-Saving Suggestions for Your M & O Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry J.

    1980-01-01

    By contracting some of the tasks, hiring part-time employees and a specialist to oversee a preventive maintenance program, and making other cost-saving decisions, it is possible to save a large amount of the school district's funds. (Author/MLF)

  13. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

  14. The Timmons Savings Plan: A Working Document on a Plan to Encourage Families to Save for College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Michael L.

    The Timmons Savings Plan, which encourages families to save toward college costs, is analyzed. This plan allows for periodic (non-tax deductible) contributions to an account administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The amount deposited would be matched by the federal government in exchange for the government's earning the interest on…

  15. Surgical Cost Disclosure May Reduce Operating Room Expenditures.

    PubMed

    Austin, Luke S; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Ong, Alvin C; Lombardi, Nicholas J; Wowkanech, Charles D; Mehnert, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Health care expenditures are rising in the United States. Recent policy changes are attempting to reduce spending through the development of value-based payment systems that rely heavily on cost transparency. This study was conducted to investigate whether cost disclosure influences surgeons to reduce operating room expenditures. Beginning in 2012, surgeon scorecards were distributed at a regional health care system. The scorecard reported the actual direct supply cost per case for a specific procedure and compared each surgeon's data with those of other surgeons in the same subspecialty. Rotator cuff repair was chosen for analysis. Actual direct supply cost per case was calculated quarterly and collected over a 2-year period. Surgeons were given a questionnaire to determine their interest in the scorecard. Actual direct supply cost per rotator cuff repair procedure decreased by $269 during the study period. A strong correlation (R(2)=0.77) between introduction of the scorecards and cost containment was observed. During the study period, a total of $39,831 was saved. Of the surgeons who were queried, 89% were interested in the scorecard and 56% altered their practice as a result. Disclosure of surgical costs may be an effective way to control operating room spending. The findings suggest that providing physicians with knowledge about their surgical charges can alter per-case expenditures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e269-e274.].

  16. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  17. Savings in its sights for Somerset Trust.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Colin Russell, healthcare specialist at Schneider Electric (pictured), explains how the company has recently worked with Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust to implement a major energy-saving project at the Trust's Musgrove Park Hospital in Taunton. He argues that, at a time when all areas of the service are being asked to reduce costs, such partnerships can potentially save the institution millions of pounds and significantly reduce carbon emissions, while "revitalising" parts of the NHS estate, and ensuring continuity of vital hospital services for facilities managers.

  18. 48 CFR 1852.243-71 - Shared savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... from any action other than an approved CRP. However, this clause does not limit recovery of any such... event, exceed 50 percent of the total cost savings recognized by the Contracting Officer. The...

  19. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single-family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    The energy bill for US single-family households was over $77 billion in 1987 (excluding auto fuel purchases), accounting for approximately 20% of national energy expenditures. Large sums are spent on residential retrofits by individual homeowners, government agencies, and utilities. As of late 1987, over 21 million households indicated that they had added at least one energy-saving measure in the previous two years, while a recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study estimated that nearly 15 million residential customers have participated in some kind of demand-side management (DSM) program. Given the level of continuing investments in residential energy efficiency, accurate estimates of savings from various conservation measures are increasingly necessary, especially as new technologies become more sophisticated and incremental efficiency gains more difficult to achieve. This report provides a comparative analysis of measured data on the performance and cost-effectiveness of energy-saving measures in existing single-family homes, based on information in the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base. The initial BECA report on measured data for single-family retrofits was completed seven years ago. In updating the single-family database, we have added 135 data points, representing over 33,000 houses, to the original database of 145 retrofit projects. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a summary of energy savings and costs of individual retrofit measures and strategies and results from federal/state low-income and utility weatherization programs. we also discuss measurement issues, predicted versus actual savings, trends in single-family retrofit programs, and implications for the next generation'' of cost-effective single-family retrofits. Volume 2 contains a written summary of each retrofit project and complete data tables. 87 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Software Solution Saves Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses computer software that can give classrooms and computer labs the capabilities of costly PC's at a small fraction of the cost. A growing number of cost-conscious school districts are finding budget relief in low-cost computer software known as "open source" that can do everything from manage school Web sites to equip…

  1. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  2. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  3. Using Technology to Control Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon; Schoenberg, Doug; Richards, Dan; Morath, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examines the use of technology to control costs in the child care industry. One of these technology solutions is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). SaaS solutions can help child care providers save money in many aspects of center management. In addition to cost savings, SaaS solutions are also particularly appealing to…

  4. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  5. Sign Up for Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance service contracts between educational facilities and energy services companies, in which the company provides the money for energy-efficiency improvements and the school pays the company an annual fee. The company guarantees the savings will meet or exceed the fee. (EV)

  6. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  7. New Savings through Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battise, Laura

    2011-01-01

    After three years of budget cuts, California school district leaders are hard-pressed to find ways to make further reductions without impacting educational quality. However, some seasoned leaders have turned to broad sustainability strategies to find new sources of savings and revenue. This article presents case studies in which three district…

  8. Save It! A Practical Family Kit on Saving Resources, Saving Money, and...Saving the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Edmonton (Alberta). Public Affairs.

    Suggestions and practical advice are offered for all members of a family in this guide on environmental stewardship. This publication contains information on a variety of home and work related environmental concerns. The environmental consequences of daily activities are discussed and specific recommendations are offered for saving energy,…

  9. Life Saving Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    By 1870, American and British inventors had found other ways to use rockets. For example, the Congreve rocket was capable of carrying a line over 1,000 feet to a stranded ship. In 1914, an estimated 1,000 lives were saved by this technique.

  10. Project Kid-Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Stephen A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes Project Kid-Save, a program designed by Arizona's Monument Valley High School to provide a safety net for failing students and to support adoption of the North Central Association's outcomes accreditation approach. Reviews the program's five components and evaluates the relative success of each. (11 citations) (MAB)

  11. Valuation of travel time savings in viewpoint of WTA.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chang-Qiao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the issues in measurement of value of travel time savings (VTTS), the willingness-to-accept (WTA) for the private car owner is studied by using surveyed data. It is convincing that trip purpose, trip length, time savings, cost savings, income, and allowance from employee have effects on the WTA. Moreover, influences of these variables are not the same for different trip purposes. For commuting trips, effects of income and allowance from employee are significant while time savings and cost savings are dominated for leisure and shopping trips. It is also found that WTA is much higher than expected which implies that there are a group of drivers who are not prone to switching to other trip modes other than passenger car.

