Science.gov

Sample records for actual costs incurred

  1. 25 CFR 1000.316 - May the Tribe/Consortium be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable âwind up costsâ incurred after the effective date of retrocession? 1000.316 Section 1000.316... Reassumption § 1000.316 May the Tribe/Consortium be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after the effective date of retrocession? Yes, the Tribe/Consortium may be reimbursed for...

  2. 25 CFR 900.254 - May the contractor be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the contractor be reimbursed for actual and reasonable âwind up costsâ incurred after the effective date of rescission? 900.254 Section 900.254 Indians... up costs” incurred after the effective date of rescission? Yes....

  3. Survey on the Assessment of the Current Actual Expenses Incurred by Students on the Meals and Accommodation within and around the Campuses: The Case of Tanzania Higher Education Students' Loans Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyahende, Veronica R.; Bangu, Asangye N.; Chakaza, Benedicto C.

    2015-01-01

    This Survey analyses the current actual expenses incurred by students on the meals and accommodation within and around the campuses. The study was geared towards achieving the following objectives: (i) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for meals In Campus, (ii) to examine the current cost incurred by a students for accommodation…

  4. 23 CFR 1200.30 - Expiration of the right to incur costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contractors may not incur costs for Federal reimbursement past the expiration date. ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expiration of the right to incur costs. 1200.30 Section... HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS Closeout § 1200.30 Expiration of the right to incur costs. Unless extended...

  5. 23 CFR 1200.30 - Expiration of the right to incur costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contractors may not incur costs for Federal reimbursement past the expiration date. ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expiration of the right to incur costs. 1200.30 Section... HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS Closeout § 1200.30 Expiration of the right to incur costs. Unless extended...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.316 - May the Tribe/Consortium be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up costs” incurred after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reasonable âwind up costsâ incurred after the effective date of retrocession? 1000.316 Section 1000.316... AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.316 May the Tribe/Consortium be reimbursed for actual and reasonable “wind up...

  7. Disrupting Immune Regulation Incurs Transient Costs in Male Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Belloni, Virginia; Sorci, Gabriele; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Guerreiro, Romain; Bellenger, Jérôme; Faivre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Immune protection against pathogenic organisms has been shown to incur costs. Previous studies investigating the cost of immunity have mostly focused on the metabolic requirements of immune maintenance and activation. In addition to these metabolic costs, the immune system can induce damage to the host if the immune response is mis-targeted or over-expressed. Given its non-specific nature, an over-expressed inflammatory response is often associated with substantial damage for the host. Here, we investigated the cost of an over-expressed inflammatory response in the reproductive function of male mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally blocked the receptors of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in male mice exposed to a mild inflammatory challenge, with each treatment having an appropriate control group. The experiment was conducted on two age classes, young (3 month old) and old (15 month old) mice, to assess any age-related difference in the cost of a disrupted immune regulation. We found that the concomitant exposure to an inflammatory insult and the blockade of IL-10 induced a reduction in testis mass, compared to the three other groups. The frequency of abnormal sperm morphology was also higher in the group of mice exposed to the inflammatory challenge but did not depend on the blockade of the IL-10. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that immune regulation confers protection against the risk of inflammation-induced infertility during infection. They also suggest that disruption of the effectors involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response can have serious fitness consequences even under mild inflammatory insult and benign environmental conditions. PMID:24400103

  8. The Cost of Prestige: Do New Research I Universities Incur Higher Administrative Costs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphew, Christopher C.; Baker, Bruce D.

    2004-01-01

    The authors construct and respond to several questions about changing administrative costs for new Research I Universities, a group of institutions that might be expected to incur new costs as a result of their new status. Using IPEDS data, the study provides mixed support for the claim that universities reaching the pinnacle of research…

  9. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency...

  10. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency...

  11. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency...

  12. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency...

  13. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency...

  14. Switching between Sensory and Affective Systems Incurs Processing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M.; Luminet, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Recent models of the conceptual system hold that concepts are grounded in simulations of actual experiences with instances of those concepts in sensory-motor systems (e.g., Barsalou, 1999, 2003; Solomon & Barsalou, 2001). Studies supportive of such a view have shown that verifying a property of a concept in one modality, and then switching to…

  15. 16 CFR 1105.8 - Costs must be authorized and incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs must be authorized and incurred. 1105.8 Section 1105.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CONTRIBUTIONS TO COSTS OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS §...

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-18 - Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible land, or advance construction of minor portions of treatment works, including associated... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-18 Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award. That...

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-18 - Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation upon project costs incurred prior to award. 35.925-18 Section 35.925-18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-18...

  18. 23 CFR 1200.30 - Expiration of the right to incur costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration of the right to incur costs. 1200.30 Section 1200.30 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS UNIFORM PROCEDURES FOR STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAMS Closeout §...

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.115 - May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? 102-37.115 Section 102-37.115 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.115 May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? Yes, you, as a holding agency,...

  20. 41 CFR 102-37.115 - May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? 102-37.115 Section 102-37.115 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.115 May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? Yes, you, as a holding agency,...

  1. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  2. 30 CFR 1229.109 - Reimbursement for costs incurred by a State under the delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gas, Onshore Administration of Delegations § 1229.109 Reimbursement for costs incurred by a State... for 100 percent of the direct cost associated with the activities undertaken under the delegation...

  3. Economic costs incurred by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabangchang, Orapan; Allaire, Maura; Leangcharoen, Prinyarat; Jarungrattanapong, Rawadee; Whittington, Dale

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive estimates of the economic costs experienced by households in the 2011 Greater Bangkok flood. More generally, it contributes to the literature by presenting the first estimates of flood costs based on primary data collected from respondents of flooded homes using in-person interviews. Two rounds of interviews were conducted with 469 households in three of the most heavily affected districts of greater Bangkok. The estimates of economic costs include preventative costs, ex post losses, compensation received, and any new income generated during the flood. Median household economic costs were US3089, equivalent to about half of annual household expenditures (mean costs were US5261). Perhaps surprisingly given the depth and duration of the flood, most houses incurred little structural damage (although furniture, appliances, and cars were damaged). Median economic costs to poor and nonpoor households were similar as a percentage of annual household expenditures (53% and 48%, respectively). Compensation payments received from government did little to reduce the total economic losses of the vast majority of households. Two flood-related deaths were reported in our sample—both in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, ex post damage was the largest component of flood costs (66% of total). These findings are new, important inputs for the evaluation of flood control mitigation and preventive measures that are now under consideration by the Government of Thailand. The paper also illustrates how detailed microeconomic data on household costs can be collected and summarized for policy purposes.

  4. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male–male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns. PMID:23486444

  5. 50 CFR 80.94 - May an agency incur costs before the beginning of the grant period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS General Grant Administration § 80.94 May an agency incur costs before the beginning of...

  6. 50 CFR 80.94 - May an agency incur costs before the beginning of the grant period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS General Grant Administration § 80.94 May an agency incur costs before the beginning of...

  7. 45 CFR 402.12 - Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred Prior to October 1, 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred Prior to October 1, 1987. 402.12 Section 402.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT ASSISTANCE...

  8. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  9. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  10. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  11. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary... Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section 179B....

  12. 26 CFR 1.179B-1T - Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations (temporary). 1.179B-1T Section 1.179B-1T... Deduction for capital costs incurred in complying with Environmental Protection Agency sulfur regulations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This section also provides rules for making elections under section...

  13. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Special Treatment of Certain Facilities Under the Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.105 Special treatment: Hospitals that incur...

  14. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  15. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  16. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  17. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  18. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  19. Predonation Direct and Indirect Costs Incurred by Adults Who Donated a Kidney: Findings From the KDOC Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, J. R.; Schold, J. D.; Morrissey, P.; Whiting, J.; Vella, J.; Kayler, L. K.; Katz, D.; Jones, J.; Kaplan, B.; Fleishman, A.; Pavlakis, M.; Mandelbrot, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists on the predonation costs incurred by eventual living kidney donors (LKDs). Expenses related to completion of the donation evaluation were collected from 194 LKDs participating in the multi-center, prospective Kidney Donor Outcomes Cohort (KDOC) Study. Most LKDs (n = 187, 96%) reported one or more direct costs, including ground transportation (80%), healthcare (24%), lodging (17%) and air transportation (14%), totaling $101 484 (USD; mean = $523 ± 942). Excluding paid vacation or sick leave, donor and companion lost wages totaled $35 918 (mean = $187 ± 556) and $14 378 (mean = $76 ± 311), respectively. One-third of LKDs used paid vacation or sick leave to avoid incurring lost wages. Few LKDs reported receiving financial support from the transplant candidate (6%), transplant candidate’s family (3%), a nonprofit organization (3%), the National Living Donor Assistance Center (7%), or transplant center (3%). Higher total costs were significantly associated with longer distance traveled to the transplant center (p < 0.001); however, total costs were not associated with age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, marital status, insurance status, or transplant center. Moderate predonation direct and indirect costs are common for adults who complete the donation evaluation. Potential LKDs should be advised of these possible costs, and the transplant community should examine additional strategies to reimburse donors for them. PMID:25943721

  20. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  1. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  2. 2 CFR 200.418 - Costs incurred by states and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... IHEs, are allowable costs of such IHEs whether or not these costs are recorded in the accounting... accordance with applicable Federal cost accounting principles in this part; and (c) The costs are not... governments. 200.418 Section 200.418 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for...

  3. Excessive costs incurred by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve program for rental and other services

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-19

    Audits of procurement costs for goods and services indicated excessive costs to the prime contractor and thus to DOE when competitive bid procedures were not followed. Food services charges to emergency fire fighters were padded. Service calls and transportation also resulted in violation of energy-conservation policy where closer services were available. Recommendations for recovery of excessive costs were implemented where final payment had not occurred.

  4. 7 CFR 755.5 - Proof of eligible reimbursement costs incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 755.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY...) Commodity and unit of measure; (3) Type of input(s) associated with transportation costs; (4) Date(s) of... transportation of each commodity or input. Such documentation must: (1) Show transportation costs for...

  5. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  6. The unfunded costs incurred by patients accessing plastic surgical care in Northern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Jessica L; Clapson, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian health care system was designed to ensure that all Canadian citizens would receive equal access to health care. However, in rural areas of Canada, patients are required to travel long distances and pay significant out-of-pocket expenses to access health care. The present study attempted to quantify the added out-of-pocket costs that rural Saskatchewan residents must pay to receive plastic surgical specialist care compared with urban residents of Saskatoon. A cost analysis was performed to generate a numerical value that would represent a minimum cost for patients travelling from three different locations within the province. The cost analysis performed in the present study approximated that the unfunded costs for common plastic surgical procedures are, at a minimum, 30 times greater for rural patients in La Ronge compared with their urban counterparts in Saskatoon. The fundamental principle of the Canadian health care system is equal access to necessary health care for all Canadians. Despite this, inequalities persist. The present cost-analysis study demonstrated that the unfunded (out-of-pocket) expenses for rural Saskatchewan patients seeking plastic surgical treatment is significantly higher than for their urban counterparts. These unfunded costs represent a significant barrier to health care access in Canada and serve to propagate inequalities in the nation’s heath care system. PMID:25114619

  7. Diagnostic Pathways to Alzheimer Disease: Costs Incurred in a Medicare Population.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Daniel M; Kubisiak, Joanna M; Sarsour, Khaled; Hunter, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Despite its implications on the personal and policy level, little is currently known about the specific diagnostic pathways that patients with cognitive impairment (CI) pass through before being diagnosed with Alzheimer disease (AD). Four major diagnostic pathways were identified in the Medicare claims records for 2001 to 2006: AD as initial diagnosis, cognitive disturbance followed by AD; dementia with suspected etiologies followed by AD; dementia without known cause followed by AD; and 1 triple pathway, cognitive disturbance followed by dementia without known cause followed by AD. For all of these pathways, previously low medical costs peaked during patients' month of initial diagnosis and then declined to a level substantially higher than before. The 3 CI pathways that transition to AD included another peak in costs when a secondary AD diagnosis occurred. Each time, inpatient and skilled nursing facility services were major cost contributors. The primary diagnoses on Medicare claims for the AD event were usually comorbidities rather than CI. A linear regression model adjusting for demographic factors, selected comorbidities, and overall frailty found that the transitional CI diagnoses were significant independent cost determinants. They increased Medicare expenditures by an estimated $4600 to $14,200 relative to patients whose initial CI diagnosis was AD.

  8. 44 CFR 208.39 - Reimbursement for personnel costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs for Activated Support Specialists will be limited to periods of time during which they were... sleep periods during Activation. Activated System Members are considered “on-duty” and must be available for immediate response at all times during Activation. (d) Regular rate. The regular rate for...

  9. Employer-incurred health care costs and productivity losses associated with influenza

    PubMed Central

    Karve, Sudeep; Misurski, Derek A.; Meier, Genevieve; Davis, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess trends in employer expenditures for both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses associated with influenza. A retrospective analysis was performed using two of the MarketScan family of databases for 2005–2009. Patients with at least one diagnosis claim for influenza during an influenza season were selected. We estimated seasonal incidence of influenza in the employed population from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Health care utilization and costs and productivity losses were assessed during the 21-d period following the influenza diagnosis date. Compared with the 2005–2006 season (493 per 100,000 plan members), influenza incidence increased during the 2006–2007 (598 per 100,000 plan members) and 2007–2008 (1,142 per 100,000 plan members) seasons and had a dramatic increase during the pandemic season of 2008–2009 (1,715 per 100,000 plan members) . The total influenza-related employer spending per 100,000 plan members also increased by over 400% during the 2008–2009 influenza season [$623,248; confidence interval (CI]):$601,518-$644,991], compared with 2005–2006 ($145,834; 95% CI: $135,067-$156,603). The primary drivers of the increased costs were emergency room, outpatient and inpatient visits. Total costs associated with influenza-related missed work time per 100,000 plan members increased over 4-fold from $26,479 in the 2005–2006 influenza season to $122,811 in 2008–2009. Overall, as expected, considerably higher direct and indirect costs were observed during the 2008–2009 influenza pandemic season than during other influenza seasons. In recent years, the influenza-related employer burden has increased considerably. In future, employers may need efficient resource allocation in order to address the productivity losses and increasing direct medical costs associated with increased influenza incidence. One of the strategies that employers may consider is

  10. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.402 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402...

  14. Honey bee hygienic behaviour does not incur a cost via removal of healthy brood.

    PubMed

    Bigio, G; Al Toufailia, H; Ratnieks, F L W

    2014-01-01

    In the honey bee, hygienic behaviour, the removal of dead or diseased brood from capped cells by workers, is a heritable trait that confers colony-level resistance against brood diseases. This behaviour is quite rare. Only c. 10% of unselected colonies show high levels of hygiene. Previous studies suggested that hygiene might be rare because it also results in the removal of healthy brood, thereby imposing an ongoing cost even when brood diseases are absent. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying hygienic behaviour in 10 colonies using a standard technique, the freeze-killed brood (FKB) bioassay. At the same time, we also quantified the removal of untreated brood. The study colonies showed a wide range in hygienic behaviour, removing 19.7-100% of the FKB. The removal of untreated brood ranged from 2% to 44.4%. However, there was no correlation between the two removal rates for any of the four age groups of untreated brood studied (eggs, young larvae, older larvae from uncapped cells and larvae/pupae from capped cells). These results do not support the cost-to-healthy-brood hypothesis for the rarity of hygienic behaviour. PMID:24330477

  15. A risk-reduction approach for optimal software release time determination with the delay incurred cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan-Fu; Zhang, Jun-Guang; Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Most existing research on software release time determination assumes that parameters of the software reliability model (SRM) are deterministic and the reliability estimate is accurate. In practice, however, there exists a risk that the reliability requirement cannot be guaranteed due to the parameter uncertainties in the SRM, and such risk can be as high as 50% when the mean value is used. It is necessary for the software project managers to reduce the risk to a lower level by delaying the software release, which inevitably increases the software testing costs. In order to incorporate the managers' preferences over these two factors, a decision model based on multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) is developed for the determination of optimal risk-reduction release time.

  16. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  17. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  18. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  19. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  20. 48 CFR 9905.502 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting standard... 9905.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  1. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... Technical Assistance How You Get the Money § 35.4080 Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does...

  2. 40 CFR 35.4080 - Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does EPA reimburse us for costs we incur? 35.4080 Section 35.4080 Protection of Environment... Technical Assistance How You Get the Money § 35.4080 Does my group get a lump sum up front, or does...

  3. 26 CFR 301.7430-8 - Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code. 301.7430-8 Section 301.7430-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...

  4. 26 CFR 301.7430-8 - Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for violations of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code. 301.7430-8 Section 301.7430-8 Internal... Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code. (a... Service relating to the willful violation of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code only if...

  5. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  6. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 149.335 Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. (a) A submission of claims consists of a list of early retirees for whom claims are being submitted, and documentation of the actual costs of... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims...

  7. A comparison of NEAR actual spacecraft costs with three parametric cost models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Todd J.; Lao, Norman Y.; Davalos, Evelyn T.; Bearden, David A.

    1999-11-01

    Costs for modern (post-1990) U.S.-built small planetary spacecraft have been shown to exhibit significantly different trends from those of larger spacecraft. These differences cannot be accounted for simply by the change in size alone. Some have attributed this departure to NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" design approach embodied by the efficiency of smaller teams, reduced government oversight, increased focus on cost, and short development periods. With the Discovery, Mars Surveyor and New Millennium programs representing the new approach to planetary exploration, it is important to understand these current cost trends and to be able to estimate costs of future proposed missions. To address this issue, The Aerospace Corporation (hereafter referred to as Aerospace) performed a study to compare the actual costs of the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft bus (instruments were not estimated) using three different cost models; the U.S. Air Force Unmanned Spacecraft Cost Model, Version 7 (USCM-7), the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) NASA/Air Force Cost Model 1996 (NAFCOM96) and The Aerospace Corporation's Small Satellite Cost Model 1998 (SSCM98). The NEAR spacecraft was chosen for comparison because it was the first Discovery mission launched, and recently recognized with a Laurel award by Aviation Week and Space Technology as a benchmark for NASA's Discovery program [North, 1997]. It was also selected because the cost data has been released into the public domain [Hemmings, 1996]which makes it easy to discuss in a public forum. This paper summarizes the NEAR program, provides a short synopsis of each of the three cost models, and demonstrates how they were applied for this study.

  8. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  9. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  10. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  11. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  12. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  13. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  14. 45 CFR 402.12 - Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs Incurred Prior to October 1, 1987.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT ASSISTANCE GRANTS Use of Funds § 402.12 Use of SLIAG Funds for Costs...

  15. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  16. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  17. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  18. 10 CFR 765.30 - Reimbursement of costs incurred in accordance with a plan for subsequent remedial action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Additional Reimbursement... reimbursement ratio established for such site; or (2) For the uranium site licensees only, $6.25, as...

