Science.gov

Sample records for actual costs incurred

  1. 25 CFR 1000.316 - May the Tribe/Consortium be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable âwind up costsâ incurred after the effective date of retrocession? 1000.316 Section 1000.316... Reassumption § 1000.316 May the Tribe/Consortium be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after the effective date of retrocession? Yes, the Tribe/Consortium may be reimbursed for...

  2. 25 CFR 900.254 - May the contractor be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the contractor be reimbursed for actual and reasonable âwind up costsâ incurred after the effective date of rescission? 900.254 Section 900.254 Indians... up costs” incurred after the effective date of rescission? Yes....

  3. Survey on the Assessment of the Current Actual Expenses Incurred by Students on the Meals and Accommodation within and around the Campuses: The Case of Tanzania Higher Education Students' Loans Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyahende, Veronica R.; Bangu, Asangye N.; Chakaza, Benedicto C.

    2015-01-01

    This Survey analyses the current actual expenses incurred by students on the meals and accommodation within and around the campuses. The study was geared towards achieving the following objectives: (i) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for meals In Campus, (ii) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for accommodation…

  4. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions....

  5. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions....

  6. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency...

  7. The burden of pediatric diarrhea: a cross-sectional study of incurred costs and perceptions of cost among Bolivian families

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis represents an enormous public health threat to children under five years of age, causing one billion episodes and 1.9 to 3.2 million deaths per year. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, an estimated 15% of under-five deaths are caused by diarrhea. Bolivian caregiver expenses related to diarrhea are believed to be minimal, as citizens benefit from universal health insurance for children under five. The goals of this report were to describe total incurred costs and cost burden associated with caregivers seeking treatment for pediatric gastroenteritis, and to quantify relationships among costs, cost burden, treatment setting, and perceptions of costs. Methods From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n=1,107) of pediatric patients (<5 years of age) seeking treatment for diarrhea in sentinel hospitals participating in Bolivia’s diarrheal surveillance program across three main geographic regions. Data collected included demographics, clinical symptoms, direct costs (e.g. medication, consult fees) and indirect costs (e.g. lost wages). Results Patient populations were similar across cities in terms of gender, duration of illness, and age, but familial income varied significantly (p<0.05) when stratified on appointment type. Direct, indirect, and total costs to families were significantly higher for inpatients as compared to outpatients of urban (p<0.001) and rural (p<0.05) residence. Consult fees and indirect costs made up a large proportion of total costs. Forty-five percent of patients’ families paid ≥1% of their annual household income for this single diarrheal episode. The perception that cost was affecting family finances was more frequent among those with higher actual cost burden. Conclusions This study demonstrated that indirect costs due to acute pediatric diarrhea were a large component of total incurred familial costs. Additionally, familial costs associated with a single

  8. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions. 9905.502 Section... PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502 Cost accounting standard—consistency in...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose. 9904.402 Section 9904.402 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF...

  13. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds? 170.602 Section 170.602 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  14. 30 CFR 1229.109 - Reimbursement for costs incurred by a State under the delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reimbursement for costs incurred by a State under the delegation of authority. 1229.109 Section 1229.109 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Gas, Onshore Administration of Delegations § 1229.109 Reimbursement for costs incurred by a...

  15. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Payment Plan? 171.555 Section 171.555 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND... Collections § 171.555 What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan? You will incur the following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.115 - May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? 102-37.115 Section 102-37.115 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.115 May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? Yes, you, as a holding agency,...

  17. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.105 Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect... treatment or diagnosis of a particular patient is not countable. (C) Effective for cost reporting periods... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that incur...

  18. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.105 Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs. 412.105 Section 412.105 Public Health CENTERS...

  19. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.105 Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs. 412.105 Section 412.105 Public Health CENTERS...

  20. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  1. Day-care versus inpatient pediatric surgery: a comparison of costs incurred by parents.

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, R S; Horne, J M; Peabody, D M; Postuma, R

    1987-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness for parents of day-care pediatric surgery was assessed by comparing time and financial costs associated with two surgical procedures, one (squint repair) performed exclusively as a day-care procedure, the other (adenoidectomy) performed exclusively as an inpatient procedure. All but 1 of 165 eligible families participated. The children underwent surgery between February and July 1981. The day-care surgery group (59 families) incurred average total time costs of 16.1 hours, compared with 37.1 hours for the inpatient surgery group (105 families), as parents in the latter group remained with their child during the longer hospital stay. Parents from out of town incurred the greater time and financial costs. In both groups parents of younger children tended to spend more time at the hospital than parents of older children. Type of surgical management was not a significant factor in out-of-pocket expenses. Loss of income was associated with employment of the mother as a professional or a manager and may reflect inequalities in access to compassionate leave between men and women in equivalent positions. Opening day-care surgery facilities on weekends might reduce the financial burden on working mothers. Overall, day-care surgery was found to be cost-effective for families. PMID:3594330

  2. Economic costs incurred by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabangchang, Orapan; Allaire, Maura; Leangcharoen, Prinyarat; Jarungrattanapong, Rawadee; Whittington, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive estimates of the economic costs experienced by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood. More generally, it contributes to the literature by presenting the first estimates of flood costs based on primary data collected from respondents of flooded homes using in-person interviews. Two rounds of interviews were conducted with 469 households in three of the most heavily affected districts of greater Bangkok. The estimates of economic costs include preventative costs, ex post losses, compensation received, and any new income generated during the flood. Median household economic costs were US3089, equivalent to about half of annual household expenditures (mean costs were US5261). Perhaps surprisingly given the depth and duration of the flood, most houses incurred little structural damage (although furniture, appliances, and cars were damaged). Median economic costs to poor and nonpoor households were similar as a percentage of annual household expenditures (53% and 48%, respectively). Compensation payments received from government did little to reduce the total economic losses of the vast majority of households. Two flood-related deaths were reported in our sample—both in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, ex post damage was the largest component of flood costs (66% of total). These findings are new, important inputs for the evaluation of flood control mitigation and preventive measures that are now under consideration by the Government of Thailand. The paper also illustrates how detailed microeconomic data on household costs can be collected and summarized for policy purposes.

  3. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action. 765.30 Section 765.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional...

  4. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action. 765.30 Section 765.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional...

  5. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action. 765.30 Section 765.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional...

  6. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action. 765.30 Section 765.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional...

  7. 45 CFR 402.12 - Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred Prior to October 1, 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred Prior to..., 1986, that are directly associated with implementation of this part. Such costs may include planning... after November 6, 1986, in providing public health assistance to eligible legalized aliens and...

  8. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action. 765.30 Section 765.30 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional...

  9. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds? 170.602 Section 170.602 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation...

  10. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan? 171.555 Section 171.555 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  11. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan? 171.555 Section 171.555 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  12. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  13. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  14. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  15. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary... business refiner to comply with the highway diesel fuel sulfur control requirements of the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... small business refiner to comply with the highway diesel fuel sulfur control requirements of...

  17. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  18. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  19. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  20. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  1. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... reimburse us for costs we incur? (a) EPA pays your group by reimbursing you for “allowable” costs, which...

  2. Patients With High Mental Health Costs Incur Over 30 Percent More Costs Than Other High-Cost Patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claire; Cheng, Joyce; Vigod, Simone; Rehm, Jürgen; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A small proportion of health care users, called high-cost patients, account for a disproportionately large share of health care costs. Most literature on these patients has focused on the entire population. However, high-cost patients whose use of mental health care services is substantial are likely to differ from other members of the population. We defined a mental health high-cost patient as someone for whom mental health-related services accounted for at least 50 percent of total health care costs. We examined these patients' health care utilization and costs in Ontario, Canada. We found that their average cost for health care, in 2012 Canadian dollars, was $31,611. In contrast, the cost was $23,681 for other high-cost patients. Mental health high-cost patients were younger, lived in poorer neighborhoods, and had different health care utilization patterns, compared to other high-cost patients. These findings should be considered when implementing policies or interventions to address quality of care for mental health patients so as to ensure that mental health high-cost patients receive appropriate care in a cost-effective manner. Furthermore, efforts to manage mental health patients' health care use should address their complex profile through integrated multidisciplinary health care delivery.

  3. Computer/PERT technique monitors actual versus allocated costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houry, E.; Walker, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    A computer method measures the users performance in cost-type contracts utilizing the existing nasa program evaluation review technique without imposing any additional reporting requirements. progress is measured by comparing actual costs with a value of work performed in a specific period.

  4. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  5. The unfunded costs incurred by patients accessing plastic surgical care in Northern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Robb, Jessica L; Clapson, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian health care system was designed to ensure that all Canadian citizens would receive equal access to health care. However, in rural areas of Canada, patients are required to travel long distances and pay significant out-of-pocket expenses to access health care. The present study attempted to quantify the added out-of-pocket costs that rural Saskatchewan residents must pay to receive plastic surgical specialist care compared with urban residents of Saskatoon. A cost analysis was performed to generate a numerical value that would represent a minimum cost for patients travelling from three different locations within the province. The cost analysis performed in the present study approximated that the unfunded costs for common plastic surgical procedures are, at a minimum, 30 times greater for rural patients in La Ronge compared with their urban counterparts in Saskatoon. The fundamental principle of the Canadian health care system is equal access to necessary health care for all Canadians. Despite this, inequalities persist. The present cost-analysis study demonstrated that the unfunded (out-of-pocket) expenses for rural Saskatchewan patients seeking plastic surgical treatment is significantly higher than for their urban counterparts. These unfunded costs represent a significant barrier to health care access in Canada and serve to propagate inequalities in the nation's heath care system.

  6. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  7. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  8. 44 CFR 208.37 - Reimbursement for equipment and supply costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specified in the current approved Equipment Cache List, and up to the aggregate dollar limit specified in..., taking into account previous Activation history, available funding, the extent and nature of the incident, and the current state of Task Force readiness. (b) Non-Allowable costs. DHS will not reimburse...

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-18 - Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works... authorized for step 1 or step 2 project work performed before award of a step 1 or step 2 grant. However... project costs in the following cases: (1) Step 1 work begun after the date of approval by the...

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-18 - Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... project costs in the following cases: (1) Step 1 work begun after the date of approval by the Regional Administrator of a plan of study, if the State requests and the Regional Administrator has reserved funds for..., 1975, in accordance with an approved plan of study or an approved facilities plan, as appropriate,...

  11. A risk-reduction approach for optimal software release time determination with the delay incurred cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan-Fu; Zhang, Jun-Guang; Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Most existing research on software release time determination assumes that parameters of the software reliability model (SRM) are deterministic and the reliability estimate is accurate. In practice, however, there exists a risk that the reliability requirement cannot be guaranteed due to the parameter uncertainties in the SRM, and such risk can be as high as 50% when the mean value is used. It is necessary for the software project managers to reduce the risk to a lower level by delaying the software release, which inevitably increases the software testing costs. In order to incorporate the managers' preferences over these two factors, a decision model based on multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) is developed for the determination of optimal risk-reduction release time.

  12. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  13. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  14. 25 CFR 39.201 - Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations... Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations? ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations either at the local school level or in the aggregate nationally. ISEF is...

  15. 25 CFR 39.101 - Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? 39... SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula § 39.101 Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? No. ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations...

  16. Calculation of the Actual Cost of Engine Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) helps analysts store, retrieve, and analyze data; build cost models; analyze risk; time phase budgets; and...Tools ( ACEIT ).” n. pag. http://www.aceit.com/ 21 February 2003. • USAMC Logistics Support Activity (LOGSA). “Cost Analysis Strategy Assessment

  17. A comparison of NEAR actual spacecraft costs with three parametric cost models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Todd J.; Lao, Norman Y.; Davalos, Evelyn T.; Bearden, David A.

    1999-11-01

    Costs for modern (post-1990) U.S.-built small planetary spacecraft have been shown to exhibit significantly different trends from those of larger spacecraft. These differences cannot be accounted for simply by the change in size alone. Some have attributed this departure to NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" design approach embodied by the efficiency of smaller teams, reduced government oversight, increased focus on cost, and short development periods. With the Discovery, Mars Surveyor and New Millennium programs representing the new approach to planetary exploration, it is important to understand these current cost trends and to be able to estimate costs of future proposed missions. To address this issue, The Aerospace Corporation (hereafter referred to as Aerospace) performed a study to compare the actual costs of the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft bus (instruments were not estimated) using three different cost models; the U.S. Air Force Unmanned Spacecraft Cost Model, Version 7 (USCM-7), the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) NASA/Air Force Cost Model 1996 (NAFCOM96) and The Aerospace Corporation's Small Satellite Cost Model 1998 (SSCM98). The NEAR spacecraft was chosen for comparison because it was the first Discovery mission launched, and recently recognized with a Laurel award by Aviation Week and Space Technology as a benchmark for NASA's Discovery program [North, 1997]. It was also selected because the cost data has been released into the public domain [Hemmings, 1996]which makes it easy to discuss in a public forum. This paper summarizes the NEAR program, provides a short synopsis of each of the three cost models, and demonstrates how they were applied for this study.

  18. Medical costs incurred by organ damage caused by active disease, comorbidities and side effect of treatments in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a Taiwan nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y M; Chuang, M T; Lang, H C

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to systematically investigate the medial expenditures incurred by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated organ damages in order to assess the economic impact of damage accrual by active disease, comorbidities and side effect of treatments. In total, 22,258 SLE cases were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database, and organ damages assessed were according to the list from Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinic/American Rheumatology damage index system. Medical expenditures incurred by organ damages in the first as well as the subsequent year were obtained from the database. Our data reflected that organ damages caused by active disease and comorbidities, such those of renal, neuropsychiatric, pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are among the highest costing of all damage items. This study also shows that significant medical expenditures are incurred by damage items such as those occurring in ocular and musculoskeletal systems, which are typically caused by side effect of treatments such as corticosteroids. The medical expenditure in subsequent year still causes substantial economic burden. This systematic and continuous survey provided important reference of disease burden of SLE.

  19. Report: Ozone Transport Commission Incurred Costs Under EPA Assistance Agreements XA98379901, OT83098301, XA97318101, and OT83264901

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-4-00068, July 31, 2007. We questioned $2,723,706 of the $9,042,706 in reported outlays because the recipient claimed unallowable outlays for contractual services, indirect costs, and in-kind costs.

  20. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs for graduate medical education programs. 412.105 Section 412.105 Public Health CENTERS FOR... costs for graduate medical education programs. CMS makes an additional payment to hospitals for indirect medical education costs using the following procedures: (a) Basic data. CMS determines the following...

  1. Asynchronous hatching provides females with a means for increasing male care but incurs a cost by reducing offspring fitness.

    PubMed

    Ford, L E; Smiseth, P T

    2016-02-01

    In species with biparental care, sexual conflict occurs because the benefit of care depends on the total amount of care provided by the two parents while the cost of care depends on each parent's own contribution. Asynchronous hatching may play a role in mediating the resolution of this conflict over parental care. The sexual conflict hypothesis for the evolution of asynchronous hatching suggests that females adjust hatching patterns in order to increase male parental effort relative to female effort. We tested this hypothesis in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by setting up experimental broods with three different hatching patterns: synchronous, asynchronous and highly asynchronous broods. As predicted, we found that males provided care for longer in asynchronous broods whereas the opposite was true of females. However, we did not find any benefit to females of reducing their duration of care in terms of increased lifespan or reduced mass loss during breeding. We found substantial negative effects of hatching asynchrony on offspring fitness as larval mass was lower and fewer larvae survived to dispersal in highly asynchronous broods compared to synchronous or asynchronous broods. Our results suggest that, even though females can increase male parental effort by hatching their broods more asynchronously, females pay a substantial cost from doing so in terms of reducing offspring growth and survival. Thus, females should be under selection to produce a hatching pattern that provides the best possible trade-off between the benefits of increased male parental effort and the costs due to reduced offspring fitness.

  2. Sexually selected UV signals in the tropical ornate jumping spider, Cosmophasis umbratica may incur costs from predation.

    PubMed

    Bulbert, Matthew W; O'Hanlon, James C; Zappettini, Shane; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin

    2015-02-01

    Sexually selected ornaments and signals are costly to maintain if they are maladaptive in nonreproductive contexts. The jumping spider Cosmophasis umbratica exhibits distinct sexual dichromatism with males displaying elaborate UV body markings that signal male quality. Female C. umbratica respond favorably to UV-reflecting males and ignore males that have their UV masked. However, Portia labiata, a UV-sensitive spider-eating specialist and a natural predator of C. umbratica, is known to use UV reflectance as a cue when hunting prey. We investigated the cost of these UV signals in C. umbratica in terms of their predation risk. Under experimental conditions, three choice scenarios were presented to P. labiata individuals. Choices by P. labiata were made between male C. umbratica with and without the UV signal; a UV-reflecting male and non-UV-reflecting female; and a UV-masked male and female. The presence and absence of UV signals was manipulated using an optical filter. Portia labiata exhibited a strong bias toward UV+ individuals. These results suggest the sexually selected trait of UV reflectance increases the visibility of males to UV-sensitive predators. The extent of this male-specific UV signal then is potentially moderated by predation pressure. Interestingly though, P. labiata still preferred males to females irrespective of whether UV reflectance was present or not. This suggests P. labiata can switch cues when conditions to detect UV reflectance are not optimal.

  3. Sexually selected UV signals in the tropical ornate jumping spider, Cosmophasis umbratica may incur costs from predation

    PubMed Central

    Bulbert, Matthew W; O'Hanlon, James C; Zappettini, Shane; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin

    2015-01-01

    Sexually selected ornaments and signals are costly to maintain if they are maladaptive in nonreproductive contexts. The jumping spider Cosmophasis umbratica exhibits distinct sexual dichromatism with males displaying elaborate UV body markings that signal male quality. Female C. umbratica respond favorably to UV-reflecting males and ignore males that have their UV masked. However, Portia labiata, a UV-sensitive spider-eating specialist and a natural predator of C. umbratica, is known to use UV reflectance as a cue when hunting prey. We investigated the cost of these UV signals in C. umbratica in terms of their predation risk. Under experimental conditions, three choice scenarios were presented to P. labiata individuals. Choices by P. labiata were made between male C. umbratica with and without the UV signal; a UV-reflecting male and non-UV-reflecting female; and a UV-masked male and female. The presence and absence of UV signals was manipulated using an optical filter. Portia labiata exhibited a strong bias toward UV+ individuals. These results suggest the sexually selected trait of UV reflectance increases the visibility of males to UV-sensitive predators. The extent of this male-specific UV signal then is potentially moderated by predation pressure. Interestingly though, P. labiata still preferred males to females irrespective of whether UV reflectance was present or not. This suggests P. labiata can switch cues when conditions to detect UV reflectance are not optimal. PMID:25750717

  4. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  5. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB 12-001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was mandated by SB537 (Simitian, Chapter 650, Stats. of 2007, codified at Ed. Code Section 47613), which requires the California Research Bureau (CRB) to prepare and submit to the Legislature a report on the key elements and actual costs of charter school oversight. Charter schools are public schools that are operated by entities other…

  6. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  7. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Cure of incurable lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    De Nardo, Gerald L.

    2006-10-01

    The most potent method for augmenting the cytocidal power of monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment is to conjugate radionuclides to the MAb to deliver systemic radiotherapy (radioimmunotherapy; RIT). The antigen, MAb, and its epitope can make a difference in the performance of the drug. Additionally, the radionuclide, radiochemistry, chelator for radiometals and the linker between the MAb and chelator can have a major influence on the performance of drugs (radiopharmaceuticals) for RIT. Smaller radionuclide carriers, such as antibody fragments and mimics, and those used for pretargeting strategies, have been described and evaluated. All of these changes in the drugs and strategies for RIT have documented potential for improved performance and patient outcomes. RIT is a promising new therapy that should be incorporated into the management of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) soon after these patients have proven incurable. Predictable improvements using better drugs, strategies, and combinations with other drugs seem certain to make RIT integral to the management of patients with NHL, and likely lead to cure of currently incurable NHL.

  9. Economic Analysis of Costs Incurred from Chemical Exposures in the Workplace Resulting in Non-Carcinogenic Responses as Additional Justification for Pollution Prevention Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-26

    The Air Force Chief of Staff, General Merrill McPeak, and the Secretary of the Air Force, Mr. Donald Rice , further emphasized pollution prevention in...studies include in vivo animal bioassays and invitro and tissue culture tests. These studies involve the actual dosing of animals or cultures to determine...and Donald B. Rice . Air Force Pollution Prevention Program. Memorandum to all Commanders. HQ USAF, Washington D.C: 13 Nov 1991. 50. Meyer, Gary. OEHL

  10. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... actual costs incurred, including, but not limited to, its direct costs and indirect costs as...

  11. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents.

  12. 76 FR 22410 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Mortgagor's Certificate of Actual Cost

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. This Notice... profits. Its provides a base for evaluating housing programs, labor costs, and ] physical improvements in.... Estimation of the total numbers of hours needed to prepare the information collection including number...

  13. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB Briefly Stated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    The Legislature mandated the California Research Bureau (CRB) explore known best practices for charter school authorizers and survey California authorizers about their practices and costs. Additionally, the Legislature mandated CRB provide an analysis of current reimbursement for charter school oversight and include suggestions for improving…

  14. Operations and Maintenance Costs for New Major U.S. Coast Guard Platforms: Projected Versus Actual Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    expected OG-41 costs during two years out of the four years of data available. Even so, the budget predictions were sig - nificantly higher in the...the t-distribution table for a 0.05 sig - nificance level is used to identify the critical value, denoted as tdf . This test is called a two-tailed...the unusually high degree. Multiple regressions were conducted for the cutters and more sig - nificant results were obtained. 48 TABLE 8 CORRELATION

  15. Pension Costs on DOD Contracts: Additional Guidance Needed to Ensure Costs Are Consistent and Reasonable

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    support from a team of DOD actuaries . DOD audits projected and actual costs for contracts, including pension costs, to ensure they are allowable...qualified and credentialed actuaries ) and collected contractor data on incurred CAS pension costs from 2002 to 2011. To understand how pension costs... Actuary of the GAO for actuarial soundness. We also gathered contractor projections of CAS pension costs for 2012 to 2016. See appendix I for additional

  16. 12 CFR 219.3 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incurred in searching for, reproducing or transporting books, papers, records, or other data as set forth... independent storage facility that charges a fee to search for, reproduce, or transport particular records... not listed in appendix A to this section are reimbursed at actual cost. (d) Transportation or...