  12. Savings from Four Transport Safety Efforts in Native America

    PubMed Central

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R.; Lawrence, Bruce; Hicks, Kenny R.; Keiffer, Michael; Bill, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents cost-outcome analyses of four transportation injury prevention efforts in Native American jurisdictions. Pre- and post-intervention data were analyzed to estimate projects’ impact on injury reduction. Projects’ costs were amortized over the time period covered by the evaluation or over the useful life of physical capital invested. Projects’ savings were calculated based on estimated reduction in medical and public program expenses, on estimated decrease in lost productivity, and on estimated quality adjusted life years saved. All four projects yielded positive benefit-cost ratios. The net cost per quality adjusted life years was less than zero for all the projects. PMID:11558093

  13. Future of Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    Using automation to free up controllers for more strategic management of air traffic is one approach being studied by NASA as it seeks to boost airspace system capacity and efficiency, thereby saving fuel. Heinz Erzberger, a NASA Ames Research Center senior scientist, says the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) has been studied for several years. It could increase efficiency 15% by providing optimal routes that cut airlines direct operating costs. A 25% increase in landings on existing runways could follow an important benefit. AAC is one of the efforts to be reviewed by the Joint Planning and Development Organization, an FAA-led initiative by six federal agencies to redesign the U.S. air transportation system by 2025. The main goal is to triple air traffic capacity within 20 years to avert the sort of gridlock that would make fuel consumption only one of many travel nightmares. The automated system approach would allow aircraft to fly optimal trajectories. A trajectory would be defined in the standard three dimensions and eventually include the fourth, time. The management of air traffic by the data-linked exchange of trajectories would start at high altitude and eventually move down to lower altitudes. The automated concept is an outgrowth of the type of tools developed by NASA for use by FAA controllers in managing traffic flows over the years, including ones that optimize routings for the best fuel burn. But AAC would push automation further to reduce workload so controllers can focus on "solving strategic control problems, managing traffic flow during changing weather and ... other unusal events." One key component, the automated trajectory server (ATS), is a ground systems that would rely on software to manage flight path requests from aircrews and controllers. But, Erzberger acknowledges, "The FAA's current plan for upgrades to air traffic services does not include [allowing] the future ground system to issue separation-critical clearances of trajectory changes

  14. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  15. Saving Futures, Saving Dollars: The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBaun, Bill; Roc, Martens

    2013-01-01

    The nation could save as much as $18.5 billion in annual crime costs if the high school male graduation rate increased by only 5 percentage points, a new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education finds. This report examines and builds upon research that links lower levels of educational attainment with higher rates of arrests and…

  16. Why 529 College Savings Plans Favor the Fortunate. Charts You Can Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldeman, Chad

    2011-01-01

    As college costs have continued to rise, states have offered families a way to save for their child's education. Private savings accounts, known as 529 savings plans, allow a family's investment to grow tax-free until a child is ready for college. Today, every state sponsors at least one 529 plan, and families have more than 10 million accounts,…

  17. Learning about saving energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This fact sheet for use in primary and junior high school classes describes what energy is, how people use energy, and how energy can be conserved. This last section lists ways to save energy in heating and cooling, electric appliances, automobiles, and in manufacturing. A list of activities are suggested and resources for further information, both groups and books, are listed. A glossary is also included.

  18. Comfortably saving energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elich, H. J.

    1984-04-01

    A central heating control system saving energy and improving comfort was digitally implemented. Based on control principles and simulation a control algorithm was determined. Two microcomputers are used to process room and boiler sensor data and are connected with each other by two-wire communication. The system provides a low and constant boiler temperature, an accurately controlled room temperature, a built-in pump switch, and the possibility to adjust the temperature four times a day.

  19. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  20. The Effect of Alternative Savings Approaches on College Aid. Opportunity and Ownership Facts. Number 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    To pay for college, many low- and moderate-income students and their families rely on financial aid and savings. How students and families save--and in whose name--affects both the tax consequences and the impact of savings on financial aid. Choosing the wrong way to save can raise the out-of-pocket costs of college by thousands of dollars.…

  1. An Investigation on the Energy Saving Potential of Electromagnetic Ballast Fluorescent Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.

    2009-08-01

    Energy saving issue is a matter of great concern for industry and electrical utilities. Energy saving from fluorescent lamp system can be achieved by means of optimizing lighting level, reducing power consumption and improving the efficiency of fluorescent lamps. This paper presents an alternative energy saving control method for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. Non-linearity characteristics of fluorescent lamps and the effect of energy saving controller are taken into account in the proposed energy saving controller. The proposed energy saving controller provides energy saving feature and dimmable illuminance level control for electromagnetic ballast fluorescent lamps. In comparison to electronic ballast, integration of an energy saving controller with electromagnetic ballast results in less power consumption, less green house gas emission and longer lifespan at a much lower installation cost. Experiment results based on the proposed controller showed that 37.5% energy can be saved by reducing 15% of the AC line voltage.

  2. Fuel saving device

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, J. C.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to a fuel saving device adaptable to all types of carburetors, petrol engines and domestic or industrial burners, constituted by a solenoid generating a magnetic field which has an influence on the air-fuel mixture. Said solenoid has a red copper coil, has its axis oriented in parallel to the axis of the engine, and, periodically, in a first pre-determined direction, during the moon phase which goes from the full moon to the new moon, and in a second, opposite, direction, during the moon phase going from the new moon to the full moon. The invention finds an application in motor engine of low consumption.

  3. Publishers: Save Authors' Time.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-02-02

    Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors' time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to comply with the style required by the targeted journal only in revised versions, but not at the submission step when the manuscripts are not yet approved for publication.

  4. Saving all the bits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific tradition of saving all the data from experiments for independent validation and for further investigation is under profound challenge by modern satellite data collectors and by supercomputers. The volume of data is beyond the capacity to store, transmit, and comprehend the data. A promising line of study is discovery machines that study the data at the collection site and transmit statistical summaries of patterns observed. Examples of discovery machines are the Autoclass system and the genetic memory system of NASA-Ames, and the proposal for knowbots by Kahn and Cerf.

  5. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  6. Predicting hospital accounting costs

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Cretin, Shan; Witsberger, Christina J.

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative methods to Medicare Cost Reports that provide information about hospital costs more promptly but less accurately are investigated. Both employ utilization data from current-year bills. The first attaches costs to utilization data using cost-charge ratios from the previous year's cost report; the second uses charges from current year's bills. The first method is the more accurate of the two, but even using it, only 40 percent of hospitals had predicted costs within plus or minus 5 percent of actual costs. The feasibility and cost of obtaining cost reports from a small, fast-track sample of hospitals should be investigated. PMID:10313352

  7. COMPACT SCHOOL AND $$ SAVINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAIR, W.G.

    A REVIEW OF THE CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING THE USE OF A TOTAL ENERGY SYSTEM WITHIN A SCHOOL BUILDING STATES THE WINDOWLESS, COMPACT SCHOOL OFFERS MORE EFFICIENT SPACE UTILIZATION WITH LESS AREA REQUIRED FOR GIVEN STUDENT POPULATION AND LOWER OPERATION COSTS. THE AUTHOR RECOMMENDS THAT THESE BUILDINGS BE WINDOWLESS TO REDUCE HEAT COSTS, HOWEVER, AT…

  8. 25 CFR 170.618 - Can a tribe keep savings resulting from project administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a tribe keep savings resulting from project... Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.618 Can a tribe keep savings resulting from project administration? When actual.... (See 25 U.S.C. 450e-2.)...