  19. Cost Effectiveness of Personalized Therapy for First-Line Treatment of Stage IV and Recurrent Incurable Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Handorf, Elizabeth A.; McElligott, Sean; Vachani, Anil; Langer, Corey J.; Bristol Demeter, Mirar; Armstrong, Katrina; Asch, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation–positive stage IV adenocarcinoma have improved survival with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments, but the cost effectiveness of personalized first-line therapy using EGFR mutation testing is unknown. Methods: We created a decision analytic model comparing the costs and effects of platinum combination chemotherapy with personalized therapy in which patients with EGFR mutation–positive tumors were treated with erlotinib. We used two testing strategies: testing only those with tissue available and performing a repeat biopsy if tissue was not available versus three nontargeted chemotherapy regimens (ie, carboplatin and paclitaxel; carboplatin and pemetrexed; and carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab). Results: Compared with a carboplatin plus paclitaxel regimen, targeted therapy based on testing available tissue yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $110,644 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), and the rebiopsy strategy yielded an ICER of $122,219 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed substantial uncertainty around these point estimates. With a willingness to pay of $100,000 per QALY, the testing strategy was cost effective 58% of the time, and the rebiopsy strategy was cost effective 54% of the time. Personalized therapy with an EGFR TKI was more favorable when the nontargeted chemotherapy regimen was more expensive. Compared with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab, ICERs were $25,547 per QALY for the testing strategy and $44,036 per QALY for the rebiopsy strategy. Conclusion: Although specific clinical circumstances should guide therapy, our cost-effectiveness analysis supports the strategy of testing for EGFR mutations in patients with stage IV or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the lung, rebiopsying patients if insufficient tissue is available for testing, and treating patients with EGFR mutations with erlotinib as first-line therapy. PMID

  20. Sexually selected UV signals in the tropical ornate jumping spider, Cosmophasis umbratica may incur costs from predation

    PubMed Central

    Bulbert, Matthew W; O'Hanlon, James C; Zappettini, Shane; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin

    2015-01-01

    Sexually selected ornaments and signals are costly to maintain if they are maladaptive in nonreproductive contexts. The jumping spider Cosmophasis umbratica exhibits distinct sexual dichromatism with males displaying elaborate UV body markings that signal male quality. Female C. umbratica respond favorably to UV-reflecting males and ignore males that have their UV masked. However, Portia labiata, a UV-sensitive spider-eating specialist and a natural predator of C. umbratica, is known to use UV reflectance as a cue when hunting prey. We investigated the cost of these UV signals in C. umbratica in terms of their predation risk. Under experimental conditions, three choice scenarios were presented to P. labiata individuals. Choices by P. labiata were made between male C. umbratica with and without the UV signal; a UV-reflecting male and non-UV-reflecting female; and a UV-masked male and female. The presence and absence of UV signals was manipulated using an optical filter. Portia labiata exhibited a strong bias toward UV+ individuals. These results suggest the sexually selected trait of UV reflectance increases the visibility of males to UV-sensitive predators. The extent of this male-specific UV signal then is potentially moderated by predation pressure. Interestingly though, P. labiata still preferred males to females irrespective of whether UV reflectance was present or not. This suggests P. labiata can switch cues when conditions to detect UV reflectance are not optimal. PMID:25750717

  1. Activation of the immune system incurs energetic costs but has no effect on the thermogenic performance of house sparrows during acute cold challenge.

    PubMed

    King, Marisa O; Swanson, David L

    2013-06-01

    Trade-offs between the immune system and other condition-dependent life-history traits (reproduction, predator avoidance and somatic growth) have been well documented in both birds and mammals. However, no studies have examined the impact of immune activation on thermoregulatory performance during acute cold exposure. Because of their high surface-area-to-volume ratios, small birds incur high energetic costs associated with thermoregulation during cold exposure. Consequently, we predicted that the immune system and the thermoregulatory system would compete for energetic resources. To test this, we immunologically challenged adult house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with 5 mg kg(-1) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an acute phase response and measured both resting (RMR; minimum metabolic rate) and summit ( ; maximal metabolic rate during cold exposure) metabolic rates. We found that birds injected with LPS had significantly higher RMR and than birds injected with phosphate-buffered saline, indicating that LPS-treated birds were able to support the cost of both immune activation and thermoregulation under conditions eliciting maximal thermogenic performance. These results suggest that, in the absence of a pathogen, birds that experience short-term activation of the immune system have higher energetic costs during cold exposure, but immune activation does not compromise maximum thermoregulatory performance.

  2. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB 12-001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was mandated by SB537 (Simitian, Chapter 650, Stats. of 2007, codified at Ed. Code Section 47613), which requires the California Research Bureau (CRB) to prepare and submit to the Legislature a report on the key elements and actual costs of charter school oversight. Charter schools are public schools that are operated by entities other…

  3. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  4. 45 CFR 149.335 - Documentation of costs of actual claims involved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation of costs of actual claims involved. 149.335 Section 149.335 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reimbursement...

  5. Urban rail transit projects: Forecast versus actual ridership and costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, D.H.

    1989-10-01

    Substantial errors in forecasting ridership and costs for the ten rail transit projects reviewed in the report put forth the possibility that more accurate forecasts would have led decision-makers to select projects other than those reviewed. The study examines the accuracy of forecasts prepared for ten major capital improvement projects in nine urban areas during 1971-1987. Each project includes construction of a fixed transit guideway: Rapid Rail or Metrorail (Washington DC, Atlanta, Baltimore, Miami); Light Rail Transit (Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Portland, Sacramento); and Downtown Peoplemover (Miami and Detroit). The study examines why actual costs and ridership differed so markedly from their forecast values. It focuses on the accuracy of projections made available to local decision-makers at the time when the choice among alternative projects was actually made. The study compares forecast and actual values for four types of measures: ridership, capital costs and financing, operating and maintenance costs, and cost-effectiveness. The report is organized into 6 chapters, numerous tables, and an appendix that documents the sources of all data appearing in the tables presented in the report.

  6. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Muscular Dystrophy, incurability, eugenics

    PubMed Central

    Rideau, Y; Rideau, F

    2007-01-01

    Summary The medical entity “muscular dystrophy” has been the object of a recent opinion campaign aimed at promoting a law in favour of euthanasia. This disease has become, in the eyes of the public, a media model of a particularly severe and incurable disease. This very widespread statement does not correspond to reality as far as concerns the life of these patients, to the condition that they have benefited from a very useful and fully provided empirical treatment. As already seen, the hope for life has already doubled, without clear limits. The idea of inducing an interruption when at death’s door, as long as a systematic prevention prior to birth, does not conform with the motivated opinion of the majority of patients consulted. On the contrary, the dogma of incurability may lead to dramatic individual consequences which should be stressed, from a medical viewpoint, on account of the unacceptable risks of social injustice or eugenics that this would imply. PMID:17915566

  8. Cure of incurable lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    De Nardo, Gerald L.

    2006-10-01

    The most potent method for augmenting the cytocidal power of monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment is to conjugate radionuclides to the MAb to deliver systemic radiotherapy (radioimmunotherapy; RIT). The antigen, MAb, and its epitope can make a difference in the performance of the drug. Additionally, the radionuclide, radiochemistry, chelator for radiometals and the linker between the MAb and chelator can have a major influence on the performance of drugs (radiopharmaceuticals) for RIT. Smaller radionuclide carriers, such as antibody fragments and mimics, and those used for pretargeting strategies, have been described and evaluated. All of these changes in the drugs and strategies for RIT have documented potential for improved performance and patient outcomes. RIT is a promising new therapy that should be incorporated into the management of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) soon after these patients have proven incurable. Predictable improvements using better drugs, strategies, and combinations with other drugs seem certain to make RIT integral to the management of patients with NHL, and likely lead to cure of currently incurable NHL.

  9. Elderly Taiwanese who spend more on fruits and vegetables and less on animal-derived foods use less medical services and incur lower medical costs.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yuan-Ting C; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Huang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2016-03-14

    A higher intake of fruits and vegetables (F&V) compared with animal-derived foods is associated with lower risks of all-cause-, cancer- and CVD-related mortalities. However, the association between consumption patterns and medical costs remains unclear. The effects of various food group costs on medical service utilisation and costs were investigated. The study cohort was recruited through the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan between 1999 and 2000 and followed-up for 8 years until 2006. It comprised free-living elderly participants who provided a 24-h dietary recall. Daily energy-adjusted food group costs were estimated. Annual medical service utilisation and costs for 1445 participants aged 65-79 years were calculated from the National Health Insurance claim data. Generalised linear models were used to appraise the associations between the food group costs and medical service utilisation and costs. Older adults with the highest F&V cost tertile had significantly fewer hospital days (30%) and total medical costs (19%), whereas those in the highest animal-derived group had a higher number of hospital days (28%) and costs (83%) as well as total medical costs (38%). Participants in the high F&V and low animal-derived cost groups had the shortest annual hospitalisation stays (5·78 d) and lowest costs (NT$38,600) as well as the lowest total medical costs (NT$75,800), a mean annual saving of NT$45 200/person. Older adults who spend more on F&V and less on animal-derived foods have a reduced medical-care system burden. This provides opportunities for nutritionally related healthcare system investment strategies.

  10. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reimbursement. 37.46 Section 37.46... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.46 Cost reimbursement. (a) Each applicant for... actual costs incurred, including, but not limited to, its direct costs and indirect costs as...

  11. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. PMID:27568982

  12. Sensory Load Incurs Conceptual Processing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Corneille, Olivier; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of grounded cognition propose that modal simulations underlie cognitive representation of concepts [Barsalou, L. W. (1999). "Perceptual symbol systems." "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22"(4), 577-660; Barsalou, L. W. (2008). "Grounded cognition." "Annual Review of Psychology, 59", 617-645]. Based on recent evidence of modality-specific…

  13. California Charter Oversight: Key Elements and Actual Costs. CRB Briefly Stated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    The Legislature mandated the California Research Bureau (CRB) explore known best practices for charter school authorizers and survey California authorizers about their practices and costs. Additionally, the Legislature mandated CRB provide an analysis of current reimbursement for charter school oversight and include suggestions for improving…

  14. 20 CFR 641.859 - What other special rules govern the classification of costs as administrative costs or program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), all costs incurred by vendors are program costs. (See 29 CFR 99.210 for a discussion of factors... documented distributions of actual time worked or other equitable cost allocation methods. (d) Specific costs... information systems including the purchase, systems development and operating (e.g., data entry) costs...

  15. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts and... actual costs incurred). See 48 CFR 30.201-1 for CAS applicability to fixed-price with economic...

  16. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts and... actual costs incurred). See 48 CFR 30.201-1 for CAS applicability to fixed-price with economic...

  17. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts and... actual costs incurred). See 48 CFR 30.201-1 for CAS applicability to fixed-price with economic...

  18. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost Accounting Standards... Items 12.214 Cost Accounting Standards. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) do not apply to contracts and... actual costs incurred). See 48 CFR 30.201-1 for CAS applicability to fixed-price with economic...

  19. 48 CFR 12.214 - Cost Accounting Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... actual costs incurred). See 48 CFR 30.201-1 for CAS applicability to fixed-price with economic price... prescribed in 48 CFR 30.201. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost Accounting...

  20. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  1. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  2. 41 CFR 301-70.506 - How do we define actual cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appropriate en route travel time. ... cost and constructive cost when an employee interrupts a travel assignment because of an incapacitating illness or injury? 301-70.506 Section 301-70.506 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  3. 22 CFR 213.12 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... either actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the payment due date established in the initial notice to the debtor. USAID will assess...

  4. 40 CFR 13.11 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... assess interest on all delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the date of the initial notice to the debtor. EPA will...

  5. 22 CFR 213.12 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... either actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the payment due date established in the initial notice to the debtor. USAID will assess...

  6. 40 CFR 13.11 - Interest, penalty and administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actual or average cost incurred, will be charged on all debts except those owed by State and local... assess interest on all delinquent debts unless prohibited by statute, regulation or contract. (1) Interest begins to accrue on all debts from the date of the initial notice to the debtor. EPA will...

  7. Incurred sample reanalysis: a global transformation.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Chidambaram T

    2011-12-01

    Incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) is accepted as both a fundamental concept and an integral part in the conduct of pharmacokinetic, bioequivalence and preclinical safety studies. Reproducibility demonstrated by ISR reinforces confidence that the method is valid and the results dependable. In this article, the history of the uptake of ISR is discussed and the current practices described. The industry is given credit for its awareness of the importance of, and implementation of, ISR practices in bioanalytical laboratories. Finally, in the context of the recent publication of guidelines for ISR by the EMA, implications for globalization and harmonization of regulations pertaining to ISR are described.

  8. Economic Consequences Incurred by Living Kidney Donors: A Canadian Multi-Center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-01-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th–75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th–75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. In a prospective costing study, the authors find that economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors are frequent and nontrivial, and a notable proportion of donors experience significant costs. PMID:24597854

  9. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth, production... merchandise: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the..., supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel; (2) Dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on...

  10. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth, production... merchandise: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the..., supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel; (2) Dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on...

  11. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth, production... merchandise: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the..., supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel; (2) Dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on...

  12. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth, production... merchandise: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the..., supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel; (2) Dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on...

  13. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... costs either directly incurred in, or which can be reasonably allocated to, the growth, production... merchandise: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the..., supervisory, quality control, and similar personnel; (2) Dies, molds, tooling, and depreciation on...

  14. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alhowaish, Abdulkarim K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group) with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380) than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic

  15. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Wholly the growth, product, or manufacture of the beneficiary developing country; or (2) Substantially... the materials to the manufacturer's plant; (iii) The actual cost of waste or spoilage (material list... expenses incurred in the growth, production, manufacture or assembly of the material, including...

  16. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... Institutions” codified at 2 CFR 220. The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined...

  17. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred to implement the software and otherwise make the software ready for use. Costs incurred after...

  18. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred to implement the software and otherwise make the software ready for use. Costs incurred after...

  19. Cost accounting to determine prices: how well do prices reflect costs in the German DRG-system?

    PubMed

    Schreyögg, Jonas; Tiemann, Oliver; Busse, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Germany has recently introduced a system of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) to engender more appropriate resource allocation. The following article describes the German DRG-system and the methodologies used to determine prices. It analyses the extent to which prices, or calculated cost weights, reflect the actual costs incurred by hospitals for their respective services. We reveal that a "compression" of DRG cost weights occurs, and that the data sample used to calculate cost weights is lacking in terms of its representativeness. Although cost data accuracy has improved over the last few years there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed.

  20. Economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors: a Canadian multi-center prospective study.

    PubMed

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-04-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs.

  1. Alzheimer's disease is incurable but preventable.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Jack C

    2010-01-01

    The dramatic rising incidence and costs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) require that research efforts and funding be primarily directed on either finding a cure or applying preventive measures to curb this disorder. A cure for AD appears unlikely when significant cognitive loss has occurred because the neuronal networks that controlled the perturbed cognitive abilities are either dead or irreversibly damaged and replacing them, even if it were technically possible, would not reconstruct the intellectual identity of the host. Prevention of risk factors to sporadic AD is a more realistic stratagem and treatment, when indicated, ideally should begin in cognitively intact individuals as part of a mass screening effort. Prevention of modifiable risk factors to AD is cost-effective because it reduces hospice or hospital stay, repeated doctor visits, and long-term care. Presently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging tests are used with partial success in identifying persons at higher risk of AD but these tests can not pinpoint either a cause or a specific intervention that could attenuate disease progress. We previously proposed that carotid artery ultrasound +echocardiography together with ankle-brachail index (CAUSE+ABI) as mass screening tests in asymptomatic persons could detect not only cardio-cerebrovascular risk factors to AD, but also identify an indicated intervention. CAUSE+ABI are simple to perform, cost-effective, non-invasive, and reasonably accurate for the intended purpose. Additionally, detection of cardio-cerebrovasacular abnormalities long before expression of cognitive deterioration allows higher success rate with earlier treatment. Evidence-based medicine is recommended for optimizing clinical decision-making in evaluating AD risk factors and their treatment. PMID:20182017

  2. Actual and perceived impacts of tobacco regulation on restaurants and firms

    PubMed Central

    Cremieux, P.; Ouellette, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the actual and anticipated costs of a law regulating workplace smoking and smoking in restaurants, taking into consideration observed and anticipated infrastructure costs, lost productivity, increased absenteeism, and loss of clientele.
SETTING AND DESIGN—A survey of 401 Québec restaurants and 600 Québec firms conducted by the Québec Ministry of Health before the enactment of the law was used to derive costs incurred by those who had already complied and anticipated by those that did not.
RESULTS—Direct and indirect costs associated with tobacco regulation at work and in restaurants were minimal. Annualised infrastructure costs amounted to less than 0.0002% of firm revenues and 0.15% of restaurant revenues. Anticipated costs were larger and amounted to 0.0004% of firm revenues and 0.41% of restaurant revenues. Impacts on productivity, absenteeism, and restaurant patronage were widely anticipated but not observed in currently compliant establishments.
CONCLUSION—Firms and restaurants expected high costs to result from strict tobacco regulation because of infrastructure costs, decreased productivity, and decreased patronage. That none of these were actually observed suggests that policy makers should discount industry claims that smoking regulations impose undue economic hardship.


Keywords: regulation; firms; restaurants; costs; survey PMID:11226358

  3. 7 CFR 786.106 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., dairy production losses incurred by producers under this part are determined on the established history... § 786.106(d) will be adjusted to account for pounds of production losses determined by the FSA...

  4. [Optimization of pharmacological therapy for weakness syndrome in incurable patients].

    PubMed

    Ryazankina, A A; Rozengard, S A; Glushchenko, V A; Karitsky, A P; Kvashnin, A V

    2015-01-01

    In this work there is considered the possibility of correction of therapy for weakness syndrome in incurable patients with the use of drugs affecting dopamine and serotonin exchanges. It is showed that the use of 100 mg of ladasten, 16 mg of ondansetron orally per day and 50 mg of agomelatine per night is more effective in therapy for fatigue/weakness syndrome in incurable cancer patients compared to standard therapy. PMID:26087610

  5. Costs of dispersal.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Dries; Van Dyck, Hans; Bullock, James M; Coulon, Aurélie; Delgado, Maria; Gibbs, Melanie; Lehouck, Valerie; Matthysen, Erik; Mustin, Karin; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Stevens, Virginie M; Vandewoestijne, Sofie; Baguette, Michel; Barton, Kamil; Benton, Tim G; Chaput-Bardy, Audrey; Clobert, Jean; Dytham, Calvin; Hovestadt, Thomas; Meier, Christoph M; Palmer, Steve C F; Turlure, Camille; Travis, Justin M J

    2012-05-01

    Dispersal costs can be classified into energetic, time, risk and opportunity costs and may be levied directly or deferred during departure, transfer and settlement. They may equally be incurred during life stages before the actual dispersal event through investments in special morphologies. Because costs will eventually determine the performance of dispersing individuals and the evolution of dispersal, we here provide an extensive review on the different cost types that occur during dispersal in a wide array of organisms, ranging from micro-organisms to plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. In general, costs of transfer have been more widely documented in actively dispersing organisms, in contrast to a greater focus on costs during departure and settlement in plants and animals with a passive transfer phase. Costs related to the development of specific dispersal attributes appear to be much more prominent than previously accepted. Because costs induce trade-offs, they give rise to covariation between dispersal and other life-history traits at different scales of organismal organisation. The consequences of (i) the presence and magnitude of different costs during different phases of the dispersal process, and (ii) their internal organisation through covariation with other life-history traits, are synthesised with respect to potential consequences for species conservation and the need for development of a new generation of spatial simulation models. PMID:21929715

  6. Costly punishment does not always increase cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Bo-Yu; Zhou, Zhen-Xing; He, Qiao-Qiao; Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2009-10-13

    In a pairwise interaction, an individual who uses costly punishment must pay a cost in order that the opponent incurs a cost. It has been argued that individuals will behave more cooperatively if they know that their opponent has the option of using costly punishment. We examined this hypothesis by conducting two repeated two-player Prisoner's Dilemma experiments, that differed in their payoffs associated to cooperation, with university students from Beijing as participants. In these experiments, the level of cooperation either stayed the same or actually decreased when compared with the control experiments in which costly punishment was not an option. We argue that this result is likely due to differences in cultural attitudes to cooperation and punishment based on similar experiments with university students from Boston that found cooperation did increase with costly punishment.