  17. 12 CFR 219.3 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incurred in searching for, reproducing or transporting books, papers, records, or other data as set forth... independent storage facility that charges a fee to search for, reproduce, or transport particular records... not listed in appendix A to this section are reimbursed at actual cost. (d) Transportation or...

  18. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  19. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  20. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... costs in final indirect cost rate proposals or the final statement of costs incurred or estimated to be... statement of costs incurred or estimated to be incurred under a fixed-price incentive contract. II... statement of costs incurred or estimated to be incurred under a fixed-price incentive contract for...

  1. 7 CFR 62.300 - Fees and other costs for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Fees for QSVP services shall be based on the time required to provide service calculated to the nearest quarter hour period, including, but not limited to, official assessment time, travel time, and time... costs. Applicants are responsible for paying actual travel costs incurred to provide QSVP...

  2. 7 CFR 62.300 - Fees and other costs for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Fees for QSVP services shall be based on the time required to provide service calculated to the nearest quarter hour period, including, but not limited to, official assessment time, travel time, and time... costs. Applicants are responsible for paying actual travel costs incurred to provide QSVP...

  3. 7 CFR 62.300 - Fees and other costs for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Fees for QSVP services shall be based on the time required to provide service calculated to the nearest quarter hour period, including, but not limited to, official assessment time, travel time, and time... costs. Applicants are responsible for paying actual travel costs incurred to provide QSVP...

  4. 19 CFR 10.178 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...” means those costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth... are not limited to: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture, or... specific merchandise or are not related to the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of...

  5. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth, production... merchandise: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the... the growth, production, manufacture, or assembly of the merchandise, such as administrative...

  6. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alhowaish, Abdulkarim K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group) with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380) than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic

  7. Economic Consequences Incurred by Living Kidney Donors: A Canadian Multi-Center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-01-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th–75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th–75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. In a prospective costing study, the authors find that economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors are frequent and nontrivial, and a notable proportion of donors experience significant costs. PMID:24597854

  8. The cost of primary care research.

    PubMed

    Beasley, J W; Hahn, D L; Wiesen, P; Plane, M B; Manwell, L

    2000-11-01

    A significant portion of research project costs is incurred before the receipt of grant funds. This poses a problem for the initiation of primary care research, especially in community practice settings. Potential investigators need financial support for staff time, training, pilot work, and grant proposal writing if primary care researchers are to compete successfully for grant funds. To find this support, we need to understand and eventually quantify the actual costs of research with attention to those that are incurred before the receipt of grant funds. We outline 10 phases of the research process and provide a model for understanding where costs are incurred and by whom. Costs include those associated with maintaining practice interest in research, supporting practice participation, and disseminating research findings. They may be incurred by either an academic center or a research network, by the practices and physicians themselves, or by an extramural funding source. The needed investment for initiating primary care research can be itemized and, with further research, quantified. This will enhance the arguments for capital investments in the primary care research enterprise.

  9. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred to implement the software and otherwise make the software ready for use. Costs incurred after...

  10. Cost accounting to determine prices: how well do prices reflect costs in the German DRG-system?

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Busse, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Germany has recently introduced a system of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) to engender more appropriate resource allocation. The following article describes the German DRG-system and the methodologies used to determine prices. It analyses the extent to which prices, or calculated cost weights, reflect the actual costs incurred by hospitals for their respective services. We reveal that a "compression" of DRG cost weights occurs, and that the data sample used to calculate cost weights is lacking in terms of its representativeness. Although cost data accuracy has improved over the last few years there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed.

  11. Economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors: a Canadian multi-center prospective study.

    PubMed

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-04-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs.

  12. Incurred sample reanalysis (ISR): a decisive tool in bioanalytical research.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manish; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2011-05-01

    The AAPS Workshop 2008 on Current Topics in GLP Bioanalysis: Assay Reproducibility for Incurred Samples was the defining moment in establishing incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) as a mandatory exercise in demonstrating assay reproducibility using incurred (study) samples. The importance of ISR can be envisaged from its role in clinical as well as non-clinical studies. Incurred samples can differ significantly in their composition when compared with the calibration standards and quality control samples that are used to validate the developed method. The present article attempts to summarize five troubleshooting cases encountered in the analyses of incurred samples for bioanalytical methods developed in our laboratory for mesalamine, hydrochlorothiazide, clopidogrel, sildenafil and rabeprazole. The issues identified were related to: sample inhomogeneity, sample processing error, impact of buffer pH during sample preparation, instability of metabolite and change in laboratory environment. The steps taken to trace and correct these incidents are discussed with adequate data. These examples will further broaden the scope and emphasize the significance of ISR. We believe this investigation will help to develop more reliable and efficient bioanalytical methods.

  13. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  14. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  18. 7 CFR 1430.306 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS 2004 Dairy... losses are calculated on a dairy operation by dairy operation basis and are limited to those occurring in August through October 2004. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by...

  19. 7 CFR 786.106 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.106 Determination of losses incurred. (a) Eligible payable losses are calculated on a dairy operation by...

  20. 7 CFR 786.106 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.106 Determination of losses incurred. (a) Eligible payable losses are calculated on a dairy operation by...

  1. 7 CFR 786.106 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.106 Determination of losses incurred. (a) Eligible payable losses are calculated on a dairy operation by...

  2. 7 CFR 786.106 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.106 Determination of losses incurred. (a) Eligible payable losses are calculated on a dairy operation by...

  3. 7 CFR 786.106 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.106 Determination of losses incurred. (a) Eligible payable losses are calculated on a dairy operation by...

  4. 38 CFR 1.921 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... periodic comparison of costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates... of further collection efforts are likely to exceed recoveries, assist in evaluating offers...

  5. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU OF..., QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising and sale of...

  6. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  7. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  8. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....16(f). (b) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by other types of... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements... accordance with the cost principles applicable to the type of entity incurring the costs, as follows: (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... production costs (for assets produced or constructed). (5) Engineering, architectural, and other outside... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred...

  10. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... production costs (for assets produced or constructed). (5) Engineering, architectural, and other outside... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred...

  11. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  12. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  13. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  14. 42 CFR 417.540 - Enrollment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment costs. 417.540 Section 417.540 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.540 Enrollment costs. (a) Principle. Enrollment costs are... of costs included. Enrollment costs include, but are not limited to, reasonable costs incurred...

  15. 42 CFR 417.540 - Enrollment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enrollment costs. 417.540 Section 417.540 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.540 Enrollment costs. (a) Principle. Enrollment costs are... of costs included. Enrollment costs include, but are not limited to, reasonable costs incurred...

  16. Analysis of imprecision in incurred sample reanalysis for small molecules.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Patel, Devvrat; Davit, Barbara M; Conner, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, incurred sample (IS) reanalysis (ISR) has become a tool to confirm the reliability of bioanalytical measurements. The recommendation for ISR acceptance criterion for small molecules is at least 67% of ISR samples that have reanalyzed concentrations within 20% of their original concentrations when normalized to their means. To understand the relevance of the ISR acceptance criterion and sample size requirements, simulated ISR studies evaluated the probability of ISR studies passing the acceptance criterion (ISR pass rate) as a function of IS imprecision and sample size. When IS imprecision (percent coefficient of variation: %CV) is low (≤ 10 or 1-10% CV), high ISR pass rate (≥ 99%) is attained with <50 samples. At intermediate IS imprecision (e.g., 12% CV or 7-12% CV range), 80-160 samples are required for a high ISR pass rate. When IS imprecision is at the higher end of the acceptance limit, ISR pass rate decreases significantly, and increasing sample size fails to achieve high ISR pass rate. The effect of systematic bias (e.g., instability, interconversion) on ISR pass rate is strongly dependent on sample size at intermediate IS imprecision. The results provide an understanding of the effect of IS imprecision on ISR pass rates and a framework for selection of ISR sample sizes.

  17. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  18. Studies to improve the extraction yields of incurred pesticide residues from crops using the QuEChERS method.

    PubMed

    Hepperle, Julia; Dörk, Daniela; Barth, Anja; Taşdelen, Bünjamin; Anastassiades, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of various factors on the extraction yields of incurred pesticides from crops using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method was thoroughly studied. These factors included extraction time, extraction temperature, agitation approach, and in the case of dry commodities, sample comminution grade. Extraction yields increased with increasing extraction time, eventually reaching a plateau. Extraction temperature also played an important role in speeding up extraction, whereas the agitation approach had little influence. Based on our results we propose an extension of the first QuEChERS extraction step to 15 min when using deep frozen samples and to 2 min when using samples at ambient temperature. The extension of the second QuEChERS extraction step was shown to be less effective. Mechanical shakers can be used to facilitate extraction. This minor modification of the QuEChERS method does not alter its simple structure nor increase the manual labor and costs involved. It was further shown that the extraction yields of incurred pesticides strongly depend on their physiochemical properties, with lipophilic pesticides typically showing stronger retardation and higher yields when extraction time and/or temperature are increased. The impact of prolonging the first QuEChERS extraction step from 1 to 15 min on the extraction yields of incurred pesticides from frozen samples was studied on 132 real samples containing 85 different pesticides throughout the polarity range and representing 55 different commodity types. Out of the 408 pesticide/commodity combinations studied, 34% showed >25% yield increases when the extraction time was extended to 15 min. Also, more than half of the 132 studied samples contained at least one incurred pesticide for which the extraction yield increased by more than 25%. Similar extraction retardation effects were also observed for spiked pesticides but only if these were spiked on commodities with intact

  19. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.143 Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment....

  20. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.143 Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment....

  1. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.143 Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment....

  2. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  3. Does physiological response to disease incur cost to reproductive ecology in a sexually dichromatic amphibian species?

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has contributed to amphibian declines worldwide. The impact of Bd varies, with some species being more susceptible to infection than others. Recent evidence has shown that Bd can have sub-lethal effects, whereby increases in stress hormones have been associated with infection. Could this increased stress response, which is a physiological adaptation that provides an increased resilience against Bd infection, potentially be a trade-off with important life-history traits such as reproduction? We studied this question in adult male frogs of a non-declining species (Litoria wilcoxii). Frogs were sampled for (1) seasonal hormone (testosterone and corticosterone), color and disease profiles, (2) the relationship between disease infection status and hormone levels or dorsal color, (3) subclinical effects of Bd by investigating disease load and hormone level, and (4) reproductive and stress hormone relationships independent of disease. Testosterone levels and color score varied seasonally (throughout the spring/summer months) while corticosterone levels remained stable. Frogs with high Bd prevalence had significantly higher corticosterone levels and lower testosterone levels compared to uninfected frogs, and no differences in color were observed. There was a significant positive correlation between disease load and corticosterone levels, and a significant negative relationship between disease load and testosterone. Our field data provides novel evidence that increased physiological stress response associated with Bd infection in wild frogs, could suppress reproduction by down-regulating gonadal hormones in amphibians, however the impacts on reproductive output is yet to be established.

  4. Using State-Wide Multiple Measures for School Leadership and Management: Costs Incurred vs. Benefits Gained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Hirman, Jennifer; Zeehandelaar, Dara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the utility and value of multiple measures of school performance for school leaders and managers. The research was conducted within the context of the state of California through an investigation of how operators, managers and authorisers of autonomous "charter" (publicly financed but privately operated)…

  5. Report: Incurred Cost Audit of Three EPA Cooperative Agreements Awarded to National Tribal Environmental Council, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-4-0067, February 17, 2010. The recipient’s work plans do not include a description of the recipient’s goals or objectives for its participation in the Western Regional Air Partnership and National Tribal Air Association.

  6. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... benefits to System Members. (b) Public Safety Exemption not applicable. DHS will reimburse Sponsoring... sleep periods during Activation. Activated System Members are considered “on-duty” and must be available... salary, exclusive of fringe benefits; (4) Calculate the total number of hours worked by each...

  7. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits to System Members. (b) Public Safety Exemption not applicable. DHS will reimburse Sponsoring... sleep periods during Activation. Activated System Members are considered “on-duty” and must be available... salary, exclusive of fringe benefits; (4) Calculate the total number of hours worked by each...

  8. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... benefits to System Members. (b) Public Safety Exemption not applicable. DHS will reimburse Sponsoring... sleep periods during Activation. Activated System Members are considered “on-duty” and must be available... salary, exclusive of fringe benefits; (4) Calculate the total number of hours worked by each...

  9. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... benefits to System Members. (b) Public Safety Exemption not applicable. DHS will reimburse Sponsoring... sleep periods during Activation. Activated System Members are considered “on-duty” and must be available... salary, exclusive of fringe benefits; (4) Calculate the total number of hours worked by each...

  10. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... benefits to System Members. (b) Public Safety Exemption not applicable. DHS will reimburse Sponsoring... sleep periods during Activation. Activated System Members are considered “on-duty” and must be available... salary, exclusive of fringe benefits; (4) Calculate the total number of hours worked by each...

  11. 50 CFR 80.93 - When may an agency incur costs under a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS...

  12. 50 CFR 80.93 - When may an agency incur costs under a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS...

  13. 29 CFR 102.171 - Cost shifting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost shifting. 102.171 Section 102.171 Labor Regulations... By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.171 Cost shifting. Costs incurred by the Agency in... amount of the offset. Such costs may include administrative costs and attorneys fees....

  14. 29 CFR 102.165 - Cost shifting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost shifting. 102.165 Section 102.165 Labor Regulations... by Administrative Offset § 102.165 Cost shifting. Costs incurred by the Agency in connection with... offset. Such costs may include administrative costs and attorneys fees....

  15. Energy and time modelling of kerbside waste collection: Changes incurred when adding source separated food waste.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Burn, Stewart; Crossin, Enda

    2016-10-01

    The collection of source separated kerbside municipal FW (SSFW) is being incentivised in Australia, however such a collection is likely to increase the fuel and time a collection truck fleet requires. Therefore, waste managers need to determine whether the incentives outweigh the cost. With literature scarcely describing the magnitude of increase, and local parameters playing a crucial role in accurately modelling kerbside collection; this paper develops a new general mathematical model that predicts the energy and time requirements of a collection regime whilst incorporating the unique variables of different jurisdictions. The model, Municipal solid waste collect (MSW-Collect), is validated and shown to be more accurate at predicting fuel consumption and trucks required than other common collection models. When predicting changes incurred for five different SSFW collection scenarios, results show that SSFW scenarios require an increase in fuel ranging from 1.38% to 57.59%. There is also a need for additional trucks across most SSFW scenarios tested. All SSFW scenarios are ranked and analysed in regards to fuel consumption; sensitivity analysis is conducted to test key assumptions.

  16. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  17. Public Perceptions of Regulatory Costs, Their Uncertainty and Interindividual Distribution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B; Finkel, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Public perceptions of both risks and regulatory costs shape rational regulatory choices. Despite decades of risk perception studies, this article is the first on regulatory cost perceptions. A survey of 744 U.S. residents probed: (1) How knowledgeable are laypeople about regulatory costs incurred to reduce risks? (2) Do laypeople see official estimates of cost and benefit (lives saved) as accurate? (3) (How) do preferences for hypothetical regulations change when mean-preserving spreads of uncertainty replace certain cost or benefit? and (4) (How) do preferences change when unequal interindividual distributions of hypothetical regulatory costs replace equal distributions? Respondents overestimated costs of regulatory compliance, while assuming agencies underestimate costs. Most assumed agency estimates of benefits are accurate; a third believed both cost and benefit estimates are accurate. Cost and benefit estimates presented without uncertainty were slightly preferred to those surrounded by "narrow uncertainty" (a range of costs or lives entirely within a personally-calibrated zone without clear acceptance or rejection of tradeoffs). Certain estimates were more preferred than "wide uncertainty" (a range of agency estimates extending beyond these personal bounds, thus posing a gamble between favored and unacceptable tradeoffs), particularly for costs as opposed to benefits (but even for costs a quarter of respondents preferred wide uncertainty to certainty). Agency-acknowledged uncertainty in general elicited mixed judgments of honesty and trustworthiness. People preferred egalitarian distributions of regulatory costs, despite skewed actual cost distributions, and preferred progressive cost distributions (the rich pay a greater than proportional share) to regressive ones. Efficient and socially responsive regulations require disclosure of much more information about regulatory costs and risks.

  18. 44 CFR 204.43 - Ineligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Fires fought on Federal land are generally the responsibility of the Federal Agency that owns or manages the land. Costs incurred while fighting fires on federally owned land are not eligible under the...

  19. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined...

  20. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  1. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  2. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  3. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... organization is determined as follows: (i) Institutions of higher education. Allowability is determined in... prior approval of the contracting officer, DOE may pay those costs incurred within the ninety...

  4. 11 CFR 106.2 - State allocation of expenditures incurred by authorized committees of Presidential primary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Expenditures incurred for advertisements on national networks, national cable or in publications distributed... installation and intrastate phone calls other than charges related to a special program under 11 CFR...

  5. 31 CFR 901.10 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comparison of costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts... collection efforts are likely to exceed recoveries, assist in evaluating offers in compromise, and...

  6. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... the performance of the OT agreement may not include costs that were incurred before the date on...

  7. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... the performance of the OT agreement may not include costs that were incurred before the date on...

  8. 24 CFR 1006.230 - Administrative and planning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (vi) of this section; (2) Travel costs incurred for official business in... maintenance (but not purchase) of office space. (b) Staff and overhead. Staff and overhead costs...

  9. 7 CFR 330.107 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 330.107 Section 330.107 Agriculture Regulations...; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.107 Costs. All costs (including those incurred under § 330.106 of this... usual places of duty shall be furnished without cost to the person requesting the services, unless...

  10. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways... Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may participate in administrative settlement costs which are: (1) Incurred after notice of claim, (2)...

  11. 7 CFR 330.107 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Costs. 330.107 Section 330.107 Agriculture Regulations...; GARBAGE General Provisions § 330.107 Costs. All costs (including those incurred under § 330.106 of this... usual places of duty shall be furnished without cost to the person requesting the services, unless...

  12. 33 CFR 214.11 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs. 214.11 Section 214.11... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.11 Costs. Costs incurred by the Corps of Engineers in furnishing emergency... by the community generally will not be required. Costs of necessary measures for the...

  13. 33 CFR 214.11 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Costs. 214.11 Section 214.11... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.11 Costs. Costs incurred by the Corps of Engineers in furnishing emergency... by the community generally will not be required. Costs of necessary measures for the...

  14. 20 CFR 627.435 - Cost principles and allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system, including the costs of hearings and appeals, and related expenses such as lawyers' fees. Legal...) Legal expenses for the prosecution of claims against the Federal Government, including appeals to an... incurred by the SJTCC, HRIC, PIC's, and other advisory councils or committees; (3) Advertising costs;...

  15. 31 CFR 358.13 - What is Treasury's liability if the depository institution incurs a loss because it does not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is Treasury's liability if the depository institution incurs a loss because it does not follow required procedures? 358.13 Section 358.13... incurs a loss because it does not follow required procedures? We are not liable for any loss incurred...

  16. Advance care planning in patients with incurable cancer: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Josephine; Butow, Phyllis N; Silvester, William; Detering, Karen; Hall, Jane; Kiely, Belinda E; Cebon, Jonathon; Clarke, Stephen; Bell, Melanie L; Stockler, Martin; Beale, Phillip; Tattersall, Martin H N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is limited evidence documenting the effectiveness of Advance Care Planning (ACP) in cancer care. The present randomised trial is designed to evaluate whether the administration of formal ACP improves compliance with patients' end-of-life (EOL) wishes and patient and family satisfaction with care. Methods and analysis A randomised control trial in eight oncology centres across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, is designed to assess the efficacy of a formal ACP intervention for patients with cancer. Patients with incurable cancer and an expected survival of 3–12 months, plus a nominated family member or friend will be randomised to receive either standard care or standard care plus a formal ACP intervention. The project sample size is 210 patient–family/friend dyads. The primary outcome measure is family/friend-reported: (1) discussion with the patient about their EOL wishes and (2) perception that the patient's EOL wishes were met. Secondary outcome measures include: documentation of and compliance with patient preferences for medical intervention at the EOL; the family/friend's perception of the quality of the patient's EOL care; the impact of death on surviving family; patient–family and patient–healthcare provider communication about EOL care; patient and family/friend satisfaction with care; quality of life of patient and family/friend subsequent to trial entry, the patient's strength of preferences for quality of life and length of life; the costs of care subsequent to trial entry and place of death. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the Sydney Local Health District (RPA Zone) Human Research Ethical Committee, Australia (Protocol number X13-0064). Study results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number Pre-results; ACTRN12613001288718. PMID:27909034

  17. Development of an incurred cornbread model for gluten detection by immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Khuda, Sefat E; Pereira, Marion; Slate, Andrew; Jackson, Lauren S; Pardo, Christopher; Williams, Kristina M; Whitaker, Thomas B

    2013-12-11

    Gluten that is present in food as a result of cross-contact or misbranding can cause severe health concerns to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Immunoassays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow device (LFD), are commonly used to detect gluten traces in foods. However, the performance of immunoassays can be affected by non-assay-related factors, such as food matrix and processing conditions. Gluten (0-500 ppm) and wheat flour (20-1000 ppm) incurred cornbread was prepared at different incurred levels and baking conditions (204.4 °C for 20, 27, and 34 min) to study the accuracy and precision of gluten measurement by seven immunoassay kits (three LFD and four ELISA kits). The stability and immunoreactivity of gluten proteins, as measured by western blot using three different antibodies, were not adversely affected by the baking conditions. However, the gluten recovery varied depending upon the ELISA kit and the gluten source used to make the incurred cornbread, affecting the accuracy of gluten quantification (BioKits, 9-77%; Morinaga, 91-137%; R-Biopharm, 61-108%; and Romer Labs, 113-190%). Gluten recovery was reduced with increased baking time for most ELISA kits analyzed. Both the sampling and analytical variance increased with an increase in the gluten incurred level. The predicted analytical coefficient of variation associated with all ELISA kits was below 12% for all incurred levels, indicative of good analytical precision.