  9. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  10. Public Perceptions of Regulatory Costs, Their Uncertainty and Interindividual Distribution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B; Finkel, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Public perceptions of both risks and regulatory costs shape rational regulatory choices. Despite decades of risk perception studies, this article is the first on regulatory cost perceptions. A survey of 744 U.S. residents probed: (1) How knowledgeable are laypeople about regulatory costs incurred to reduce risks? (2) Do laypeople see official estimates of cost and benefit (lives saved) as accurate? (3) (How) do preferences for hypothetical regulations change when mean-preserving spreads of uncertainty replace certain cost or benefit? and (4) (How) do preferences change when unequal interindividual distributions of hypothetical regulatory costs replace equal distributions? Respondents overestimated costs of regulatory compliance, while assuming agencies underestimate costs. Most assumed agency estimates of benefits are accurate; a third believed both cost and benefit estimates are accurate. Cost and benefit estimates presented without uncertainty were slightly preferred to those surrounded by "narrow uncertainty" (a range of costs or lives entirely within a personally-calibrated zone without clear acceptance or rejection of tradeoffs). Certain estimates were more preferred than "wide uncertainty" (a range of agency estimates extending beyond these personal bounds, thus posing a gamble between favored and unacceptable tradeoffs), particularly for costs as opposed to benefits (but even for costs a quarter of respondents preferred wide uncertainty to certainty). Agency-acknowledged uncertainty in general elicited mixed judgments of honesty and trustworthiness. People preferred egalitarian distributions of regulatory costs, despite skewed actual cost distributions, and preferred progressive cost distributions (the rich pay a greater than proportional share) to regressive ones. Efficient and socially responsive regulations require disclosure of much more information about regulatory costs and risks.

  11. Asymptotic cost in document conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blostein, Dorothea; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a hundredfold decrease in the cost of relevant technologies, the role of document image processing systems is gradually declining due to the transition to an on-line world. Nevertheless, in some high-volume applications, document image processing software still saves millions of dollars by accelerating workflow, and similarly large savings could be realized by more effective automation of the multitude of low-volume personal document conversions. While potential cost savings, based on estimates of costs and values, are a driving force for new developments, quantifying such savings is difficult. The most important trend is that the cost of computing resources for DIA is becoming insignificant compared to the associated labor costs. An econometric treatment of document processing complements traditional performance evaluation, which focuses on assessing the correctness of the results produced by document conversion software. Researchers should look beyond the error rate for advancing both production and personal document conversion.

  12. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Joe

    2011-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation, and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA.

  13. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Joe; Erdem, Ender

    2011-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of thermal mass, ceiling insulation and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate energy/cost savings between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft Irwin, CA.

  14. Cost Realism Handbook for Assuring More Realistic Contractor Cost Proposals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    realism. Solicitation: Specify cost realism in addition ,:) Government estimated cost as cost evaluation sub- - ieria in the solicitation and specify the...Analogy techniques involve extrapolations from actual costs for similar systems. Other techniques may include the use of industry wide factors. Parametric...of sources (e.g., actual costs for similar systems and industry wide factors) may be used to supplement the estimates based on specific contractor

  15. Assessing the performance of life-cycle portfolio allocation strategies for retirement saving: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Benjamin; Gesumaria, Robert; Leonesio, Michael V

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the performance of four life-cycle portfolio allocation strategies through stochastic simulation based on observed U.S. asset returns during 1926-2008. Annual worker contributions to retirement savings accounts are based on the actual lifetime earnings histories maintained by the Social Security Administration for 12,871 workers born during 1915-1942. Each strategy's performance is evaluated primarily on the basis of the distributions of internal rates of return on investments calculated at the time of retirement. Comparisons are made with the performance of four other investment strategies that vary in terms of their exposure to stock and bond market risk. Life-cycle plans with larger portfolio weights assigned to equities have higher average returns, but those gains come at the cost of increased risk of infrequent bad outcomes.

  16. Turning on Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explores how schools are upgrading equipment and altering routines to cut energy consumption costs. How to determine the energy efficiency of school buildings using a new assessment tool provided by the Federal government is highlighted. (GR)

  17. Centralize Printing, and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

  18. Witnessing to Save Lives!!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatz, Thea S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A statewide effort in Arkansas to promote low-cost mammograms required community-based education for adult learners. It combined health education, learning styles, brain hemisphericity, anthropology, and the presentation of culturally appropriate role models. (Author/JOW)

  19. Energy saving ideas for open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Rixen, W.; Benecke, K.J.

    1981-05-01

    The increasing cost of diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. The possibility of combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is offered by the application of semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. In the first part of this article. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while in the second section. Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors. Since a belt conveyor cannot transport rocks of a size often produced when blasting hard strata, a crusher must be installed before the belt conveyor to reduce the material to a transportable size. This also serves as a primary crusher. The crushing plant is positioned centrally in the mine and trucks haul overburden and ore from the individual faces to the crusher without having to climb long gradients. Therefore, truck haul distances and operating costs are significantly reduced. The resulting savings in operating costs greatly exceeds the additional capital costs for the crushing plant. The use of fully mobile crushers directly fed by the face shovel is well established. Whereas the partial elimination of truck haulage by semi-mobile in-pit crushers is a more recent development. This latter method restricts truck haulage to in-pit operation only, saving costly haulage of material up-grade out of the pit to the crusher or overburden dump. It is particularly applicable to operations where blending is required. In such cases, the flexibility and adaptability of trucks to frequently changing faces is essential, while the semi-mobile crusher reduces haul distances to a minimum.

  20. Promoting cooperative federalism through state shared savings.

    PubMed

    Weil, Alan

    2013-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act is transforming American federalism and creating strain between the states and the federal government. By expanding the scale of intergovernmental health programs, creating new state requirements, and setting the stage for increased federal fiscal oversight, the act has disturbed an uneasy truce in American federalism. This article outlines a policy proposal designed to harness cooperative federalism, based on the shared state and federal desire to control health care cost growth. The proposal, which borrows features of the Medicare Shared Savings Program, would provide states with an incentive in the form of an increased share of the savings they generate in programs that have federal financial participation, as long as they meet defined performance standards.