  7. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  9. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  11. 7 CFR 1430.606 - Determination of losses incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hurricane-related disaster. Specifically, dairy production and spoilage losses incurred by producers under... production marketed during the applicable claim period that corresponds with the hurricane-related disaster... that corresponds to the hurricane-related disaster. These adjustments are made to account for...

  12. The application of artificial neural networks in indirect cost estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Estimating of the costs of construction project is one of the most important task in the management of the project. The total costs can be divided into direct costs that are related to executing the works, and indirect costs that accompany delivery. A precise costs estimation is usually a highly labour and time-intensive task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper presents Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to predicting index of indirect cost of construction projects in Poland. A quantitative study was undertaken on the factors conditioning indirect costs of polish construction projects and a determination was made of the actual costs incurred by enterprises during project implementation. As a result of these studies, a data set was assembled covering 72 real-life cases of building projects constructed in Poland.

  13. Making sense of peak load cost allocations

    SciTech Connect

    Power, T.M.

    1995-03-15

    When it comes to cost allocation, common wisdom assigns costs in proportion to class contributions to peak loads, The justification is simple: Since the equipment had to be sized to meet peak day loads, those costs should be allocated on the same basis. Many different peak allocators have been developed on this assumption: single coincident peak contribution, sum of coincident peaks, noncoincident peak, average and excess demand, peak and average demand, base and extra capacity, and so on. Such pure peak-load allocators may not be politically acceptable, but conceptually, at least, they appear to offer the only defensible approach. Nevertheless, where capacity can be added with significant economies of scale, making cost allocations in proportion to peak loads violates well-known relationships between economics and engineering. What is missing is any tracing of the way in which the peak-load design criteria actually influence the cost incurred.

  14. 25 CFR 215.12 - Advertising costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising costs. 215.12 Section 215.12 Indians BUREAU... LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.12 Advertising costs. All advertising costs, publication fees, expenses incurred for abstracts of lease title, and other expenses incurred in connection with the advertising...

  15. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  16. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  17. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  18. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such land is utilized by the facility; and (3) The net present value of the payments due under a long...'s useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; and (2) The current market value of appurtenant... straightline basis over the Project Property's useful life, using a 10-percent salvage value; (2) The...

  19. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... production costs (for assets produced or constructed). (5) Engineering, architectural, and other outside... acquisition cost is under $100,000, it shall be reported as under $100,000. (g) Software acquisition costs include software costs incurred up through acceptance testing and material internal costs incurred...

  20. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... incurred or estimated that are contrary to law, employer-employee agreement, or an established policy of... incurred or estimated that are contrary to law, employer- employee agreement, or an established policy of... costs in final indirect cost rate proposals or the final statement of costs incurred or estimated to...

  1. The Use of Inpatient Palliative Care Services In Patients With Metastatic Incurable Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Carolyn L.; Smith, Thomas J.; Gourin, Christine G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substantial health care resources are used on aggressive end-of-life care, despite an increasing recognition that palliative care improves quality of life and reduces health care costs. We examined the incidence of palliative care encounters in inpatients with incurable head and neck cancer (HNCA) and associations with in-hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, and costs. Methods Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 80,514 HNCA patients with distant metastatic disease in 2001–2010 was analyzed using cross-tabulations and multivariate regressions. Results Palliative care encounters occurred in 4,029 cases (5%) and were significantly associated with age ≥80 years, female sex, self-pay pay or status, and prior radiation. Palliative care was significantly associated with increased in-hospital mortality and reduced hospital-related costs. Conclusions Inpatient palliative care consultation in terminal HNCA is associated with reduced hospital-related costs, but appears to be underutilized and restricted to the elderly, uninsured, and patients with an increased risk of mortality. PMID:25331744

  2. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part...

  3. Analysis of risk factors in human bioequivalence study that incur bioinequivalence of oral drug products.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shinji; Tachiki, Hidehisa

    2009-01-01

    In the study of human bioequivalence (BE), newly developed oral products sometimes fail to prove BE with a reference product due to the high variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters after oral absorption. In this study, risk factors that incur bioinequivalence in BE study were analyzed by applying the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Forty-four generic products were selected from a database of BE studies in the past 10 years at Towa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Osaka, Japan), and 90% confidence interval (CI) of AUC and C(max) in human BE study for all products were converted into coefficient of variation (CV(90)). Then, the required number of subjects to confirm BE was estimated from the 90% CI in human BE study of new products. It was found that both the permeability of drugs to human intestinal membrane (P(eff)) and the dose number calculated from their water solubility did not correlate well to CV(90) and the estimated subject number in human BE study, suggesting the contribution of other factors to cause the variability in oral drug absorption. As the PK parameter of drugs, the value of AUC/dose was calculated and plotted against CV(90) and the estimated subject number by classifying drugs into 4 BCS classes. For drugs in classes 1 and 3, AUC/dose gave a clear criterion to distinguish the drugs with a high risk of bioinequivalence, where drugs with low AUC/dose showed high CV(90) and large number of subjects. It was suggested that the high metabolic clearance (for class 1 drug) and low oral absorption (for class 3 drug) could be significant factors to incur bioinequivalence in human BE study, although for drugs in classes 2 and 4, clear factors were not defined. Consequently, for drugs in BCS classes 1 and 3, risks in human BE study to incur bioinequivalence could be predicted by calculating the AUC/dose. In the case of generic drugs, since the parameter of AUC/dose is available before initiating human BE study, this finding is expected to

  4. Form and Actuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    A basic choice underlies physics. It consists of banishing actual situations from theoretical descriptions, in order to reach a universal formal construct. Actualities are then thought of as mere local appearances of a transcendent reality supposedly described by the formal construct. Despite its impressive success, this method has left major loopholes in the foundations of science. In this paper, I document two of these loopholes. One is the problem of time asymmetry in statistical thermodynamics, and the other is the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. Then, adopting a broader philosophical standpoint, I try to turn the whole picture upside down. Here, full priority is given to actuality (construed as a mode of the immanent reality self-reflectively being itself) over formal constructs. The characteristic aporias of this variety of "Copernican revolution" are discussed.

  5. 42 CFR 417.540 - Enrollment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enrollment costs. 417.540 Section 417.540 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.540 Enrollment costs. (a) Principle. Enrollment costs are... of costs included. Enrollment costs include, but are not limited to, reasonable costs incurred...

  6. 42 CFR 417.540 - Enrollment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment costs. 417.540 Section 417.540 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.540 Enrollment costs. (a) Principle. Enrollment costs are... of costs included. Enrollment costs include, but are not limited to, reasonable costs incurred...

  7. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... coverage, the contractor shall follow the criteria and guidance in 48 CFR 9904.406 for selecting the cost..., if other costs incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, have been included as a...

  8. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  9. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employees incurring no income tax liability. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employees incurring no income tax liability. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employees incurring no income tax liability. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income...

  12. 45 CFR 261.53 - May a State correct the problem before incurring a penalty?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a State correct the problem before incurring a....53 May a State correct the problem before incurring a penalty? (a) Yes. A State may enter into a corrective compliance plan to remedy a problem that caused its failure to meet a participation rate,...

  13. Physician-assisted dying and two senses of an incurable condition.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2016-09-01

    It is commonly accepted that voluntary active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide can be allowed, if at all, only in the cases of patients whose conditions are incurable. Yet, there are different understandings of when a patient's condition is incurable. In this article, I consider two understandings of the notion of an incurable condition that can be found in the recent debate on physician-assisted dying. According to one of them, a condition is incurable when it is known that there is no cure for it. According to the other, a condition is incurable when no cure is known to exist for it. I propose two criteria for assessing the conceptions and maintain that, in light of the criteria, the latter is more plausible than the former. PMID:27178533

  14. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  15. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  16. 28 CFR 100.13 - Directly assignable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.13 Directly assignable costs. (a) A cost is directly assignable to the CALEA compliance effort if it is a plant cost incurred specifically to meet...

  17. 44 CFR 208.37 - Reimbursement for equipment and supply costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN... that duplicate a previous purchase under a Preparedness or Response Cooperative Agreement....

  18. 44 CFR 208.37 - Reimbursement for equipment and supply costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN... that duplicate a previous purchase under a Preparedness or Response Cooperative Agreement....

  19. 44 CFR 208.37 - Reimbursement for equipment and supply costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN... that duplicate a previous purchase under a Preparedness or Response Cooperative Agreement....

  20. 44 CFR 208.37 - Reimbursement for equipment and supply costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN... that duplicate a previous purchase under a Preparedness or Response Cooperative Agreement....

  1. 44 CFR 208.37 - Reimbursement for equipment and supply costs incurred during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN... that duplicate a previous purchase under a Preparedness or Response Cooperative Agreement....

  2. Using State-Wide Multiple Measures for School Leadership and Management: Costs Incurred vs. Benefits Gained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert; Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Hirman, Jennifer; Zeehandelaar, Dara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the utility and value of multiple measures of school performance for school leaders and managers. The research was conducted within the context of the state of California through an investigation of how operators, managers and authorisers of autonomous "charter" (publicly financed but privately operated) schools use…

  3. 50 CFR 80.93 - When may an agency incur costs under a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS...

  4. 50 CFR 80.93 - When may an agency incur costs under a grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS...

  5. Energy and time modelling of kerbside waste collection: Changes incurred when adding source separated food waste.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Burn, Stewart; Crossin, Enda

    2016-10-01

    The collection of source separated kerbside municipal FW (SSFW) is being incentivised in Australia, however such a collection is likely to increase the fuel and time a collection truck fleet requires. Therefore, waste managers need to determine whether the incentives outweigh the cost. With literature scarcely describing the magnitude of increase, and local parameters playing a crucial role in accurately modelling kerbside collection; this paper develops a new general mathematical model that predicts the energy and time requirements of a collection regime whilst incorporating the unique variables of different jurisdictions. The model, Municipal solid waste collect (MSW-Collect), is validated and shown to be more accurate at predicting fuel consumption and trucks required than other common collection models. When predicting changes incurred for five different SSFW collection scenarios, results show that SSFW scenarios require an increase in fuel ranging from 1.38% to 57.59%. There is also a need for additional trucks across most SSFW scenarios tested. All SSFW scenarios are ranked and analysed in regards to fuel consumption; sensitivity analysis is conducted to test key assumptions. PMID:27396681

  6. Energy and time modelling of kerbside waste collection: Changes incurred when adding source separated food waste.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Burn, Stewart; Crossin, Enda

    2016-10-01

    The collection of source separated kerbside municipal FW (SSFW) is being incentivised in Australia, however such a collection is likely to increase the fuel and time a collection truck fleet requires. Therefore, waste managers need to determine whether the incentives outweigh the cost. With literature scarcely describing the magnitude of increase, and local parameters playing a crucial role in accurately modelling kerbside collection; this paper develops a new general mathematical model that predicts the energy and time requirements of a collection regime whilst incorporating the unique variables of different jurisdictions. The model, Municipal solid waste collect (MSW-Collect), is validated and shown to be more accurate at predicting fuel consumption and trucks required than other common collection models. When predicting changes incurred for five different SSFW collection scenarios, results show that SSFW scenarios require an increase in fuel ranging from 1.38% to 57.59%. There is also a need for additional trucks across most SSFW scenarios tested. All SSFW scenarios are ranked and analysed in regards to fuel consumption; sensitivity analysis is conducted to test key assumptions.

  7. 30 CFR 1206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances... costs you incur to process the gas under that contract. Paragraphs (a)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section... includes more than one gas plant product and the processing costs attributable to each product can...

  8. 29 CFR 102.165 - Cost shifting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost shifting. 102.165 Section 102.165 Labor Regulations... by Administrative Offset § 102.165 Cost shifting. Costs incurred by the Agency in connection with... offset. Such costs may include administrative costs and attorneys fees....

  9. 29 CFR 102.171 - Cost shifting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost shifting. 102.171 Section 102.171 Labor Regulations... By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.171 Cost shifting. Costs incurred by the Agency in... amount of the offset. Such costs may include administrative costs and attorneys fees....

  10. 25 CFR 117.26 - Expenses incurred pending qualification of an executor or administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.26 Expenses incurred pending qualification of an executor or... one-half or more Indian blood who did not have a certificate of competency at the time of his...

  11. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of national program for control of blindness in Jorhat district, India

    PubMed Central

    Laskar, Nasrin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the cost of different components of the national program for control of blindness (NPCB) and assess the cost effectiveness of this program. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in Jorhat District of Assam, India from July 2009 to June 2010 for assessing the cost effectiveness of the NPCB. Four broad categories of cost inputs, that is, capital costs, recurrent costs, prime/variable costs, and fixed costs were considered. The cost incurred by the provider was taken as the actual cost of delivery of different component of services to the patients, which was calculated from the costs of labor, material, and capital costs using the time utilization pattern recommended by WHO. Result: The District Blindness Control Society, Jorhat had spent 58.93% of total expense on fixed heads of which 65.86% had been spent for cataract surgery. The medical care cost was found to be Indian rupee (INR) 425 for intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE), INR 675 for extracapsular cataract extraction + intraocular lens (ECCE + IOL) and INR 225 for refractive error correction. The patient-wise provider cost was estimated to be INR 519 for ICCE, INR 769 for ECCE + IOL implantation and INR 319 for spectacle correction of refractive error. Conclusion: National program for control of blindness is a cost effective means of controlling and treating blindness. PMID:26283841

  12. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  13. 34 CFR 674.47 - Costs chargeable to the Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that does not exceed the sum of— (i) Court costs specified in 28 U.S.C. 1920; (ii) Other costs incurred....S.C. 1920. (f) Records. For audit purposes, an institution shall support the amount of...

  14. 2 CFR 200.473 - Transportation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation costs. 200.473 Section 200... Transportation costs. Costs incurred for freight, express, cartage, postage, and other transportation services... identified with the items involved, they may be charged directly as transportation costs or added to the...

  15. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... principles applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 1273.22 Section...

  16. 33 CFR 214.11 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs. 214.11 Section 214.11... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.11 Costs. Costs incurred by the Corps of Engineers in furnishing emergency... by the community generally will not be required. Costs of necessary measures for the...

  17. 33 CFR 214.11 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Costs. 214.11 Section 214.11... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.11 Costs. Costs incurred by the Corps of Engineers in furnishing emergency... by the community generally will not be required. Costs of necessary measures for the...

  18. 23 CFR 140.505 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable costs. 140.505 Section 140.505 Highways... Administrative Settlement Costs-Contract Claims § 140.505 Reimbursable costs. (a) Federal funds may participate in administrative settlement costs which are: (1) Incurred after notice of claim, (2)...

  19. A Year-Round School Cost Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Robert W.

    This study involved the development and use of a cost model to assess the economic consequences of the introduction of a year-round school (YRS) program. The cost model has two components. First, a comprehensive accounting procedure details the costs unique to a year-round calendar and estimates the costs that would have been incurred if the…

  20. Discretionary Income and College Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartle, Terry W.; Wabnick, Richard

    The relationship between college costs and family income is examined, along with the debt burden incurred by students while pursuing a postsecondary education. Attention is directed to an analytical model of discretionary income, the families' current income and college costs and how these have changed over the last decade, and general empirical…

  1. Reimbursing Live Organ Donors for Incurred Non-Medical Expenses: A Global Perspective on Policies and Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sickand, M.; Cuerden, M. S.; Klarenbach, S. W.; Ojo, A. O.; Parikh, C. R.; Boudville, N.; Garg, A. X.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to reimburse living organ donors for the non-medical expenses they incur have been implemented in some jurisdictions and are being considered in others. A global understanding of existing legislation and programs would help decision makers implement and optimize policies and programs. We searched for and collected data from countries that practice living organ donation. We examined legislation and programs that facilitate reimbursement, focusing on policy mechanisms, eligibility criteria, program duration and types of expenses reimbursed. Of 40 countries, reimbursement is expressly legal in 16, unclear in 18, unspecified in 6 and expressly prohibited in 1. Donor reimbursement programs exist in 21 countries; 6 have been enacted in the last 5 years. Lost income is reimbursed in 17 countries, while travel, accommodation, meal and childcare costs are reimbursed in 12 to 19 countries. Ten countries have comprehensive programs, where all major cost categories are reimbursed to some extent. Out-of-country donors are reimbursed in 10 jurisdictions. Reimbursement is conditional on donor income in 7 countries, and recipient income in 2 countries. Many nations have programs that help living donors with their financial costs. These programs differ in operation and scope. Donors in other regions of the world are without support. PMID:19788503

  2. 11 CFR 106.2 - State allocation of expenditures incurred by authorized committees of Presidential primary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receiving or expecting to receive federal matching funds pursuant to 11 CFR parts 9031 et seq. The expenditures described in 11 CFR 106.2(b)(2) shall be allocated to a particular State if incurred by a.... Expenditures required to be allocated to the primary election under 11 CFR 9034.4(e) shall also be allocated...

  3. 26 CFR 1.48-11 - Qualified rehabilitated building; expenditures incurred before January 1, 1982.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treated as new section 38 property and therefore is not subject to the used property limitation. See § 1... air conditioned by means of window air conditioning units. A replaces the window units with a central air conditioning system and no other rehabilitation is performed by A. The expenditures incurred by...

  4. 11 CFR 106.2 - State allocation of expenditures incurred by authorized committees of Presidential primary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... receiving or expecting to receive federal matching funds pursuant to 11 CFR parts 9031 et seq. The expenditures described in 11 CFR 106.2(b)(2) shall be allocated to a particular State if incurred by a.... Expenditures required to be allocated to the primary election under 11 CFR 9034.4(e) shall also be allocated...

  5. 11 CFR 106.2 - State allocation of expenditures incurred by authorized committees of Presidential primary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receiving or expecting to receive federal matching funds pursuant to 11 CFR parts 9031 et seq. The expenditures described in 11 CFR 106.2(b)(2) shall be allocated to a particular State if incurred by a.... Expenditures required to be allocated to the primary election under 11 CFR 9034.4(e) shall also be allocated...

  6. 11 CFR 106.2 - State allocation of expenditures incurred by authorized committees of Presidential primary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... receiving or expecting to receive federal matching funds pursuant to 11 CFR parts 9031 et seq. The expenditures described in 11 CFR 106.2(b)(2) shall be allocated to a particular State if incurred by a.... Expenditures required to be allocated to the primary election under 11 CFR 9034.4(e) shall also be allocated...

