Science.gov

Sample records for actual design parameters

  1. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application. PMID:25959313

  2. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application.

  3. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  4. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements.

  5. Actual versus design performance of solar systems in the National Solar Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logee, T. L.; Kendall, P. W.

    1984-09-01

    Field measured performance were compared to the designer predicted performance. The field measured data were collected by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) over a period of 6 years. Data from 25 solar systems were selected from a data pool of some 170 solar systems. Several concerns arose which can be partially allayed by study of the NSDN data. These are: what types of failures occurred and why; how good was the design versus actual performance; why was predicted performance not achieved in the field; and which components should be integrated with a system type for good performance. The measured results were also compared to f-chart 5.1 results. This comparison is a type of normalization in that all systems are modeled with the same process. An added benefit of this normalization is a further validation of the f-Chart model on a fairly large scale. The systems are modeled using equipment design parameters, measured loads, and f-Chart weather data from nearby cities.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of Stirling engine design parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Naso, V.; Dong, W.; Lucentini, M.; Capata, R.

    1998-07-01

    In the preliminary Stirling engine design process, the values of some design parameters (temperature ratio, swept volume ratio, phase angle and dead volume ratio) have to be assumed; as a matter of fact it can be difficult to determine the best values of these parameters for a particular engine design. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to analyze the sensitivity of engine's performance variations corresponding to variations of these parameters.

  7. Design parameters of toroidal and bobbin magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    The adoption by NASA of the metric system for dimensioning to replace the long-used English units imposes a requirement on the U.S. transformer designer to convert from the familiar units to the less familiar metric equivalents. Material is presented to assist in that transition in the field of transformer design and fabrication. The conversion data makes it possible for the designer to obtain a fast and close approximation of significant parameters such as size, weight, and temperature rise. Nomographs are included to provide a close approximation for breadboarding purposes. For greater convenience, derivations of some of the parameters are also presented.

  8. Design Parameters in Multimodal Games for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Basteris, Angelo; Amirabdollahian, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The repetitive and sometimes mundane nature of conventional rehabilitation therapy provides an ideal opportunity for development of interactive and challenging therapeutic games that have the potential to engage and motivate the players. Certain game design parameters that may encourage patients to actively participate by making the games more enjoyable have been identified. In this article, we describe a formative study in which we designed and evaluated some of these parameters with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: The “operant conditioning” and “scoring” design parameters were incorporated in a remake of a classic labyrinth game, “Marble Maze.” A group of participants (n=37) played the game twice: Once in the control condition without both modalities and then with either one of the parameters or with both. Measures of game duration and number of fails in the game were recorded along with survey questionnaires to measure player perceptions of intrinsic motivation on the game. Results: Longer playtimes, higher levels of interest/enjoyment, and effort to play the game were recorded with the introduction of these parameters. Conclusions: This study provides an understanding on how game design parameters can be used to motivate and encourage people to play longer. With these positive results, future aims are to test the parameters with stroke patients, providing much clearer insight as to what influences these parameters have on patients undergoing therapy. The ultimate goal is to utilize game design in order to maintain longer therapeutic interaction between a patient and his or her therapy medium. PMID:24761328

  9. Optimum Design of a Passive Suspension System of a Vehicle Subjected to Actual Random Road Excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamboli, J. A.; Joshi, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Vehicles are subjected to random excitation due to road unevenness and variable velocity. In most research work reported earlier, the response analysis for Mean Square Acceleration Response (MSAR) has been carried out by considering the power spectral density (PSD) of the road excitation as white noise, and the velocity of the vehicle as constant. However, in the present paper the PSD of the actual road excitation has been found to follow an approximately exponentially decreasing curve. Also the change in vehicle velocity has a significant effect on the values of Root Mean Square Acceleration Response (RMSAR). Therefore, in this work, the RMSAR of a vehicle dynamic system subjected to actual random road excitations is obtained so as to account for the effect of the actual PSD of road excitation and the frequent changes in vehicle velocity. The RMSAR of the vehicle is calculated for actual field excitation using the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) technique to obtain the PSD, by recording observations at the rear wheel. The effect of time lag due to wheelbase on the RMSAR of the vehicle is studied. For this purpose, a new ratio α(τ) has been introduced. The relationship between α(τ) and the autocorrelation has been formulated. This ratio is useful for considering the effect of time lag due to wheelbase on RMSAR. Similarly, the effect of vehicle velocity on the RMSAR is obtained.Further, from a ride comfort point of view, the values of the design variables like spring stiffness and viscous damping coefficient of the front and rear suspensions have been obtained, by minimising the RMSAR using the desired boundary values of the vertical RMSAR as specified in the chart of ISO 2631, 1985(E) [1].