  18. 7 CFR 701.23 - Eligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....27. (b) Eligible costs shall be limited as follows: (1) Costs for use of personal equipment shall be limited to those incurred beyond the normal operation of the farm or ranch. (2) Costs for personal labor shall be limited to personal labor not normally required in the operation of the farm or ranch....

  19. 7 CFR 701.23 - Eligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as follows: (1) Costs for use of personal equipment shall be limited to those incurred beyond the normal operation of the eligible land. (2) Costs for personal labor shall be limited to personal labor not normally required in the operation of the eligible land. (3) Costs for the use of...

  20. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reimbursable costs. 765.11 Section 765.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... remedial action at the active thorium processing site shall be limited to costs incurred for...

  1. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursable costs. 765.11 Section 765.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... remedial action at the active thorium processing site shall be limited to costs incurred for...

  2. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reimbursable costs. 765.11 Section 765.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... remedial action at the active thorium processing site shall be limited to costs incurred for...

  3. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reimbursable costs. 765.11 Section 765.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... remedial action at the active thorium processing site shall be limited to costs incurred for...

  4. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursable costs. 765.11 Section 765.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... remedial action at the active thorium processing site shall be limited to costs incurred for...

  5. 42 CFR 413.90 - Research costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research costs. 413.90 Section 413.90 Public Health... Research costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, are... health-related research activities. Funds for this purpose are provided under many Federal programs...

  6. 42 CFR 413.90 - Research costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research costs. 413.90 Section 413.90 Public Health... Research costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, are... health-related research activities. Funds for this purpose are provided under many Federal programs...

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-32 - Precontract costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precontract costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-32 Precontract costs. Precontract costs means costs incurred before the effective date of...

  8. 48 CFR 31.205-32 - Precontract costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precontract costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-32 Precontract costs. Precontract costs means costs incurred before the effective date of...

  9. 2 CFR 200.469 - Student activity costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Student activity costs. 200.469 Section 200... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles General Provisions for Selected Items of Cost § 200.469 Student activity costs. Costs incurred for intramural activities, student publications, student clubs, and...

  10. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Design, process, or method change is a change to a design, process, or method which has established cost... design, process, or method. DOE cost is the Government cost incurred implementing and validating the CRP. Implementation cost is the Contractor cost of tooling, facilities, documentation, etc., required to effect...

  11. Evaluation of different parameters in the extraction of incurred pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sample processing is often ignored during analytical method development and validation, but accurate results for real samples depend on all aspects of the analytical process. Also, validation is often conducted only using spiked samples, but extraction yields may be lower in incurred samples. In thi...

  12. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....3402(n)-1 Section 31.3402(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income tax... certificate under section 3402(n) and the regulations thereunder has been furnished to the employer. (c)...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....3402(n)-1 Section 31.3402(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income tax... certificate under section 3402(n) and the regulations thereunder has been furnished to the employer. (c)...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....3402(n)-1 Section 31.3402(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income tax... certificate under section 3402(n) and the regulations thereunder has been furnished to the employer. (c)...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....3402(n)-1 Section 31.3402(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income tax... certificate under section 3402(n) and the regulations thereunder has been furnished to the employer. (c)...

  16. 45 CFR 261.53 - May a State correct the problem before incurring a penalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a State correct the problem before incurring a penalty? 261.53 Section 261.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS...

  17. 76 FR 18517 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey: Expenditures Incurred by Recipients of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Incurred by Recipients of Biomedical Research and Development Awards From the National Institutes of Health... biomedical research awards from the National Institutes of Health Research (NIH) and will provide information... with wage and price data from other published sources, will be used to generate the Biomedical...

  18. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  19. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  20. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  1. 45 CFR 2550.100 - Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do State entities or their members incur any risk of liability? 2550.100 Section 2550.100 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR...

  2. Incurred sample reproducibility and stability assessment in a cell-based drug concentration assay.

    PubMed

    White, Joleen T; Crossman, Mary; Subramanyam, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Joleen White is Principal Scientist in Translational Sciences at Biogen Idec. Throughout her career, she has applied her background in biophysical protein chemistry to pharmaceutical development in therapeutic indications with significant unmet medical need. In her current role, she supports method development and regulated bioanalysis of biomarkers, biopharmaceuticals, and immunogenicity in biological samples from nonclinical and clinical studies. Her experience with measuring macromolecules includes enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, Fc fusions, oligonucleotides, PEGylated proteins, and other novel protein constructs. She has supported studies from discovery through all phases of development including GLP nonclinical, clinical, and post-marketing commitments. Incurred samplereproducibility is one aspect of in-study validation, with white papers outlining expectations for chromatographic assays and immunoassays. This manuscript outlines an approach for performing incurred sample reproducibility for a bioequivalence study using a cell-based assay, with the complication of time elapsed between original and repeat assays. The incurred sample reproducibility passed the pre-established acceptance criteria of 45% for at least 2/3 of the samples: 174/216 samples (80.6%). Data trends between the two crossover arms were qualitatively similar. The passed incurred sample reproducibility and stability further supports the validity of the original study conclusion that the two manufacturing processes were bioequivalent. This illustrates one approach to extrapolating industry and regulatory recommendations for situations outside current guidance.

  3. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3402(n)-1 Section 31.3402(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income tax... certificate under section 3402(n) and the regulations thereunder has been furnished to the employer. (c)...

  4. The cost of IT security.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Mac

    2015-04-01

    Breaches in data security have become commonplace in health care, making IT security a necessary cost for healthcare organizations. Organizations that do not invest proactively in IT security face a significant risk of incurring much greater costs from incidents involving compromised data security. Direct costs of security breaches include the costs of discovery, response, investigation, and notification and also can include state or federal penalties and costs of compliance with corrective action plans and resolution agreements. Hidden costs can include damage to brand, loss of consumer confidence, reduced HCAHPS scores, and--by extension--reduced value-based purchasing payments.

  5. How much does care in palliative care wards cost in Poland?

    PubMed Central

    Pokropska, Wieslawa; Łuczak, Jacek; Kaptacz, Anna; Stachowiak, Andrzej; Hurich, Krystyna; Koszela, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The main task of palliative care units is to provide a dignified life for people with advanced progressive chronic disease through appropriate symptom management, communication between medical specialists and the patient and his family, as well as the coordination of care. Many palliative care units struggle with low incomes from the National Health Fund (NHF), which causes serious economic problems. The aim of the study was to estimate of direct and administrative costs of care and the actual cost per patient per day in selected palliative care units and comparison of the results to the valuation of the NHF. Material and methods The study of the costs of hospitalization of 175 patients was conducted prospectively in five palliative care units (PCUs). The costs directly associated with care were recorded on the specially prepared forms in each unit and also personnel and administrative costs provided by the accounting departments. Results The total costs of analyzed units amounted to 209 002 EUR (898 712 PLN), while the payment for palliative care services from the NHF amounted to 126 010 EUR (541 844 PLN), which accounted for only 60% of the costs incurred by the units. The average cost per person per day of hospitalization, calculated according to the actual duration of hospitalization in the unit, was 83 EUR (357 PLN), and the average payment from the NHF was 52.8 EUR (227 PLN). Underpayment per person per day was approximately 29.2 EUR (125 PLN). Conclusions The study showed a significant difference between the actual cost of palliative care units and the level of refund from the NHF. Based on the analysis of costs, the application has been submitted to the NHF to change the reimbursement amount of palliative care services in 2013. PMID:27186194

  6. [Incurable disease in Spain during the 19th century. The Hospital para Hombres Incurables Nuestra Señora del Carmen].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the State's assumption of medical care for patients with "permanent needs" in 19th century Spain. These patients were the incurably ill, the chronically ill and the elderly. This process is contextualized within the liberal reforms of the Spanish healthcare system in the reign of Isabel 11 (1833-1868). The goal of these reforms was the creation and consolidation of a national health system that would gradually replace the religious health charities. Healthcare reform became necessary due to the increase in migration that started in the 1830's and intensified in the 1850's. Traditional care networks formed by the family, local community and religious charities were no longer available to those who had left their village or town. In addition, many religious charities were bankrupted by the seizure of their properties in a programme of confiscation. Similar healthcare reform processes were taking place in the United Kingdom, France and Germany, among other European countries, and involved significant changes in the lives of patients, who became strictly controlled and medicalised. My aim was to identify changes in the patients' experience of illness through a case study of the living conditions of inmates at the Nuestra Señora del Carmen Hospital for Incurable Men, based in Madrid from 1852 to 1949. This was one of the institutions devoted to caring for patients with "permanent needs" and was under the direct control of the General State Administration.

  7. 48 CFR 42.707 - Cost-sharing rates and limitations on indirect cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ceiling may be incorporated into the contract for prospective application. For cost sharing under research... contractor— (i) Is a new or recently reorganized company, and there is no past or recent record of incurred indirect costs; (ii) Has a recent record of a rapidly increasing indirect cost rate due to a...

  8. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts of different types... likely to exceed recoveries, assist in evaluating offers in compromise, and establish minimum...

  9. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. (a) Section 221.4(a) and (b), which.... Taking a position that might discourage the exercise of options because of tax complications...

  10. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  11. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  12. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  13. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. (a) Section 221.4(a) and (b), which provides special... that might discourage the exercise of options because of tax complications would conflict with...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  19. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. (a) Section 221.4(a) and (b), which provides special... that might discourage the exercise of options because of tax complications would conflict with...

  20. Estimating Development Cost for a Tailored Interactive Computer Program to Enhance Colorectal Cancer Screening Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bettencourt, Judith L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Greisinger, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The authors used an actual-work estimate method to estimate the cost of developing a tailored interactive computer education program to improve compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines in a large multi-specialty group medical practice. Resource use was prospectively collected from time logs, administrative records, and a design and computing subcontract. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the overhead cost rate and other parameters. The cost of developing the system was $328,866. The development cost was $52.79 per patient when amortized over a 7-year period with a cohort of 1,000 persons. About 20% of the cost was incurred in defining the theoretic framework and supporting literature, constructing the variables and survey, and conducting focus groups. About 41% of the cost was for developing the messages, algorithms, and constructing program elements, and the remaining cost was to create and test the computer education program. About 69% of the cost was attributable to personnel expenses. Development cost is rarely estimated but is important for feasibility studies and ex-ante economic evaluations of alternative interventions. The findings from this study may aid decision makers in planning, assessing, budgeting, and pricing development of tailored interactive computer-based interventions. PMID:16799126

  1. Estimating development cost for a tailored interactive computer program to enhance colorectal cancer screening compliance.

    PubMed

    Lairson, David R; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bettencourt, Judith L; Vernon, Sally W; Greisinger, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The authors used an actual-work estimate method to estimate the cost of developing a tailored interactive computer education program to improve compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines in a large multi-specialty group medical practice. Resource use was prospectively collected from time logs, administrative records, and a design and computing subcontract. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the overhead cost rate and other parameters. The cost of developing the system was Dollars 328,866. The development cost was Dollars 52.79 per patient when amortized over a 7-year period with a cohort of 1,000 persons. About 20% of the cost was incurred in defining the theoretic framework and supporting literature, constructing the variables and survey, and conducting focus groups. About 41% of the cost was for developing the messages, algorithms, and constructing program elements, and the remaining cost was to create and test the computer education program. About 69% of the cost was attributable to personnel expenses. Development cost is rarely estimated but is important for feasibility studies and ex-ante economic evaluations of alternative interventions. The findings from this study may aid decision makers in planning, assessing, budgeting, and pricing development of tailored interactive computer-based interventions.

  2. 45 CFR 30.19 - Review of cost effectiveness of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... collection. Periodically, the Secretary will compare costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts of different types and in various dollar ranges will be used to...

  3. 45 CFR 30.19 - Review of cost effectiveness of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... collection. Periodically, the Secretary will compare costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts of different types and in various dollar ranges will be used to...

  4. Report: Congressionally Requested Report on EPA Staffing Levels and Total Costs for EPA Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0080, January 14, 2009. Additional information on the staffing levels, rental/lease fees, and utility and security costs for all of the EPA facilities and/or locations where EPA incurs costs associated with its employees.

  5. 48 CFR 1231.205-32 - Precontract costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precontract costs. 1231... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1231.205-32 Precontract costs. (a) The decision to incur precontract costs is that of the contractor....

  6. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities...

  7. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities described in subpart k...

  8. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities described in subpart k...

  9. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities...

  10. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities...

  11. CA125 is a potential biomarker to predict surgically incurable gastric and cardia cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Taobo; Chen, Wenhu; Wang, Lifang; Zhao, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative evaluation of the curability of gastric and cardia cancer is important to avoid risks of unnecessary surgery. Our previous study has reported several clinical parameters associated with incurable gastric surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between CA125 and the curability of gastric and cardia cancer. A total of 297 cases of gastric and cardia cancer were analyzed retrospectively, including 153 cases with radical surgery and 144 with surgery for incurable gastric or cardia cancer. χ2 test was performed to analyze the associations between curability or incurable factors and clinicopathological data, including CA125 value. ROC curves were generated, and cutoff points for curability, T status, N status, peritoneal metastasis, and distant metastasis were found, respectively. Binary logistic regression was performed to verify the associations between dependent variables (curability, T status, N status, peritoneal metastasis, and distant metastasis) and covariates (related clinicopathological data from step 1 and cutoff points from step 2). Esophageal involvement, T grade, and CA125 were risk factors of curability. T grade and Borrmann type were risk factors of T status. T grade and CA125 were risk factors of N status. Age, esophageal involvement, T grade, and CA125 were risk factors of peritoneal metastasis. CA125 was risk factor of distant metastasis. CA125 is a potential biological marker for curability prediction of gastric and cardia cancer. PMID:28002320

  12. Problems and needs in patients with incurable esophageal and pancreaticobiliary cancer: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Madeleen J; Verschuur, Els M L; van Eijck, Casper H J; van der Gaast, Ate; van der Rijt, Carin C D; de Man, Rob A; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Kuipers, Ernst J; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Patients with incurable esophageal cancer (EC) or pancreaticobiliary cancer (PBC) often have multiple symptoms and their quality of life is poor. We investigated which problems these patients experience and how often care is expected for these problems to provide optimal professional care. Fifty-seven patients with incurable EC (N = 24) or PBC (N = 33) from our outpatient clinic completed the validated "Problems and Needs for Palliative Care" (PNPC) questionnaire and two disease-specific quality of life questionnaires, European Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer (EORTC). Although patients in general had several problems, physical, emotional, and loss of autonomy (LOA) problems were most common. For these physical and emotional problems, patients also expected professional care, although to a lesser extent for LOA problems. Inadequate care was received for fatigue, fear, frustration, and uncertainty. We conclude that an individualized approach based on problems related to physical, emotional, and LOA issues and anticipated problems with healthcare providers has priority in the follow-up policy of patients with incurable upper gastrointestinal cancer. Caregivers should be alert to discuss needs for fatigue, feelings of fear, frustration, and uncertainty.

  13. Evaluation of different parameters in the extraction of incurred pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2015-06-03

    Sample processing is often ignored during analytical method development and validation, but accurate results for real samples depend on all aspects of the analytical process. Also, validation is often conducted using only spiked samples, but extraction yields may be lower in incurred samples. In this study, different variables in extraction for incurred pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish were investigated. Among 207 analytes screened using low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, consisting of 150 pesticides, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 22 other flame retardants (FRs), 35 (16 pesticides, 9 PCBs, 5 PBDEs, and 5 PAHs) were identified for quantification in samples of salmon, croaker, and NIST Standard Reference Material 1947 (Lake Michigan Fish Tissue). Extraction efficiencies using different extraction devices (blending, vortexing, and vibrating) versus time, sample size, and sample/solvent ratio were determined. In comparison to blending results, use of a pulsed-vortexer for 1 min with 1/1 (g/mL) sample/acetonitrile ratio was generally sufficient to extract the incurred contaminants in the homogenized fish tissues. Conversely, extraction with a prototype vibration shaker often took 60 min to achieve 100% extraction efficiency. A main conclusion from this study is that accurate results for real samples can be obtained using batch extraction with a pulsed-vortexer in a simple and efficient method that achieves high sample throughput.

  14. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research...

  15. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants...

  16. Comparing cost and performance of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pocovi, A.S.; Gustavino, L.L. ); Pozzo, A.; Musmarra, J.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Argentina's state oil company, YPF, was forced through technical and economic constraints to undertake a four-well pilot horizontal drilling program in its Neuquen fields. This article discusses techniques used, the results and costs, and compares them to costs incurred by the area's original vertical wells.

  17. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  18. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  19. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  20. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by...

  1. 44 CFR 204.43 - Ineligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FIRE MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAM Eligibility § 204.43... include the following: (a) Costs incurred in the mitigation, management, and control of undeclared fires; (b) Costs related to planning, pre-suppression (i.e., cutting fire-breaks without the presence of...

  2. Costs of Juvenile Violence: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ted; Fisher, Deborah A.; Cohen, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the magnitude of juvenile violence in Pennsylvania in terms of victimization and perpetration. Used archival data on violent crimes in Pennsylvania during 1993 to develop cost estimates reflecting the costs incurred by society for both victims and perpetrators. Overall, violence against children and adolescents proved to be a much…

  3. Improving health care costing with resource consumption accounting.

    PubMed

    Ozyapici, Hasan; Tanis, Veyis Naci

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between a traditional costing system (TCS) and resource consumption accounting (RCA) based on a case study carried out in a hospital. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive case study was first carried out to identify the current costing system of the case hospital. An exploratory case study was then conducted to reveal how implementing RCA within the case hospital assigns costs differently to gallbladder surgeries than the current costing system (i.e. a TCS). Findings - The study showed that, in contrast to a TCS, RCA considers the unused capacity, which is the difference between the work that can be performed based on current resources and the work that is actually being performed. Therefore, it assigns lower total costs to open and laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries. The study also showed that by separating costs into fixed and variable RCA allows managers to benefit from a pricing strategy based on the difference between the service's selling price and variable costs incurred in providing that service. Research limitations/implications - The limitation of this study is that, because of time constraints, the implementation was performed in the general surgery department only. However, since RCA is an advanced system that has the same application procedures for any department inside in a hospital, managers need only time gaps to implement this system to all parts of the hospital. Practical implications - This study concluded that RCA is better than a TCS for use in health care settings that have high overhead costs because it accurately assigns overhead costs to services by considering unused capacities incurred by a hospital. Consequently, this study provides insight into both measuring and managing unused capacities within the health care sector. This study also concluded that RCA helps health care administrators increase their competitive advantage by allowing them to determine the lowest

  4. Predicting hospital accounting costs

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Cretin, Shan; Witsberger, Christina J.

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative methods to Medicare Cost Reports that provide information about hospital costs more promptly but less accurately are investigated. Both employ utilization data from current-year bills. The first attaches costs to utilization data using cost-charge ratios from the previous year's cost report; the second uses charges from current year's bills. The first method is the more accurate of the two, but even using it, only 40 percent of hospitals had predicted costs within plus or minus 5 percent of actual costs. The feasibility and cost of obtaining cost reports from a small, fast-track sample of hospitals should be investigated. PMID:10313352

  5. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  6. The Role of Non-Curative Surgery in Incurable, Asymptomatic Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qiang; Luo, Hui-yan; Jin, Ying; Wei, Xiao-li; Xu, Rui-hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Although general agreement exists on palliative surgery with intent of symptom palliation in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the role of non-curative surgery for incurable, asymptomatic AGC is hotly debated. We aim to clarify the role of non-curative surgery in patients with incurable, asymptomatic AGC under the first-line chemotherapy. Methods A total of 737 patients with incurable, asymptomatic advanced gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2008 and May 2012 at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively analyzed, comprising 414 patients with non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy, and 323 patients with first-line chemotherapy only. The clinicopathologic data, survival, and prognosis were evaluated, with propensity score adjustment for selection bias. Results The median overall survival (OS) outcomes significantly favored non-curative surgery group over first-line chemotherapy only group in entire population (28.00 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), stage 4 patients (23.87 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000), young patients (28.70 versus 10.37 months, P = 0.000) and elderly patients (23.07 versus 10.27 months, P = 0.031). The median OS advantages of non-curative surgery over first-line chemotherapy only were also maintained when the analyses were restricted to single organ metastasis (P = 0.001), distant lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002), peritoneal metastasis (P = 0.000), and multi-organ metastasis (P = 0.010). Significant OS advantages of non-curative surgery over chemotherapy only were confirmed solid by multivariate analyses before and after adjustment on propensity score (P = 0.000). Small subsets of patients with surgery of single metastatic lesion after previous curative gastrectomy, and with surgery of both primary and single metastatic sites showed sound median OS. Conclusions There is a role for non-curative surgery plus first-line chemotherapy for incurable, asymptomatic AGC, in

  7. 19 CFR 172.1 - Notice of liquidated damages or penalty incurred and right to petition for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... penalty incurred. When there is a failure to meet the conditions of any bond posted with Customs or when a... liability at the same time. (b) Notice of right to petition for relief. The notice will inform the...