  7. 11 CFR 106.2 - State allocation of expenditures incurred by authorized committees of Presidential primary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receiving or expecting to receive federal matching funds pursuant to 11 CFR parts 9031 et seq. The expenditures described in 11 CFR 106.2(b)(2) shall be allocated to a particular State if incurred by a.... Expenditures required to be allocated to the primary election under 11 CFR 9034.4(e) shall also be allocated...

  8. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  9. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  10. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  11. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  12. 27 CFR 478.143 - Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relief from disabilities incurred by indictment. 478.143 Section 478.143 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  13. 76 FR 18517 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey: Expenditures Incurred by Recipients of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey: Expenditures Incurred by Recipients of Biomedical Research and Development Awards From the National Institutes of Health... e-mail at dhynek@doc.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven Payson, Chief of...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....3402(n)-1 Section 31.3402(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income tax... certificate under section 3402(n) and the regulations thereunder has been furnished to the employer. (c)...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3402(n)-1 - Employees incurring no income tax liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3402(n)-1 Section 31.3402(n)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(n)-1 Employees incurring no income tax... certificate under section 3402(n) and the regulations thereunder has been furnished to the employer. (c)...

  16. 42 CFR 413.90 - Research costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research costs. 413.90 Section 413.90 Public Health... Research costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, are... health-related research activities. Funds for this purpose are provided under many Federal programs...

  17. 42 CFR 413.90 - Research costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research costs. 413.90 Section 413.90 Public Health... Research costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, are... health-related research activities. Funds for this purpose are provided under many Federal programs...

  18. 42 CFR 413.90 - Research costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research costs. 413.90 Section 413.90 Public Health... Research costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, are... health-related research activities. Funds for this purpose are provided under many Federal programs...

  19. 42 CFR 413.90 - Research costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research costs. 413.90 Section 413.90 Public Health... Research costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, are... health-related research activities. Funds for this purpose are provided under many Federal programs...

  20. 42 CFR 413.90 - Research costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research costs. 413.90 Section 413.90 Public Health... Research costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, are... health-related research activities. Funds for this purpose are provided under many Federal programs...

  1. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the organization incurring the costs. The following chart lists the kinds of organizations and... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  2. 50 CFR 80.12 - Cost sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 80.12 Section 80.12 Wildlife... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.12 Cost sharing. Federal participation is limited to 75 percent of eligible costs incurred in the completion of approved work or...

  3. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  4. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  5. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  6. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  7. 10 CFR 600.127 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall... incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74... Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) Indirect costs. Unless restricted by...

  8. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Design, process, or method change is a change to a design, process, or method which has established cost... design, process, or method. DOE cost is the Government cost incurred implementing and validating the CRP. Implementation cost is the Contractor cost of tooling, facilities, documentation, etc., required to effect...

  9. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Design, process, or method change is a change to a design, process, or method which has established cost... design, process, or method. DOE cost is the Government cost incurred implementing and validating the CRP. Implementation cost is the Contractor cost of tooling, facilities, documentation, etc., required to effect...

  10. 48 CFR 970.5215-4 - Cost reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Design, process, or method change is a change to a design, process, or method which has established cost... design, process, or method. DOE cost is the Government cost incurred implementing and validating the CRP. Implementation cost is the Contractor cost of tooling, facilities, documentation, etc., required to effect...

  11. 48 CFR 31.205-32 - Precontract costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precontract costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-32 Precontract costs. Precontract costs means costs incurred before the effective date of...

  12. 48 CFR 31.205-32 - Precontract costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precontract costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-32 Precontract costs. Precontract costs means costs incurred before the effective date of...

  13. 2 CFR 200.469 - Student activity costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Student activity costs. 200.469 Section 200... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles General Provisions for Selected Items of Cost § 200.469 Student activity costs. Costs incurred for intramural activities, student publications, student clubs, and...

  14. 40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1... Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include: (a) Costs of salaries, benefits, and expendable material the grantee incurs for the project, except as provided in § 35.940-2(g); (b) Costs under...

  15. 40 CFR 35.940-1 - Allowable project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable project costs. 35.940-1... Allowable project costs. Allowable costs include: (a) Costs of salaries, benefits, and expendable material the grantee incurs for the project, except as provided in § 35.940-2(g); (b) Costs under...

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.521 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.521 Section 301-11.521 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and... income taxes incurred? Yes. A claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  17. 41 CFR 301-11.621 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.621 Section 301-11.621 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and... income taxes incurred? Yes, a claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  18. 41 CFR 301-11.521 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.521 Section 301-11.521 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and... income taxes incurred? Yes. A claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  19. 41 CFR 301-11.521 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.521 Section 301-11.521 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and... income taxes incurred? Yes. A claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.621 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.621 Section 301-11.621 Public Contracts and... TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and... income taxes incurred? Yes, a claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.621 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.621 Section 301-11.621 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and... income taxes incurred? Yes, a claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.521 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.521 Section 301-11.521 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and... income taxes incurred? Yes. A claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.621 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.621 Section 301-11.621 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1995 and... income taxes incurred? Yes, a claim must be submitted in accordance with your agency's policy....

  4. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. (a) Section 221.4(a) and (b), which provides special... that might discourage the exercise of options because of tax complications would conflict with...

  5. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. (a) Section 221.4(a) and (b), which.... Taking a position that might discourage the exercise of options because of tax complications...

  6. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. (a) Section 221.4(a) and (b), which provides special... that might discourage the exercise of options because of tax complications would conflict with...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1229 - Exclusion of payments received as compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... compensation for expenses incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. 416.1229 Section 416.1229... incurred or losses suffered as a result of a crime. (a) In determining the resources of an individual (and spouse, if any), any amount received from a fund established by a State to aid victims of crime...

  12. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  13. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  14. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  15. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a) General rule. (1)(i... any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before the close of the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.278-1 - Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... developing citrus and almond groves. 1.278-1 Section 1.278-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.278-1 Capital expenditures incurred in planting and developing citrus and almond groves. (a..., or development of any citrus or almond grove (or part thereof), and which is incurred before...

  17. Evaluation of different parameters in the extraction of incurred pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish.

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Lehotay, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Sample processing is often ignored during analytical method development and validation, but accurate results for real samples depend on all aspects of the analytical process. Also, validation is often conducted using only spiked samples, but extraction yields may be lower in incurred samples. In this study, different variables in extraction for incurred pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish were investigated. Among 207 analytes screened using low-pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, consisting of 150 pesticides, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 22 other flame retardants (FRs), 35 (16 pesticides, 9 PCBs, 5 PBDEs, and 5 PAHs) were identified for quantification in samples of salmon, croaker, and NIST Standard Reference Material 1947 (Lake Michigan Fish Tissue). Extraction efficiencies using different extraction devices (blending, vortexing, and vibrating) versus time, sample size, and sample/solvent ratio were determined. In comparison to blending results, use of a pulsed-vortexer for 1 min with 1/1 (g/mL) sample/acetonitrile ratio was generally sufficient to extract the incurred contaminants in the homogenized fish tissues. Conversely, extraction with a prototype vibration shaker often took 60 min to achieve 100% extraction efficiency. A main conclusion from this study is that accurate results for real samples can be obtained using batch extraction with a pulsed-vortexer in a simple and efficient method that achieves high sample throughput.

  18. How much does care in palliative care wards cost in Poland?

    PubMed Central

    Pokropska, Wieslawa; Łuczak, Jacek; Kaptacz, Anna; Stachowiak, Andrzej; Hurich, Krystyna; Koszela, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The main task of palliative care units is to provide a dignified life for people with advanced progressive chronic disease through appropriate symptom management, communication between medical specialists and the patient and his family, as well as the coordination of care. Many palliative care units struggle with low incomes from the National Health Fund (NHF), which causes serious economic problems. The aim of the study was to estimate of direct and administrative costs of care and the actual cost per patient per day in selected palliative care units and comparison of the results to the valuation of the NHF. Material and methods The study of the costs of hospitalization of 175 patients was conducted prospectively in five palliative care units (PCUs). The costs directly associated with care were recorded on the specially prepared forms in each unit and also personnel and administrative costs provided by the accounting departments. Results The total costs of analyzed units amounted to 209 002 EUR (898 712 PLN), while the payment for palliative care services from the NHF amounted to 126 010 EUR (541 844 PLN), which accounted for only 60% of the costs incurred by the units. The average cost per person per day of hospitalization, calculated according to the actual duration of hospitalization in the unit, was 83 EUR (357 PLN), and the average payment from the NHF was 52.8 EUR (227 PLN). Underpayment per person per day was approximately 29.2 EUR (125 PLN). Conclusions The study showed a significant difference between the actual cost of palliative care units and the level of refund from the NHF. Based on the analysis of costs, the application has been submitted to the NHF to change the reimbursement amount of palliative care services in 2013. PMID:27186194

  19. The cost of IT security.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Mac

    2015-04-01

    Breaches in data security have become commonplace in health care, making IT security a necessary cost for healthcare organizations. Organizations that do not invest proactively in IT security face a significant risk of incurring much greater costs from incidents involving compromised data security. Direct costs of security breaches include the costs of discovery, response, investigation, and notification and also can include state or federal penalties and costs of compliance with corrective action plans and resolution agreements. Hidden costs can include damage to brand, loss of consumer confidence, reduced HCAHPS scores, and--by extension--reduced value-based purchasing payments.

  20. The Costs of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eustachio, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    This brief statement offers 10 questions for consideration by American Dental Association (ADA) officials and others concerned with the burdensome indebtedness graduates often incur for their dental education. Questions ask for assessments in such areas as school operating costs, tuition, school support, loan forgiveness, and how the ADA can help…

  1. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  2. El Observatorio Gemini - Status actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Se hace una breve descripción de la situación actual del Observatorio Gemini y de las últimas decisiones del Board para incrementar la eficiencia operativa. Se hace también una breve referencia al uso argentino del observatorio.

  3. 45 CFR 1386.25 - Allowable litigation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT PROGRAMS State System for Protection and Advocacy of the Rights... be used to pay the otherwise allowable costs incurred by a Protection and Advocacy System in...

  4. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... associated with semipostal stamps will rest with the Office of Accounting, Finance, Controller. Individual organizational units incurring costs will provide supporting documentation to the Office of Accounting, Finance... Accounting, Finance, Controller, shall, based on judgment and available information, identify the...

  5. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... associated with semipostal stamps will rest with the Office of Accounting, Finance, Controller. Individual organizational units incurring costs will provide supporting documentation to the Office of Accounting, Finance... Accounting, Finance, Controller, shall, based on judgment and available information, identify the...

  6. 39 CFR 551.8 - Cost offset policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... associated with semipostal stamps will rest with the Office of Accounting, Finance, Controller. Individual organizational units incurring costs will provide supporting documentation to the Office of Accounting, Finance... Accounting, Finance, Controller, shall, based on judgment and available information, identify the...

  7. Demand uncertainty and hospital costs: an application to Portuguese public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Alvaro Santos; Cima, Joana Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the effect of demand uncertainty on hospital costs. Since hospital managers want to minimize the probability of not having enough capacity to satisfy demand, and since demand is uncertain, hospitals have to build excess capacity and incur the associated costs. Using panel data comprising information for 43 Portuguese public hospitals for the period 2007-2009, we estimate a translog cost function that relates total variable costs to the usual variables (outputs, the price of inputs, some of the hospitals' organizational characteristics) and an additional term measuring the excess capacity related to the uncertainty of demand. Demand uncertainty is measured as the difference between actual and projected demand for emergency services. Our results indicate that the cost function term associated with the uncertainty of demand is significant, which means that cost functions that do not include this type of term may be misspecified. For most of our sample, hospitals that face higher demand uncertainty have higher excess capacity and higher costs. Furthermore, we identify economies of scale in hospital costs, at least for smaller hospitals, suggesting that a policy of merging smaller hospitals would contribute to reducing hospital costs. PMID:24310509

  8. Demand uncertainty and hospital costs: an application to Portuguese public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Alvaro Santos; Cima, Joana Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the effect of demand uncertainty on hospital costs. Since hospital managers want to minimize the probability of not having enough capacity to satisfy demand, and since demand is uncertain, hospitals have to build excess capacity and incur the associated costs. Using panel data comprising information for 43 Portuguese public hospitals for the period 2007-2009, we estimate a translog cost function that relates total variable costs to the usual variables (outputs, the price of inputs, some of the hospitals' organizational characteristics) and an additional term measuring the excess capacity related to the uncertainty of demand. Demand uncertainty is measured as the difference between actual and projected demand for emergency services. Our results indicate that the cost function term associated with the uncertainty of demand is significant, which means that cost functions that do not include this type of term may be misspecified. For most of our sample, hospitals that face higher demand uncertainty have higher excess capacity and higher costs. Furthermore, we identify economies of scale in hospital costs, at least for smaller hospitals, suggesting that a policy of merging smaller hospitals would contribute to reducing hospital costs.

  9. Estimating development cost for a tailored interactive computer program to enhance colorectal cancer screening compliance.

    PubMed

    Lairson, David R; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bettencourt, Judith L; Vernon, Sally W; Greisinger, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The authors used an actual-work estimate method to estimate the cost of developing a tailored interactive computer education program to improve compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines in a large multi-specialty group medical practice. Resource use was prospectively collected from time logs, administrative records, and a design and computing subcontract. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the overhead cost rate and other parameters. The cost of developing the system was Dollars 328,866. The development cost was Dollars 52.79 per patient when amortized over a 7-year period with a cohort of 1,000 persons. About 20% of the cost was incurred in defining the theoretic framework and supporting literature, constructing the variables and survey, and conducting focus groups. About 41% of the cost was for developing the messages, algorithms, and constructing program elements, and the remaining cost was to create and test the computer education program. About 69% of the cost was attributable to personnel expenses. Development cost is rarely estimated but is important for feasibility studies and ex-ante economic evaluations of alternative interventions. The findings from this study may aid decision makers in planning, assessing, budgeting, and pricing development of tailored interactive computer-based interventions. PMID:16799126

  10. 45 CFR 30.19 - Review of cost effectiveness of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... collection. Periodically, the Secretary will compare costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts of different types and in various dollar ranges will be used to...

  11. 45 CFR 30.19 - Review of cost effectiveness of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... collection. Periodically, the Secretary will compare costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates for debts of different types and in various dollar ranges will be used to...

  12. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities described in subpart k...

  13. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  14. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities described in subpart k...

  15. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities...

  16. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities...

  17. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities...

  18. 75 FR 2543 - Proposed Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs and Certain Other Costs Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs and Certain Other Costs Under..., et seq., notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response... Environmental Protection Agency (the ``Agency'') for past response costs and certain other costs incurred...

  19. 32 CFR 32.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contractors is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... contractor receiving a. cost-type contract under an assistance award, there is a set of Federal principles... principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. (b) Governmental organizations. Allowability...

  20. Costs of Juvenile Violence: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ted; Fisher, Deborah A.; Cohen, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the magnitude of juvenile violence in Pennsylvania in terms of victimization and perpetration. Used archival data on violent crimes in Pennsylvania during 1993 to develop cost estimates reflecting the costs incurred by society for both victims and perpetrators. Overall, violence against children and adolescents proved to be a much…

  1. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resulting from an act of God, an act of war, or negligence of the United States; (iv) The application is for... by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. ... costs, the monetary value of the rights and privileges sought, that portion of the costs incurred...

  2. 33 CFR 214.11 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.11 Costs. Costs incurred by the Corps of Engineers in furnishing emergency supplies of clean drinking water are chargeable to Pub. L. 84-99 funds, 96X3125, Code 910-400 and repayment... of the water supply source are the responsibility of local governments and are not authorized...

  3. 33 CFR 214.11 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.11 Costs. Costs incurred by the Corps of Engineers in furnishing emergency supplies of clean drinking water are chargeable to Pub. L. 84-99 funds, 96X3125, Code 910-400 and repayment... of the water supply source are the responsibility of local governments and are not authorized...

  4. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  5. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL..., Local and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for...

  6. Evaluation of weekly paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cetuximab in head and neck cancer patients with incurable disease.

    PubMed

    Narveson, Lisa; Kathol, Emily; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, David; Grauer, Dennis; Neupane, Prakash

    2016-10-01

    Weekly paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cetuximab (PCC) has been found to be efficacious and well-tolerated in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with good performance status (PS) when used as induction chemotherapy. Use of PCC in incurable SCCHN in patients with poor PS or in a non-induction setting is an area which warrants further evaluation. Current recommendations for incurable disease consist of a platinum-based regimen with fluorouracil and cetuximab. Studied in patients with PS of 0 to 1, the fluorouracil-based regimens were associated with significant toxicities. Therefore, weekly PCC may offer an appealing, less toxic alternative for incurable patients with poor PS. This retrospective analysis evaluated 41 patients with very advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer who had received PCC (paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2), carboplatin AUC 2, and a cetuximab 400 mg/m(2) loading dose, followed by 250 mg/m(2) weekly) for up to 6 cycles between April 2008 and September 2014. Maximal response achieved and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as dose intensity and adverse effects, were evaluated. Of the 41 patients evaluated, baseline PS ranged as follows: PS of 2 (41 %), PS of 1 (54 %), and PS of 0 (5 %). Patients received 2 to 6 cycles, averaging 4 cycles. Thirty-one patients (76 %) required treatment to be held, delayed or dose reduced, most commonly for hematologic toxicities. Grades 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 16 patients (39 %), grades 1/2 neutropenia in 12 patients (29 %), with grades 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 1 patient (2 %), and grades 1/2 thrombocytopenia in 2 patients (4 %). No patients developed febrile neutropenia or required hospitalization due to treatment. Partial radiographic response occurred in 15 patients (37 %), complete radiographic response in 2 patients (5 %), stable disease in 14 patients (34 %), and progression in 8 patients (20 %). PFS ranged from 1.6 to 45 months, with a median duration of 4.6

  7. Evaluation of weekly paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cetuximab in head and neck cancer patients with incurable disease.

    PubMed

    Narveson, Lisa; Kathol, Emily; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, David; Grauer, Dennis; Neupane, Prakash

    2016-10-01

    Weekly paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cetuximab (PCC) has been found to be efficacious and well-tolerated in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with good performance status (PS) when used as induction chemotherapy. Use of PCC in incurable SCCHN in patients with poor PS or in a non-induction setting is an area which warrants further evaluation. Current recommendations for incurable disease consist of a platinum-based regimen with fluorouracil and cetuximab. Studied in patients with PS of 0 to 1, the fluorouracil-based regimens were associated with significant toxicities. Therefore, weekly PCC may offer an appealing, less toxic alternative for incurable patients with poor PS. This retrospective analysis evaluated 41 patients with very advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer who had received PCC (paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2), carboplatin AUC 2, and a cetuximab 400 mg/m(2) loading dose, followed by 250 mg/m(2) weekly) for up to 6 cycles between April 2008 and September 2014. Maximal response achieved and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as dose intensity and adverse effects, were evaluated. Of the 41 patients evaluated, baseline PS ranged as follows: PS of 2 (41 %), PS of 1 (54 %), and PS of 0 (5 %). Patients received 2 to 6 cycles, averaging 4 cycles. Thirty-one patients (76 %) required treatment to be held, delayed or dose reduced, most commonly for hematologic toxicities. Grades 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 16 patients (39 %), grades 1/2 neutropenia in 12 patients (29 %), with grades 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 1 patient (2 %), and grades 1/2 thrombocytopenia in 2 patients (4 %). No patients developed febrile neutropenia or required hospitalization due to treatment. Partial radiographic response occurred in 15 patients (37 %), complete radiographic response in 2 patients (5 %), stable disease in 14 patients (34 %), and progression in 8 patients (20 %). PFS ranged from 1.6 to 45 months, with a median duration of 4.6

  8. [A place for the dying? The house for incurables in the old imperial city of Regensburg].