  1. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  2. Reinforcement Learning and Savings Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C; Metrick, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    We show that individual investors over-extrapolate from their personal experience when making savings decisions. Investors who experience particularly rewarding outcomes from saving in their 401(k)-a high average and/or low variance return-increase their 401(k) savings rate more than investors who have less rewarding experiences with saving. This finding is not driven by aggregate time-series shocks, income effects, rational learning about investing skill, investor fixed effects, or time-varying investor-level heterogeneity that is correlated with portfolio allocations to stock, bond, and cash asset classes. We discuss implications for the equity premium puzzle and interventions aimed at improving household financial outcomes.

  3. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  4. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  5. Financial analysis of savings from telemedicine in Ohio's prison system.

    PubMed

    Brunicardi, B O

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Corrections (ODRC) implemented a telemedicine pilot project in March of 1995. The project brought together the Southern Ohio Correctional facility in Lucasville, the Corrections Medical Center in Columbus, and The Ohio State University Medical Center, also located in Columbus. Its purpose was to evaluate the use of two-way interactive video for the delivery of health services. With two-way interactive video, physicians in one location established audio and video links with inmates hundreds of miles away. Data were collected on the potential savings as a result of telemedicine usage in the Ohio prison system. Costs associated with telemedicine and those incurred without telemedicine were determined on per-consult basis for comparison. The cost for a medical consult to be performed at the Corrections Medical Center averaged $263.51 per inmate. The cost for a medical consult via telemedicine varied from month to month, depending on the utilization volume. The ODRC experienced savings for telemedicine usage when 129 or more consults were performed each quarter. During the third quarter, 145 telemedicine consults were performed. The cost per consult for telemedicine usage during this quarter was $255.19. There was a savings of $8.48 per consult, resulting in a quarterly savings of $1206. As the utilization of telemedicine continued to increase in the fourth quarter, the amount of savings increased.

  6. An evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4,003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the Army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M and V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHP systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  7. [Save the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    The United States Commissioner of Education opposes tax credit legislation because tax credits are expensive and largely uncontrollable, and the benefits of tax credits are not effectively targeted on the families needing help. Tax credits are also deficient because they ignore the differences in college costs. Administratively, tax credits would…

  8. Visa Cards Save Thousands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Eldon G.

    A thorough review of Lane Community College's purchase order system revealed that 62% of all purchase orders processed in 1981-82 were for amounts under $100; that these orders made up only 3.5% of the dollars expended in acquiring materials and services for college operations; and that each purchase order cost the college $75 in supplies and…

  9. Government Policy, Saving and Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Several arguments that government policy--income redistribution and support of the poor, higher marginal income taxes, and social security--has depressed saving are found wanting. Also hard to sustain is the argument that investment demand has been depressed by tax policy. Current government policy will not improve saving and investment. (RM)

  10. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  11. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  12. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  13. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  14. Four Steps to Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    An upstate New York district's energy-conservation measures over the past 19 months have saved $376,000 that can be invested in academic and additional energy-saving programs. The district advises developing people-oriented strategies; updating structures, systems, and equipment; finding appropriate resources; and investing in the future. (MLH)

  15. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  16. Can earning prompt-payment discounts really save money?

    PubMed

    Lane, M R

    1997-09-01

    Healthcare financial managers should determine whether to take advantage of the discounts vendors offer for prompt payment of invoices. Prompt-payment discounts offered by vendors can result in substantial savings, but this benefit may be offset by the costs of acquiring the funds necessary for faster payment. The best results are achieved when the cost of funds is less than the discount savings that can be achieved, vendor discounts are available for a high percentage of the provider's purchase base, the provider is able to negotiate with vendors to increase discount levels, and the provider has an efficient system for processing invoices.

  17. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  18. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  19. Measuring costs of child abuse and neglect: a mathematic model of specific cost estimations.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Few empirical facts exist regarding the actual costs of child abuse in the United States. Consistent data is not available for national or even statewide analysis. Clearly there is a need for such accounting in order to fully understand the damage created by child abuse and neglect. Policy makers and social welfare planners should take child abuse costs into consideration when determining expenditures for prevention and intervention programs. The real savings may far outweigh the costs of such programs when both direct and indirect costs of child abuse and neglect enter into the analysis. This paper offers a model in which the actual costs of child abuse and neglect, based on direct, indirect, and opportunity costs associated with each case. Direct costs are those associated with the treatment of abused and neglected children as well as the costs of family intervention programs or foster care. Indirect costs are costs to society created by the negative effects of child abuse and neglect evinced by individuals who suffer such abuse and then as teens or adults engage in criminal behavior. Indirect costs also derive from the long term and ongoing health care needs required by victims of abuse, for both physical and mental health disorders. With the existence of this model, the author hopes to stimulate the discussion and desire for better data collection and analysis. In order to demonstrate the utility of the model, the author has included some cost estimates from the Connecticut State Department of Children and Families and the works of other scholars looking into the question of costs for child abuse and neglect. This data represents the best available at this time. As a result, the model appearing here is specific to Connecticut. Even so, once more valid data becomes available, the model's structure and theoretical framework should adapt to the needs of other states to facilitate better measurement of relevant costs and provide a clearer picture of the utility of

  20. Energy-saving thermostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Thermostat for two-stage heating system adjusts turn-on time and thermostat setpoint so that reserve resistance electrical heaters are not activated in morning warm up. Thermostat monitors outside temperature and turns on heat earlier in cold weather so that room will be at desired temperature by specified time. Mechanical, electrical, electronic, pneumatic, or microprocessor versions of device are possible. Correctional factors can be included where second-stage operation is more cost-effective than prolonged first-stage operation.

  1. Study on impact of energy price comparison on energy saving benefits of heat pump in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Tian, Q.; Zhang, Y. G.; Bai, H. F.

    2016-08-01

    As to the heat pump technology applying in the HVAC engineering, the relationship between energy saving rate (ESR) and electricity cost saving rate (ECSR) of heat pump should be a positive correlation in theory. But in the actual energy price system, due to the fluctuating energy price comparison, the relationship between them is of less coordination. Moreover, despite the high ESR, the economic benefit of ECSR is lost. In this paper, via the case analysis under the condition of average technical and economic parameters in North China, the critical point rate of economic benefit of ECSR in energy price comparison among prices of residential electricity, steam-coal, and residential natural gas is found, which is about 2:3:8. Also, a viewpoint as well as method is suggested to promote the wide usage of heat pump, balance energy supply structure, save energy consumption, and reduce emissions by optimizing the energy price comparison, which is feasible and desirable to raise the price comparison between residential electricity and natural gas, and reduce the price comparison between residential electricity and steam-coal in a certain extent.

  2. Ozonated laundering: Radical concept claims dramatic savings

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, B.