  10. Preservice elementary teachers' actual and designated identities as teachers of science and teachers of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canipe, Martha Murray

    Preservice elementary teachers often have concerns about teaching science that may stem from a lack of confidence as teachers or their own negative experiences as learners of science. These concerns may lead preservice teachers to avoid teaching science or to teach it in a way that focuses on facts and vocabulary rather than engaging students in the doing of science. Research on teacher identity has suggested that being able to envision oneself as a teacher of science is an important part of becoming a teacher of science. Elementary teachers are generalists and as such rather than identifying themselves as teachers of particular content areas, they may identify more generally as teachers of students. This study examines three preservice teachers' identities as teachers of science and teachers of students and how these identities are enacted in their student teaching classrooms. Using a narrated identity framework, I explore stories told by preservice teachers, mentor teachers, student teaching supervisors, and science methods course instructors about who preservice teachers are as teachers of science and teachers of students. Identities are the stories that are told about who someone is or will become in relation to a particular context. Identities that are enacted are performances of the stories that are an identity. Stories were collected through interviews with each storyteller and in an unmoderated focus group with the three preservice teachers. In addition to sorting stories as being about teachers of science or students, the stories were categorized as being about preservice teachers in the present (actual identities) or in the future (designated identities). The preservice teachers were also observed teaching science lessons in their student teaching placements. These enactments of identities were analyzed in order to identify which aspects of the identity stories were reflected in the way preservice teachers taught their science lessons. I also analyzed the

  11. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwille, John A.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration.

    PubMed

    Schwille, John A; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M

    2002-07-15

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. PMID:12238523

  13. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration.

    PubMed

    Schwille, John A; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M

    2002-07-15

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions.

  14. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites.

  15. Design sensitivity analysis using EAL. Part 1: Conventional design parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dopker, B.; Choi, Kyung K.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical implementation of design sensitivity analysis of builtup structures is presented, using the versatility and convenience of an existing finite element structural analysis code and its database management system. The finite element code used in the implemenatation presented is the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL), which is based on a hybrid method of analysis. It was shown that design sensitivity computations can be carried out using the database management system of EAL, without writing a separate program and a separate database. Conventional (sizing) design parameters such as cross-sectional area of beams or thickness of plates and plane elastic solid components are considered. Compliance, displacement, and stress functionals are considered as performance criteria. The method presented is being extended to implement shape design sensitivity analysis using a domain method and a design component method.

  16. Cryogenic masers. [frequency stability and design parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlinsky, A. J.; Hardy, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    Various factors affecting the frequency stability of hydrogen masers are described and related to maser design parameters. The long-term frequency stability of a hydrogen maser is limited by the mechanical stability of the cavity, and the magnitudes of the wall relaxation, spin exchange, and recombination rates which affect the Q of the line. Magnetic resonance studies of hydrogen atoms at temperatures below 1 K and in containers coated with liquid helium films demonstrated that cryogenic masers may allow substantial improvements in all of these parameters. In particular the thermal expansion coefficients of most materials are negligible at 1 K. Spin exchange broadening is three orders of magnitude smaller at 1 K than at room temperature, and the recombination and wall relaxation rates are negligible at 0.52 K where the frequency shift due to the 4 He-coated walls of the container has a broad minimum as a function of temperature. Other advantages of the helium-cooled maser result from the high purity, homogeneity, and resilence of helium-film-coated walls and the natural compatibility of the apparatus with helium-cooled amplifiers.

  17. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 1, Design parameters: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identified the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites.