    PubMed

    Langrieger, Hannes

    2008-01-01

    In 1821, a "House for Incurables" was established on the baths' island of the St.-Catharine's-Hospital in Regensburg. The patient registers and other administrative sources show that many incurables or terminally ill people were hospitalized and medically assisted there until their death. The choice of the persons who were to be admitted generated substantial conflict between representatives of spiritual and medical welfare. The institution was not only a house for the terminally ill. Some very old patients and patients with curable diseases also received care. Inspite of the order to care for patients with love and patience and inspite of precise hospital regulations, rooms, food, nursing and care were of poor quality and, at least occasionally, apart from the idea of care and assistance also the concept of custody seems to have been operating. In the middle of the 19th century, the owner of the building, the council of St.-Catharine's-Hospital, demanded its evacuation. An adequate substitute could neither be built nor found. Finally, it moved into a noble looking baroque suburbian villa, which had been used as a restaurant. The new building left much to be desired. In the end, the institution was changed into an almshouse for the elderly. PMID:19230369

  9. Interlaboratory comparison of methods for the determination of incurred tilmicosin residues in bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan B; O'Rangers, John J; Rowe, W Douglas; Madson, Mark R; Hurlbut, Jeffrey A; Sofos, John N; Fuerst, Brenda; James, Glenda; Griffith, Sydney; Readnour, Robin S

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 2 methods for the determination of tilmicosin residues in bovine liver samples. Three laboratories participated in the comparison of the 2 methods. The first method was described in a New Animal Drug Application (NADA 140-929), and the second was a modification of that method in which hexane was substituted for carbon tetrachloride in one cleanup step. Each of the 3 laboratories analyzed subsamples of 10 bovine livers containing incurred tilmicosin. Residues ranged from 2.3 to 81 ppm tilmicosin in the 10 liver samples with an 11.8% relative standard deviation obtained by using both methods. In addition, fortified-control liver tissue samples were analyzed concurrently with tissues containing incurred residues by using the modified method in one of the laboratories. The fortification levels ranged from 0.3 to 112 ppm, with recoveries ranging from 76 to 92%. The results from the 3 laboratories were comparable, indicating that the modified method was not only as effective as the original NADA method, but also more desirable because of the change to a less hazardous solvent.

  10. Improving health care costing with resource consumption accounting.

    PubMed

    Ozyapici, Hasan; Tanis, Veyis Naci

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between a traditional costing system (TCS) and resource consumption accounting (RCA) based on a case study carried out in a hospital. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive case study was first carried out to identify the current costing system of the case hospital. An exploratory case study was then conducted to reveal how implementing RCA within the case hospital assigns costs differently to gallbladder surgeries than the current costing system (i.e. a TCS). Findings - The study showed that, in contrast to a TCS, RCA considers the unused capacity, which is the difference between the work that can be performed based on current resources and the work that is actually being performed. Therefore, it assigns lower total costs to open and laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries. The study also showed that by separating costs into fixed and variable RCA allows managers to benefit from a pricing strategy based on the difference between the service's selling price and variable costs incurred in providing that service. Research limitations/implications - The limitation of this study is that, because of time constraints, the implementation was performed in the general surgery department only. However, since RCA is an advanced system that has the same application procedures for any department inside in a hospital, managers need only time gaps to implement this system to all parts of the hospital. Practical implications - This study concluded that RCA is better than a TCS for use in health care settings that have high overhead costs because it accurately assigns overhead costs to services by considering unused capacities incurred by a hospital. Consequently, this study provides insight into both measuring and managing unused capacities within the health care sector. This study also concluded that RCA helps health care administrators increase their competitive advantage by allowing them to determine the lowest

  11. Improving health care costing with resource consumption accounting.

    PubMed

    Ozyapici, Hasan; Tanis, Veyis Naci

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between a traditional costing system (TCS) and resource consumption accounting (RCA) based on a case study carried out in a hospital. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive case study was first carried out to identify the current costing system of the case hospital. An exploratory case study was then conducted to reveal how implementing RCA within the case hospital assigns costs differently to gallbladder surgeries than the current costing system (i.e. a TCS). Findings - The study showed that, in contrast to a TCS, RCA considers the unused capacity, which is the difference between the work that can be performed based on current resources and the work that is actually being performed. Therefore, it assigns lower total costs to open and laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries. The study also showed that by separating costs into fixed and variable RCA allows managers to benefit from a pricing strategy based on the difference between the service's selling price and variable costs incurred in providing that service. Research limitations/implications - The limitation of this study is that, because of time constraints, the implementation was performed in the general surgery department only. However, since RCA is an advanced system that has the same application procedures for any department inside in a hospital, managers need only time gaps to implement this system to all parts of the hospital. Practical implications - This study concluded that RCA is better than a TCS for use in health care settings that have high overhead costs because it accurately assigns overhead costs to services by considering unused capacities incurred by a hospital. Consequently, this study provides insight into both measuring and managing unused capacities within the health care sector. This study also concluded that RCA helps health care administrators increase their competitive advantage by allowing them to determine the lowest

  12. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  13. 30 CFR 229.109 - Reimbursement for costs incurred by a State under the delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authority. (a) The Department of the Interior (DOI) shall reimburse the State for 100 percent of the direct... maintain books and records in accordance with the standards established by the DOI and will provide the...

  14. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... otherwise countable under this section used for outpatient observation services, skilled nursing swing-bed... organizations listed in § 415.152 of this chapter. (B) May count towards certification of the participant in a...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 412.105, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  15. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... otherwise countable under this section used for outpatient observation services, skilled nursing swing-bed... count towards certification of the participant in a specialty or subspecialty listed in the current...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 412.105, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  16. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... otherwise countable under this section used for outpatient observation services, skilled nursing swing-bed... organizations listed in § 415.152 of this chapter. (B) May count towards certification of the participant in a...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 412.105, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  17. 50 CFR 80.94 - May an agency incur costs before the beginning of the grant period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT...

  18. 50 CFR 80.94 - May an agency incur costs before the beginning of the grant period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT...

  19. 42 CFR 412.105 - Special treatment: Hospitals that incur indirect costs for graduate medical education programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 412.105, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... upon an accreditation standard that requires an entity to perform an induced abortion or require, provide, or refer for training in the performance of induced abortions, or make arrangements for...

  20. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  1. 26 CFR 1.181-1T - Deduction for qualified film and television production costs (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production cost incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography for the production is incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography that takes place in such areas; or (B) At least 50 percent of the total number of days of first-unit principal photography for the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.181-1 - Deduction for qualified film and television production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production costs paid or incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography for the production are paid or incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography that takes place in such areas; or (B) At least 50 percent of the total number of days of first-unit principal photography for...

  3. 26 CFR 1.181-1 - Deduction for qualified film and television production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... costs paid or incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography for the production are paid or incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography that takes place in such areas; or (B) At least 50 percent of the total number of days of first-unit principal photography for...

  4. 26 CFR 1.181-1 - Deduction for qualified film and television production costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... costs paid or incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography for the production are paid or incurred in connection with first-unit principal photography that takes place in such areas; or (B) At least 50 percent of the total number of days of first-unit principal photography for...

  5. Debris Flow Damage Incurred to Buildings: An In-Situ Back Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Recupero, Antonino; Carozza, Stefano; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2016-04-01

    The flash-flood debris event of the October 1st 2009 in the area of Messina, Sicily, Italy has led to loss of life and significant damage to the constructed environment. Focusing the attention on an eighteenth masonry building (damaged and upgraded after the Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake of 1906) located in the village of Scaletta Zanclea, we have strived to reconstruct analytically the damages incurred to this building due to the debris flow event of 2009. In order to re-construct the damages incurred to the building due to the flash flood/debris flow event, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic force envelopes, calculated via a 2D hydrodynamic finite element model specifically designed for debris flow spatial propagation, have been applied to the building in question (assuming perfect coherence between static and dynamic maxima). The hydrograph for the solid discharge is then estimated by scaling up the liquid volume to the estimated debris volume. The hydrodynamic model used for the debris flow propagation proved to be well suited for these specific applications. The debris flow diffusion is simulated by solving the differential equations for a single-phase 2D flow employing triangular mesh elements, taking into account also the channeling of the flow through the building. The damage to the building is modeled, based on the maximum hydraulic actions caused by the debris flow, using 2D finite shell elements, modeling the boundary conditions provided by the openings, floor slab, orthogonal wall panels and the foundation. The finite element approach showed its capability in describing the complex geometries of the urban environments as the distributed nature of the 2D code allows to derive a reliable spatial distribution of debris flow actions. The reconstruction of the event and the damages to the case-study building confirms the location of the damages induced by the event.

  6. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost (OCT... cost; (ii) Incurred with proper justification and accounting support; (iii) Determined in accordance... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting and...

  7. 31 CFR 101.5 - Payment of smelting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of smelting costs. 101.5 Section 101.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... costs. The petitioner shall be required to pay all reasonable costs incurred in extracting the...

  8. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... and allowability of costs will be determined in accordance with 40 CFR 30.410. (b) Costs incurred...

  9. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... and allowability of costs will be determined in accordance with 40 CFR 30.410. (b) Costs incurred...

  10. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... and allowability of costs will be determined in accordance with 40 CFR 30.410. (b) Costs incurred...

  11. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the benefits accruing to the multiple cost objectives. (6) The base period for allocating allocable... incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances have been included as a direct cost of that, or any... of the benefits accruing to the multiple cost objectives. (ii) Similarly, the particular case...

  12. 48 CFR 31.205-31 - Plant reconversion costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plant reconversion costs. 31.205-31 Section 31.205-31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-31 Plant reconversion costs. Plant reconversion costs are those incurred in restoring...

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-31 - Plant reconversion costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plant reconversion costs. 31.205-31 Section 31.205-31 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Organizations 31.205-31 Plant reconversion costs. Plant reconversion costs are those incurred in restoring...

  14. 2 CFR 200.457 - Plant and security costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant and security costs. 200.457 Section... Cost § 200.457 Plant and security costs. Necessary and reasonable expenses incurred for routine and.... Capital expenditures for plant security purposes are subject to § 200.439 Equipment and other...

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  17. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  18. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  20. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  1. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  2. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  3. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... prototype project and cost-sharing is the reason for using OT authority, then the non-Federal amounts... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the...

  4. 20 CFR 627.445 - Limitations on certain costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... title II-C programs. (3) The title II-B administrative cost limitation of 15 percent shall be 15 percent... (a) and (b) of this section (section 161(b)). (d) Administrative costs incurred by a community-based... shall establish a system to regularly assess compliance with the cost limitations including...

  5. 45 CFR 63.18 - Limitations on costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs. The amount of the award shall be set forth in the grant award document. The total cost to the Government will not exceed the amount set forth in the grant award document or any modification thereof.... The Government shall not be obligated to reimburse the grantee for costs incurred in excess of...

  6. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  7. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  8. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  9. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  10. 48 CFR 52.230-3 - Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose; 48 CFR 9904.405, Accounting for Unallowable Costs; and 48 CFR 9904.406, Cost Accounting Standard-Cost Accounting Period, in effect on the date of... cost accounting practice and the Contracting Officer has made the finding required in 48 CFR......

  11. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  12. Costs of Physician-Hospital Integration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Na-Eun

    2015-10-01

    Given that the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is expected to generate forces toward physician-hospital integration, this study examined an understudied, albeit important, area of costs incurred in physician-hospital integration. Such costs were analyzed through 24 semi-structured interviews with physicians and hospital administrators in a multiple-case, inductive study. Two extreme types of physician-hospital arrangements were examined: an employed model (ie, integrated salary model, a group of physicians integrated by a hospital system) and a private practice (ie, a physician or group of physicians who are independent of economic or policy control). Interviews noted that integration leads to 3 evident costs, namely, monitoring, coordination, and cooperation costs. Improving our understanding of the kinds of costs that are incurred after physician-hospital integration will help hospitals and physicians to avoid common failures after integration. PMID:26496300

  13. Costs of Physician-Hospital Integration

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Na-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is expected to generate forces toward physician-hospital integration, this study examined an understudied, albeit important, area of costs incurred in physician-hospital integration. Such costs were analyzed through 24 semi-structured interviews with physicians and hospital administrators in a multiple-case, inductive study. Two extreme types of physician-hospital arrangements were examined: an employed model (ie, integrated salary model, a group of physicians integrated by a hospital system) and a private practice (ie, a physician or group of physicians who are independent of economic or policy control). Interviews noted that integration leads to 3 evident costs, namely, monitoring, coordination, and cooperation costs. Improving our understanding of the kinds of costs that are incurred after physician-hospital integration will help hospitals and physicians to avoid common failures after integration. PMID:26496300

  14. Books or Guards? Charter School Security Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Karen J.; Brent, Brian O.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the costs charter schools incur to foster security--a vexing phenomenon when one considers policymakers' and parents' seemingly high and growing want for school safety. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics and Texas, we reveal how much charter schools spend on security, how they put these resources to…

  15. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  16. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  17. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  18. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  19. 10 CFR 765.11 - Reimbursable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING... uranium processing site licensees shall not exceed $6.25, as adjusted for inflation, multiplied by the... remedial action incurred at all active uranium processing sites shall not exceed $350 million....

  20. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable... for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit... organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A-122 is determined...

  1. Estimating the costs of landslide damage in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Robert W.; Taylor, Fred A.

    1980-01-01

    Landslide damages are one of the most costly natural disasters in the United States. A recent estimate of the total annual cost of landslide damage is in excess of $1 billion {Schuster, 1978}. The damages can be significantly reduced, however, through the combined action of technical experts, government, and the public. Before they can be expected to take action, local governments need to have an appreciation of costs of damage in their areas of responsibility and of the reductions in losses that can be achieved. Where studies of cost of landslide damages have been conducted, it is apparent that {1} costs to the public and private sectors of our economy due to landslide damage are much larger than anticipated; {2} taxpayers and public officials generally are unaware of the magnitude of the cost, owing perhaps to the lack of any centralization of data; and {3} incomplete records and unavailability of records result in lower reported costs than actually were incurred. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to estimate the cost of landslide damages in regional and local areas and has applied the method in three urban areas and one rural area. Costs are for different periods and are unadjusted for inflation; therefore, strict comparisons of data from different years should be avoided. Estimates of the average annual cost of landslide damage for the urban areas studied are $5,900,000 in the San Francisco Bay area; $4,000,000 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5,170,000 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Adjusting these figures for the population of each area, the annual cost of damages per capita are $1.30 in the nine-county San Francisco Bay region; $2.50 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5.80 in Hamilton County, Ohio. On the basis of data from other sources, the estimated annual damages on a per capita basis for the City of Los Angeles, Calif., are about $1.60. If the costs were available for the damages from landslides in Los Angeles in 1977-78 and 1979-80, the annual per

  2. Cost model for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections.

  3. Cost model for biobanks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, M Beatriz; Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Morente, Manuel M; Fernández Lago, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Current economic conditions and budget constraints in publicly funded biomedical research have brought about a renewed interest in analyzing the cost and economic viability of research infrastructures. However, there are no proposals for specific cost accounting models for these types of organizations in the international scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to present the basis of a cost analysis model useful for any biobank regardless of the human biological samples that it stores for biomedical research. The development of a unique cost model for biobanks can be a complicated task due to the diversity of the biological samples they store. Different types of samples (DNA, tumor tissues, blood, serum, etc.) require different production processes. Nonetheless, the common basic steps of the production process can be identified. Thus, the costs incurred in each step can be analyzed in detail to provide cost information. Six stages and four cost objects were obtained by taking the production processes of biobanks belonging to the Spanish National Biobank Network as a starting point. Templates and examples are provided to help managers to identify and classify the costs involved in their own biobanks to implement the model. The application of this methodology will provide accurate information on cost objects, along with useful information to give an economic value to the stored samples, to analyze the efficiency of the production process and to evaluate the viability of some sample collections. PMID:24835258

  4. 41 CFR 301-2.3 - What standard of care must I use in incurring travel expenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standard of care must I use in incurring travel expenses? 301-2.3 Section 301-2.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION...

  5. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.123 Combined credit for exercising employee...

  6. 12 CFR 221.123 - Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and paying income taxes incurred as a result of such exercise. 221.123 Section 221.123 Banks and... (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.123 Combined credit for exercising employee stock options and...

  7. 41 CFR 301-11.521 - Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reimbursed for the additional income taxes incurred? 301-11.521 Section 301-11.521 Public Contracts and... TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement Allowance (ITRA), Tax Years 1993 and 1994 Employee Responsibilities § 301-11.521 Must I file a claim to be reimbursed for the additional income...

  8. 26 CFR 1.934-1 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limitation on reduction in income tax liability..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.934-1 Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin...

  9. 26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. 1.263A-5 Section 1.263A-5 Internal... certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

  10. 26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. 1.263A-5 Section 1.263A-5 Internal...-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

  11. 26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. 1.263A-5 Section 1.263A-5 Internal... certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

  12. 26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. 1.263A-5 Section 1.263A-5 Internal... certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

  13. 26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. 1.263A-5 Section 1.263A-5 Internal... certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

  14. 26 CFR 1.615-2 - Deduction of pre-1970 exploration expenditures in the year paid or incurred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deduction of pre-1970 exploration expenditures in the year paid or incurred. 1.615-2 Section 1.615-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-2 Deduction of pre-1970...

  15. 75 FR 17139 - Proposed CERCLA Section 122(h) Cost Recovery Settlement for the Kentucky Avenue Wellfield...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... York. The Settling Party agrees to pay EPA $82,000 in reimbursement of certain response costs related to the performance of the work incurred by EPA at the Site. The settlement includes a covenant by...

  16. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  17. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  18. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  19. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  20. 40 CFR 310.16 - What kind of cost documentation is necessary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS REIMBURSEMENT TO LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR...; (b) Specify the local agency that incurred the cost, (such as, the Town Fire Department, the...

  1. Mechanical Characterization of Thermomechanical Matrix Residual Stresses Incurred During MMC Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, much effort has been spent examining the residual stress-strain states of advanced composites. Such examinations are motivated by a number of significant concerns that affect composite development, processing, and analysis. The room-temperature residual stress states incurred in many advanced composite systems are often quite large and can introduce damage even prior to the first external mechanical loading of the material. These stresses, which are induced during the cooldown following high-temperature consolidation, result from the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the fiber and matrix. Experimental techniques commonly used to evaluate composite internal residual stress states are non-mechanical in nature and generally include forms of x-ray and neutron diffraction. Such approaches are usually complex, involving a number of assumptions and limitations associated with a wide range of issues, including the depth of penetration, the volume of material being assessed, and erroneous effects associated with oriented grains. Furthermore, and more important to the present research, these techniques can assess only "single time" stress in the composite. That is, little, if any, information is obtained that addresses the time-dependent point at which internal stresses begin to accumulate, the manner in which the accumulation occurs, and the presiding relationships between thermoelastic, thermoplastic, and thermoviscous behaviors. To address these critical issues, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center developed and implemented an innovative mechanical test technique to examine in real time, the time-dependent thermomechanical stress behavior of a matrix alloy as it went through a consolidation cycle.