    1993-12-31

    An innovative commercial laundering technology that uses no hot water and no detergent holds promise of dramatic savings in energy, water, chemicals, labor, and sewage fees. Users report good results, but the conservative laundry industry is likely to be skeptical, especially in light of the powerful role played by chemical and equipment manufacturers. While ozonated laundering technology uses more electricity than conventional approaches in some applications, the reported advantages in terms of overall resource efficiency and cost savings could make it an attractive option from the perspective of end-users and utility companies alike. As yet, there are many unanswered questions about the process. There is no theoretical basis to explain how ozone cleans, and no third-party testing to verify these impressive savings. Reports from installations at two Marriott hotels, however, appear to corroborate the manufacturer`s claims. This report assesses the controversial elements of the ozonated laundering process, compiles users` comments and concerns, and reports on current research about how the process works. More independent study will be needed, however, to provide a basis for acceptance of such a radical divergence from the norm in commercial laundering.

  3. Selectively fired, tubing-conveyed perforating guns save rig time

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, P.M. ); Bond, P.L. )

    1993-07-19

    Selective firing of tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP) guns during drill stem tests (DSTs) added flexibility and saved costs for Marathon Oil Co. As an example, in the Garland field in Wyoming, the guns allowed perforating multiple zones in one trip. This saved 1 1/2--2 days/well in rig time and $25,000--30,000/well in electric wire line and DST tool charges. For international offshore operations, savings of $200,000/well appear possible. Savings result not only from perforating multiple zones, but also from arbitrarily setting firing patterns with or without zone isolation. The paper describes the testing of equipment, the design of the guns, firing heads, crossover assembly, pressure isolation sub, control line, and select-fire sub, and applications for the guns.

  4. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less

  5. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  6. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  7. Saving Japanese physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    For someone who is known to his friends as the "director of the universe", you might be surprised when visiting Hitoshi Murayama on the campus of the University of Tokyo. Murayama, who is director of the university's Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), sits in the corner of a large open-plan office he shares with administration staff. "I don't even have my own space at the moment!" he says. The wait for a new office will, however, be over this month as the institute gets its own new building costing 20m.

  8. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of actual costs provided that (i) the rate is based on historical cost data of the company, (ii) such... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates,...

  9. South Jersey School Saves Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At West Deptford High School in New Jersey, a group of students led by their teacher have developed a number of sound energy-conserving techniques that add up to substantial savings for the school budget. (Author/MLF)

  10. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When & How to Wash Hands: Key Times and Tips Show Me the Science: ...

  11. Saved By A Weather Satellite

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a story about an incredibly challenging rescue that took place on Jan. 2, 2010, 250 miles off the shore of North Carolina. Dennis Clements was saved thanks to a distress signal sent from hi...

  12. An Educational Intervention to Decrease Drug Costs Related to Terminal Secretions in a Hospice Organization.

    PubMed

    Brock, Cara; Cooper, Sarah; Herndon, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    Terminal secretions is a common symptom seen in hospice patients. Antimuscarinic drugs are commonly used to treat this symptom despite a lack of supporting data. Wide variability in cost exists among these treatments. Hospice program data were assessed to identify high-use and high-cost medications. An educational intervention (EI) was developed to target one such medication, transdermal scopolamine. The EI focused on efficacy, safety, and actual cost (by unit and total expenditure) for each possible treatment of terminal secretions. Following the EI, drug utilization data was re-evaluated. Prior to the deployment of the EI, total monthly hospice drug costs averaged $91,405 (SD 1,444) with an average drug cost per patient per day of $11.42 (SD 0.54). Monthly costs of drugs frequently employed to treat terminal secretions averaged $7,187.67 (SD 2,253) pre-intervention. Following the EI, monthly drug costs decreased 22.5%, average daily patient drug costs decreased 11.1%, and total anti-secretion costs decreased 28.5% after adjusting for difference in census. Education regarding the use and cost of medications to treat symptoms at end-of-life in hospice patients can be an intervention used to lead to significant cost savings to hospice organizations while maintaining appropriate symptom management for patients. Future interventions to target additional high-cost medications are warranted.

  13. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    SciTech Connect

    Trumpy, T.

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  14. Weyerhaeuser: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Sawmill

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    In 2000, Weyerhaeuser Company, a U.S. Department of Energy Allied Partner in the Industrial Technologies Program, increased the efficiency of the compressed air system at its sawmill facility in Coburg, Oregon. This improved the system's performance and will save about 1.3 million kWh annually. Total project costs were $55,000; because annual energy cost savings were also $55,000, the simple payback period was only 1 year. Subsequent improvements at six other company plants and mills are yielding 6.8 million kWh in energy savings and reducing annual energy costs by $250,000.

  15. Can disease management reduce health care costs by improving quality?

    PubMed

    Fireman, Bruce; Bartlett, Joan; Selby, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Disease management (DM) promises to achieve cost savings by improving the quality of care for chronic diseases. During the past decade the Permanente Medical Group in Northern California has implemented extensive DM programs. Examining quality indicators, utilization, and costs for 1996-2002 for adults with four conditions, we find evidence of substantial quality improvement but not cost savings. The causal pathway--from improved care to reduced morbidity to cost savings--has not produced sufficient savings to offset the rising costs of improved care. We conclude that the rationale for DM programs, like the rationale for any medical treatments, should rest on their effectiveness and value.

  16. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  17. Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    statement) that you have displayed. A wide range of estimate*: can be calculated for the early retirement proposal, as you have said, Mr. Chairman...way implies, as the DOD witnesses suggested, that they agree with the proposal for an early retirement . This case assumes that there would be no indirect cost savings, such as shore base support associated with the retirement.

  18. The Trouble with Health Savings Accounts: A Social Work Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, conservatives have promoted health savings accounts (HSAs) as a way of addressing the growing cost of health insurance. HSAs were introduced under the Medical Modernization Act of 2003 as "an alternative to traditional health insurance." They are at the heart of an effort to replace the current system of insurance with…

  19. Saving Energy and Money: A Lesson in Computer Power Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Hua, David

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, students will develop an understanding of the economic impact of technology by estimating the cost savings of power management strategies in the classroom. Students will learn how to adjust computer display settings to influence the impact that the computer has on the financial burden to the school. They will use mathematics to…

  20. Army Reserve 63d RSC Achieves 85% Savings in Parking Lot Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Army Reserve 63d Regional Support Command (RSC) achieved 85% energy savings and $4,000 per year in cost savings by replacing 12 old light fixtures with light-emitting diode fixtures in the military equipment parking area. This project was part of a camp-wide parking lighting retrofit which, on average, delivered 78% energy savings and a simple payback of 4.4 years.

  1. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  2. For Diabetes Shared Savings Programs, 1 Year of Data Is Not Enough.