  8. Cost Realism Handbook for Assuring More Realistic Contractor Cost Proposals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    realism. Solicitation: Specify cost realism in addition ,:) Government estimated cost as cost evaluation sub- - ieria in the solicitation and specify the...Analogy techniques involve extrapolations from actual costs for similar systems. Other techniques may include the use of industry wide factors. Parametric...of sources (e.g., actual costs for similar systems and industry wide factors) may be used to supplement the estimates based on specific contractor

  9. 26 CFR 1.181-1T - Deduction for qualified film and television production costs (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production cost incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography for the production is incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography that takes place in such areas; or (B) At least 50 percent of the total number of days of first-unit principal photography for the...

  10. 20 CFR 667.220 - What Workforce Investment Act title I functions and activities constitute the costs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., utilities, office supplies, postage, and rental and maintenance of office space; (4) Travel costs incurred..., and demand occupation information; (iii) Performance and program cost information on eligible providers of training services, youth activities, and appropriate education activities; (iv) Local...

  11. 20 CFR 667.220 - What Workforce Investment Act title I functions and activities constitute the costs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., utilities, office supplies, postage, and rental and maintenance of office space; (4) Travel costs incurred..., and demand occupation information; (iii) Performance and program cost information on eligible providers of training services, youth activities, and appropriate education activities; (iv) Local...

  12. 20 CFR 667.220 - What Workforce Investment Act title I functions and activities constitute the costs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., utilities, office supplies, postage, and rental and maintenance of office space; (4) Travel costs incurred..., and demand occupation information; (iii) Performance and program cost information on eligible providers of training services, youth activities, and appropriate education activities; (iv) Local...

  13. 20 CFR 667.220 - What Workforce Investment Act title I functions and activities constitute the costs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., utilities, office supplies, postage, and rental and maintenance of office space; (4) Travel costs incurred..., and demand occupation information; (iii) Performance and program cost information on eligible providers of training services, youth activities, and appropriate education activities; (iv) Local...

  14. 20 CFR 667.220 - What Workforce Investment Act title I functions and activities constitute the costs of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., utilities, office supplies, postage, and rental and maintenance of office space; (4) Travel costs incurred..., and demand occupation information; (iii) Performance and program cost information on eligible providers of training services, youth activities, and appropriate education activities; (iv) Local...

  15. 27 CFR 70.302 - Fees and costs for witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Transportation costs. Transportation costs include only costs incurred to transport personnel to search for... of searching for, reproducing, or transporting records in order to comply with a summons. They do not... a search fee to search for, reproduce, or transport particular records requested, these fees...

  16. 27 CFR 70.302 - Fees and costs for witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Transportation costs. Transportation costs include only costs incurred to transport personnel to search for... of searching for, reproducing, or transporting records in order to comply with a summons. They do not... a search fee to search for, reproduce, or transport particular records requested, these fees...

  17. 27 CFR 70.302 - Fees and costs for witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Transportation costs. Transportation costs include only costs incurred to transport personnel to search for... of searching for, reproducing, or transporting records in order to comply with a summons. They do not... a search fee to search for, reproduce, or transport particular records requested, these fees...

  18. 48 CFR 31.205-31 - Plant reconversion costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant reconversion costs. 31.205-31 Section 31.205-31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-31 Plant reconversion costs. Plant reconversion costs are those incurred in restoring...

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-31 - Plant reconversion costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant reconversion costs. 31.205-31 Section 31.205-31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-31 Plant reconversion costs. Plant reconversion costs are those incurred in restoring...

  20. 2 CFR 200.457 - Plant and security costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant and security costs. 200.457 Section... Cost § 200.457 Plant and security costs. Necessary and reasonable expenses incurred for routine and.... Capital expenditures for plant security purposes are subject to § 200.439 Equipment and other...

  1. 45 CFR 1630.5 - Costs requiring Corporation prior approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs requiring Corporation prior approval. 1630.5... CORPORATION COST STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES § 1630.5 Costs requiring Corporation prior approval. (a) Advance... nonallocability, recipients may seek a written understanding from the Corporation in advance of incurring...

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-42 - Termination costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... experience with the product, materials, or manufacturing processes. (2) Preparatory costs incurred in... include special machinery and equipment and starting load costs. (3) When initial costs are included in... tooling, and special machinery and equipment is generally allowable, provided— (1) The special tooling,...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-42 - Termination costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... experience with the product, materials, or manufacturing processes. (2) Preparatory costs incurred in... include special machinery and equipment and starting load costs. (3) When initial costs are included in... tooling, and special machinery and equipment is generally allowable, provided— (1) The special tooling,...

  4. 48 CFR 31.205-42 - Termination costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... experience with the product, materials, or manufacturing processes. (2) Preparatory costs incurred in... include special machinery and equipment and starting load costs. (3) When initial costs are included in... tooling, and special machinery and equipment is generally allowable, provided— (1) The special tooling,...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-42 - Termination costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... experience with the product, materials, or manufacturing processes. (2) Preparatory costs incurred in... include special machinery and equipment and starting load costs. (3) When initial costs are included in... tooling, and special machinery and equipment is generally allowable, provided— (1) The special tooling,...

  6. 20 CFR 10.913 - In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency... incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation? (a) OWCP will consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with service with an Armed Force in...

  7. 20 CFR 10.913 - In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency... incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation? (a) OWCP will consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with service with an Armed Force in...

  8. 20 CFR 10.913 - In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency... incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation? (a) OWCP will consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with service with an Armed Force in...

  9. 20 CFR 10.913 - In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employee incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency... incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation? (a) OWCP will consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with service with an Armed Force in...

  10. 20 CFR 10.913 - In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employee incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency... incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation? (a) OWCP will consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with service with an Armed Force in...

  11. Report: Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators Incurred Costs for Seven EPA Assistance Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2006-4-00122, July 31, 2006. The Association did not comply with the financial and program management standards and the procurement standards promulgated in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Subchapter B, Part 30.

  12. Report: America’s Clean Water Foundation Incurred Costs for EPA Assistance Agreements X82835301, X783142301, and X82672301

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-4-00045, February 20, 2007. The Foundation did not comply with the financial and program management standards and the procurement standards promulgated in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 30.

  13. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... perform an induced abortion or require, provide, or refer for training in the performance of induced abortions, or make arrangements for such training, regardless of whether the standard provides exceptions...

  14. 50 CFR 80.94 - May an agency incur costs before the beginning of the grant period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT...

  15. 50 CFR 80.94 - May an agency incur costs before the beginning of the grant period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT...

  16. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  17. 10 CFR 708.37 - Will an employee whose complaint is denied by a final agency decision be reimbursed for costs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agency decision be reimbursed for costs and expenses incurred in pursuing the complaint? 708.37 Section... and Decision Process § 708.37 Will an employee whose complaint is denied by a final agency decision be reimbursed for costs and expenses incurred in pursuing the complaint? No. If your complaint is denied by...

  18. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  19. Degradation of incurred tylosin to desmycosin--implications for residue analysis of honey.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Thomas S; Pernal, Stephen F; Noot, Donald K; Melathopoulos, Adony P; van den Heever, Johan P

    2007-03-14

    As a result of the application of tylosin to honey bee colonies for the control of American foulbrood disease, antibiotic residues may exist in honey destined for human consumption. It has been recognized that the parent compound, tylosin A, degrades in acidic media such as honey to yield the antimicrobially active degradation product, desmycosin. Data is presented documenting levels of incurred tylosin and desmycosin in honey resulting from simulated therapeutic applications of a commercial formulation of tylosin during the fall. It is demonstrated that honey destined for human consumption should be analyzed for both tylosin A and desmycosin (tylosin B) rather than the parent antibiotic alone. An analytical method that permits the simultaneous determination of tylosin A and desmycosin in honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is also presented.

  20. Debris Flow Damage Incurred to Buildings: An In-Situ Back Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Recupero, Antonino; Carozza, Stefano; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2016-04-01

    The flash-flood debris event of the October 1st 2009 in the area of Messina, Sicily, Italy has led to loss of life and significant damage to the constructed environment. Focusing the attention on an eighteenth masonry building (damaged and upgraded after the Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake of 1906) located in the village of Scaletta Zanclea, we have strived to reconstruct analytically the damages incurred to this building due to the debris flow event of 2009. In order to re-construct the damages incurred to the building due to the flash flood/debris flow event, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic force envelopes, calculated via a 2D hydrodynamic finite element model specifically designed for debris flow spatial propagation, have been applied to the building in question (assuming perfect coherence between static and dynamic maxima). The hydrograph for the solid discharge is then estimated by scaling up the liquid volume to the estimated debris volume. The hydrodynamic model used for the debris flow propagation proved to be well suited for these specific applications. The debris flow diffusion is simulated by solving the differential equations for a single-phase 2D flow employing triangular mesh elements, taking into account also the channeling of the flow through the building. The damage to the building is modeled, based on the maximum hydraulic actions caused by the debris flow, using 2D finite shell elements, modeling the boundary conditions provided by the openings, floor slab, orthogonal wall panels and the foundation. The finite element approach showed its capability in describing the complex geometries of the urban environments as the distributed nature of the 2D code allows to derive a reliable spatial distribution of debris flow actions. The reconstruction of the event and the damages to the case-study building confirms the location of the damages induced by the event.

  1. Costs of Physician-Hospital Integration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Na-Eun

    2015-10-01

    Given that the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is expected to generate forces toward physician-hospital integration, this study examined an understudied, albeit important, area of costs incurred in physician-hospital integration. Such costs were analyzed through 24 semi-structured interviews with physicians and hospital administrators in a multiple-case, inductive study. Two extreme types of physician-hospital arrangements were examined: an employed model (ie, integrated salary model, a group of physicians integrated by a hospital system) and a private practice (ie, a physician or group of physicians who are independent of economic or policy control). Interviews noted that integration leads to 3 evident costs, namely, monitoring, coordination, and cooperation costs. Improving our understanding of the kinds of costs that are incurred after physician-hospital integration will help hospitals and physicians to avoid common failures after integration.

  2. Cost model for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections.

  3. Estimating the costs of landslide damage in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Robert W.; Taylor, Fred A.

    1980-01-01

    Landslide damages are one of the most costly natural disasters in the United States. A recent estimate of the total annual cost of landslide damage is in excess of $1 billion {Schuster, 1978}. The damages can be significantly reduced, however, through the combined action of technical experts, government, and the public. Before they can be expected to take action, local governments need to have an appreciation of costs of damage in their areas of responsibility and of the reductions in losses that can be achieved. Where studies of cost of landslide damages have been conducted, it is apparent that {1} costs to the public and private sectors of our economy due to landslide damage are much larger than anticipated; {2} taxpayers and public officials generally are unaware of the magnitude of the cost, owing perhaps to the lack of any centralization of data; and {3} incomplete records and unavailability of records result in lower reported costs than actually were incurred. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to estimate the cost of landslide damages in regional and local areas and has applied the method in three urban areas and one rural area. Costs are for different periods and are unadjusted for inflation; therefore, strict comparisons of data from different years should be avoided. Estimates of the average annual cost of landslide damage for the urban areas studied are $5,900,000 in the San Francisco Bay area; $4,000,000 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5,170,000 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Adjusting these figures for the population of each area, the annual cost of damages per capita are $1.30 in the nine-county San Francisco Bay region; $2.50 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5.80 in Hamilton County, Ohio. On the basis of data from other sources, the estimated annual damages on a per capita basis for the City of Los Angeles, Calif., are about $1.60. If the costs were available for the damages from landslides in Los Angeles in 1977-78 and 1979-80, the annual per

  4. 10 CFR 609.12 - Project Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incurred in the design, engineering, financing, construction, startup, commissioning and shakedown of the... rental of real property, including engineering fees, surveys, title insurance, recording fees, and legal..., access roads, and fencing; (2) Costs of engineering, architectural, legal and bond fees, and...

  5. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is..., however, pay consultants more than this amount.) This limitation applies to consultation services...

  6. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development Under Grants and Contracts with Hospitals.” The allowability of costs incurred by commercial... with their normal travel reimbursement practices. Contracts with firms for services which are awarded... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...

  7. Books or Guards? Charter School Security Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Karen J.; Brent, Brian O.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the costs charter schools incur to foster security--a vexing phenomenon when one considers policymakers' and parents' seemingly high and growing want for school safety. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics and Texas, we reveal how much charter schools spend on security, how they put these resources to…

  8. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  9. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  10. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  11. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  12. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  13. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of actual costs provided that (i) the rate is based on historical cost data of the company, (ii) such... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates,...

  14. 14 CFR 1261.413 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of...) § 1261.413 Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. The... costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts...

  15. 14 CFR 1261.413 - Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analysis of costs; automation; prevention...) § 1261.413 Analysis of costs; automation; prevention of overpayments, delinquencies, or defaults. The... costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts...

  16. 20 CFR 603.8 - What are the requirements for payment of costs and program income?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of calculating such costs, any initial start-up costs incurred by the State UC agency in preparation... charged to and paid by the recipient. (Start-up costs do not include the costs to the State UC agency of... or another source paying on behalf of the recipient, either in advance or by way of reimbursement....

  17. 26 CFR 1.471-4 - Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tractor at $10,000. Example 2. (i) Taxpayer B purchases and resells several lines of shoes and is subject...)(1) of this section. At the end of 1994, the cost of one pair of shoes on hand is determined as... cost (both direct costs and indirect costs incurred prior and subsequent to acquisition of the...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.204 - Costs and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the... 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... nature of, in particular, potential commercially marketable products expected to result from the...

  19. 14 CFR 152.203 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable project costs. 152.203 Section 152.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... reasonable costs incurred in designing the study effort; (4) Be supported by satisfactory evidence; and...

  20. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incurred for stamps having similar sales; physical characteristics; and marketing, promotional, and public... to equipment; (4) Costs of developing and executing marketing and promotional plans in excess of the... distribution; (4) Estimated training costs for field staff, except for special training associated...

  1. 48 CFR 1231.205-32 - Precontract costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer may advise the prospective contractor that any costs incurred before contract award are at the contractor's sole risk and that if negotiations fail to result in a binding contract, payment of... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations...

  2. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  3. Increasing Density and Reducing Costs of Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, J. L.; Krchnavek, R. R.; Figueroa, J. Fernando; Solano, Wanda

    2001-01-01

    There are a number of reasons why it is important to increase the density of data acquisition functions. Sensor fusion seeks to integrate large numbers of sensors into a decision network. Addition of health monitoring functions may incur additional sensor requirements. But at the same time, it is important to reduce the per-channel costs of data acquisition systems. Often the most significant cost is the management of data acquisition networks, which incurs substantial costs associated with transducer installation, configuration, calibration, and maintenance. Alternatives that lower the cost of the transducer system and reduce the data acquisition system channel count will directly impact initial system costs. Other techniques that affect maintenance and operating costs will contribute to reducing life cycle costs. This paper describes work undertaken to explore alternative architectures for lowering the cost per transducer function using a MEMS-based accelerometer as the model.

  4. Towards development of incurred materials for quality assurance purposes in the analysis of food allergens.

    PubMed

    Bugyi, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Judit; Török, Kitti; Hajas, Lívia; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2010-07-05

    Food allergy and intolerance became very important problems in food safety and healthcare during the last few decades. Beside the pharmaceutical treatment of the symptoms, effective cure of these illnesses is the avoidance of the problematic food proteins. According to this reason, proper legislation is crucial for protecting sensitive people. In the European Union 14 allergenic components must be labelled which requires introduction of properly validated analytical methods for the appropriate quantification of allergenic proteins. The aim of our work is studying such parameters which may affect the analytical results, therefore have to be taken into account during the validation process. For investigating these issues, an incurred sample matrix was produced, namely a wheat flour based cookie, which contains allergenic proteins (milk or egg) in a dedicated amount. Using these samples the effects of food processing steps and the analytical performance of the applied Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) methods were studied. A major finding of our work is that heat treatment caused a large-scale decrease in the amount of measurable allergen content of the samples. The background of this phenomenon has not been clarified yet. Besides, the gathered data indicates that the performance of the ELISA method is highly related to the state of the sample matrix. These problems altogether must be taken into consideration for making a proper validation protocol and revealing their background also has a great importance in further evaluation of the analytical methods.

  5. 26 CFR 1.166-9 - Losses of guarantors, endorsers, and indemnitors incurred, on agreements made after December 31...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Losses of guarantors, endorsers, and indemnitors...-9 Losses of guarantors, endorsers, and indemnitors incurred, on agreements made after December 31... trade or business to act as (or in a manner essentially equivalent to) a guarantor, endorser,...

  6. 26 CFR 1.166-9 - Losses of guarantors, endorsers, and indemnitors incurred, on agreements made after December 31...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Losses of guarantors, endorsers, and indemnitors...-9 Losses of guarantors, endorsers, and indemnitors incurred, on agreements made after December 31... trade or business to act as (or in a manner essentially equivalent to) a guarantor, endorser,...

  7. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  8. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Sam; Wells, Jessie A; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J M; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Madden, Eve McDonald

    2014-06-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  9. General methodology: Costing, budgeting, and techniques for benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stretchberry, D. M.; Hein, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    The general concepts of costing, budgeting, and benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis are discussed. The three common methods of costing are presented. Budgeting distributions are discussed. The use of discounting procedures is outlined. The benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis is defined and their current application to NASA planning is pointed out. Specific practices and techniques are discussed, and actual costing and budgeting procedures are outlined. The recommended method of calculating benefit-cost ratios is described. A standardized method of cost-effectiveness analysis and long-range planning are also discussed.

  10. Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Melissa

    environmental regulation scenarios are estimated. The results show that the cost of meeting these regulatory scenarios could increase mining costs two to six times the business as usual cost, which could significantly affect the cost of coal-powered electricity generation. This thesis provides a first estimate of resource availability, mining cost, and environmental impact assessment and cost analysis. Available resource is not completely reported, so the available estimate is lower than actual resource. Mining costs are optimized, so provide a low estimate of potential costs. Environmental impact estimates are on the high end of potential impact that may be incurred because it is assumed that impact is unavoidable. Control costs vary. Estimated cost to control subsidence and surface mine pit impacts are suitable estimates of the cost to reduce land impacts. Erosion control and robotic mining system costs are lower, and methane and acid mine drainage control costs are higher, than they may be in the case that these impacts must be reduced.

  11. 41 CFR 301-13.1 - What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? 301-13.1 Section 301-13.1... ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 13-TRAVEL OF AN EMPLOYEE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS § 301-13.1 What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? To...

  12. 41 CFR 301-13.1 - What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? 301-13.1 Section 301-13.1... ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 13-TRAVEL OF AN EMPLOYEE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS § 301-13.1 What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? To...

  13. 42 CFR 412.71 - Determination of base-year inpatient operating costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....130 of this chapter. (3) Kidney acquisition costs incurred by hospitals approved as renal transplantation centers as described in § 412.100. Kidney acquisition costs in the base year will be determined by multiplying the hospital's average kidney acquisition cost per kidney times the number of kidney...

  14. 42 CFR 412.71 - Determination of base-year inpatient operating costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....130 of this chapter. (3) Kidney acquisition costs incurred by hospitals approved as renal transplantation centers as described in § 412.100. Kidney acquisition costs in the base year will be determined by multiplying the hospital's average kidney acquisition cost per kidney times the number of kidney...

  15. 78 FR 60173 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Allowability of Legal Costs for Whistleblower Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Allowability of Legal Costs for Whistleblower Proceedings AGENCY... (NDAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 that addresses the allowability of legal costs incurred by a contractor... revises the cost principle at FAR 31.205-47 to implement sections 827 paragraph (g) and 828 paragraph...

  16. 20 CFR 631.13 - Classification of costs at State and substate levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., retraining services, needs-related payments and supportive services, and administration. Costs shall be... the costs incurred by recipients and subrecipients in the administration of programs under Title III... shall be used by States and substate grantees as guidance in charging administration costs to Title...

  17. 36 CFR 64.9 - Project costs (State and local projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate conveyance. Project-related planning costs outlined in § 64.9(a)(3), may be incurred prior to...) Construction costs associated with developing the right-of-way for recreation use. (3) Project-related planning... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project costs (State...

  18. 36 CFR 64.9 - Project costs (State and local projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate conveyance. Project-related planning costs outlined in § 64.9(a)(3), may be incurred prior to...) Construction costs associated with developing the right-of-way for recreation use. (3) Project-related planning... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project costs (State...

  19. 42 CFR 413.100 - Special treatment of certain accrued costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE... paid in the current year), must be liquidated within 1 year after the end of the cost reporting period... years beyond the end of the cost reporting year in which the liability was incurred. (ii) Vacation...

  20. 42 CFR 413.100 - Special treatment of certain accrued costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLE COST REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE... paid in the current year), must be liquidated within 1 year after the end of the cost reporting period... years beyond the end of the cost reporting year in which the liability was incurred. (ii) Vacation...

  1. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery charges incurred for accounting periods or portions of periods ending before January... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-4 Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. (a) EPA does not require...

  2. Managing Information On Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taulbee, Zoe A.

    1990-01-01

    Cost Management Model, CMM, software tool for planning, tracking, and reporting costs and information related to costs. Capable of estimating costs, comparing estimated to actual costs, performing "what-if" analyses on estimates of costs, and providing mechanism to maintain data on costs in format oriented to management. Number of supportive cost methods built in: escalation rates, production-learning curves, activity/event schedules, unit production schedules, set of spread distributions, tables of rates and factors defined by user, and full arithmetic capability. Import/export capability possible with 20/20 Spreadsheet available on Data General equipment. Program requires AOS/VS operating system available on Data General MV series computers. Written mainly in FORTRAN 77 but uses SGU (Screen Generation Utility).