  2. 34 CFR 675.25 - Earnings applied to cost of attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a FWS job to be applied to a student's cost of attendance (attributed earnings) by subtracting taxes and job related costs from the student's gross earnings. (2) Job related costs are costs the student... incurred except for the FWS employment. (b) If a student is employed under FWS during a vacation or...

  3. 42 CFR 413.186 - Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in pediatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413... pediatric ESRD facility must establish that it incurs per treatment costs for furnishing self-dialysis and... the pediatric ESRD facility's total costs, cost finding and apportionment, including its allocation...

  4. 42 CFR 413.186 - Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in pediatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413... pediatric ESRD facility must establish that it incurs per treatment costs for furnishing self-dialysis and... the pediatric ESRD facility's total costs, cost finding and apportionment, including its allocation...

  5. 42 CFR 413.186 - Payment exception: Self-dialysis training costs in pediatric facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413... pediatric ESRD facility must establish that it incurs per treatment costs for furnishing self-dialysis and... the pediatric ESRD facility's total costs, cost finding and apportionment, including its allocation...

  6. 13 CFR 120.882 - Eligible Project costs for 504 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible Project costs for 504... Eligible Project costs for 504 loans. Eligible Project costs which may be paid with the proceeds of 504 loans are: (a) Costs directly attributable to the Project including expenditures incurred by...

  7. Estimates of the total benefits and total costs associated with implementation of the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Interim report, 1985-1989 (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, E.L.; Schnare, D.W.; McFarland, J.P.; Cromwell, J.E.

    1990-03-15

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require EPA to develop regulations for 83 specific contaminants as well as regulations specifying filtration and disinfection treatment requirements. All of the regulations will be promulgated by the early 1990's. Under Executive order 12291, EPA is required to perform a Regulatory Impact Analysis of all proposed regulations. The results of the individual analyses of each major rule package have been summed to provide a perspective on the cumulative cost impacts of the entire SDWA program. In addition, projections of where actual cost impacts will be incurred have been developed for each rule package, permitting an aggregate projection of SDWA compliance expenditures through the year 2010. The EPA intends to update the analysis on an annual basis to incorporate revised impact results for regulations that had not been promulgated at the time the interim final report was completed.

  8. How to avoid the high costs of physician turnover.

    PubMed

    Berger, J E; Boyle, R L

    1992-01-01

    Physician recruitment is a complex, time consuming and competitive activity that is costly in terms of incurred expenses, administrative and physician time and lost revenue. Judith Berger and Robert Boyle, FACMGA, describe how to develop a well-designed retention and recruitment plan to avoid such costs.

  9. 14 CFR 1274.204 - Costs and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... benchmarks. The milestone must represent the accomplishment of verifiable, significant event(s) and may not... agreements awarded to commercial firms are subject to the cost accounting standards and principles of 48 CFR... costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.204 - Costs and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... benchmarks. The milestone must represent the accomplishment of verifiable, significant event(s) and may not... agreements awarded to commercial firms are subject to the cost accounting standards and principles of 48 CFR... costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR...

  11. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... beginning of the program, to take account of the great differences in the present state of development of... appropriate part of the net cost of approved educational activities will be included. (2) Costs incurred for research purposes, over and above usual patient care, will not be included. (3) (4) The value of...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.204 - Costs and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... agreements awarded to commercial firms are subject to the cost accounting standards and principles of 48 CFR... costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part... variety of factors. For example, while the future profitability of intellectual property may serve as...

  13. 40 CFR 300.160 - Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Documentation and cost recovery. 300.160 Section 300.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... response action taken, accurate accounting of federal, state, or private party costs incurred for...

  14. 44 CFR 80.9 - Eligible and ineligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROPERTY ACQUISITION AND RELOCATION FOR OPEN SPACE Requirements Prior to Award § 80.9 Eligible and ineligible costs. (a... be incurred during the open application period of the respective grant program. Costs associated...

  15. 44 CFR 80.9 - Eligible and ineligible costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROPERTY ACQUISITION AND RELOCATION FOR OPEN SPACE Requirements Prior to Award § 80.9 Eligible and ineligible costs. (a... be incurred during the open application period of the respective grant program. Costs associated...

  16. 14 CFR 156.5 - Project cost allowability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project cost allowability. 156.5 Section 156.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... grant funds for reimbursement or funding of administrative costs incurred by the State pursuant to...

  17. 14 CFR 156.5 - Project cost allowability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project cost allowability. 156.5 Section 156.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... grant funds for reimbursement or funding of administrative costs incurred by the State pursuant to...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.204 - Costs and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agreements awarded to commercial firms are subject to the cost accounting standards and principles of 48 CFR... costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part... of such items as patent rights, data rights, trade secrets, etc., included in intellectual...

  19. Fisheries out of balance. [Fish mitigation costs for hydropower projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.; Mohsberg, J. )

    1992-03-01

    This article examines the costs being incurred by hydroelectric power projects for the protection of affected fisheries. The author feels these costs are far out of proportion with the revenues from power sales. The topics discussed in the article include salmon recovery, a growing burden, instream flow, fish passage and screening, the need for power, and fisheries agencies' control.

  20. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  1. 45 CFR 2528.70 - What steps are necessary to use an education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What steps are necessary to use an education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved program? 2528.70 Section 2528.70 Public... incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved program? (a) Required Information. Before disbursing...

  2. 20 CFR 10.913 - In what situations will OWCP consider that an employee incurred injury in connection with his or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... employee incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency... incurred injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation?...

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include any allowance for any increased cost for which adjustment is being requested. (c) The Contracting... be limited to increases or decreases in wages and fringe benefits as described in paragraph (c) of... DBA craft New WD Hourly rate paid Diff. Actual hrs. Actual units (sq. yard) Increase/sq. yard...

  4. The costs of traumatic brain injury due to motorcycle accidents in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Hanh TM; Pham, Tran L; Vo, Thuy TN; Nguyen, Phuong K; Doran, Christopher M; Hill, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    Background Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries in Vietnam. The purpose of this study is to estimate the costs, in the first year post-injury, of non-fatal traumatic brain injury (TBI) in motorcycle users not wearing helmets in Hanoi, Vietnam. The costs are calculated from the perspective of the injured patients and their families, and include quantification of direct, indirect and intangible costs, using years lost due to disability as a proxy. Methods The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data on treatment and rehabilitation costs, employment and support were obtained from patients and their families using a structured questionnaire and The European Quality of Life instrument (EQ6D). Results Thirty-five patients and their families were interviewed. On average, patients with severe, moderate and minor TBI incurred direct costs at USD 2,365, USD 1,390 and USD 849, with time lost for normal activities averaging 54 weeks, 26 weeks and 17 weeks and years lived with disability (YLD) of 0.46, 0.25 and 0.15 year, respectively. Conclusion All three component costs of TBI were high; the direct cost accounted for the largest proportion, with costs rising with the severity of TBI. The results suggest that the burden of TBI can be catastrophic for families because of high direct costs, significant time off work for patients and caregivers, and impact on health-related quality of life. Further research is warranted to explore the actual social and economic benefits of mandatory helmet use. PMID:18718026

  5. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example.

  6. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Sam; Wells, Jessie A; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J M; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Madden, Eve McDonald

    2014-06-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  7. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Samuel; Wells, Jessie A.; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J. M.; Runge, Michael C.; Possingham, Hugh P.; McDonald Madden, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders.

  8. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Charles Mack

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  9. General methodology: Costing, budgeting, and techniques for benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stretchberry, D. M.; Hein, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    The general concepts of costing, budgeting, and benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis are discussed. The three common methods of costing are presented. Budgeting distributions are discussed. The use of discounting procedures is outlined. The benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis is defined and their current application to NASA planning is pointed out. Specific practices and techniques are discussed, and actual costing and budgeting procedures are outlined. The recommended method of calculating benefit-cost ratios is described. A standardized method of cost-effectiveness analysis and long-range planning are also discussed.

  10. The costs of asthma.

    PubMed

    Barnes, P J; Jonsson, B; Klim, J B

    1996-04-01

    At present, asthma represents a substantial burden on health care resources in all countries so far studied. The costs of asthma are largely due to uncontrolled disease, and are likely to rise as its prevalence and severity increase. Costs could be significantly reduced if disease control is improved. A large proportion of the total cost of illness is derived from treating the consequences of poor asthma control-direct costs, such as emergency room use and hospitalizations. Indirect costs, which include time off work or school and early retirement, are incurred when the disease is not fully controlled and becomes severe enough to have an effect on daily life. In addition, quality of life assessments show that asthma has a significant socioeconomic impact, not only on the patients themselves, but on the whole family. Underuse of prescribed therapy, which includes poor compliance, significantly contributes towards the poor control of asthma. The consequences of poor compliance in asthma include increased morbidity and sometimes mortality, and increased health care expenditure. To improve asthma management, international guidelines have been introduced which recommend an increase in the use of prophylactic therapy. The resulting improvements in the control of asthma will reduce the number of hospitalizations associated with asthma, and may ultimately produce a shift within direct costs, with subsequent reductions in indirect costs. In addition, costs may be reduced by improving therapeutic interventions and through effective patient education programmes. This paper reviews current literature on the costs of asthma to assess how effectively money is spent and, by estimating the proportion of the cost attributable to uncontrolled disease, will identify where financial savings might be made. PMID:8726924

  11. Coal supply and cost under technological and environmental uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Melissa

    environmental regulation scenarios are estimated. The results show that the cost of meeting these regulatory scenarios could increase mining costs two to six times the business as usual cost, which could significantly affect the cost of coal-powered electricity generation. This thesis provides a first estimate of resource availability, mining cost, and environmental impact assessment and cost analysis. Available resource is not completely reported, so the available estimate is lower than actual resource. Mining costs are optimized, so provide a low estimate of potential costs. Environmental impact estimates are on the high end of potential impact that may be incurred because it is assumed that impact is unavoidable. Control costs vary. Estimated cost to control subsidence and surface mine pit impacts are suitable estimates of the cost to reduce land impacts. Erosion control and robotic mining system costs are lower, and methane and acid mine drainage control costs are higher, than they may be in the case that these impacts must be reduced.

  12. The cost effectiveness of a nurse-led shared-care prostate assessment clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, P.; Drudge-Coates, L.; Smith, K.; Booth, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nurse-led prostate clinics (NPCs) have proved to be a highly effective method of assessing patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and most urology units now run such clinics. However, it was not known whether they are cost-effective and this analysis ansWers that question. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During one year, a trained urology nurse assessed 1,080 patients in our NPC following GP referral using a standard pro forma. Costs included those incurred for the salary of a grade D nurse at 30 min per patient, all investigations, indirect charges and overheads. This was compared to the cost of seeing all patients in clinic directly, either by a consultant, staff grade urologist or registrar. Of these 1,080 patients, 350 were sent back to their GPs after NPC assessment. RESULTS: The NPC cost of 44.25 pounds per patient compared favourably with an average medical out-patient clinic cost of 50.46 pounds per patient, yielding an actual annual saving of 6,706.80 pounds. Since a third of the patients assessed in the NPC were sent directly back to primary care, saving the cost of a medical follow-up appointment, the true savings in secondary care were 17,661.00 pounds (50.46 x 350pounds), giving a total annual saving of 24,367.80 pounds. CONCLUSIONS: A nurse-led shared-care prostate clinic is a cost effective, thorough and speedy method of assessing men presenting with suspected bladder outflow obstruction. The approach used has a wider generic, cost-benefit potential for the NHS. PMID:12398125

  13. 75 FR 8701 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Colorado Bumper Exchange Site, Pueblo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Colorado Bumper Exchange Site, Pueblo... United States has at this Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the Settlement...,000.00 to EPA in settlement of its liability for Past Response Costs incurred at the Site. In...

  14. 76 FR 32202 - Proposed Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Under the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Under the Comprehensive... settlement for recovery of past response costs at the Agawam Sportsman's Club Superfund Site, in Agawam... Protection Agency (the ``Agency'') for past response costs incurred at the Site. ASC would be required...

  15. 42 CFR 412.71 - Determination of base-year inpatient operating costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....130 of this chapter. (3) Kidney acquisition costs incurred by hospitals approved as renal transplantation centers as described in § 412.100. Kidney acquisition costs in the base year will be determined by multiplying the hospital's average kidney acquisition cost per kidney times the number of kidney...

  16. 42 CFR 412.71 - Determination of base-year inpatient operating costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....130 of this chapter. (3) Kidney acquisition costs incurred by hospitals approved as renal transplantation centers as described in § 412.100. Kidney acquisition costs in the base year will be determined by multiplying the hospital's average kidney acquisition cost per kidney times the number of kidney...

  17. Costing and Data Management. Development of a Simplified System for Smaller Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Michael D.

    1976-01-01

    A participatory process by which a useful costing and data management system was developed at Chapman College is described. The system summarizes information on instructional workloads, class sizes, and the costs per student credit hour for academic programs. Costs incurred in other areas to support each program are included. (Editor/LBH)

  18. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  19. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  20. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  1. 42 CFR 417.588 - Computation of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of adjusted average per capita cost... of adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC). (a) Basic data. In computing the AAPCC, CMS uses the U.S. per capita incurred cost and adjusts it by the factors specified in paragraph (c) of this section...

  2. What does it cost the patient to see the doctor?

    PubMed Central

    Kernick, D P; Reinhold, D M; Netten, A

    2000-01-01

    Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, there will be an emphasis on undertaking studies that relate benefits of an intervention to the costs that are incurred in their production. Patient costs are an important, but often overlooked, part of an economic exercise and include transport costs, loss of employment, and loss of leisure time. This paper highlights the theoretical difficulties inherent in deriving patient costs and suggests a pragmatic framework to derive unit costs in these areas. We demonstrate that these costs are not inconsiderable when compared with the cost of a general practitioner consultation. PMID:10897541

  3. Recommendations to mitigate against human health risks incurred due to energetic particle irradiation beyond low earth orbit/BLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Bhardwaj, Anil; Ferrari, Franco; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Lal, Ajay K.; Li, Yinghui; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Nymmik, Rikho; Panasyuk, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Reitz, Günther; Pinsky, Lawrence; Shukor, Muszaphar (Sheikh); Singhvi, Ashok K.; Straube, Ulrich; Tomi, Leena; Lawrence, Townsend

    2015-04-01

    An account is provided of the main sources of energetic particle radiation in interplanetary space (Galactic Cosmic Radiation and Solar Energetic Particles) and career dose limits presently utilized by NASA to mitigate against the cancer and non-cancer effects potentially incurred by astronauts due to irradiation by these components are presented. Certain gaps in knowledge that presently militate against mounting viable human exploration in deep space due to the inherent health risks are identified and recommendations made as to how these gaps might be closed within a framework of global international cooperation.

  4. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  5. 26 CFR 1.217-1 - Deduction for moving expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... which moving expenses are incurred must bear a reasonable proximity both in time and place to such... absence from work, such as those due to illness, strikes, shutouts, layoffs, natural disasters, etc....

  6. Reward from punishment does not emerge at all costs.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Jeromos; Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The conundrum of cooperation has received increasing attention during the last decade. In this quest, the role of altruistic punishment has been identified as a mechanism promoting cooperation. Here we investigate the role of altruistic punishment on the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in structured populations exhibiting connectivity patterns recently identified as key elements of social networks. We do so in the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory, employing the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Stag-Hunt metaphors to model the conflict between individual and collective interests regarding cooperation. We find that the impact of altruistic punishment strongly depends on the ratio q/p between the cost of punishing a defecting partner (q) and the actual punishment incurred by the partner (p). We show that whenever q/p<1, altruistic punishment turns out to be detrimental for cooperation for a wide range of payoff parameters, when compared to the scenario without punishment. The results imply that while locally, the introduction of peer punishment may seem to reduce the chances of free-riding, realistic population structure may drive the population towards the opposite scenario. Hence, structured populations effectively reduce the expected beneficial contribution of punishment to the emergence of cooperation which, if not carefully dosed, may in fact hinder the chances of widespread cooperation.

  7. Reward from punishment does not emerge at all costs.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Jeromos; Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The conundrum of cooperation has received increasing attention during the last decade. In this quest, the role of altruistic punishment has been identified as a mechanism promoting cooperation. Here we investigate the role of altruistic punishment on the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in structured populations exhibiting connectivity patterns recently identified as key elements of social networks. We do so in the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory, employing the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Stag-Hunt metaphors to model the conflict between individual and collective interests regarding cooperation. We find that the impact of altruistic punishment strongly depends on the ratio q/p between the cost of punishing a defecting partner (q) and the actual punishment incurred by the partner (p). We show that whenever q/p<1, altruistic punishment turns out to be detrimental for cooperation for a wide range of payoff parameters, when compared to the scenario without punishment. The results imply that while locally, the introduction of peer punishment may seem to reduce the chances of free-riding, realistic population structure may drive the population towards the opposite scenario. Hence, structured populations effectively reduce the expected beneficial contribution of punishment to the emergence of cooperation which, if not carefully dosed, may in fact hinder the chances of widespread cooperation. PMID:23341764

  8. Resource allocation in a patient population exhibiting bimodal and logarithmic cost behavior.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    Budgeting and forecasting is a part of the resource allocation process. Statistical models used in these processes often use data based on unimodal or normal probability distributions using mean values for analysis. However, health care data are frequently skewed and stratified, demanding careful analyses. In this study, financial data was examined over a 10-month period at an overseas federal health care facility in a patient population of 70 with a primary diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder without a concurrent concussive injury. There were 823 direct provider contacts incurring a total cost of $286,917 that included allocated fixed overhead. The data were stratified and highly variable as two distinct groups based on chronicity. Group A (acute) consisted of 62 cases costing $117,612. Group B (chronic) consisted of 8 cases costing $169,755. This data, presented in descending order, fit a logarithmic equation with an r value of 0.95. Using this equation, a decreasing linear budget model is developed that represents an alternative nonparametric approach to allocate resources for this population. The model predicted an expenditure of $284,880, within 0.70% of the amount actually spent, and addresses the subcomponent simplification issue raised by a 2008 Rand study and mitigates problems associated with data stratification or transformations. PMID:22338354

  9. Resource allocation in a patient population exhibiting bimodal and logarithmic cost behavior.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    Budgeting and forecasting is a part of the resource allocation process. Statistical models used in these processes often use data based on unimodal or normal probability distributions using mean values for analysis. However, health care data are frequently skewed and stratified, demanding careful analyses. In this study, financial data was examined over a 10-month period at an overseas federal health care facility in a patient population of 70 with a primary diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder without a concurrent concussive injury. There were 823 direct provider contacts incurring a total cost of $286,917 that included allocated fixed overhead. The data were stratified and highly variable as two distinct groups based on chronicity. Group A (acute) consisted of 62 cases costing $117,612. Group B (chronic) consisted of 8 cases costing $169,755. This data, presented in descending order, fit a logarithmic equation with an r value of 0.95. Using this equation, a decreasing linear budget model is developed that represents an alternative nonparametric approach to allocate resources for this population. The model predicted an expenditure of $284,880, within 0.70% of the amount actually spent, and addresses the subcomponent simplification issue raised by a 2008 Rand study and mitigates problems associated with data stratification or transformations.