    PubMed

    VanArsdale, Lynne; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Haugen, Heather; Smith, Nancy; Atherly, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Fee-for-service payment models are moving toward pay-for-performance designs, many of which rely on shared savings for financial sustainability. Shared savings programs divide the cost savings between health care purchaser and provider based on provider performance. Often, these programs measure provider performance as the delivery of agreed-upon clinical practice guidelines that usually are represented as evidence-based medicine (EBM). Multiyear studies show a negative relationship between total cost and EBM, indicating that long-term shared savings can be substantial. This study explores expectations for the rewards in the first year of a shared savings program. It also indicates the effectiveness of using 1 year of claims to assess cost savings from evidence-based care, especially in a patient population with high turnover. This study analyzed 1956 adults with diabetes insured through Medicaid. Results of linear regression showed that the relationship between total cost of care and each element of evidence-based medical care during a 1-year period was positive (higher cost) or insignificant. The results indicate that diabetes EBM programs cannot expect to see significant cost savings if the evaluation lasts only 1 year or less. The study concludes that improvements in EBM incentive programs could come from investigating the length of time needed to realize cost savings from each element of diabetes EBM. Investigating other factors that could affect the expected amount of cost savings also would benefit these programs, especially factors derived from sources external to insurance program information such as the medical record and care management data.

  3. The total cost and measured performance of utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.

    1996-06-01

    By examining the actual performance of conservation or demand-side management (DSM) programs for ten utilities, Joskow and Marron (1992) have made an important contribution to policy discussions about the wisdom of relying on utilities to improve customer energy efficiency. We use Joskow and Marron`s method to analyze twenty utility commercial lighting programs and, like Joskow and Marron, find wide variations in industry reporting practices and savings evaluation methods. We extend the method by systematically accounting for several of the most important sources of variation and comment on how they influence total program costs. Our accounting also allows us to relate remaining program cost variations to the program sizes and the electric supply costs avoided by the programs. We draw qualified, yet affirmative, conclusions regarding the cost effectiveness of the programs.

  4. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

  5. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  6. Energy Extra: Energy Savings vs. Comfort - and the Effect of Humidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Proper humidity will, in a large number of cases, save money for the user. This saving could show up directly because of reduced infiltration and lower thermostat settings. It could show up indirectly in reduced costs for maintenance and preservation and in increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. (Author)

  7. Plant-wide assessment summary: $4.1 million in savings identified in Paramount Petroleum assessment

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-08-01

    The Paramount Petroleum Corporation (PPC) and its partners conducted a systematic plant-wide assessment (PWA) to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities at the company's plant in Paramount, California. The assessment team identified $4.1 million in potential annual savings.

  8. Is there a budget fallacy? The role of savings goals in the prediction of personal spending.

    PubMed

    Peetz, Johanna; Buehler, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The authors extend research and theory on self prediction into the realm of personal financial behavior. Four studies examined people's ability to predict their future personal spending and the findings supported the two main hypotheses. First, participants tended to underestimate their future spending. They predicted spending substantially less money in the coming week than they actually spent or than they remembered spending in the previous week. Second, the prediction bias stemmed from people's savings goals-defined as the general desire to save money or minimize future spending-at the time of prediction. Participants who reported (Studies 2 and 3) or were induced to experience (Study 4) a stronger savings goal predicted they would spend less money. However, savings goals were not related to actual spending and thus contributed to the bias in prediction.

  9. Consortium Purchases: Case Study for a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library cooperation and academic library consortia and presents a case study of a Canadian consortia that conducted a cost-benefit analysis for purchasing an electronic resource. Reports on member library subscription costs, external economic factors, value of patron time saved, costs and benefits for patrons, and net savings. (LRW)

  10. College Savings Plans: Public Policy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S., Ed.

    Six articles discuss college savings plans. "Introduction and Overview" by Janet S. Hansen addresses the affordability of college, parental responsibility for college savings, incentives for saving, and the risks and rewards of planning for college expenses. "The Need for College Savings" (Sandy Baum) emphasizes the parents'…

  11. Going Online to Save Data Safely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbourough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of saving data safely. Suggestions include making backup copies of all important computer documents; frequently hitting the Ctrl-S keys to save current documents to the hard disk; periodically save a backup copy to a floppy disk; periodically saving a copy through the Internet to an offsite backup disk; and…

  12. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  13. EDI (electronic data interchange) for human resources saves money and time.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, J J; Kibat, G

    1994-01-01

    Healthcare financial managers seeking immediate cost savings through the use of electronic data interchange (EDI) may find that the automation of repetitive transactions can reduce staffing levels in hospital human resource departments and lower the cost of employee benefits. New procedures and EDI also can tighten controls on hospital employee health benefit eligibility and reduce the per employee cost of benefits.

  14. SAVE IT! Easy Environmental Tips To Save the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    Everyone has the opportunity to make a difference in turning around the mounting environmental crisis. The purpose of this document is to outline choices a person can make and actions people can take to save the earth from continuing environmental deterioration. This booklet contains concise explanations of environmental problems and tips that…

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-44 - Training and education costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... working hours. (c) Costs of tuition, fees, training materials and textbooks, subsistence, salary, and any...) Contractor contributions to college savings plans for employee dependents are unallowable....

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-44 - Training and education costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... working hours. (c) Costs of tuition, fees, training materials and textbooks, subsistence, salary, and any...) Contractor contributions to college savings plans for employee dependents are unallowable....

  17. 48 CFR 31.205-44 - Training and education costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... working hours. (c) Costs of tuition, fees, training materials and textbooks, subsistence, salary, and any...) Contractor contributions to college savings plans for employee dependents are unallowable....

  18. 48 CFR 31.205-44 - Training and education costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... working hours. (c) Costs of tuition, fees, training materials and textbooks, subsistence, salary, and any...) Contractor contributions to college savings plans for employee dependents are unallowable....

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-44 - Training and education costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... working hours. (c) Costs of tuition, fees, training materials and textbooks, subsistence, salary, and any...) Contractor contributions to college savings plans for employee dependents are unallowable....

  20. Advocates of College-Savings Plans Hope to Cash In on Credit Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that advocates of state-sponsored college-savings plans seek to use the current credit crunch as a wake-up call for parents and policy makers to shift away from the growing use of loans by families to cover college costs. In the long run, savings are the best way for most families to avoid the burdensome costs of private…

  1. General methodology: Costing, budgeting, and techniques for benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stretchberry, D. M.; Hein, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    The general concepts of costing, budgeting, and benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis are discussed. The three common methods of costing are presented. Budgeting distributions are discussed. The use of discounting procedures is outlined. The benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis is defined and their current application to NASA planning is pointed out. Specific practices and techniques are discussed, and actual costing and budgeting procedures are outlined. The recommended method of calculating benefit-cost ratios is described. A standardized method of cost-effectiveness analysis and long-range planning are also discussed.