  3. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  4. Cost Overrun Optimism: Fact or Fiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-29

    COST VARIANCE, TERMED COST OVERRUN COST NOW MONTHS EAC Overrun at Completion Current Overrun BAC ACWP BCWS...ALL 64 18 -3 109 36 -3 493 Equations 1, 2, and 3 define the current cost overrun, the projected cost overrun at completion, and final cost overrun. Of...completion cost . The others are simply the difference between the budget and actual cost of the work. Current overrun (CO) = Cumulative (Cum) BCWP -

  5. The Association of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms with Healthcare Utilization and Payer-Incurred Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Davene R.; Katon, Wayne J.; Ludman, Evette; McCauley, Elizabeth; Oliver, Malia; Lindenbaum, Jeffrey; Richardson, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Screening adolescents for depression is recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We sought to evaluate the impact of positive depression screens in an adolescent population on healthcare utilization and costs from a payer perspective. Methods We conducted depression screening among 13-17 year olds adolescents enrolled in a large integrated care system using the 2- and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ). Healthcare utilization and cost data were obtained from administrative records. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and t-tests were used to test for statistical differences in outcomes between adolescents based on screening status. Results Of the 4,010 adolescents who completed depression screening, 3,707 (92.4%) screened negative (PHQ-2 < 2 or PHQ-9 < 10), 186 (3.9%) screened positive for mild depression (PHQ-9 = 10-14), and 95 (2.4%) screened positive for moderate-to-severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 15). In the 12-months after screening, screen-positive adolescents were more likely than screen-negative adolescents to receive any emergency department visit or inpatient hospitalization, and had significantly higher utilization of outpatient medical (mean (SD) = 8.3 (1.5) vs. 3.5 (5.1)) and mental health (3.8 (9.3) vs. 0.7 (3.5)) visits. Mean total healthcare system costs for screen-positive adolescents ($5,083 ($10,489)) were more than twice as high as those of screen-negative adolescents ($2,357 ($7,621)). Conclusion Adolescent depressive symptoms, even when mild, are associated with increased healthcare utilization and costs. Only a minority of the increased costs is attributable to mental health care. Implementing depression screening and evidence-based mental health services may help to better control healthcare costs among screen-positive adolescents. PMID:26456002

  6. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  7. Costs of Development and Maintenance of an Internet Program for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Liberti, Lauren; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have difficulty completing self-management tasks within the context of their social environments. Group-based approaches to psycho-educational support have been shown to prevent declines in glucose control, but are challenging to implement due to youths’ many activities and costs. A novel solution is providing psycho-educational support via the internet. The purpose of this study is to describe the cost of developing and maintaining two internet psycho-educational programs, both of which have been shown to improve health outcomes in adolescents with T1D. We calculated actual costs of personnel and programming in the development of TEENCOPE™ and Managing Diabetes, two highly interactive programs that were evaluated in a multi-site clinical trial (n=320). Cost calculations were set at U.S. dollars and converted to value for 2013 as expenses were incurred over 6 years. Development costs over 1.5 years totaled $324,609, with the majority of costs being for personnel to develop and write content in a creative and engaging format, to get feedback from teens on content and a prototype, and IT programming. Maintenance of the program, including IT support, a part-time moderator to assure safety of the discussion board (0.5–1 hour/week), and yearly update of content was $43,845/year, or $137.00 per youth over 4.5 years. Overall, program and site development were relatively expensive, but the program reach was high, including non-white youth from 4 geographically distinct regions. Once developed, maintenance was minimal. With greater dissemination, cost-per-youth would decrease markedly, beginning to offset the high development expense. PMID:26213677

  8. Audit of Department of Energy`s contractor liability insurance costs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-13

    Fifty-four of DOE`s major contractors reported expending $44.3 million in liability insurance costs for the last 3 years of operation. Purpose of this audit was to evaluate how DOE implemented its policy to assume the risk of losses for its contractors rather than to insure them commercially. Contractors are required to use self-insurance if combined annual premiums for commercial insurance exceed $10,000. Review of 18 major contractors showed that DOE was not consistently following its policy and that contractors using commercial insurance incurred higher costs. Required approvals were not always obtained prior to purchasing certain other types of liability insurance. It is recommended that DOE`s policies requiring self-insurance be fully implemented; that requests for approval for commercial insurance when annual premiums exceeded $10,000 be fully justified; and that the commercial insurance policies specifically define the liability coverage prior to approval and payment. It is also recommended that the contracts include clauses limiting reimbursements for insurance expenditures to actual losses and administrative costs.

  9. Reward from punishment does not emerge at all costs.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Jeromos; Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The conundrum of cooperation has received increasing attention during the last decade. In this quest, the role of altruistic punishment has been identified as a mechanism promoting cooperation. Here we investigate the role of altruistic punishment on the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in structured populations exhibiting connectivity patterns recently identified as key elements of social networks. We do so in the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory, employing the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Stag-Hunt metaphors to model the conflict between individual and collective interests regarding cooperation. We find that the impact of altruistic punishment strongly depends on the ratio q/p between the cost of punishing a defecting partner (q) and the actual punishment incurred by the partner (p). We show that whenever q/p<1, altruistic punishment turns out to be detrimental for cooperation for a wide range of payoff parameters, when compared to the scenario without punishment. The results imply that while locally, the introduction of peer punishment may seem to reduce the chances of free-riding, realistic population structure may drive the population towards the opposite scenario. Hence, structured populations effectively reduce the expected beneficial contribution of punishment to the emergence of cooperation which, if not carefully dosed, may in fact hinder the chances of widespread cooperation.

  10. Financial analysis of revision knee surgery based on NHS tariffs and hospital costs: does it pay to provide a revision service?

    PubMed

    Kallala, R F; Vanhegan, I S; Ibrahim, M S; Sarmah, S; Haddad, F S

    2015-02-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex procedure which carries both a greater risk for patients and greater cost for the treating hospital than does a primary TKA. As well as the increased cost of peri-operative investigations, blood transfusions, surgical instrumentation, implants and operating time, there is a well-documented increased length of stay which accounts for most of the actual costs associated with surgery. We compared revision surgery for infection with revision for other causes (pain, instability, aseptic loosening and fracture). Complete clinical, demographic and economic data were obtained for 168 consecutive revision TKAs performed at a tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2012. Revision surgery for infection was associated with a mean length of stay more than double that of aseptic cases (21.5 vs 9.5 days, p < 0.0001). The mean cost of a revision for infection was more than three times that of an aseptic revision (£30 011 (sd 4514) vs £9655 (sd 599.7), p < 0.0001). Current NHS tariffs do not fully reimburse the increased costs of providing a revision knee surgery service. Moreover, especially as greater costs are incurred for infected cases. These losses may adversely affect the provision of revision surgery in the NHS.

  11. 20 CFR 404.2117 - What costs will be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the State VR agency or alternate participant for the VR services described in § 404.2114 which were..., but subject to the following limitations: (a) The cost must have been incurred by the State VR agency.... For this purpose, State VR agencies or alternate participants will be required to seek payment...

  12. 20 CFR 404.2117 - What costs will be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the State VR agency or alternate participant for the VR services described in § 404.2114 which were..., but subject to the following limitations: (a) The cost must have been incurred by the State VR agency.... For this purpose, State VR agencies or alternate participants will be required to seek payment...

  13. A novel approach to reduce greenhouse energy costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiance, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) are three environmental parameters growers can control during greenhouse production to alter crop growth, quality, and timing. Significant costs are incurred every year, especially during winter and early-spring production, to heat and light the gre...

  14. Viewpoint Costs Occur during Consolidation: Evidence from the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dux, Paul E.; Harris, Irina M.

    2007-01-01

    Do the viewpoint costs incurred when naming rotated familiar objects arise during initial identification or during consolidation? To answer this question we employed an attentional blink (AB) task where two target objects appeared amongst a rapid stream of distractor objects. Our assumption was that while both targets and distractors undergo…

  15. Recommendations to mitigate against human health risks incurred due to energetic particle irradiation beyond low earth orbit/BLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Bhardwaj, Anil; Ferrari, Franco; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Lal, Ajay K.; Li, Yinghui; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Nymmik, Rikho; Panasyuk, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Reitz, Günther; Pinsky, Lawrence; Shukor, Muszaphar (Sheikh); Singhvi, Ashok K.; Straube, Ulrich; Tomi, Leena; Lawrence, Townsend

    2015-04-01

    An account is provided of the main sources of energetic particle radiation in interplanetary space (Galactic Cosmic Radiation and Solar Energetic Particles) and career dose limits presently utilized by NASA to mitigate against the cancer and non-cancer effects potentially incurred by astronauts due to irradiation by these components are presented. Certain gaps in knowledge that presently militate against mounting viable human exploration in deep space due to the inherent health risks are identified and recommendations made as to how these gaps might be closed within a framework of global international cooperation.

  16. Cost Is Not Everything.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Russell T.

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of survey of 21 smaller to medium-sized (50,000-200,000 volumes) libraries which was conducted to determine factors used to make selection decisions in purchase of automated turnkey systems from established vendors. Factors examined include costs, software, hardware, and vendors for parts A (actual experience) and B (hypothetical…

  17. The Cost and Burden of the Residency Match in Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Blackshaw, Aaron M.; Watson, Simon C.; Bush, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To obtain a residency match, medical students entering emergency medicine (EM) must complete away rotations, submit a number of lengthy applications, and travel to multiple programs to interview. The expenses incurred acquiring this residency position are burdensome, but there is little specialty-specific data estimating it. We sought to quantify the actual cost spent by medical students applying to EM residency programs by surveying students as they attended a residency interview. Methods Researchers created a 16-item survey, which asked about the time and monetary costs associated with the entire EM residency application process. Applicants chosen to interview for an EM residency position at our institution were invited to complete the survey during their interview day. Results In total, 66 out of a possible 81 residency applicants (an 81% response rate) completed our survey. The “average applicant” who interviewed at our residency program for the 2015–16 cycle completed 1.6 away, or “audition,” rotations, each costing an average of $1,065 to complete. This “average applicant” applied to 42.8 programs, and then attended 13.7 interviews. The cost of interviewing at our program averaged $342 and in total, an average of $8,312 would be spent in the pursuit of an EM residency. Conclusion Due to multiple factors, the costs of securing an EM residency spot can be expensive. By understanding the components that are driving this trend, we hope that the academic EM community can explore avenues to help curtail these costs. PMID:28116032

  18. 45 CFR 304.21 - Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) of judges; (3) Costs of travel and training related to the judicial determination process incurred by... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal financial participation in the costs of... § 304.21 Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and...

  19. 45 CFR 304.21 - Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) of judges; (3) Costs of travel and training related to the judicial determination process incurred by... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal financial participation in the costs of... § 304.21 Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and...

  20. 32 CFR 229.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... archaeological resource. This value shall be appraised in terms of the costs of the retrieval of the scientific... limited to, the cost of preparing a research design, conducting field work, carrying out laboratory... the sum of the costs already incurred for emergency restoration or repair work, plus those...

  1. 36 CFR 296.14 - Determination of archaeological or commercial value and cost of restoration and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resource. This value shall be appraised in terms of the costs of the retrieval of the scientific... limited to, the cost of preparing a research design, conducting field work, carrying out laboratory... the sum of the costs already incurred for emergency restoration or repair work, plus those...

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.209 - Cost of care and handling of hazardous materials and certain categories of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cost of care and handling of hazardous materials and certain categories of property. The special handling requirements associated with many hazardous materials often increase the cost of core and handling... associated with hazardous materials. Only the cost of transportation and handling incurred incident to...

  3. Study of environmental risks incurred by leakage of lithium cells to the food chain in a freshwater ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao-Xia, Dai; Ying, Yin; Hong-Yan, Guo; Shi-He, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Water flea (Daphnia magna) and fish (Carassius auratus) at trophic level were used for comprehensive evaluation of environmental risks incurred by manufactured nanomaterial (nNi(OH)2) as leaked from lithium cells to the food chain in freshwater ecosystem. The 48, 72 and 96 h acute toxicities of water suspensions of nNi(OH)2 to the flea and the fish were tested, using the immobilization and the mortality as toxicological endpoints. The results showed that the water flea was more highly sensitive to nNi(OH)2 than the fish. Then, the fish were exposed to 1.0 mg/L nNi(OH)2 for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 h, and the relationship between the concentrations in the water and the fish were described by a bioconcentration factor (BCF). After calculation, lgBCF is 1.61. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied after fish were exposed to 1.0 mg/L water suspensions of nNi(OH)2 for 24 h. As proved by electron paramagnetic resonance, nNi(OH)2 may induce the generation of hydroxyl radical in the fish, and nNi(OH)2 as concentrated in the fish may incur redox reaction and produce redox metabolic intermediates. As one of the important toxic mechanisms of nNi(OH)2 to the fish, the oxidative stress mechanism requires further study.

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of diabetic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Matz, H; Falk, M; Göttinger, W; Kieselbach, G

    1996-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the main cause of blindness in adults 25-74 years of age in Western countries. At 100% diagnosability and 100% treatability, with laser photocoagulation vision can be retained in at least one eye in 73% of patients with proliferative retinopathy and in 67% of patients with diabetic maculopathy. The cost-benefit analysis draws a comparison of the costs incurred through benefits granted to a blind diabetic and those incurred through proper screening, examination and treatment to avoid blindness as much as possible. These calculations are valid for the State of Tyrol in Austria. The anticipated annual costs for blindness are thus ATS 19,000,000, of which ATS 14,600,000 could be avoided through an optimal screening, examination and therapy program. The maximum costs for examination and therapy amount to ATS 10,700,000, thus giving a minimum saving of ATS 3,900,000 in favor of preventive medicine.

  5. The cost of cancer registry operations: Impact of volume on cost per case for core and enhanced registry activities

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sujha; Tangka, Florence K.L.; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Trebino, Diana; Weir, Hannah K.; Babcock, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer registration data is vital for creating evidence-based policies and interventions. Quantifying the resources needed for cancer registration activities and identifying potential efficiencies are critically important to ensure sustainability of cancer registry operations. Methods Using a previously validated web-based cost assessment tool, we collected activity-based cost data and report findings using 3 years of data from 40 National Program of Cancer Registry grantees. We stratified registries by volume: low-volume included fewer than 10,000 cases, medium-volume included 10,000–50,000 cases, and high-volume included >50,000 cases. Results Low-volume cancer registries incurred an average of $93.11 to report a case (without in-kind contributions) compared with $27.70 incurred by high-volume registries. Across all registries, the highest cost per case was incurred for data collection and abstraction ($8.33), management ($6.86), and administration ($4.99). Low- and medium-volume registries have higher costs than high-volume registries for all key activities. Conclusions Some cost differences by volume can be explained by the large fixed costs required for administering and performing registration activities, but other reasons may include the quality of the data initially submitted to the registries from reporting sources such as hospitals and pathology laboratories. Automation or efficiency improvements in data collection can potentially reduce overall costs. PMID:26702880

  6. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  7. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which...

  8. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which...

  9. 42 CFR 413.130 - Introduction to capital-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... depreciable assets under § 413.134(f). (2) Taxes on land or depreciable assets used for patient care. (3) Leases and rentals, including license and royalty fees, for the use of depreciable assets or land, as... costs, debt discounts, and debt redemption costs, if the associated debt was incurred to acquire land...

  10. The Costs and Benefits of Undertaking Adult Education Courses from the Perspective of the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AONTAS The National Adult Learning Organisation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the costs and benefits of undertaking adult education courses from the perspective of the individual, using three different case studies. This will give a snapshot of the benefits and the types of costs incurred by three adult learners. Three individuals were contacted by Aontas and were asked if they would be…

  11. 26 CFR 1.471-4 - Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shoes and is subject to section 263A. B values its inventory using cost or market, whichever is lower, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section. At the end of 1994, the cost of one pair of shoes on hand is... shoes) based on the volume of the elements usually purchased (or incurred) by B as follows:...

  12. 26 CFR 1.471-4 - Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shoes and is subject to section 263A. B values its inventory using cost or market, whichever is lower, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section. At the end of 1994, the cost of one pair of shoes on hand is... shoes) based on the volume of the elements usually purchased (or incurred) by B as follows:...

  13. 26 CFR 1.471-4 - Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shoes and is subject to section 263A. B values its inventory using cost or market, whichever is lower, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section. At the end of 1994, the cost of one pair of shoes on hand is... shoes) based on the volume of the elements usually purchased (or incurred) by B as follows:...

  14. 26 CFR 1.471-4 - Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shoes and is subject to section 263A. B values its inventory using cost or market, whichever is lower, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section. At the end of 1994, the cost of one pair of shoes on hand is... shoes) based on the volume of the elements usually purchased (or incurred) by B as follows:...

  15. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork.

  16. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  17. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  18. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  19. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  20. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  1. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  2. Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-05-16

    In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United

  3. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Lowder, Travis; Feldman, David; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2016-09-01

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  4. U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ran; Chung, Donald; Lowder, Travis; Feldman, David; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2016-07-19

    NREL has been modeling U.S. photovoltaic (PV) system costs since 2009. This report benchmarks costs of U.S. solar PV for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems built in the first quarter of 2016 (Q1 2016). Our methodology includes bottom-up accounting for all system and project-development costs incurred when installing residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems, and it models the capital costs for such systems.

  5. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  6. 76 FR 16388 - Fees for Reviews of the Rule Enforcement Programs of Contract Markets and Registered Futures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...-year historical average of costs for that SRO or one-half of average costs incurred by the Commission... markets and registered futures associations to recover the costs incurred by the Commission in the... actual program costs incurred during FY 2007, 2008, and 2009, as explained below. The FY 2010...

  7. Repeat analysis and incurred sample reanalysis: recommendation for best practices and harmonization from the global bioanalysis consortium harmonization team.

    PubMed

    Fluhler, Eric; Vazvaei, Faye; Singhal, Puran; Vinck, Petra; Li, Wenkui; Bhatt, Jignesh; de Boer, Theo; Chaudhary, Ajai; Tangiuchi, Masahiro; Rezende, Vinicius; Zhong, Dafang

    2014-11-01

    The A7 harmonization team (A7 HT), a part of the Global Bioanalysis Consortium (GBC), focused on reviewing best practices for repeat analysis and incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) as applied during regulated bioanalysis. With international representation from Europe, Latin America, North America, and the Asia Pacific region, the team first collated common practices and guidance recommendations and assessed their suitability from both a scientific and logistical perspective. Subsequently, team members developed best practice recommendations and refined them through discussions and presentations with industry experts at scientific meetings. This review summarizes the team findings and best practice recommendations. The few topics where no consensus could be reached are also discussed. The A7 HT recommendations, together with those from the other GBC teams, provide the basis for future international harmonization of regulated bioanalytical practices.

  8. [Indirect costs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Barth, F; Baum, B; Bremen, D; Meuser, T; Jost, W H

    2005-04-01

    The economic impact of parkinsonism has been getting more significant due to the increasing prevalence of Parkinson's disease and the modern therapies available nowadays. The present study is supposed to update the existing databases and to provide a sound foundation for rational decision-making in the health care sector. It does not only focus on the direct costs of this disease incurred by 75 patients over a longer period, but also and for the first time, takes a look on the indirect cost as well. The study shows that the expenses for PD-related house rebuilding and early retirement make up for a substantial share among the indirect costs. In the overall analysis, the ratio between both, direct and indirect costs appear to be relatively balanced with slight domination of the direct costs.

  9. Inconceivable? Deducting the costs of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Katherine T

    2004-07-01

    This Article considers whether infertile taxpayers can deduct their fertility treatment costs as medical expenses under Internal Revenue Code section 213 and whether they should be able to deduct them. Internal Revenue Code section 213 defines medical expenses as "amounts paid-for the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, or for the purpose of affecting any structure or function of the body." This definition is interpreted by reference to a baseline of normal biological functioning, which includes reproductive functioning. Most people conceive and bear children without having to incur expenses for fertility treatment. Expenses incurred to approximate the baseline of normal reproductive health are deductible, even if the taxpayer winds up better off, with a child, after the fertility treatment. The medical profession recognizes that infertility is a disease or condition. Infertility is a loss, just as a broken leg is a loss. Fertility treatment costs are thus medical expenses under section 213. In addition, given the existence of the medical expense deduction, taxpayers should be able to deduct the cost of fertility treatments, including IVF, egg donor, and surrogate procedures, under either an "ability-to-pay" or consequentialist normative approach. Reproduction is extremely important to most people. In addition, allowing taxpayers to deduct the costs of fertility treatment will encourage infertile taxpayers to elect the most effective treatment option and reduce the rate of risky multifetal pregnancies. This Article concludes that fertility treatment costs are deductible as medical expenses under current law and should be deductible as medical expenses.

  10. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  11. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in spatially structured environments: implications of intraspecific competition, plasticity costs and environmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ernande, B; Dieckmann, U

    2004-05-01

    We model the evolution of reaction norms focusing on three aspects: frequency-dependent selection arising from resource competition, maintenance and production costs of phenotypic plasticity, and three characteristics of environmental heterogeneity (frequency of environments, their intrinsic carrying capacity and the sensitivity to phenotypic maladaptation in these environments). We show that (i) reaction norms evolve so as to trade adaptation for acquiring resources against cost avoidance; (ii) maintenance costs cause reaction norms to better adapt to frequent rather than to infrequent environments, whereas production costs do not; and (iii) evolved reaction norms confer better adaptation to environments with low rather than with high intrinsic carrying capacity. The two previous findings contradict earlier theoretical results and originate from two previously unexplored features that are included in our model. First, production costs of phenotypic plasticity are only incurred when a given phenotype is actually produced. Therefore, they are proportional to the frequency of environments, and these frequencies thus affect the selection pressure to avoid costs just as much as the selection pressure to improve adaptation. This prevents the frequency of environments from affecting the evolving reaction norm. Secondly, our model describes the evolution of plasticity for a phenotype determining an individual's capability to acquire resources, and thus its realized carrying capacity. When individuals are distributed randomly across environments, they cannot avoid experiencing environments with intrinsically low carrying capacity. As selection pressures arising from the need to improve adaptation are stronger under such extreme conditions than under mild ones, better adaptation to environments with low rather than with high intrinsic carrying capacity results.