  10. Audit of Department of Energy`s contractor liability insurance costs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-13

    Fifty-four of DOE`s major contractors reported expending $44.3 million in liability insurance costs for the last 3 years of operation. Purpose of this audit was to evaluate how DOE implemented its policy to assume the risk of losses for its contractors rather than to insure them commercially. Contractors are required to use self-insurance if combined annual premiums for commercial insurance exceed $10,000. Review of 18 major contractors showed that DOE was not consistently following its policy and that contractors using commercial insurance incurred higher costs. Required approvals were not always obtained prior to purchasing certain other types of liability insurance. It is recommended that DOE`s policies requiring self-insurance be fully implemented; that requests for approval for commercial insurance when annual premiums exceeded $10,000 be fully justified; and that the commercial insurance policies specifically define the liability coverage prior to approval and payment. It is also recommended that the contracts include clauses limiting reimbursements for insurance expenditures to actual losses and administrative costs.

  11. Costs of Development and Maintenance of an Internet Program for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Liberti, Lauren; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have difficulty completing self-management tasks within the context of their social environments. Group-based approaches to psycho-educational support have been shown to prevent declines in glucose control, but are challenging to implement due to youths’ many activities and costs. A novel solution is providing psycho-educational support via the internet. The purpose of this study is to describe the cost of developing and maintaining two internet psycho-educational programs, both of which have been shown to improve health outcomes in adolescents with T1D. We calculated actual costs of personnel and programming in the development of TEENCOPE™ and Managing Diabetes, two highly interactive programs that were evaluated in a multi-site clinical trial (n=320). Cost calculations were set at U.S. dollars and converted to value for 2013 as expenses were incurred over 6 years. Development costs over 1.5 years totaled $324,609, with the majority of costs being for personnel to develop and write content in a creative and engaging format, to get feedback from teens on content and a prototype, and IT programming. Maintenance of the program, including IT support, a part-time moderator to assure safety of the discussion board (0.5–1 hour/week), and yearly update of content was $43,845/year, or $137.00 per youth over 4.5 years. Overall, program and site development were relatively expensive, but the program reach was high, including non-white youth from 4 geographically distinct regions. Once developed, maintenance was minimal. With greater dissemination, cost-per-youth would decrease markedly, beginning to offset the high development expense. PMID:26213677

  12. 45 CFR 2528.60 - Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved program? 2528.60 Section 2528.60 Public Welfare Regulations... AWARD § 2528.60 Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I....

  13. 45 CFR 2528.60 - Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved program? 2528.60 Section 2528.60 Public Welfare Regulations... AWARD § 2528.60 Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I....

  14. 45 CFR 2528.60 - Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I. Bill approved program? 2528.60 Section 2528.60 Public Welfare Regulations... AWARD § 2528.60 Who may use the education award to pay expenses incurred in enrolling in a G.I....

  15. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  16. Updated Conceptual Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    16-page report discusses development and use of NASA TR-1508, the Kennedy Space Center Aerospace Construction Price Book for preparing conceptual, budget, funding, cost-estimating, and preliminary cost-engineering reports. Updated annually from 1974 through 1985 with actual bid prices and government estimates. Includes labor and material quantities and prices with contractor and subcontractor markups for buildings, facilities, and systems at Kennedy Space Center. While data pertains to aerospace facilities, format and cost-estimating techniques guide estimation of costs in other construction applications.

  17. A multi-laboratory evaluation of a clinically-validated incurred quality control material for analysis of allergens in food.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Phil E; Rigby, Neil M; Dainty, Jack R; Mackie, Alan R; Immer, Ulrike U; Rogers, Adrian; Titchener, Pauline; Shoji, Masahiro; Ryan, Anne; Mata, Luis; Brown, Helen; Holzhauser, Thomas; Dumont, Valery; Wykes, Jill A; Walker, Michael; Griffin, Jon; White, Jane; Taylor, Glenn; Popping, Bert; Crevel, René; Miguel, Sonia; Lutter, Petra; Gaskin, Ferdelie; Koerner, Terry B; Clarke, Dean; Sherlock, Robin; Flanagan, Andrew; Chan, Chun-Han; Mills, E N Clare

    2014-04-01

    A dessert matrix previously used for diagnosis of food allergies was incurred with pasteurised egg white or skimmed milk powder at 3, 6, 15 and 30 mg allergen protein per kg of dessert matrix and evaluated as a quality control material for allergen analysis in a multi-laboratory trial. Analysis was performed by immunoassay using five kits each for egg and milk (based on casein) and six 'other' milk kits (five based on β-lactoglobulin and one total milk). All kits detected allergen protein at the 3 mg kg(-1) level. Based on ISO criteria only one egg kit accurately determined egg protein at 3 mg kg(-1) (p=0.62) and one milk (casein) kit accurately determined milk at 6 (p=0.54) and 15 mg kg(-1) (p=0.83), against the target value. The milk "other" kits performed least well of all the kits assessed, giving the least precise analyses. The incurred dessert material had the characteristics required for a quality control material for allergen analysis.

  18. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  19. [Actual diet of patients with gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Shakhovskaia, A K; Pavliuchkova, M S

    2000-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition of patients with erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal zone and of patients with operated ulcer has revealed defects in intake of essential nutrients by these patients: overeating of animal fat and refined carbohydrates, deficiency of oil, vitamins A, B2, C, D and food fibers.

  20. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  1. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  2. Teenagers' Perceived and Actual Probabilities of Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namerow, Pearila Brickner; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescent females' (N=425) actual and perceived probabilities of pregnancy. Subjects estimated their likelihood of becoming pregnant the last time they had intercourse, and indicated the dates of last intercourse and last menstrual period. Found that the distributions of perceived probability of pregnancy were nearly identical for both…

  3. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care. PMID:10339203

  4. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care.

  5. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  6. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts... subpart 1631.2 of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Acquisition Regulation (FEHBAR) applicable.... Benefit costs consist of payments made and liabilities incurred for covered health care services on...

  7. 48 CFR 1652.216-71 - Accounting and Allowable Cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts... subpart 1631.2 of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Acquisition Regulation (FEHBAR) applicable.... Benefit costs consist of payments made and liabilities incurred for covered health care services on...

  8. 48 CFR 31.205-42 - Termination costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the contractor's plans and orders for current and planned production when determining if items can... nonrecurring labor, material, and related overhead costs incurred in the early part of production and result... production due to testing and changing production methods; (iii) Training; and (iv) Lack of familiarity...

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-42 - Termination costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the contractor's plans and orders for current and planned production when determining if items can... nonrecurring labor, material, and related overhead costs incurred in the early part of production and result... production due to testing and changing production methods; (iii) Training; and (iv) Lack of familiarity...

  10. A novel approach to reduce greenhouse energy costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiance, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) are three environmental parameters growers can control during greenhouse production to alter crop growth, quality, and timing. Significant costs are incurred every year, especially during winter and early-spring production, to heat and light the gre...

  11. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... all such outstanding licenses or exemptions. (4) To enable the Commission to compute on the bill for... of bills based on the administrative costs incurred by the Commission during the year in which...

  12. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... all such outstanding licenses or exemptions. (4) To enable the Commission to compute on the bill for... of bills based on the administrative costs incurred by the Commission during the year in which...

  13. 18 CFR 11.1 - Costs of administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., 1995, 18 CFR 381.601 (1994), until the total of all such credits equals the filing fee that was paid... all such outstanding licenses or exemptions. (4) To enable the Commission to compute on the bill for... of bills based on the administrative costs incurred by the Commission during the year in which...

  14. Viewpoint Costs Occur during Consolidation: Evidence from the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dux, Paul E.; Harris, Irina M.

    2007-01-01

    Do the viewpoint costs incurred when naming rotated familiar objects arise during initial identification or during consolidation? To answer this question we employed an attentional blink (AB) task where two target objects appeared amongst a rapid stream of distractor objects. Our assumption was that while both targets and distractors undergo…

  15. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... counted as provided, or to be provided, by the business units of an awardee or subawardee participating in... the OT agreement becomes effective. Costs that were incurred for a prototype project by the business... before the OT agreement became effective in order to ensure the successful implementation of the...

  16. Female Field Crickets Incur Increased Parasitism Risk When Near Preferred Song

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Cassandra M.; Wagner, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Female animals often prefer males with conspicuous traits because these males provide direct or indirect benefits. Conspicuous male traits, however, can attract predators. This not only increases the risk of predation for conspicuous males but also for the females that prefer them. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males that produce preferred song types provide females with greater material benefits, but they are also more likely to attract lethal parasitoid flies. First, we conducted a field experiment that tested the hypothesis that females have a greater risk of fly parasitism when in association with preferred high chirp rate males. Females were nearly twice as likely to be parasitized when caged with high chirp rate song than when caged with low chirp rate song. Females may thus be forced to trade off the quality of the benefits they receive from mating with preferred males and the risk of being killed by a predator when near these males. Second, we assessed female parasitism rates in a natural population. Up to 6% of the females were parasitized in field samples. Because the females we collected could have become parasitized had they not been collected, this provides a minimum estimate of the female parasitism rate in the field. In a laboratory study, we found no difference in the proportion of time parasitized and unparasitized females spent hiding under shelters; thus, differences in activity patterns do not appear to have biased our estimate of female parasitism rates. Overall, our results suggest that female association costs have the potential to shape the evolution of female mating preferences. PMID:20231888

  17. Female field crickets incur increased parasitism risk when near preferred song.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cassandra M; Wagner, William E

    2010-01-01

    Female animals often prefer males with conspicuous traits because these males provide direct or indirect benefits. Conspicuous male traits, however, can attract predators. This not only increases the risk of predation for conspicuous males but also for the females that prefer them. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males that produce preferred song types provide females with greater material benefits, but they are also more likely to attract lethal parasitoid flies. First, we conducted a field experiment that tested the hypothesis that females have a greater risk of fly parasitism when in association with preferred high chirp rate males. Females were nearly twice as likely to be parasitized when caged with high chirp rate song than when caged with low chirp rate song. Females may thus be forced to trade off the quality of the benefits they receive from mating with preferred males and the risk of being killed by a predator when near these males. Second, we assessed female parasitism rates in a natural population. Up to 6% of the females were parasitized in field samples. Because the females we collected could have become parasitized had they not been collected, this provides a minimum estimate of the female parasitism rate in the field. In a laboratory study, we found no difference in the proportion of time parasitized and unparasitized females spent hiding under shelters; thus, differences in activity patterns do not appear to have biased our estimate of female parasitism rates. Overall, our results suggest that female association costs have the potential to shape the evolution of female mating preferences. PMID:20231888

  18. The Institutional Costs and Resource Profile of Transfer Patients Into an Arthroplasty Service.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Peter; Qaderi, Ali; Jung, James; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-11-01

    The decision point with inter-hospital arthroplasty patient transfers and its financial implications have not been well studied. Factors outside of complexity of medical and surgical care are believed to drive the transfer of orthopaedic patients to tertiary care centers. We compared our institutional cost and resource utilization between transfer and elective patients in need of arthroplasty care. We hypothesized that transfer patients will incur a higher direct cost and resource utilization compared to elective patients, and that socioeconomic factors will play a role in the decision of transfer. After analysis of key metrics, transfer patients at our institution did not have any significant differences in insurance types. However, they did incur a longer length of stay (p<0.0001) and incurred greater direct costs (p<0.0001) to the hospital. After analysis of key parameters, transfer patients were more complex and costly to care for compared to our in-system patients. PMID:26680407

  19. 45 CFR 1150.7 - What interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs will I have to pay on a debt owed to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL... costs incurred as a result of your failure to pay a debt before it becomes delinquent....

  20. 45 CFR 1150.7 - What interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs will I have to pay on a debt owed to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL... costs incurred as a result of your failure to pay a debt before it becomes delinquent....

  1. Reproducing Actual Morphology of Planetary Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.

    1996-03-01

    Assuming that lava flows behave as non-isothermal laminar Bingham fluids, we developed a numerical code of lava flows. We take the self gravity effects and cooling mechanisms into account. The calculation method is a kind of cellular automata using a reduced random space method, which can eliminate the mesh shape dependence. We can calculate large scale lava flows precisely without numerical instability and reproduce morphology of actual lava flows.

  2. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  3. An Exploratory Analysis of Differential Program Costs of Selected Occupational Curricula in Selected Illinois Junior Colleges. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Robert M.; Rzonca, Chester S.

    This cost differential study was designed to use data collected by the Division of Vocational and Technical Education and the Illinois Junior College Board in an effort to analyze differential program costs of selected occupational curricula in six sample community colleges incurred in the fiscal year 1968-69. To be effective, a cost accounting…

  4. 45 CFR 304.21 - Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM... normally be required to pay the cost of such fees; (2) Costs of compensation (salary and fringe benefits... judges; (4) Office-related costs, such as space, equipment, furnishings and supplies, incurred by...

  5. 45 CFR 304.21 - Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM... normally be required to pay the cost of such fees; (2) Costs of compensation (salary and fringe benefits... judges; (4) Office-related costs, such as space, equipment, furnishings and supplies, incurred by...

  6. 45 CFR 304.21 - Federal financial participation in the costs of cooperative arrangements with courts and law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM... normally be required to pay the cost of such fees; (2) Costs of compensation (salary and fringe benefits... judges; (4) Office-related costs, such as space, equipment, furnishings and supplies, incurred by...

  7. Financial Assistance for Families with Severely Disabled Children and Transport Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Keri; Lawton, Dot

    1999-01-01

    Families with severely disabled children were studied to identify transport-related costs which are not fully covered by current statutory provisions, and to identify the characteristics of children who most often incur these costs. Inadequacy of statutory financial assistance was confirmed by analysis of grants from the Family Fund Trust.…

  8. 10 CFR 719.33 - What categories of costs are unallowable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incurred for entertainment or alcoholic beverages. See 48 CFR (FAR) 31.205-14 and 31.205-51 and 41 U.S.C... unallowable costs are contained in the cost principles at 48 CFR (FAR) part 31 and 48 CFR (DEAR) part 931...

  9. 10 CFR 719.33 - What categories of costs are unallowable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... incurred for entertainment or alcoholic beverages. See 48 CFR (FAR) 31.205-14 and 31.205-51 and 41 U.S.C... unallowable costs are contained in the cost principles at 48 CFR (FAR) part 31 and 48 CFR (DEAR) part 931...

  10. 10 CFR 719.33 - What categories of costs are unallowable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incurred for entertainment or alcoholic beverages. See 48 CFR (FAR) 31.205-14 and 31.205-51 and 41 U.S.C... unallowable costs are contained in the cost principles at 48 CFR (FAR) part 31 and 48 CFR (DEAR) part 931...

  11. 10 CFR 719.33 - What categories of costs are unallowable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... incurred for entertainment or alcoholic beverages. See 48 CFR (FAR) 31.205-14 and 31.205-51 and 41 U.S.C... unallowable costs are contained in the cost principles at 48 CFR (FAR) part 31 and 48 CFR (DEAR) part 931...

  12. 26 CFR 1.263A-1 - Uniform capitalization of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... qualified expenditures under sections 263(c), 616(a), or 617(a). (8) Natural gas acquired for resale. Under... natural gas acquired for resale to the extent such costs would otherwise be allocable to cushion gas. (i..., section 263A applies to costs incurred by a taxpayer relating to natural gas acquired for resale to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.263A-1 - Uniform capitalization of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... qualified expenditures under sections 263(c), 616(a), or 617(a). (8) Natural gas acquired for resale. Under... natural gas acquired for resale to the extent such costs would otherwise be allocable to cushion gas. (i..., section 263A applies to costs incurred by a taxpayer relating to natural gas acquired for resale to...

  14. The True Cost of College: The Price Students Pay for Further Education. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Fletcher, Mick; Munoz, Silvia; Whittaker, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the full cost to individuals of participating in further education in England and Wales--the nature and level of cost that individuals incur when they participate and the impact student financial support has on an individual's learning experience. Under taken jointly by the Learning and Skills Network and the National Union of…

  15. Cost of Children in Australia. Institute of Family Studies Working Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovering, Kerry

    This report estimates costs of feeding and clothing Australian children at a basic survival level. Detailed information is provided on the types of costs incurred by families at different income levels and with children of different ages. After a brief introduction characterizing the study and summarizing findings, discussion focuses on the…

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Determination of Allowable Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... December 27, 1977, include a. through e. below. Alternatively, the two-thirds rule at 40 CFR 35.2116(b) may... under subpart G of 40 CFR part 33. d. The costs for establishing or using minority and women's business liaison services. e. The costs of services incurred during the building of a project to ensure that it...

  17. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. 35.928-4 Section 35.928-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... industrial cost recovery charges incurred for accounting periods or portions of periods ending before...

  18. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. 35.928-4 Section 35.928-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... industrial cost recovery charges incurred for accounting periods or portions of periods ending before...

  19. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. 35.928-4 Section 35.928-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... industrial cost recovery charges incurred for accounting periods or portions of periods ending before...

  20. 10 CFR 950.23 - Claims process for payment of covered costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of when a sponsor was scheduled to attain full power operation and expects it will incur covered... Supplementary Certifications of Covered Costs as may be necessary to receive payment under the Standby Support... incremental cost of purchasing power to meet contractual agreements, including any documentation...

  1. Evaluation of the Costs of Caring for the Senile Demented Elderly: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Teh-wei; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated economic costs for nursing home patients and elderly living in their own homes. Using time records compiled by nurses or family members, the costs incurred annually in caring for a senile demented elderly person at home were estimated to average $11,735, and in a nursing home, $22,458. (Author/BL)

  2. Cost Allocation Plan for Interest Expense on Higher Education Facilities Bonds, Fiscal Year 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document supports the Cost Allocation Plan for state costs incurred on behalf of, and in benefit to, the public higher education institutions of Ohio. Tables report a summary of recalled/refunded debt and initial adjustment of Fiscal Year 2005 interest payments for refunded debt. Attached schedules calculate the allocable interest for each…

  3. Cost Allocation Plan for Interest Expense on Higher Education Facilities Bonds, Fiscal Year 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document supports the Cost Allocation Plan for state costs incurred on behalf of, and in benefit to, the public higher education institutions of Ohio. Tables report a summary of recalled/refunded debt and initial adjustment of Fiscal Year 2006 interest payments fore refunded debt. Attached schedules calculate the allocable interest for each…

  4. 42 CFR 413.130 - Introduction to capital-related costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... depreciable assets under § 413.134(f). (2) Taxes on land or depreciable assets used for patient care. (3) Leases and rentals, including license and royalty fees, for the use of depreciable assets or land, as... costs, debt discounts, and debt redemption costs, if the associated debt was incurred to acquire land...