  2. Inbound freight: an untapped resource for saving money.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Kurt

    2007-12-01

    With all the responsibilities placed on materials managers, it is not surprising that some processes such as shipping are overlooked when it comes to cutting costs. But by taking a closer look at inbound freight costs, materials managers might discover an untapped resource for saving thousands, and in some cases millions, of dollars. Finding out how costs vary among vendors for shipping the same type of item can eliminate unnecessary freight charges. Initially, the process takes time, but the bottom line will be better for it.

  3. Do Joint Fighter Programs Save Money? Technical Appendixes on Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    quality and objectivity. C O R P O R A T I O N Do Joint Fighter Programs Save Money? Technical Appendixes on Methodology Mark A. Lorell, Michael...programs.3 Define CC( n ) as the cumulative cost of producing n units of the aircraft. Then, an 87 percent cost-quantity improvement curve is represented...by the equation4 CC n ( ) = A n ( )! . Here, A is the cost of the first unit, and β is a coefficient defined by ! = ln "( ) ln 2

  4. Potential impact of pharmacist interventions to reduce cost for Medicare Part D beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Erin E; Vanwert, Elizabeth M; Erickson, Steven R

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to determine the impact of simulated pharmacist interventions on out-of-pocket cost, time to coverage gap, and cost per patient to the Medicare Part D program using actual patient cases from an adult general medicine clinic. Medication profiles of 100 randomly selected Medicare-eligible patients from a university-affiliated general internal medicine clinic were reviewed by a pharmacist to identify opportunities to cost-maximize the patients' therapies based on the plan. An online Part-D calculator, Aetna Medicare Rx Essentials, was used as the standard plan to determine medication cost and time to gap. The primary analysis was comparison of the patients' pre-review and post-review out-of-pocket cost, time to coverage gap, and cost to Medicare. A total of 65 patients had at least 1 simulated pharmacist cost intervention. The most common intervention was substituting for a less costly generic, followed by substituting a generic for a brand name. Projected patient cost savings was $476 per year. The average time to coverage gap was increased by 0.7 ±1.2 months. This study illustrates that the pharmacists may be able to reduce cost to some patients as well as to the Medicare Part D program.

  5. Inclusion of costs in conservation planning depends on limited datasets and hopeful assumptions.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-08-01

    Many conservation organizations use spatial prioritization to help identify locations in which to work. Increasingly, prioritizations seek to account for spatial heterogeneity in the costs of conservation, motivated in part by claims of large efficiency savings when these costs are included. I critically review the cost estimates on which such claims are based, focusing on acquisition and management costs associated with terrestrial protected areas. If researchers are to evaluate how including costs affects conservation planning outcomes, estimation methods need to preserve the covariation between and relative variation within costs and benefits of conservation activities. However, widely used methods for estimating costs and incorporating them into prioritizations may not meet these standards. For example, among relevant studies, there is surprisingly little attention given to the costs that conservation organizations actually face. Instead, there is a heavy reliance on untested proxies for conservation costs. Analytical shortcuts are also common. Now that debate is moving beyond whether to account for costs in conservation planning, it is time to evaluate just how we can include them to greatest effect.

  6. Cost Savings Analysis of School Readiness in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Anton, Paul; Diaz, Jose; MartinRogers, Nicole; Rausch, Ela

    2009-01-01

    Educational and economic research shows that investing in school preparedness for low- income children prevents needless public spending and produces payoffs in K-12, government programs, and the private sector. Conversely, not investing in or cutting programs that produce school readiness results in increased spending and lost benefits for: (1)…

  7. Cost Savings Analysis of School Readiness in Michigan. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Anton, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in the 1980s, Michigan began making investments in fully preparing young children for school--cognitively, physically, socially and emotionally. Currently Michigan's Great Start system encompasses both early childhood services and a strategic plan for the state's early childhood system of programs, services, and supports for children…

  8. Electrical Monitoring Devices Save on Time and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect the Solar Dynamics Observatory's instruments from blowing their fuses and being rendered unusable, Goddard Space Flight Center worked with Micropac Industries Inc., based in Garland, Texas, to develop solid-state power controllers, which can depower and then resupply power to an instrument in the event of an electric surge. The company is now selling the technology for use in industrial plants.

  9. 403(b) Plans Help Schools Save Costs and Payroll Taxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    There's not a school business official in the country who isn't dealing with budget cuts and trying to do more with less. This article shares some proven strategies to help school districts reduce spending and address personnel issues associated with retirement plans. Because public education employers are exempt from the Employee Retirement…

  10. A cost-savings analysis of prenatal interventions.

    PubMed

    Bonifield, S L

    1998-01-01

    Proper prenatal care has long been established as the single most important factor in improving both maternal and infant health (Henderson 1994) yet the United States remains one of only two industrialized nations that have yet to ensure universal healthcare for pregnant women (National Center for Farmworker Health, Inc. 1997). Through clinical innovations, many progressive interventions now available are not only medically effective but also financially prudent. This study addresses the efficacy and feasibility and discusses the policy implications of the following four prenatal programs: universal prenatal screening for the human immunodeficiency virus, prenatal carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, condition-specific care for pregnant diabetics, and prenatal nutrition counseling. The healthcare community is challenged to expand the breadth of routine prenatal care to include those services that are both financially sensible and clinically imperative.

  11. FEHBP Prescription Drug Integrity, Transparency, and Cost Savings Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Lynch, Stephen F. [D-MA-9

    2011-03-09

    03/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Cost savings through multimission code reuse for Mars image products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the library's design will be presented, along with mission adaptation experiences and lessons learned, and the kinds of additional functionality that have been added while still retaining its multimission character. The application programs using the library will also be briefly described.

  13. Shared Savings Contracting for Reducing Energy Costs of Defense Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Chesapeake Avenue 1030 V. Third Avenue 1727 Atwood Towson , MD 21204 Columbus, OR 43212 Loangeat, CO 80501 The KCE Group E9e1rbe Associates Inc...Chambeau Road 1000 Crescent Avenue, ,.E. Boulder, CO 80302 Fort Wayne , IN 46801 Atlanta, GA 30309 Ssmyn-D’elia, Architects Shiffman & Tietjeo CoLsulting

  14. Fuel Savings through Aircraft Modification: A Cost Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the unwavering support of my wife Jen. Through the course of the ASAM school year, she has taken care of all possible mundane details of our lives...critical in completing this research in a timely manner. Many thanks are due to my friend Lt Col Phil Heseltine, an ASAM alumnus of 2007. It was...the discussions we had at the beginning of the year along with the “Area for Further Research” of his ASAM graduate research project that the idea of

  15. Aerodynamic Drag and Drag Reduction: Energy and Energy Savings (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that up to 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, 27% of the total energy used in the United States is consumed by transportation systems, and 60% of the transportation energy or 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Drag reduction goals of 50% are proposed and discussed which if realized would produce a 7.85% total energy savings. This energy savings correlates to a yearly cost savings in the $30Billion dollar range.