  12. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  13. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  14. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  15. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing.

  16. Correlation of Spacecraft Mission and Project Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Christopher; Jarrett, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    A key component of any cost risk analysis is the level of correlation between individual elements of cost. This analysis supplements the available historical records with the cost estimates from the JPL Advanced Design Team. The costs from actual JPL flight projects are then used to validate the results, clearly indicating that, on average, the correlation between elements of cost is between 0.4 and 0.7.

  17. A better approach to cost estimation.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Using ratios of costs to charges (RCCs) to estimate costs can cause hospitals to significantly over- or under-invest in service lines. A focus on improving cost estimation in cost centers where physicians have significant control over operating expenses, such as drugs or implants, can strengthen decision making and strategic planning. Connecting patient file information to purchasing data can lead to more accurate reflections of actual costs and help hospitals gain better visibility across service lines.

  18. Dropping Out of School in the North Central Region of the United States: Costs and Consequences. Success for Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterall, James S.

    This study examines the individual and social costs associated with dropping out of high school in the North Central Region of the United States. Dropouts incur personal costs in the form of reduced earnings, higher chances of being unemployed, and higher likelihood of involvement with crime. Social costs appear in the form of lower total…

  19. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dheda, Keertan; Gumbo, Tawanda; Maartens, Gary; Dooley, Kelly E; McNerney, Ruth; Murray, Megan; Furin, Jennifer; Nardell, Edward A; London, Leslie; Lessem, Erica; Theron, Grant; van Helden, Paul; Niemann, Stefan; Merker, Matthias; Dowdy, David; Van Rie, Annelies; Siu, Gilman K H; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Rodrigues, Camilla; Clark, Taane G; Sirgel, Frik A; Esmail, Aliasgar; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Atre, Sachin R; Schaaf, H Simon; Chang, Kwok Chiu; Lange, Christoph; Nahid, Payam; Udwadia, Zarir F; Horsburgh, C Robert; Churchyard, Gavin J; Menzies, Dick; Hesseling, Anneke C; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Fennelly, Kevin P; Goemaere, Eric; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Low, Marcus; Jara, Carolina Morán; Padayatchi, Nesri; Warren, Robin M

    2017-03-15

    Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis). This poses several challenges similar to those encountered in the pre-chemotherapy era, including the inability to cure tuberculosis, high mortality, and the need for alternative methods to prevent disease transmission. This phenomenon mirrors the worldwide increase in antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of other MDR pathogens, such as malaria, HIV, and Gram-negative bacteria. MDR and XDR tuberculosis are associated with high morbidity and substantial mortality, are a threat to health-care workers, prohibitively expensive to treat, and are therefore a serious public health problem. In this Commission, we examine several aspects of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The traditional view that acquired resistance to antituberculous drugs is driven by poor compliance and programmatic failure is now being questioned, and several lines of evidence suggest that alternative mechanisms-including pharmacokinetic variability, induction of efflux pumps that transport the drug out of cells, and suboptimal drug penetration into tuberculosis lesions-are likely crucial to the pathogenesis of drug-resistant tuberculosis. These factors have implications for the design of new interventions, drug delivery and dosing mechanisms, and public health policy. We discuss epidemiology and transmission dynamics, including new insights into the fundamental biology of transmission, and we review the utility of newer diagnostic tools, including

  20. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Results Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey) and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands). The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are often quite influential in

  1. Comparative Analysis of Thermoeconomic Evaluation Criteria for an Actual Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Gülcan; Açıkkalp, Emin; Savaş, Ahmet Fevzi; Yamık, Hasan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an actual heat engine is investigated by using different thermoeconomic evaluation criteria in the literature. A criteria that has not been investigated in detail is considered and it is called as ecologico-economical criteria (F_{EC}). It is the difference of power cost and exergy destruction rate cost of the system. All four criteria are applied to an irreversible Carnot heat engine, results are presented numerically and some suggestions are made.

  2. Managing the Recurrent Cost of University Education in Nigeria: A Case of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Abimbola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    The education sector especially higher education in Nigeria faces financial challenges. The recurrent cost of university education constitutes about 95% of the total cost incurred by the government in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government is unable to meet the UNESCO recommendation that 26% of national budgets should be allocated to education.…

  3. 78 FR 46948 - Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill... response costs incurred at the American Lead and Zinc Mill Superfund Site near Ouray, Colorado. The... via electric mail at rudy.mike@epa.gov and should reference the American Lead and Zinc Mill Site,...

  4. If You Stay, It Might Be Easier: Switch Costs from Comprehension to Production in a Joint Switching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambi, Chiara; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Switching language is costly for bilingual speakers and listeners, suggesting that language control is effortful in both modalities. But are the mechanisms underlying language control similar across modalities? In this study, we attempted to answer this question by testing whether bilingual speakers incur a cost when switching to a different…

  5. Changes of Field Incurred Chlorpyrifos and Its Toxic Metabolite Residues in Rice during Food Processing from-RAC-to-Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wayne W.; Jian, Qiu; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Zuntao; Wang, Donglan; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of food processing on field incurred residues levels of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in rice. The chlorpyrifos and TCP were found to be 1.27 and 0.093 mg kg-1 in straw and 0.41 and 0.073 mg kg-1 in grain, respectively. It is observed that the sunlight for 2 hours does not decrease the chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in grain significantly. Their residues in rice were reduced by up to 50% by hulling. The cooking reduced the chlorpyrifos and TCP in rice to undetectable level (below 0.01 mg kg-1). Processing factors (PFs) of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in rice during food processing were similar. Various factors have impacts on the fates of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues and the important steps to reduce their residues in rice were hulling and cooking. The results can contribute to assure the consumer of a safe wholesome food supply. PMID:25608031

  6. Changes of field incurred chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolite residues in rice during food processing from-RAC-to-consumption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wayne W; Jian, Qiu; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Zuntao; Wang, Donglan; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of food processing on field incurred residues levels of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in rice. The chlorpyrifos and TCP were found to be 1.27 and 0.093 mg kg-1 in straw and 0.41 and 0.073 mg kg-1 in grain, respectively. It is observed that the sunlight for 2 hours does not decrease the chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in grain significantly. Their residues in rice were reduced by up to 50% by hulling. The cooking reduced the chlorpyrifos and TCP in rice to undetectable level (below 0.01 mg kg-1). Processing factors (PFs) of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in rice during food processing were similar. Various factors have impacts on the fates of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues and the important steps to reduce their residues in rice were hulling and cooking. The results can contribute to assure the consumer of a safe wholesome food supply.

  7. Costs of prenatal detection of congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Jegatheeswaran, Anusha; Oliveira, Carol; Batsos, Constantine; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Silverman, Norman H; Hornberger, Lisa K; Coyte, Peter; Friedberg, Mark K

    2011-12-15

    Little information is available about the transportation costs incurred from the missed prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD). The objectives of the present study were to analyze the costs of emergency transportation related to the postnatal diagnosis of major CHD and to perform a cost/benefit analysis of additional training for ultrasound technicians to study the implications of improved prenatal detection rates. The 1-year costs incurred for emergency transportation of pre- and postnatally diagnosed infants with CHD in Northern California and North Western Nevada were calculated and compared. The prenatal detection rate in our cohort (n = 147) was 30.6%. Infants postnatally diagnosed were 16.5 times more likely (p <0.001) to require emergency transport. The associated emergency transportation costs were US$542,143 in total for all patients with CHD. The mean cost per patient was $389.00 versus $5,143.51 for prenatally and postnatally diagnosed infants, respectively (p <0.001). Assuming an improvement in detection rates after 1-day training for ultrasound technicians, the investment in training cost can be recouped in 1 year if the detection rate increased by 2.4% to 33%. Savings of $6,543,476 would occur within 5 years if the detection rate increased to 50%. In conclusion, CHD diagnosed postnatally results in greater costs related to emergency transportation of ill infants. Improving the prenatal detection rates through improved ultrasound technician training could result in considerable cost savings.

  8. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  9. First-Grade Retention: Effects on Children's Actual and Perceived Performance throughout Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeating first grade on children's further academic growth, by tracking the actual performance and the teacher-rated performance of a cohort of Flemish first-graders until the end of elementary school. Two research questions are raised: (1) How do first-grade repeaters, at the cost of one extra year of…

  10. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  15. 20 CFR 1002.226 - If the employee has a disability that was incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him... aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him or her become... reemployment position regardless of any disability. The employer must make reasonable efforts to help...

  16. 20 CFR 1002.226 - If the employee has a disability that was incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him... aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him or her become... reemployment position regardless of any disability. The employer must make reasonable efforts to help...

  17. 20 CFR 1002.226 - If the employee has a disability that was incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him... aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him or her become... reemployment position regardless of any disability. The employer must make reasonable efforts to help...

  18. 20 CFR 1002.226 - If the employee has a disability that was incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him... aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him or her become... reemployment position regardless of any disability. The employer must make reasonable efforts to help...

  19. 20 CFR 1002.226 - If the employee has a disability that was incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the employee has a disability that was incurred in, or aggravated during, the period of service, what efforts must the employer make to help him or her become qualified for the reemployment position? 1002.226 Section 1002.226 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  20. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the death... incurred in connection with the employee's service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation,...

  1. 20 CFR 10.902 - Does every employee's death due to injuries incurred in connection with his or her service with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does every employee's death due to injuries incurred in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for the...

  2. 20 CFR 10.902 - Does every employee's death due to injuries incurred in connection with his or her service with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Does every employee's death due to injuries incurred in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for the...

  3. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the death... incurred in connection with the employee's service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation,...

  4. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the death... incurred in connection with the employee's service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation,...

  5. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the death... incurred in connection with the employee's service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation,...

  6. 20 CFR 10.902 - Does every employee's death due to injuries incurred in connection with his or her service with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Does every employee's death due to injuries incurred in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for the...

  7. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the death... incurred in connection with the employee's service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation,...

  8. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…

  9. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  10. Actualizing Flexible National Security Space Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    single launch vehicle is a decision unique to small satellites that adds an extra dimension to the launch risk calculation. While bundling...following a launch failure. The ability to bundle multiple payloads on a single launch vehicle is a decision unique to small satellites that adds an extra ... dimension to the launch risk calculation. While bundling multiple small satellites on a single launch vehicle spreads the initial launch cost across

  11. The traffic equilibrium problem with nonadditive path costs

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, S.A.; Bernstein, D.

    1995-08-21

    In this paper the authors present a version of the (static) traffic equilibrium problem in which the cost incurred on a path is not simply the sum of the costs on the arcs that constitute that path. The authors motivate this nonadditive version of the problem by describing several situations in which the classical additivity assumption fails. They also present an algorithm for solving nonadditive problems that is based on the recent NE/SQP algorithm, a fast and robust method for the nonlinear complementarity problem. Finally, they present a small example that illustrates both the importance of using nonadditive costs and the effectiveness of the NE/SQP method.

  12. Estimating the Deep Space Network modification costs to prepare for future space missions by using major cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Donald S.; Sherif, Josef; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper develops a cost model to do long range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSN) support of future space missions. The paper focuses on the costs required to modify and/or enhance the DSN to prepare for future space missions. The model is a function of eight major mission cost drivers and estimates both the total cost and the annual costs of a similar future space mission. The model is derived from actual cost data from three space missions: Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. Estimates derived from the model are tested against actual cost data for two independent missions, Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS).

  13. Secondary-care costs associated with lung cancer diagnosed at emergency hospitalisation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Martyn P T; Hall, Peter S; Callister, Matthew E J

    2017-01-30

    Lung cancer diagnosis during emergency hospital admission has been associated with higher early secondary-care costs and lower longer-term costs than outpatient diagnoses. This retrospective cohort study analyses the secondary-care costs of 3274 consecutive patients with lung cancer. Patients diagnosed during emergency admissions incurred greater costs during the first month and had a worse prognosis compared with outpatient diagnoses. In patients who remained alive, costs after the first month were comparable between diagnostic routes. In addition to improving patient experience and outcome, strategies to increase earlier diagnosis may reduce the additional healthcare costs associated with this route to diagnosis.

  14. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  15. The effect of pediatric knowledge on hospice care costs.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Lisa C; Mixer, Sandra J; Cozad, Melanie J

    2014-05-01

    The cost of hospice care is rising. Although providing care for children at end of life may be costly for hospices, it is unclear whether or not gaining pediatric knowledge and even establishing a pediatric program may be done cost effectively. The purpose of our study was to examine the effect of possessing pediatric knowledge (i.e., pediatric program, pediatric experience) on core hospice care costs. Using 2002 to 2008 California hospice data, the findings of the regression analysis suggest that having pediatric knowledge does not significantly increase nursing, physician, and medical social service costs. Having a pediatric program was related to increased counseling costs. Our findings shed important light on the minimal costs incurred when hospices decide to develop pediatric knowledge.

  16. The effect of flotation costs and brokerage fees on the cost of common equity of public utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nicdao-Cuyugan, J.; Pregozen, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Flotation costs incurred to externally raise common equity cause utility investment funds to be less than the amount of investor contributions, thereby increasing their cost of common equity. Regulated utilities obtain compensation for flotation costs through an adjustment to their allowed rate of return on common equity. However, the proper method of flotation cost compensation is a subject of controversy. It has been argued in this publication, and in various regulatory arenas, that flotation cost adjustment methods for the discounted cash flow (DCF) model overestimate the cost of common equity if the stock price is not adjusted to reflect brokerage fees incurred by the investor. This paper presents a critical analysis of this argument as formalized by David S. Habr in an article published in the NRRI Quarterly Bulletin. This analysis demonstrates that Habr`s conclusions are incorrect and his model is inappropriate for determining a utility`s flotation cost adjustment. Adjusting a utility`s allowed return on equity to reflect the brokerage fees paid by investors will underestimate the utility`s true cost of common equity.

  17. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  18. Report: Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners – Unallowable Costs Claimed Under EPA Grant XP98237601

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #08-2-0226, August 6, 2008. The grantee claimed $2,385,634 for pre-award costs under Grant XP98237601 that were incurred prior to the grant award and thus were unallowable under the grant administrative conditions and OMB Circular A-87.

  19. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purchases equipment, including downhole equipment (e.g., casing, tubing, packers, and sucker rods), pumping... connection with the acquisition, construction, transportation, erection, or installation of an offshore... tertiary development of the field, costs incurred by K in connection with the acquisition,...

  20. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purchases equipment, including downhole equipment (e.g., casing, tubing, packers, and sucker rods), pumping... connection with the acquisition, construction, transportation, erection, or installation of an offshore... tertiary development of the field, costs incurred by K in connection with the acquisition,...

  1. 31 CFR 205.27 - How are Interest Calculation Costs calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Interest Calculation Costs incurred are funded from the aggregate interest payments States make to the... & Planning Trust Fund (CFDA 20.205); Airport Improvement Trust Fund (CFDA 20.106); Federal Transit Capital...); and Social Security—Disability Insurance Trust Fund (CFDA 96.001); and (2) The aggregate payments...

  2. Cost Worksheet for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Barbara Hanson

    This worksheet is part of a series of technical assistance resources on financing and sustaining out-of-school time and community school initiatives. The worksheet is intended to help developers of such programs to create one type of financial projection--an operating budget--that identifies the range of costs that their initiative will incur. To…

  3. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  4. Nuclear cost control focuses on refueling outages

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Extending operating cycles and shortening refueling outages are the mainstays of utility efforts to improve the economics of nuclear generation. Here are key management approaches that have contributed to recent successes. Improving operating efficiency remains the byword of nuclear power producers, as they intensify their drive to reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and survive--even thrive--in a competitive environment. Because replacement-power and other costs can incur penalties of $0.5-million or more for each that a nuclear unit is inoperative--and almost $3-million/day, for one utility--refueling outages are an obvious focal point for such efforts, By the same token, the impact on the bottom line is greater and more dramatic here than for other cost-saving activities.

  5. An Introduction to the NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System. Technical Report No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Mike; Martin, Ron

    The NCHEMS Costing and Data Management System is designed to assist institutions in the implementation of cost studies. There are at least two kinds of cost studies: historical cost studies which display cost-related data that reflect actual events over a specific prior time period, and predictive cost studies which forecast costs that will be…

  6. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  7. Independent Study Course Development Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Clayton R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses actual costs for developing independent study print courses for use in learning centers or for distance delivery, and presents a resource allocation guideline based on figures from Grant MacEwan Community College (Alberta). Topics discussed include the course writer/developer, clerical support, copyright clearance, instructional design,…

  8. What Do Cost Functions Tell Us about the Cost of an Adequate Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert; Hanushek, Eric; Loeb, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    Econometric cost functions have begun to appear in education adequacy cases with greater frequency. Cost functions are superficially attractive because they give the impression of objectivity, holding out the promise of scientifically estimating the cost of achieving specified levels of performance from actual data on spending. By contrast, the…

  9. Optimal maintenance and consolidation therapy for multiple myeloma in actual clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Sup; Min, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant plasma cell-originating cancer. Although its treatment outcomes have improved with the use of glucocorticoids, alkylating drugs, and novel agents, including proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide), relapse remains a serious problem. Strategies to improve outcomes following autologous stem cell transplantation and frontline treatments in non-transplant patients include consolidation to intensify therapy and improve the depth of response and maintenance therapy to achieve long-term disease control. Many clinical trials have reported increased progression-free and overall survival rates after consolidation and maintenance therapy. The role of consolidation/maintenance therapy has been assessed in patients eligible and ineligible for transplantation and is a valuable option in clinical trial settings. However, the decision to use consolidation and/or maintenance therapy needs to be guided by the individual patient situation in actual clinical practice. This review analyzes the currently available evidence from several reported clinical trials to determine the optimal consolidation and maintenance therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27604793

  10. Costs of the 'Hartslag Limburg' community heart health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ronckers, Emma T; Groot, Wim; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Ruland, Erik; Ament, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known about the costs of community programmes to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The present study calculated the economic costs of all interventions within a Dutch community programme called Hartslag Limburg, in such a way as to facilitate generalisation to other countries. It also calculated the difference between the economic costs and the costs incurred by the coordinating institution. Methods Hartslag Limburg was a large-scale community programme that consisted of many interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The target population consisted of all inhabitants of the region (n = 180.000). Special attention was paid to reach persons with a low socio-economic status. Costs were calculated using the guidelines for economic evaluation in health care. An overview of the material and staffing input involved was drawn up for every single intervention, and volume components were attached to each intervention component. These data were gathered during to the implementation of the intervention. Finally, the input was valued, using Dutch price levels for 2004. Results The economic costs of the interventions that were implemented within the five-year community programme (n = 180,000) were calculated to be about €900,000. €555,000 was spent on interventions to change people's exercise patterns, €250,000 on improving nutrition, €50,000 on smoking cessation, and €45,000 on lifestyle in general. The coordinating agency contributed about 10% to the costs of the interventions. Other institutions that were part of the programme's network and external subsidy providers contributed the other 90% of the costs. Conclusion The current study calculated the costs of a community programme in a detailed and systematic way, allowing the costs to be easily adapted to other countries and regions. The study further showed that the difference between economic costs and the costs incurred by the coordinating agency can be very large. Cost sharing was

  11. Direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada, 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M D; Berka, C; Langlois, P; Detsky, A S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate the direct and indirect costs of asthma in Canada. DESIGN: Cost-of-illness study. SETTING: Canada. PATIENTS: All Canadians receiving inpatient or outpatient care for asthma in 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct costs incurred by inpatient care, emergency services, physician and nursing services, ambulance use, drugs and devices, outpatient diagnostic tests, research and education. Indirect costs from productivity loss due to absence from work, inability to to perform housekeeping activities, need to care for children with asthma who were absent from school, time spent travelling and waiting for medical care, and premature death from asthma. All costs are in 1990 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Depending on assumptions, the total cost of asthma was estimated to be between $504 million and $648 million. Direct costs were $306 million. The single largest component of direct costs was the cost of drugs ($124 million). The largest component of indirect costs was illness-related disability ($76 million). CONCLUSIONS: Annual costs of treating asthma are comparable to the individual cost of infectious diseases, hematological diseases, congenital defects, perinatal illnesses, home care and ambulance services. Asthma costs may increase in the future, given current morbidity and mortality trends. Further evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of available asthma interventions in addition to aggregate cost data are required to determine whether resource allocation for the treatment of asthma can be improved. PMID:8634960

  12. Actualities in big segments replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Clemente, Alessandra; Pontini, Italo

    2007-01-01

    Replantation of an amputation is no longer a difficult technical problem. Indeed, the experience gathered over the last few decades, right from the first concepts posed by the pioneers up to the present era and the improved technical aids, all go to suggest that the majority of amputated segments may now be reconstructed. However, what we really want from a replant is not just survival but function. Indications for replantations must follow careful and objective patient selection together with the evaluation of type and site of lesion and possible complications. Furthermore, the important role of emergency organization in this type of surgery is to be emphasized. Nowadays, clean cut injuries are rarer and are being substituted by high energy trauma which may produce extensive tissue lesions that increase complications and lead to poor functional results. Consequently, some authors were induced to describe evaluation systems for decision making which still present problems which are in part due to the large number of parameters to be taken into consideration as well as to the complex functionality of the upper limb. This led us to evaluate our case series of 52 major replantations of the upper limb over the last 10 years and to compare it with other published series. The best form of reconstruction following total amputation of a major limb segment is still its replantation. The highly significant increase in the quality of life is able to justify the higher social costs and the number of operations required.

  13. Quantifying the Direct Transfer Costs of Common Brushtail Possum Dispersal using Least-Cost Modelling: A Combined Cost-Surface and Accumulated-Cost Dispersal Kernel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, Thomas R.; Perry, George L. W.; Cowan, Phil E.; Clout, Mick N.