  5. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  6. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  7. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  8. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    PubMed

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork. PMID:24968636

  9. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  10. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  11. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Results Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey) and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands). The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are often quite influential in

  12. Comparative Analysis of Thermoeconomic Evaluation Criteria for an Actual Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Gülcan; Açıkkalp, Emin; Savaş, Ahmet Fevzi; Yamık, Hasan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an actual heat engine is investigated by using different thermoeconomic evaluation criteria in the literature. A criteria that has not been investigated in detail is considered and it is called as ecologico-economical criteria (F_{EC}). It is the difference of power cost and exergy destruction rate cost of the system. All four criteria are applied to an irreversible Carnot heat engine, results are presented numerically and some suggestions are made.

  13. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  14. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  15. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  17. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  20. Costs of providing food assistance to HIV/AIDS patients in Sofala province, Mozambique: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV/AIDS become widely available, the number of people accessing these resources also increases. Despite this exceptional progress, the estimated coverage in low- and middle-income countries is still less than half of all people who need treatment. In addition, treatment discontinuation and non-adherence are still concerns for ART programs. Governments and partner institutions have sought to implement a variety of interventions addressing the main reasons behind the low coverage of, discontinuation of, and non-adherence to ART. Food assistance is one of those interventions; increasing evidence suggests that this type of intervention has the potential to improve ART outcomes. However, to our knowledge, no study has estimated its costs in detail. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of a program providing food assistance to HIV/AIDS patients in Sofala province, Mozambique, in 2009. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the costs of providing food assistance, based on financial and economic costs. We used the ingredients approach to estimate costs, which involved multiplying the total estimated quantities of goods and services actually employed in providing the intervention by their respective unit prices. Results In 2009, the cost of providing food assistance to HIV/AIDS patients was $2.27 million, with capital and recurrent costs accounting for 1% and 99% of total costs, respectively. Food made up the largest component, at 49% of total costs. At 24%, transport operating costs were the second largest item. The cost per patient served was $288 over 3 months. Conclusion The food distribution program carries significant costs. To assess whether it provides value for money, the present study results should be interpreted in conjunction with the program’s impact, and in comparison with other programs that aim to improve adherence to ART. Our costing analysis revealed

  1. 39 CFR 230.25 - Who pays the costs incurred when the Office of Inspector General responds to a demand for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... charges, and any necessary travel expenses as follows: (1) The Office of Inspector General is authorized... time expended by Office of Inspector General employees, including attorneys, to process and respond to the demand; attorney time for reviewing the demand and for legal work in connection with the...

  2. Changes of field incurred chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolite residues in rice during food processing from-RAC-to-consumption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wayne W; Jian, Qiu; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Zuntao; Wang, Donglan; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of food processing on field incurred residues levels of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in rice. The chlorpyrifos and TCP were found to be 1.27 and 0.093 mg kg-1 in straw and 0.41 and 0.073 mg kg-1 in grain, respectively. It is observed that the sunlight for 2 hours does not decrease the chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in grain significantly. Their residues in rice were reduced by up to 50% by hulling. The cooking reduced the chlorpyrifos and TCP in rice to undetectable level (below 0.01 mg kg-1). Processing factors (PFs) of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in rice during food processing were similar. Various factors have impacts on the fates of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues and the important steps to reduce their residues in rice were hulling and cooking. The results can contribute to assure the consumer of a safe wholesome food supply.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of animal-product violations incurred by air passengers at an international airport in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tai-Hwa; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Morley, Randall S

    2005-05-10

    Our aim was to evaluate the inspection of arriving passengers for the illegal transport of animal products through the international airport into Taiwan. Passenger-violation data were retrieved from the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) in Taiwan. Monte Carlo simulations with 5000 iterations were applied to estimate the predicted violation numbers considering factors such as passenger's nationality/ethnicity, sex, and monthly statistics of violations. The results showed that Chinese-related passengers and passengers from South East Asian countries have a relatively higher potential risk for incurring violations during the period from Christmas to Chinese Lunar New Year. Most monthly estimated violation risks are significantly higher than observed violation risks in 2001 and 2002, except April, July, and August. Due to the low sensitivity of the current detection system (reflected by the higher estimated violation risks and a two-fold detection increase after the implementation of an inspection service using detector dogs), we recommend additional preventive measures be taken.

  4. First-Grade Retention: Effects on Children's Actual and Perceived Performance throughout Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeating first grade on children's further academic growth, by tracking the actual performance and the teacher-rated performance of a cohort of Flemish first-graders until the end of elementary school. Two research questions are raised: (1) How do first-grade repeaters, at the cost of one extra year of…

  5. Who Cares What It Costs to Dispense a Medicaid Prescription?

    PubMed Central

    Lamphere-Thorpe, Jo Ann; Johnston, William P.; Kilpatrick, Kerry E.; Norwood, G. Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Results of a 1992 Medicaid cost-of-dispensing study among North Carolina pharmacies are presented. The estimated statewide weighted average cost incurred by pharmacies to dispense a prescription was $5.37 in 1991. The variation in dispensing costs found among pharmacies of various sizes, organizational types, and locations is identified. Higher average dispensing costs were reported for large chain pharmacies and those pharmacies in urban areas. Considering the potential for expanded prescription drug benefits under a reformed health care system, the implications of the study's findings for pharmacy payment policy are discussed. PMID:10137800

  6. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  7. 20 CFR 10.902 - Does every employee's death due to injuries incurred in connection with his or her service with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... incurred in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for... connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation qualify for the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.217-1 - Deduction for moving expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxpayer's former residence to his new residence by the conventional mode or modes of transportation... examples: Example 1. A is an electrician residing in New York City. Having heard of the possibility of... weeks, no deduction is allowable for moving expenses paid or incurred between New York City and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.217-1 - Deduction for moving expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxpayer's former residence to his new residence by the conventional mode or modes of transportation... examples: Example 1. A is an electrician residing in New York City. Having heard of the possibility of... weeks, no deduction is allowable for moving expenses paid or incurred between New York City and...

  10. 11 CFR 9003.4 - Expenses incurred prior to the beginning of the expenditure report period or prior to receipt of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... before the beginning of the expenditure report period, as defined at 11 CFR 9002.12, if such expenditures... provided in 11 CFR 9034.4(e)(2). (2) A candidate may incur qualified campaign expenses prior to receiving payments under 11 CFR part 9005. (b) Sources. (1) A candidate may obtain a loan which meets...

  11. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the...

  12. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the...

  13. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the...

  14. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the...

  15. 20 CFR 10.905 - If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If an employee incurs a covered injury in connection with his or her service with an Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the... Armed Force in a contingency operation but does not die of the injury until years later, does the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.217-1 - Deduction for moving expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1970.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) all computations are to be made on the basis of a straight-line measurement. (3) Principal place of... effects. The deduction allowable under this section is only for expenses incurred after December 31, 1963... effects from the taxpayer's former residence to his new residence, and (ii) of traveling (including...

  17. When there Seem to be No Predetermining Factors: Early Child and Proximal Family Risk Predicting Externalizing Behavior in Young Children Incurring No Distal Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, I.; Meunier, J.-C.; Stievenart, M.; Noel, M.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to examine the impact of two child risk factors, i.e. personality and inhibition, and two proximal family risk factors, i.e. parenting and attachment, and the impact of their cumulative effect on later externalizing behavior among young children incurring no distal family risk. Data were collected in a…

  18. 26 CFR 1.263(a)-5 - Amounts paid or incurred to facilitate an acquisition of a trade or business, a change in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facilitative if the amount is paid for— (i) Securing an appraisal, formal written evaluation, or fairness... section prior to the taxable year during which the liability is incurred. (i) (j) Coordination with other.... (ii) The $250,000 payment to evaluate the possibility of a borrowing is an amount paid in the...

  19. Who bears the cost of healthcare-acquired surgical site infection?

    PubMed

    Graves, N; Halton, K; Doidge, S; Clements, A; Lairson, D; Whitby, M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic costs of healthcare-acquired surgical site infection (HA-SSI) and show how they are distributed between the in-hospital and post-discharge phases of care and recovery. A quantitative model of the epidemiology and economic consequences of HA-SSI was used, with data collected from a prospective cohort of surgical patients and other relevant sources. A logical model structure was specified and data applied to model parameters. A hypothetical cohort of 10 000 surgical patients was evaluated. We found that 111 cases of infection would be diagnosed in hospital and 784 cases would first appear after discharge. Of the total costs incurred, either 31% or 67% occurred during the hospital phase, depending on whether production losses incurred after discharge were included. Most of the costs incurred by the hospital sector arose from lost bed-days and only a small proportion arose from variable costs. We discuss the issues relating to the size of these costs and provide data on where they are incurred. These results can be used to inform subsequent cost-effectiveness analyses that evaluate the efficiency of programmes to reduce the risks of HA-SSI.

  20. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contracts (see 16.404 and 16.401 (e)), incentive contracts include a target cost, a target profit or fee... maximum fee) provides that— (1) Actual cost that meets the target will result in the target profit or fee; (2) Actual cost that exceeds the target will result in downward adjustment of target profit or...

  1. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contracts (see 16.404 and 16.401 (e)), incentive contracts include a target cost, a target profit or fee... maximum fee) provides that— (1) Actual cost that meets the target will result in the target profit or fee; (2) Actual cost that exceeds the target will result in downward adjustment of target profit or...

  2. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contracts (see 16.404 and 16.401 (e)), incentive contracts include a target cost, a target profit or fee... maximum fee) provides that— (1) Actual cost that meets the target will result in the target profit or fee; (2) Actual cost that exceeds the target will result in downward adjustment of target profit or...

  3. Validation of the CALSPAN gross-motion-simulation code with actually occurring injury patterns in aircraft accidents.

    PubMed

    Ballo, J M; Dunne, M J; McMeekin, R R

    1978-01-01

    Digital simulation of aircraft-accident kinematics has heretofore been used almost exclusively as a design tool to explore structural load limits, precalculate decelerative forces at various cabin stations, and describe the effect of protective devices in the crash environment. In an effort to determine the value of digital computer simulation of fatal aircraft accidents, a fatality involving an ejection-system failure (out-of-envelope ejection) was modeled, and the injuries actually incurred were compared to those predicted; good agreement was found. The simulation of fatal aircraft accidents is advantageous because of a well-defined endpoint (death), lack of therapeutic intervention, and a static anatomic situation that can be minutely investigated. Such simulation techniques are a useful tool in the study of experimental trauma. PMID:623585

  4. Early pain detection and management after esophageal metal stent placement in incurable cancer patients: A prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reijm, Agnes N.; Didden, Paul; Bruno, Marco J.; Spaander, Manon C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Studies of esophageal self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) mainly focus on efficacy and recurrent dysphagia. Retrosternal pain has been described in up to 14 % of these patients, however, prospective daily pain assessment has not yet been performed. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the occurrence and management of pain after esophageal SEMS deployment. Patients and methods: A total of 65 patients who underwent SEMS placement for incurable malignant esophageal stenosis were included. Patients used a diary to record intensity of pain twice daily for 2 weeks, according to the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). A pain score ≥ 4 was used to determine whether patients experienced significant pain. If pain occurred, acetaminophen was used and, in cases of ongoing pain, an opiate was prescribed. Dose, duration, and kind of analgesic were noted. Results: The rate of significant pain increased from 0 % at baseline to 60 % on Day 1 (P < 0.001), followed by 37 % and 25 % on Days 7 and 14, respectively. The rate of analgesics use increased from 20 % at baseline to 78 % on Day 1 (P < 0.001), followed by 72 % and 62 % on Days 7 and 14, respectively. The use of opiates increased from 14 % at baseline to 42 % on Day 1 (P < 0.001). No variables associated with SEMS related pain were found. Conclusions: Two-thirds of patients experience significant pain after esophageal SEMS insertion and analgesics, including opiates, are frequently required. Patients need to be informed and preventive prescription of analgesia should be considered in order to improve quality of life. PMID:27540579

  5. A better approach to cost estimation.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Using ratios of costs to charges (RCCs) to estimate costs can cause hospitals to significantly over- or under-invest in service lines. A focus on improving cost estimation in cost centers where physicians have significant control over operating expenses, such as drugs or implants, can strengthen decision making and strategic planning. Connecting patient file information to purchasing data can lead to more accurate reflections of actual costs and help hospitals gain better visibility across service lines.

  6. Using activity-based costing in surgery.

    PubMed

    Grandlich, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING is an accounting technique that allows organizations to determine actual costs associated with their services based on the resources they consume. THIS TECHNIQUE can be used in a variety of ways, including targeting high-cost activities, forecasting financial baselines, and supporting resource allocation. FOUR STEPS should be followed when applying activity-based costing to surgical procedures. THIS ARTICLE explores how Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, used activity-based costing.

  7. Correlation of Spacecraft Mission and Project Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Christopher; Jarrett, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    A key component of any cost risk analysis is the level of correlation between individual elements of cost. This analysis supplements the available historical records with the cost estimates from the JPL Advanced Design Team. The costs from actual JPL flight projects are then used to validate the results, clearly indicating that, on average, the correlation between elements of cost is between 0.4 and 0.7.

  8. If You Stay, It Might Be Easier: Switch Costs from Comprehension to Production in a Joint Switching Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambi, Chiara; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Switching language is costly for bilingual speakers and listeners, suggesting that language control is effortful in both modalities. But are the mechanisms underlying language control similar across modalities? In this study, we attempted to answer this question by testing whether bilingual speakers incur a cost when switching to a different…

  9. Managing the Recurrent Cost of University Education in Nigeria: A Case of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Abimbola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    The education sector especially higher education in Nigeria faces financial challenges. The recurrent cost of university education constitutes about 95% of the total cost incurred by the government in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government is unable to meet the UNESCO recommendation that 26% of national budgets should be allocated to education.…

  10. 78 FR 46948 - Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Agreement Regarding Site Costs and Covenants Not To Sue for American Lead and Zinc Mill... response costs incurred at the American Lead and Zinc Mill Superfund Site near Ouray, Colorado. The... via electric mail at rudy.mike@epa.gov and should reference the American Lead and Zinc Mill Site,...

  11. Hospital cost accounting: implementing the system successfully.

    PubMed

    Burik, D; Duvall, T J

    1985-05-01

    To successfully implement a cost accounting system, certain key steps should be undertaken. These steps include developing and installing software; developing cost center budgets and inter-cost center allocations; developing service item standard costs; generating cost center level and patient level standard cost reports and reconciling these costs to actual costs; generating product line profitability reports and reconciling these reports to the financial statements; and providing ad hoc reporting capabilities. By following these steps, potential problems in the implementation process can be anticipated and avoided.

  12. Optimal maintenance and consolidation therapy for multiple myeloma in actual clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Sup; Min, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant plasma cell-originating cancer. Although its treatment outcomes have improved with the use of glucocorticoids, alkylating drugs, and novel agents, including proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide), relapse remains a serious problem. Strategies to improve outcomes following autologous stem cell transplantation and frontline treatments in non-transplant patients include consolidation to intensify therapy and improve the depth of response and maintenance therapy to achieve long-term disease control. Many clinical trials have reported increased progression-free and overall survival rates after consolidation and maintenance therapy. The role of consolidation/maintenance therapy has been assessed in patients eligible and ineligible for transplantation and is a valuable option in clinical trial settings. However, the decision to use consolidation and/or maintenance therapy needs to be guided by the individual patient situation in actual clinical practice. This review analyzes the currently available evidence from several reported clinical trials to determine the optimal consolidation and maintenance therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27604793

  13. Optimal maintenance and consolidation therapy for multiple myeloma in actual clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Sup; Min, Chang-Ki

    2016-09-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant plasma cell-originating cancer. Although its treatment outcomes have improved with the use of glucocorticoids, alkylating drugs, and novel agents, including proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide), relapse remains a serious problem. Strategies to improve outcomes following autologous stem cell transplantation and frontline treatments in non-transplant patients include consolidation to intensify therapy and improve the depth of response and maintenance therapy to achieve long-term disease control. Many clinical trials have reported increased progression-free and overall survival rates after consolidation and maintenance therapy. The role of consolidation/maintenance therapy has been assessed in patients eligible and ineligible for transplantation and is a valuable option in clinical trial settings. However, the decision to use consolidation and/or maintenance therapy needs to be guided by the individual patient situation in actual clinical practice. This review analyzes the currently available evidence from several reported clinical trials to determine the optimal consolidation and maintenance therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27604793

  14. Optimal maintenance and consolidation therapy for multiple myeloma in actual clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Sup; Min, Chang-Ki

    2016-09-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant plasma cell-originating cancer. Although its treatment outcomes have improved with the use of glucocorticoids, alkylating drugs, and novel agents, including proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide), relapse remains a serious problem. Strategies to improve outcomes following autologous stem cell transplantation and frontline treatments in non-transplant patients include consolidation to intensify therapy and improve the depth of response and maintenance therapy to achieve long-term disease control. Many clinical trials have reported increased progression-free and overall survival rates after consolidation and maintenance therapy. The role of consolidation/maintenance therapy has been assessed in patients eligible and ineligible for transplantation and is a valuable option in clinical trial settings. However, the decision to use consolidation and/or maintenance therapy needs to be guided by the individual patient situation in actual clinical practice. This review analyzes the currently available evidence from several reported clinical trials to determine the optimal consolidation and maintenance therapy in clinical practice.

  15. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... reimbursable when supported by adequate records. This shall include labor costs associated with...

  16. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  17. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actual SO2 emissions rate. 74.22... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions... actual SO2 emissions rate shall be 1985. (2) For combustion sources that commenced operation...

  18. Actualization and the Fear of Death: Retesting an Existential Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith; Robinson, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrates that within a group of highly actualized individuals, the degree to which "own death" is integrated into constructs of self is a far more powerful predictor of fear of death than actualization. Findings suggest that actualization and integration are independent in their overall effect on fear of death. (Author)

  19. The economic costs of childhood disability.

    PubMed

    Stabile, Mark; Allin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disabilities entail a range of immediate and long-term economic costs that have important implications for the well-being of the child, the family, and society but that are difficult to measure. In an extensive research review, Mark Stabile and Sara Allin examine evidence about three kinds of costs-direct, out-of-pocket costs incurred as a result of the child's disability; indirect costs incurred by the family as it decides how best to cope with the disability; and long-term costs associated with the child's future economic performance. Not surprisingly, the evidence points to high direct costs for families with children with disabilities, though estimates vary considerably within these families. Out-of-pocket expenditures, particularly those for medical costs, for example, are higher among families with children with a special health care need. An important indirect cost for these families involves decisions about employment. Stabile and Allin examine several studies that, taken together, show that having a child with disabilities increases the likelihood that the mother (and less often the father) will either curtail hours of work or stop working altogether. Researchers also find that having a child with disabilities can affect a mother's own health and put substantial strains on the parents' relationship. In the longer term, disabilities also compromise a child's schooling and capacity to get and keep gainful employment as an adult, according to the studies Stabile and Allin review. Negative effects on future well-being appear to be much greater, on average, for children with mental health problems than for those with physical disabilities. Stabile and Allin calculate that the direct costs to families, indirect costs through reduced family labor supply, direct costs to disabled children as they age into the labor force, and the costs of safety net programs for children with disabilities average $30,500 a year per family with a disabled child. They note

  20. Aid Effectiveness, Transaction Costs and Conditionality in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…