  16. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  17. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post…

  18. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  19. Saving Schoolhouse Energy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, John; And Others

    The objective of the Saving Schoolhouse Energy Program was to generate information that school administrators and federal energy/education decision makers could use to identify ways of implementing specific, economical remedies to reduce energy waste in schools. This program was designed to have five phases: (1) Conduct an energy audit of ten…

  20. Shining a Light on Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how schools and universities can save energy and money by evaluating lighting systems and changing behaviors. Retrofitting older buildings with better lighting technology and use of natural light are examined. An example of an energy conservation education program to reduce energy waste is highlighted. (GR)

  1. Water saving technologies flagship program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Flagship Project on Water Saving Technologies was formed under the protocol between the USDA and Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China. Joint work in this flagship project was reported at the 13th Joint Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology in ...

  2. Do the Rich Save More?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynan, Karen E.; Skinner, Jonathan; Zeldes, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The question of whether higher-lifetime income households save a larger fraction of their income was the subject of much debate in the 1950s and 1960s, and while not resolved, it remains central to the evaluation of tax and macroeconomic policies. We resolve this longstanding question using new empirical methods applied to the Panel Study of…

  3. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  4. Saving the Kilgore Covered Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Wilma

    1988-01-01

    Describes an American literature class project to save a covered bridge from collapse. Illustrates how student initiative in contacting government agencies and news media, learning the history of the bridge, and raising public awareness about the project led to a joint county agreement to preserve the historic span. (DHP)

  5. Walking to Save a County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Describes the 10-year history and accomplishments of the Walk to Save the County which has preserved more than 400 acres of Onondaga County, New York. Outlines organizational structure, promotional strategies, awards, and educational opportunities involved in this annual fund-raising hike by third- through eighth-grade students. (NEC)

  6. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  7. Fuel saving potential of Mach 0.8 twin engine prop-fan transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel saving and economic potentials of the prop-fan high-speed propeller concept have been evaluated for twin-engine commercial transport airplanes designed for 3333.6 km range, 180 passengers, and Mach 0.8 cruise. A fuel saving of 9.7% at the design range was estimated for a prop-fan aircraft having wing-mounted engines, while a 5.8% saving was estimated for a design having the engines mounted on the aft body. The fuel savings and cost were found to be sensitive to the propeller noise level and to aerodynamic drag effects due to wing-slipstream interaction. Uncertainties in these effects could change the fuel savings as much as plus or minus 50%. A modest improvement in direct operating cost was estimated for the wing-mounted prop-fan at current fuel prices.

  8. Millions can be saved through better energy management in federal hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    A comparison of the energy savings achieved by hospitals of the Navy, Veterans Administration, and Indian Health service - all of which have energy conservation programs - with that of five non-federal hospitals having aggressive energy management programs indicated that these agencies could save between $16 million and $55 million more each year if additional energy-saving measures were adopted. The investment required to achieve these savings would be quickly recouped. GAO believes that additional energy-saving opportunities also exist at the Army and Air Force hospitals. Two important program elements - technical audits to identify cost-effective energy conservation measures and accountability to ensure that the measures are implemented - are generally missing or incomplete in federal hospitals' energy conservation efforts. By increasing emphasis on these elements, federal agencies could achieve many of the yet unrealized energy savings.

  9. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... or private coverage to use strategies to save money on prescription drugs. Figure 3. Percentages of adults aged 18–64 ... doctor for a lower cost medication to save money …You bought prescription drugs from another country to save money …You ...

  10. Avoiding the money saving rate increase

    SciTech Connect

    Streiter, S.H.

    1982-06-24

    This is the last in a series of three articles discussing problems for utilities that arise in connection with inflation-swollen capital-investment costs. The first dealt with the problem of front-end loading of charges on capital projects and proposed a way of appreciating new plant at the rate of inflation and earning on the appreciated rate base in later years. The second examined methods of arranging the financing of new plant projects to avoid the incurrence of losses in their early years if the rate base is trended as recommended. This article addresses the question of how to avoid the necessity of a rate increase when placing into service new capital equipment whose purpose was to save ratepayers money. The outcome should be a new regulation on accounting. 2 tables.

  11. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  12. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  13. Managing Information On Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taulbee, Zoe A.

    1990-01-01

    Cost Management Model, CMM, software tool for planning, tracking, and reporting costs and information related to costs. Capable of estimating costs, comparing estimated to actual costs, performing "what-if" analyses on estimates of costs, and providing mechanism to maintain data on costs in format oriented to management. Number of supportive cost methods built in: escalation rates, production-learning curves, activity/event schedules, unit production schedules, set of spread distributions, tables of rates and factors defined by user, and full arithmetic capability. Import/export capability possible with 20/20 Spreadsheet available on Data General equipment. Program requires AOS/VS operating system available on Data General MV series computers. Written mainly in FORTRAN 77 but uses SGU (Screen Generation Utility).

  14. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  15. Energy Savings from GSA's National Deep Retrofit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A

    2014-09-01

    Under its National Deep Energy Retrofit (NDER) program, the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) awarded 10 ESPC projects with the objectives of using innovative technologies and renewable energy technologies, and moving buildings toward net zero energy consumption. This report analyzes data on energy savings from the 10 NDER projects, and compares them with the savings of a sample of other recently awarded Federal ESPC projects. It is shown that by emphasizing the need for deeper energy savings, and by the establishment of a central Project Management Office (PMO) to provide authoritative contracting, technical and pricing assistance, the NDER projects achieved an average level of savings more than twice that of the other Federal ESPC projects. The level of savings achieved in each project seems to be dependent more on the availability of ECMs at the site than on energy price, energy cost per square foot, pre-retrofit EUI or the length of the contract term. This suggests that GSA can achieve similar results in a wide variety of building

  16. Cost Overrun Optimism: Fact or Fiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-29

    COST VARIANCE, TERMED COST OVERRUN COST NOW MONTHS EAC Overrun at Completion Current Overrun BAC ACWP BCWS...ALL 64 18 -3 109 36 -3 493 Equations 1, 2, and 3 define the current cost overrun, the projected cost overrun at completion, and final cost overrun. Of...completion cost . The others are simply the difference between the budget and actual cost of the work. Current overrun (CO) = Cumulative (Cum) BCWP -

  17. Water Conservation Checklist for the Home. Save Water, Save Energy, Save Money. Program Aid No. 1192.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Glenda; And Others

    Few people realize that the average person uses about 60 gallons of water each day. Water shortages are already occurring on a regional scale; someday they may become a national problem. Accordingly, this checklist is designed to help house and apartment dwellers determine how efficiently they use water and identify additional ways to save it.…

  18. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the

  19. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the

  20. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

    DOE PAGES

    New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; ...

    2015-06-07

    For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savingsmore » to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.« less