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal costs need to be quantified from empirical data and incorporated into dispersal models to improve our understanding of the dispersal process. We are interested in quantifying how landscape features affect the immediately incurred direct costs associated with the transfer of an organism from one location to another. We propose that least-cost modelling is one method that can be used to quantify direct transfer costs. By representing the landscape as a cost-surface, which describes the costs associated with traversing different landscape features, least-cost modelling is often applied to measure connectivity between locations in accumulated-cost units that are a combination of both the distance travelled and the costs traversed. However, we take an additional step by defining an accumulated-cost dispersal kernel, which describes the probability of dispersal in accumulated-cost units. This novel combination of cost-surface and accumulated-cost dispersal kernel enables the transfer stage of dispersal to incorporate the effects of landscape features by modifying the direction of dispersal based on the cost-surface and the distance of dispersal based on the accumulated-cost dispersal kernel. We apply this approach to the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) within the North Island of New Zealand, demonstrating how commonly collected empirical dispersal data can be used to calibrate a cost-surface and associated accumulated-cost dispersal kernel. Our results indicate that considerable improvements could be made to the modelling of the transfer stage of possum dispersal by using a cost-surface and associated accumulated-cost dispersal kernel instead of a more traditional straight-line distance based dispersal kernel. We envisage a variety of ways in which the information from this novel combination of a cost-surface and accumulated-cost dispersal kernel could be gainfully incorporated into existing dispersal models. This would enable more realistic

  14. Virtual reality as telemedicine tool: technology, ergonomics and actual applications.

    PubMed

    Riva, G; Gamberini, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the state of the art in telemedicine applications of virtual environments (VEs) and related technologies for health care. The possible use of VEs as telemedicine tool has attracted much interest in medicine. Actually this technology is commonly used in remote or augmented surgery, and surgical training, which are critically dependent upon eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use VEs in anatomic learning and for the assessment and rehabilitation in neuro-psychology. To date, such applications have improved the quality of health care, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. Tools that respond to the needs of present VE systems are being refined or developed. However, the possible use of VEs in telemedicine is not linked to the solution of technical problems only. In fact telemedicine is not simply a technology but a complex process whose successful exploitation needs significant attention to ergonomics, human factors and organizational changes in the structure of the relevant health service.

  15. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. 47 CFR 27.1164 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; back-up power equipment; monitoring or control equipment; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training... actual costs associated with providing a replacement system, such as equipment and engineering...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1180 - The cost-sharing formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; engineering costs (design/path survey); installation; systems testing; FCC filing costs; site acquisition and civil works; zoning costs; training; disposal of old equipment; test equipment (vendor required); spare... system, such as equipment and engineering expenses. There is no cap on the actual costs of relocation....

  18. Fee-Free Public or Low-Fee Private Basic Education in Rural Ghana: How Does the Cost Influence the Choice of the Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akaguri, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses data from a household survey of three rural communities and interviews in the Mfantseman Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana to investigate the costs incurred by households that choose either fee-free public schools or low-fee private schools. The paper shows that both provisions impose costs that place those with lower…

  19. 77 FR 12340 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Granting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... FINRA's costs associated with calculating, assessing, and collecting the GASB Accounting Support Fee... collecting the GASB Accounting Support Fee and the actual costs incurred by FINRA.\\83\\ \\79\\ See Notice, 77 FR... experience in assessing and collecting the GASB Accounting Support Fee and the actual costs incurred by...

  20. Discrete Fluctuations in Memory Erasure without Energy Cost.

    PubMed

    Croucher, Toshio; Bedkihal, Salil; Vaccaro, Joan A

    2017-02-10

    According to Landauer's principle, erasing one bit of information incurs a minimum energy cost. Recently, Vaccaro and Barnett (VB) explored information erasure within the context of generalized Gibbs ensembles and demonstrated that for energy-degenerate spin reservoirs the cost of erasure can be solely in terms of a minimum amount of spin angular momentum and no energy. As opposed to the Landauer case, the cost of erasure in this case is associated with an intrinsically discrete degree of freedom. Here we study the discrete fluctuations in this cost and the probability of violation of the VB bound. We also obtain a Jarzynski-like equality for the VB erasure protocol. We find that the fluctuations below the VB bound are exponentially suppressed at a far greater rate and more tightly than for an equivalent Jarzynski expression for VB erasure. We expose a trade-off between the size of the fluctuations and the cost of erasure. We find that the discrete nature of the fluctuations is pronounced in the regime where reservoir spins are maximally polarized. We also state the first laws of thermodynamics corresponding to the conservation of spin angular momentum for this particular erasure protocol. Our work will be important for novel heat engines based on information erasure schemes that do not incur an energy cost.

  1. Discrete Fluctuations in Memory Erasure without Energy Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croucher, Toshio; Bedkihal, Salil; Vaccaro, Joan A.

    2017-02-01

    According to Landauer's principle, erasing one bit of information incurs a minimum energy cost. Recently, Vaccaro and Barnett (VB) explored information erasure within the context of generalized Gibbs ensembles and demonstrated that for energy-degenerate spin reservoirs the cost of erasure can be solely in terms of a minimum amount of spin angular momentum and no energy. As opposed to the Landauer case, the cost of erasure in this case is associated with an intrinsically discrete degree of freedom. Here we study the discrete fluctuations in this cost and the probability of violation of the VB bound. We also obtain a Jarzynski-like equality for the VB erasure protocol. We find that the fluctuations below the VB bound are exponentially suppressed at a far greater rate and more tightly than for an equivalent Jarzynski expression for VB erasure. We expose a trade-off between the size of the fluctuations and the cost of erasure. We find that the discrete nature of the fluctuations is pronounced in the regime where reservoir spins are maximally polarized. We also state the first laws of thermodynamics corresponding to the conservation of spin angular momentum for this particular erasure protocol. Our work will be important for novel heat engines based on information erasure schemes that do not incur an energy cost.

  2. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  3. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  4. Integrated Tactical Communications System (INTACS). Task 3. Communications System Effectiveness and Cost Methodology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    foreknowledge - messages are blocked at the destroyed node, and the previously connected units continue to gene - rate traffic...the COR and if major revisions are intended, HQ USATRADOC must be Informed. 1 Incl as VVXA^A. Winm ’ GENE R. FARMELO Can lain. Signal Corps...costs refer to investment costs incurred one cime during the production phase, although they can recur if there is a change in

  5. Relative Cost and Training Effectiveness of the 6883 Three-Dimensional Simulator and Actual Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    impacts on training effectiveness (Miller, 1978). Second , there is the need for a criterion measure of training effectiveness. Previous researchers have...personnel, the second method , may be biased by senior NCO or commander preferences which are not necessarily the most effective methods of training. The task... Research Methods & Instrumentation, 1978, 10, 228-230. Dick, R.A.; Royal, J.W.; Simpson, H.K. & Mackie, R.R. Personnel Tech- nology: !’sing an inexpensive

  6. Brazil's worst mining disaster: Corporations must be compelled to pay the actual environmental costs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Letícia Couto; Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini; de Oliveira Roque, Fabio; Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel; Laurance, William F

    2017-01-01

    In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 20 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$521 million per year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities. To reduce such disparities between estimated damages and levied fines, we advocate for an environmental bond policy that considers potential risks and environmental services that could possibly be impacted by irresponsible mining activity. Environmental bonds and insurance are commonly used policy instruments in many countries, but there are no clear environmental bond policies in Brazil. Environmental bonds are likely to be more effective at securing environmental restitution than post-disaster fines, which generally are inadequate and often unpaid. We estimate that at least 126 mining dams in Brazil are vulnerable to failure in the forthcoming years. Any such event could have severe social-environmental consequences, underscoring the need for effective disaster-management strategies for large-scale mining operations.

  7. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  8. Establishment of reference costs for occupational health services and implementation of cost management in Japanese manufacturing companies

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji; Aratake, Yutaka; Ide, Hiroshi; Nobori, Junichiro; Kojima, Reiko; Odagami, Kiminori; Kato, Anna; Hiraoka, Mika; Shiota, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Ito, Masato; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Matsuda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We developed a standardized cost estimation method for occupational health (OH) services. The purpose of this study was to set reference OH services costs and to conduct OH services cost management assessments in two workplaces by comparing actual OH services costs with the reference costs. Methods: Data were obtained from retrospective analyses of OH services costs regarding 15 OH activities over a 1-year period in three manufacturing workplaces. We set the reference OH services costs in one of the three locations and compared OH services costs of each of the two other workplaces with the reference costs. Results: The total reference OH services cost was 176,654 Japanese yen (JPY) per employee. The personnel cost for OH staff to conduct OH services was JPY 47,993, and the personnel cost for non-OH staff was JPY 38,699. The personnel cost for receipt of OH services-opportunity cost-was JPY 19,747, expense was JPY 25,512, depreciation expense was 34,849, and outsourcing cost was JPY 9,854. We compared actual OH services costs from two workplaces (the total OH services costs were JPY 182,151 and JPY 238,023) with the reference costs according to OH activity. The actual costs were different from the reference costs, especially in the case of personnel cost for non-OH staff, expense, and depreciation expense. Conclusions: Using our cost estimation tool, it is helpful to compare actual OH services cost data with reference cost data. The outcomes help employers make informed decisions regarding investment in OH services. PMID:27170449

  9. 19 CFR 152.105 - Deductive value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concerned; (2) The actual costs and associated costs of transportation and insurance incurred with respect... States; (3) The usual costs and associated costs of transportation and insurance incurred with respect to... and quantifiable data relating to the cost of the work performed. Accepted industry formulas,...

  10. Underestimation of Project Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  11. Strategic missile (Minuteman) operating and support cost factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, M. W.

    1985-09-01

    The objective of this special study was to review the spectrum of available cost models and cost studies addressing strategic missiles, evaluate the elements of cost pertaining to operation and support, establish a comprehensive cost element structure to serve as both a standard or checklist in accomplishing cost estimates and the basis from which to develop Air Force cost factors. And finally, actually develop operations and support cost factors for Air Force strategic missiles and make them available to the cost community through publication in AFR 173-13. This paper was presented at the Annual DOD Cost Analysis Symposium.

  12. [Cooperation with the electronic medical record and accounting system of an actual dose of drug given by a radiology information system].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Yoneda, Tarou; Satou, Shuji; Ishikawa, Toru; Hara, Misako

    2009-12-20

    By input of the actual dose of a drug given into a radiology information system, the system converting with an accounting system into a cost of the drug from the actual dose in the electronic medical record was built. In the drug master, the first unit was set as the cost of the drug, and we set the second unit as the actual dose. The second unit in the radiology information system was received by the accounting system through electronic medical record. In the accounting system, the actual dose was changed into the cost of the drug using the dose of conversion to the first unit. The actual dose was recorded on a radiology information system and electronic medical record. The actual dose was indicated on the accounting system, and the cost for the drug was calculated. About the actual dose of drug, cooperation of the information in a radiology information system and electronic medical record were completed. It was possible to decide the volume of drug from the correct dose of drug at the previous inspection. If it is necessary for the patient to have another treatment of medicine, it is important to know the actual dose of drug given. Moreover, authenticity of electronic medical record based on a statute has also improved.

  13. Cost of Evaluating Faculty Performance at Antelope Valley Community College for the 1972-1973 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Donald M.; Brown, Jennings G.

    The costs incurred at Antelope Valley Community College (California) in evaluating the performance of college faculty members for the 1972-73 school year are summarized. Evaluation fell into two phases--implementation and operation. Implementation involved the issuance of written procedures, necessary forms, the purchase of equipment and supplies,…

  14. 18 CFR 2.104 - Mechanisms for passthrough of pipeline take-or-pay buyout and buydown costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incurred by the pipeline. (d) Prudence. (1) The Commission will examine the issue of prudence if it is... pipelines and included in account 165 and in their rate bases. Nor does it address the issue of whether take... passthrough of pipeline take-or-pay buyout and buydown costs. 2.104 Section 2.104 Conservation of Power...

  15. 18 CFR 2.104 - Mechanisms for passthrough of pipeline take-or-pay buyout and buydown costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incurred by the pipeline. (d) Prudence. (1) The Commission will examine the issue of prudence if it is... pipelines and included in account 165 and in their rate bases. Nor does it address the issue of whether take... passthrough of pipeline take-or-pay buyout and buydown costs. 2.104 Section 2.104 Conservation of Power...

  16. 32 CFR 37.625 - What cost principles or standards do I require for for-profit participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: (1) A reasonable and prudent person would incur in carrying out the research project contemplated by... research and development activities under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (see Statement of Financial Accounting Standards Number 2, “Accounting for Research and Development Costs,” October 1974...

  17. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  18. Evolution of hosts paying manifold costs of defence.

    PubMed

    Cressler, Clayton E; Graham, Andrea L; Day, Troy

    2015-04-07

    Hosts are expected to incur several physiological costs in defending against parasites. These include constitutive energetic (or other resource) costs of a defence system, facultative resource costs of deploying defences when parasites strike, and immunopathological costs of collateral damage. Here, we investigate the evolution of host recovery rates, varying the source and magnitude of immune costs. In line with previous work, we find that hosts paying facultative resource costs evolve faster recovery rates than hosts paying constitutive costs. However, recovery rate is more sensitive to changes in facultative costs, potentially explaining why constitutive costs are hard to detect empirically. Moreover, we find that immunopathology costs which increase with recovery rate can erode the benefits of defence, promoting chronicity of infection. Immunopathology can also lead to hosts evolving low recovery rate in response to virulent parasites. Furthermore, when immunopathology reduces fecundity as recovery rate increases (e.g. as for T-cell responses to urogenital chlamydiosis), then recovery and reproductive rates do not covary as predicted in eco-immunology. These results suggest that immunopathological and resource costs have qualitatively different effects on host evolution and that embracing the complexity of immune costs may be essential for explaining variability in immune defence in nature.

  19. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  20. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  1. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  2. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  3. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  4. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  5. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  6. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  7. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  8. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  9. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  10. The cost implications of participatory research. Experience of a health services review in a rural region in South Africa

    PubMed

    Doherty; Price

    1998-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to estimate the total costs incurred by a comprehensive review of primary health care services in a rural region in South Africa, and to determine which of these costs were incurred because of the participatory research techniques employed by the review. DESIGN: The costing study estimated the direct and indirect costs of each component of the review in order to determine total costs. Costs that were linked to participatory research activities were aggregated separately. SETTING: The review that was costed was conducted in an area that included the former 'homeland' KaNgwane and the adjacent areas of 'white' South Africa, in part of what is now known as Mpumalanga Province. SUBJECTS: Not relevant. OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct, indirect, total, research and participation costs were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: Expenditure generated by participatory research techniques was estimated to be almost 14% of the total (direct and indirect) costs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite these costs, participatory research techniques are invaluable in terms of the many benefits they have for a research project. However, because of these costs, it is important that the financing of participatory research should be carefully planned. Projects must budget for the direct costs of participatory techniques, participating organisations and individuals must be committed to bearing the indirect costs of participation, and, increasingly, funders must consider funding these indirect costs. This is important in the South African situation, where public health research relies increasingly on the participation of relevant stakeholders.

  11. Managing costs and managing care.

    PubMed

    Rivers, P A; Tsai, K L

    2001-01-01

    With a defined population served, contracted provider panels and the nature of care delivery integration, managed care has provided a solution, though not a panacea, to provide equitable services, standardized and prevention oriented cares to its enrolled members. Combined with the earmarked capitation reimbursement system and a series of cost containment and utilization review techniques, managed care has also demonstrated potently its capacity in cost-saving and quality promotion. Presents steps and measures related to managed care that federal government has taken to manage care and contain cost. It is crucial to identify and promulgate best practices continually, while managing utilization of resources for improving health care, containing cost, and equalizing medical care access to a greater proportion of the population. Concludes that it may take time for a universal adoption of managed care. However, Americans may actually benefit more from having a standard level of health care that managed care could achieve and provide.

  12. Cost and cost-effectiveness of PPM-DOTS for tuberculosis control: evidence from India.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Katherine; Arora, V. K.; Murthy, K. J. R.; Lonnroth, Knut; Singla, Neeta; Akbar, Y.; Zignol, Matteo; Uplekar, Mukund

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of the Public-Private Mix DOTS (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control in India. METHODS: We collected data on the costs and effects of pilot PPM-DOTS projects in Delhi and Hyderabad using documentary data and interviews. The cost of PPM-DOTS was compared with public sector DOTS (i.e. DOTS delivered through public sector facilities only) and non-DOTS treatment in the private sector. Costs for 2002 in US$ were assessed for the public sector, private practitioners, and patients/attendants. Effectiveness was measured as the number of cases successfully treated. FINDINGS: The average cost per patient treated was US$ 111-123 for PPM-DOTS and public sector DOTS, and US$ 111-172 for non-DOTS treatment in the private sector. From the public sector's perspective, the cost per patient treated was lower in PPM-DOTS projects than in public sector DOTS programmes (US$ 24-33 versus US$ 63). DOTS implementation in either the public or private sectors improved treatment outcomes and substantially lowered costs incurred by patients and their attendants, compared to non-DOTS treatment in the private sector (US$ 50-60 for DOTS compared to over US$ 100 for non-DOTS). The average cost-effectiveness of PPM-DOTS and public sector DOTS was similar, at US$ 120-140 per patient successfully treated, compared to US$ 218-338 for non-DOTS private sector treatment. Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed that PPM-DOTS can improve effectiveness while also lowering costs. CONCLUSION: PPM-DOTS can be an affordable and cost-effective approach to improving TB control in India, and can substantially lower the economic burden of TB for patients. PMID:16799727

  13. Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Sääksvuori, Lauri; Mappes, Tapio; Puurtinen, Mikael

    2011-11-22

    Understanding how societies resolve conflicts between individual and common interests remains one of the most fundamental issues across disciplines. The observation that humans readily incur costs to sanction uncooperative individuals without tangible individual benefits has attracted considerable attention as a proximate cause as to why cooperative behaviours might evolve. However, the proliferation of individually costly punishment has been difficult to explain. Several studies over the last decade employing experimental designs with isolated groups have found clear evidence that the costs of punishment often nullify the benefits of increased cooperation, rendering the strong human tendency to punish a thorny evolutionary puzzle. Here, we show that group competition enhances the effectiveness of punishment so that when groups are in direct competition, individuals belonging to a group with punishment opportunity prevail over individuals in a group without this opportunity. In addition to competitive superiority in between-group competition, punishment reduces within-group variation in success, creating circumstances that are highly favourable for the evolution of accompanying group-functional behaviours. We find that the individual willingness to engage in costly punishment increases with tightening competitive pressure between groups. Our results suggest the importance of intergroup conflict behind the emergence of costly punishment and human cooperation.

  14. Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Education administrators involved in construction initiatives unanimously agree that when it comes to change orders, less is more. Change orders have a negative rippling effect of driving up building costs and producing expensive project delays that often interfere with school operations and schedules. Some change orders are initiated by schools…

  15. Costs of Inducible Defence along a Resource Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Nilsson, P. Anders; Ahlgren, Johan; Lennartsdotter, Charlotte; Hollander, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In addition to having constitutive defence traits, many organisms also respond to predation by phenotypic plasticity. In order for plasticity to be adaptive, induced defences should incur a benefit to the organism in, for example, decreased risk of predation. However, the production of defence traits may include costs in fitness components such as growth, time to reproduction, or fecundity. To test the hypothesis that the expression of phenotypic plasticity incurs costs, we performed a common garden experiment with a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, a species known to change morphology in the presence of molluscivorous fish. We measured a number of predator-induced morphological and behavioural defence traits in snails that we reared in the presence or absence of chemical cues from fish. Further, we quantified the costs of plasticity in fitness characters related to fecundity and growth. Since plastic responses may be inhibited under limited resource conditions, we reared snails in different densities and thereby levels of competition. Snails exposed to predator cues grew rounder and thicker shells, traits confirmed to be adaptive in environments with fish. Defence traits were consistently expressed independent of density, suggesting strong selection from predatory molluscivorous fish. However, the expression of defence traits resulted in reduced growth rate and fecundity, particularly with limited resources. Our results suggest full defence in predator related traits regardless of resource availability, and costs of defence consequently paid in traits related to fitness. PMID:22291961

  16. Costs of inducible defence along a resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Brönmark, Christer; Lakowitz, Thomas; Nilsson, P Anders; Ahlgren, Johan; Lennartsdotter, Charlotte; Hollander, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In addition to having constitutive defence traits, many organisms also respond to predation by phenotypic plasticity. In order for plasticity to be adaptive, induced defences should incur a benefit to the organism in, for example, decreased risk of predation. However, the production of defence traits may include costs in fitness components such as growth, time to reproduction, or fecundity. To test the hypothesis that the expression of phenotypic plasticity incurs costs, we performed a common garden experiment with a freshwater snail, Radix balthica, a species known to change morphology in the presence of molluscivorous fish. We measured a number of predator-induced morphological and behavioural defence traits in snails that we reared in the presence or absence of chemical cues from fish. Further, we quantified the costs of plasticity in fitness characters related to fecundity and growth. Since plastic responses may be inhibited under limited resource conditions, we reared snails in different densities and thereby levels of competition. Snails exposed to predator cues grew rounder and thicker shells, traits confirmed to be adaptive in environments with fish. Defence traits were consistently expressed independent of density, suggesting strong selection from predatory molluscivorous fish. However, the expression of defence traits resulted in reduced growth rate and fecundity, particularly with limited resources. Our results suggest full defence in predator related traits regardless of resource availability, and costs of defence consequently paid in traits related to fitness.

  17. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  18. Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Method Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2–5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Results Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Conclusion Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. PMID:27633419

  19. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with utility companies to develop, other acceptable costing methods, such as unit costs, to estimate... accepted industry practices and be reasonably supported by recent actual expenditures. Unit costs should be... replaced, such as a building, pumping station, filtration plant, power plant, substation, or any...

  20. 23 CFR 645.117 - Cost development and reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with utility companies to develop, other acceptable costing methods, such as unit costs, to estimate... accepted industry practices and be reasonably supported by recent actual expenditures. Unit costs should be... replaced, such as a building, pumping station, filtration plant, power plant, substation, or any...

  1. Statistical Cost Estimation in Higher Education: Some Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Niwa, Shelley

    Recent developments in econometrics that are relevant to the task of estimating costs in higher education are reviewed. The relative effectiveness of alternative statistical procedures for estimating costs are also tested. Statistical cost estimation involves three basic parts: a model, a data set, and an estimation procedure. Actual data are used…

  2. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  3. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  4. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for experience-rated carriers includes: (1) Information such as claims data; (2) Actual or negotiated...

  5. The Health Care Costs of Violence against Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Marie; Sorensen, Jan; Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the health care costs of violence against women. For the study, we used a register-based approach where we identified victims of violence and assessed their actual health care costs at individual level in a bottom-up analysis. Furthermore, we identified a reference population. We computed the attributable costs,…

  6. 14 CFR 1274.801 - Adjustments to performance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NASA's initial cost share or funding levels, detailed cost analysis techniques may be applied, which... (cash and/or in-kind contributions) by NASA and the recipient beyond the initial agreement may be needed. There may also be occasions where actual costs of NASA and the recipient may be less than...

  7. 14 CFR 1274.801 - Adjustments to performance costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NASA's initial cost share or funding levels, detailed cost analysis techniques may be applied, which... (cash and/or in-kind contributions) by NASA and the recipient beyond the initial agreement may be needed. There may also be occasions where actual costs of NASA and the recipient may be less than...

  8. The Real Cost of "Cosmetic Tourism" Cost Analysis Study of "Cosmetic Tourism" Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    "Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.

  9. 32 CFR 37.830 - May I let a recipient charge pre-award costs to the agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pre-award costs are incurred at the recipient's risk (i.e., no DoD Component is obligated to reimburse... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I let a recipient charge pre-award costs to... Administrative Matters Revision of Budget and Program Plans § 37.830 May I let a recipient charge pre-award...

  10. 32 CFR 37.830 - May I let a recipient charge pre-award costs to the agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pre-award costs are incurred at the recipient's risk (i.e., no DoD Component is obligated to reimburse... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I let a recipient charge pre-award costs to... Administrative Matters Revision of Budget and Program Plans § 37.830 May I let a recipient charge pre-award...

  11. Electrodermal responses to implied versus actual violence on television.

    PubMed

    Kalamas, A D; Gruber, M L

    1998-01-01

    The electrodermal response (EDR) of children watching a violent show was measured. Particular attention was paid to the type of violence (actual or implied) that prompted an EDR. In addition, the impact of the auditory component (sounds associated with violence) of the show was evaluated. Implied violent stimuli, such as the villain's face, elicited the strongest EDR. The elements that elicited the weakest responses were the actual violent stimuli, such as stabbing. The background noise and voices of the sound track enhanced the total number of EDRs. The results suggest that implied violence may elicit more fear (as measured by EDRs) than actual violence does and that sounds alone contribute significantly to the emotional response to television violence. One should not, therefore, categorically assume that a show with mostly actual violence evokes less fear than one with mostly implied violence.

  12. 40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual Negative 4'x5') STAR PLAN, COURTYARD FACADE PROFILE AND DEFENSIVE LINKS - Castillo de San Marcos, 1 Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL

  13. Toward a Cost/Benefit Analysis of Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    This article, which is based, in part, on a paper presented to the Canadian Association of Sport Sciences, Quebec City, in November 1985, evaluates the principles of cost/benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis in the specific context of fitness programming. Because of difficulties in valuing all aspects of fitness and health—particularly survival after retirement—cost-effectiveness analysis is generally preferred. Allowance must be made for inflation, the discount rate (except in a “steady state” analysis), marginal costs of program expansion, opportunity costs incurred by participants, the changing fabric of society, the economic multiplication of investment in fitness, and anticipated participation rates. Benefits may be observed by the individual (improved health), the corporation (reduced turnover and absenteeism, increased productivity, fewer injuries), and the state (reduced direct and indirect costs of illness, improved lifestyle, reduced demand for geriatric services). Program costs vary widely with the activity that is undertaken, but even daily walking involves the participant in some expense. Employee programs often cost $500-$750 per participant/year, while, depending on the sport and local speculation by land “developers”, community programs may cost $175-$1,000 per participant/year. Cost/effectiveness analyses allow governments to reach informed decisions, but they cannot always answer associated ethical problems such as determining the value of human life, and the rights of the individual as opposed to those of society. PMID:21267294

  14. Actuarial and actual analysis of surgical results: empirical validation.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, G L; Anderson, R P; Starr, A

    2001-06-01

    This report validates the use of the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method of computing survival curves by comparing 12-year estimates published in 1978 with current assessments. It also contrasts cumulative incidence curves, referred to as "actual" analysis in the cardiac-related literature with Kaplan-Meier curves for thromboembolism and demonstrates that with the former estimate the percentage of events that will actually occur.

  15. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measured as the number of workdays missed because of sickness or injury. We used zero-inflated Poisson regression to estimate excess absenteeism as the difference in the number of days missed from work by those who reported having a risk factor or chronic disease and those who did not. Covariates included demographics (eg, age, education, sex) and employment variables (eg, industry, union membership). We quantified absenteeism costs in 2011 and adjusted them to reflect growth in employment costs to 2015 dollars. Finally, we estimated absenteeism costs for a hypothetical small employer (100 employees) and a hypothetical large employer (1,000 employees). Results Absenteeism estimates ranged from 1 to 2 days per individual per year depending on the risk factor or chronic disease. Except for the physical inactivity and obesity estimates, disease- and risk-factor–specific estimates were similar in MEPS and MarketScan. Absenteeism increased with the number of risk factors or diseases reported. Nationally, each risk factor or disease was associated with annual absenteeism costs greater than $2 billion. Absenteeism costs ranged from $16 to $81 (small employer) and $17 to $286 (large employer) per employee per year. Conclusion Absenteeism costs associated with chronic diseases and health risk factors can be substantial. Employers may incur these costs through lower productivity, and employees could incur costs through lower wages. PMID:27710764

  16. Costly rejection of wrongdoers by infants and children.

    PubMed

    Tasimi, Arber; Wynn, Karen

    2016-06-01

    How unappealing are individuals who behave badly towards others? We show here that children and even infants, although motivated by material rewards, are nonetheless willing to incur costs to avoid "doing business" with a wrongdoer. When given the choice to accept a smaller offering from a do-gooder or a larger offering from a wrongdoer, children and infants chose to accept the smaller offering. It was only when the difference between the offerings was very large that their aversion to the wrongdoer was overcome by personal incentives. These findings show that a willingness to forgo self-interests when faced with wrongdoers is a fundamental aspect of human nature.

  17. Simultaneous detection of multi-allergens in an incurred food matrix using ELISA, multiplex flow cytometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ahmed; Boye, Joyce

    2015-05-15

    Food allergy is a public health concern and an important food safety issue. Food allergies affect up to 6% of infants and children and 4% of adults. The objective of this work was to determine differences in the detection of single and multiple allergens (i.e., casein, soy protein, and gluten) in an incurred food matrix before and after baking. Cookies were used as a model food system. Three methods, namely, multiplex assay (a new optimized method based on flow cytometry for multiple allergen analysis), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using commercial kits and LC-MS were used to detect allergens in the samples before and after baking. The ELISA kits performed well in detecting allergens in the raw samples with recoveries of 91-108%, 88-127% and 85-108% for casein, soy protein and gluten, respectively. Recoveries were poor for the baked cookies (67-90%, 66-95% and 66-88% for casein, soy protein and gluten, respectively). The multiplex flow cytometry assay permitted multiple allergen detection in the raw samples, with the following recoveries based on soluble protein: casein, 95-107%; soy protein, 92-97%, and gluten, 96-99%. Data for the baked cookies were as follows: casein, 84-90%; soy protein, 80-88%, and gluten, 80-90%. The LC-MS technique detected marker peptides that could be used to identify allergens in the baked food samples up to concentrations of 10 ppm for casein and soy protein, and 100 ppm for gluten. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first to compare ELISA, LC-MS and multiplex flow cytometry methods for the detection of multiple allergens simultaneously incurred in a model food system.

  18. Being in transit and in transition: the experience of time at the place, when living with severe incurable disease--a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Sidsel; Roxberg, Åsa; Kristoffersen, Kjell; Rosland, Jan Henrik; Alvsvåg, Herdis

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experience of time as it presents itself at the place being situated when living with severe incurable disease and receiving palliative care. The empirical data consist of 26 open-ended interviews with 23 patients receiving palliative care at home, at a palliative day care, in a palliative bed unit in hospital or in a nursing home in Norway. A common meaning of a shifting space for living emerged from the analysis and was revealed through three different aspects: (i) Transition from a predictable to an unpredictable time: To live with severe incurable disease marks a transition to a changed life involving an ongoing weakened and altered body with bothersome symptoms making experience of time different and unpredictable. (ii) Transition between a safe and unsafe time: When time is unpredictable, feeling safe is revealed as essential to how time is experienced at the place being situated. (iii) To be in transition from a homely to a homeless existence: In a time of increased bodily weakness, unpredictable ailments and displacements, the sense of belonging to the place is revealed as significant to the experience of time. Not knowing where to be in a time of change is like an existential cry of distress where the foothold in existence is lost. The findings are discussed and interpreted as an embodied experience originating from the passage of time continually affecting life sometimes so fundamentally that it marks a transition to a changed space of life that is reflected in the experience of time.

  19. 7 CFR 1416.6 - Limitations on payments and other benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Emergency Conservation Program; (4) The Hurricane Indemnity Program, subpart C of part 760 of this title. (i) An applicant's actual loss or actual costs incurred because of losses due to an eligible...

  20. 7 CFR 1416.6 - Limitations on payments and other benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Emergency Conservation Program; (4) The Hurricane Indemnity Program, subpart C of part 760 of this title. (i) An applicant's actual loss or actual costs incurred because of losses due to an eligible...

  1. 7 CFR 1416.6 - Limitations on payments and other benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Emergency Conservation Program; (4) The Hurricane Indemnity Program, subpart C of part 760 of this title. (i) An applicant's actual loss or actual costs incurred because of losses due to an eligible...

  2. 7 CFR 1416.6 - Limitations on payments and other benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Emergency Conservation Program; (4) The Hurricane Indemnity Program, subpart C of part 760 of this title. (i) An applicant's actual loss or actual costs incurred because of losses due to an eligible...

  3. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOEpatents

    Spalding, Richard E.; Grotbeck, Carter L.

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  4. Low Carbon Costs of Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Dry Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gei, M. G.; Powers, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Legume tree species with the ability to fix nitrogen (N) are highly diverse and widespread across tropical forests but in particular in the dry tropics. Their ecological success in lower latitudes has been called a "paradox": soil N in the tropics is thought to be high, while acquiring N through fixation incurs high energetic costs. However, the long held assumptions that N fixation is limited by photosynthate and that N fixation penalizes plant productivity have rarely been tested, particularly in legume tree species. We show results from three different experiments where we grew eleven species of tropical dry forest legumes. We quantified plant biomass and N fixation using nodulation and the 15N natural isotope abundance (Ndfa or nitrogen derived from fixation). These data show little evidence for costs of N fixation in seedlings grown under different soil fertility, light regimes, and with different microbial communities. Seedling productivity did not incur major costs because of N fixation: indeed, the average slope between Ndfa and biomass was positive (range in slopes: -0.03 to 0.3). Moreover, foliar N, which varied among species, was tightly constrained and not correlated with Ndfa. This finding implies that legume species have a target N that does not change depending on N acquisition strategies. The process of N fixation in tropical legumes may be more carbon efficient than previously thought. This view is more consistent with the hyperabundance of members of this family in tropical ecosystems.

  5. Cost-Based Optimization of a Papermaking Wastewater Regeneration Recycling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Feng, Xiao; Chu, Khim H.

    2010-11-01

    Wastewater can be regenerated for recycling in an industrial process to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. Such an environment friendly approach will also lead to cost savings that accrue due to reduced freshwater usage and wastewater discharge. However, the resulting cost savings are offset to varying degrees by the costs incurred for the regeneration of wastewater for recycling. Therefore, systematic procedures should be used to determine the true economic benefits for any water-using system involving wastewater regeneration recycling. In this paper, a total cost accounting procedure is employed to construct a comprehensive cost model for a paper mill. The resulting cost model is optimized by means of mathematical programming to determine the optimal regeneration flowrate and regeneration efficiency that will yield the minimum total cost.

  6. Farm costs associated with premovement testing for bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R M

    2009-01-17

    Sixty cattle farmers in England were questioned about the costs associated with premovement testing for bovine tuberculosis (TB). On average, the farmers had premovement tested 2.45 times in the previous 12 months, but the majority had tested only once. An average of 28.6 animals were tested on each occasion, but there were wide variations. The average farm labour costs were 4.00 pounds per animal tested, veterinary costs were 4.33 pounds and other costs were 0.51 pounds, giving a total cost of 8.84 pounds, but there were wide variations between farms, and many incurred costs of more than 20 pounds per animal. A majority of the farmers also cited disruption to the farm business or missed market opportunities as costs, but few could estimate their financial cost. Most of the farmers thought that premovement testing was a cost burden on their business, and over half thought it was not an effective policy to control bovine TB.

  7. Avian Radar - Is It Worth the Cost?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    associated costs, explored current mitigation efforts leading up to Avian Radar, performed statistical analysis of USAF airfield strike data, and...birds actually leads to a reduction in total bird strikes over time for a specific airfield and to determine cost effectiveness of this particular...provided by the Air Force Flight Standards Agency (AFFSA) located at Tinker AFB, Oklahoma . The researcher calculated bird strikes per tower

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Maintenance Simulators for Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    cost data presented in Chapter III ; these describe acquisition but not life-cycle costs. T’he costs of acquiring actual equipment or simulators do not...IIOP 0SPUunIII41 1803 NOV1UV jmu~n’avni 87 EE 40 00 vc IS W = LAIAX IiI 4-3 U o- u cc *lo I O 5- - M M E 0U o I- U (uniolop 10 spuusnoql) Isoa...such comparisons were made. There- fore, maintenance simulators are cost-effcctive compared to actual equipment trainers. ".90 III TABLE 18. LIFE

  9. Non-Traumatic Dental Condition-Related Emergency Department Visits and Associated Costs for Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Sy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Masterson, Erin E.; Chi, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 2010 US National Emergency Department Sample data and ran regression models to test the hypotheses that individuals with ASD are more likely to have non-traumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits and to incur greater costs for these visits than those without ASD. There were nearly 2.3 million…

  10. The Myth of Free and Barrier-Free Access: India's Right to Education Act--Private Schooling Costs and Household Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Prachi; Noronha, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We examine relative household costs and experiences of accessing private and government schooling under India's "Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009" in the early implementation phase. The Act deems that no child should incur any fee, charges, or expenses in accessing schooling. Private schools are mandated to…

  11. [Disease management programs between aspiration and reality. Actually, everything was meant to become much better].

    PubMed

    Bullmann, Catharina; Straub, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    By initiating disease management programmes (DMP) the German legislator aimed to optimize the provision of healthcare to chronically ill patients through increasing the competition between sickness funds and healthcare providers and to stimulate quality competition in the healthcare system by simultaneously connecting DMPs to compensatory (wraparound) payments within the risk-adjustment scheme. The intended quality measures have hardly been reflected in the DMP contracts. The present paper presents a preliminary analysis of the population registered for the "Type 2 Diabetes mellitius" DMP: As the sickness funds aim to recruit as many participants as possible, they did not only enrol the high-risk population but relatively young and healthy diabetics as well. Whether DMPs will actually lead to quality improvement and increasing cost-effectiveness cannot be assessed, since the evaluation criteria for DMPs no longer require that sound scientific cost-effectiveness analyses be performed.

  12. Inbreeding tolerance and fitness costs in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Frère, Céline H; Krützen, Michael; Kopps, Anna M; Ward, Patrick; Mann, Janet; Sherwin, William B

    2010-09-07

    In wild populations, inbreeding tolerance is expected to evolve where the cost of avoidance exceeds that of tolerance. We show that in a wild population of bottlenose dolphins found in East Shark Bay, Western Australia, levels of inbreeding are higher than expected by chance alone, and demonstrate that inbreeding is deleterious to female fitness in two independent ways. We found that inbred females, and females with inbred calves, have reduced fitness (lower calving success). We further show that one of the costs of inbreeding is extended weaning age, and that females' earlier calves are more likely to be inbred. While the exact causes of inbreeding remain obscure, our results indicate that one factor is female age, and thus experience. Any inbreeding avoidance mechanisms such as female evasion of kin, or male dispersal, do not seem to be completely effective in this population, which supports the view that inbreeding avoidance does not always evolve wherever inbreeding incurs a cost.

  13. Inbreeding tolerance and fitness costs in wild bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Céline H.; Krützen, Michael; Kopps, Anna M.; Ward, Patrick; Mann, Janet; Sherwin, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In wild populations, inbreeding tolerance is expected to evolve where the cost of avoidance exceeds that of tolerance. We show that in a wild population of bottlenose dolphins found in East Shark Bay, Western Australia, levels of inbreeding are higher than expected by chance alone, and demonstrate that inbreeding is deleterious to female fitness in two independent ways. We found that inbred females, and females with inbred calves, have reduced fitness (lower calving success). We further show that one of the costs of inbreeding is extended weaning age, and that females' earlier calves are more likely to be inbred. While the exact causes of inbreeding remain obscure, our results indicate that one factor is female age, and thus experience. Any inbreeding avoidance mechanisms such as female evasion of kin, or male dispersal, do not seem to be completely effective in this population, which supports the view that inbreeding avoidance does not always evolve wherever inbreeding incurs a cost. PMID:20392729

  14. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the

  15. Co-variation between graphic pattern stability and attentional cost: a clue for the difficulty to produce handwritten traces.

    PubMed

    Kostrubiec, Viviane; Danna, Jeremy; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2013-10-01

    Attentional cost incurred for generating handwritten graphic patterns was investigated using a classic dual-task procedure, in which a concurrent reaction time (RT) task was used as an index of the attentional cost incurred by the primary graphic task. Eight right-handed adults had to trace graphic patterns, characterized by a 0°, 45°, 90°, 135° or 180° relative phase and corresponding to shapes ranging from lines to ellipses to circles, while responding by a key press as fast as possible to an auditory signal. The results evidenced a strong and significant correlation between the stability of the produced pattern and the associated attentional cost. The amplitude of the minor and major axes of the produced ellipsoids decreased with the increase of movement frequency, as expected by nonlinear models of oscillatory pattern generation. These findings pave the way to the study for the (coordinative) processes for letter (mal)formation in cursive handwriting.

  16. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

  17. Programme costs in the economic evaluation of health interventions

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Baltussen, Rob; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the costs of health interventions is important to policy-makers for a number of reasons including the fact that the results can be used as a component in the assessment and improvement of their health system performance. Costs can, for example, be used to assess if scarce resources are being used efficiently or whether there is scope to reallocate them in a way that would lead to improvements in population health. As part of its WHO-CHOICE project, WHO has been developing a database on the overall costs of health interventions in different parts of the world as an input to discussions about priority setting. Programme costs, defined as costs incurred at the administrative levels outside the point of delivery of health care to beneficiaries, may comprise an important component of total costs. Cost-effectiveness analysis has sometimes omitted them if the main focus has been on personal curative interventions or on the costs of making small changes within the existing administrative set-up. However, this is not appropriate for non-personal interventions where programme costs are likely to comprise a substantial proportion of total costs, or for sectoral analysis where questions of how best to reallocate all existing health resources, including administrative resources, are being considered. This paper presents a first effort to systematically estimate programme costs for many health interventions in different regions of the world. The approach includes the quantification of resource inputs, choice of resource prices, and accounts for different levels of population coverage. By using an ingredients approach, and making tools available on the World Wide Web, analysts can adapt the programme costs reported here to their local settings. We report results for a selected number of health interventions and show that programme costs vary considerably across interventions and across regions, and that they can contribute substantially to the overall costs of

  18. Working Memory Costs of Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liefooghe, Baptist; Barrouillet, Pierre; Vandierendonck, Andre; Camos, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Although many accounts of task switching emphasize the importance of working memory as a substantial source of the switch cost, there is a lack of evidence demonstrating that task switching actually places additional demands on working memory. The present study addressed this issue by implementing task switching in continuous complex span tasks…

  19. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  20. Fitness Costs Predict Emotional, Moral, and Attitudinal Inbreeding Aversion.

    PubMed

    Lespiau, Florence; Kaminski, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    In terms of sexual intercourse, the very last people we think about are our kin. Imagining inbreeding intercourse, whether it involves our closest kin or not, induces aversion in most people who invoke inbreeding depression problems or cultural considerations. Research has focused on the disgust felt when facing inbreeding intercourse between close kin but little is known about other responses. In this study, we considered the influence of fitness costs on aversive reactions by including disgust and emotional reaction as well as moral judgment and attitudes toward inbreeding: higher costs should induce a stronger aversive reaction. The fitness costs were manipulated by two factors: (i) the degree of the participants' involvement in the story (themselves, a sib or an unknown individual), and (ii) the degree of relatedness between the two inbreeding people (brother/sister, uncle-aunt/niece-nephew, cousin). To test this hypothesis, 140 women read and assessed different inbreeding stories varying in the fitness costs incurred. Findings showed that the higher the fitness costs were, the greater the aversive reaction was in an overall way. First, our results fitted with previous studies that tested the influence of fitness costs on disgust. Second, and more interestingly, findings went further by examining overall aversion, showing that fitness costs could influence emotions felt as well as attitudes and behaviors toward inbreeding people. The higher the fitness costs were, the less inbreeding people were perceived as moral and the more they were considered as a nuisance. However, results regarding avoidance were more nuanced.