  18. Seismic design parameters - A user guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leyendecker, E.V.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings (1997 NEHRP Provisions) introduced seismic design procedure that is based on the explicit use of spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration and/or peak ground velocity or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from spectral response acceleration maps accompanying the report. Maps are available for the United States and a number of U.S. territories. Since 1997 additional codes and standards have also adopted seismic design approaches based on the same procedure used in the NEHRP Provisions and the accompanying maps. The design documents using the 1997 NEHRP Provisions procedure may be divided into three categories -(1) Design of New Construction, (2) Design and Evaluation of Existing Construction, and (3) Design of Residential Construction. A CD-ROM has been prepared for use in conjunction with the design documents in each of these three categories. The spectral accelerations obtained using the software on the CD are the same as those that would be obtained by using the maps accompanying the design documents. The software has been prepared to operate on a personal computer using a Windows (Microsoft Corporation) operating environment and a point and click type of interface. The user can obtain the spectral acceleration values that would be obtained by use of the maps accompanying the design documents, include site factors appropriate for the Site Class provided by the user, calculate a response spectrum that includes the site factor, and plot a response spectrum. Sites may be located by providing the latitude-longitude or zip code for all areas covered by the maps. All of the maps used in the various documents are also included on the CDROM

  19. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Thein, Pyi Soe; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung; Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri; Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  20. Design and Convergence Performance Analysis of Aspherical Acoustic Lens Applied to Ambient Noise Imaging in Actual Ocean Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2011-07-01

    In this study, an aspherical lens with the aperture diameter of 1.0 m was designed for utilization in an actual ocean experiment of ambient noise imaging (ANI). It was expected that this ANI system would realize directional resolution, which is a beam width of 1° at the center frequency of 120 kHz. We analyzed the sound pressure distribution focused by the designed lens using the 3D finite difference time domain method. The frequency dependence of a -3 dB area was then compared between 120 kHz and the higher or lower frequency. The analysis results suggested that the designed lens has fine directional resolution over the center frequency of 120 kHz. We had measured the directivity of the designed lens in an actual ocean experiment in Uchiura Bay in November of 2010. It was verified that the ANI system with this lens realizes a beam width of 1° at 120 kHz.

  1. Simultaneous optimal experimental design for in vitro binding parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Ernest, C Steven; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous optimization of in vitro ligand binding studies using an optimal design software package that can incorporate multiple design variables through non-linear mixed effect models and provide a general optimized design regardless of the binding site capacity and relative binding rates for a two binding system. Experimental design optimization was employed with D- and ED-optimality using PopED 2.8 including commonly encountered factors during experimentation (residual error, between experiment variability and non-specific binding) for in vitro ligand binding experiments: association, dissociation, equilibrium and non-specific binding experiments. Moreover, a method for optimizing several design parameters (ligand concentrations, measurement times and total number of samples) was examined. With changes in relative binding site density and relative binding rates, different measurement times and ligand concentrations were needed to provide precise estimation of binding parameters. However, using optimized design variables, significant reductions in number of samples provided as good or better precision of the parameter estimates compared to the original extensive sampling design. Employing ED-optimality led to a general experimental design regardless of the relative binding site density and relative binding rates. Precision of the parameter estimates were as good as the extensive sampling design for most parameters and better for the poorly estimated parameters. Optimized designs for in vitro ligand binding studies provided robust parameter estimation while allowing more efficient and cost effective experimentation by reducing the measurement times and separate ligand concentrations required and in some cases, the total number of samples. PMID:23943088

  2. Transferring rainfall runoff model parameters to ungauged catchments: Does the metric by which hydrologic similarity is defined actually matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Archfield, S. A.; Wagener, T.; Vogel, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Daily streamflow information is critical for solving any number of hydrologic problems. Because most of the world's stream reaches are ungauged, this data is commonly needed for rivers that have no readily available measurements of streamflow. One approach to estimating daily streamflow time series at ungauged catchments transfers a set of model parameters resulting from the calibration of a rainfall-runoff model at a gauged catchment (or set of gauged catchments) to an ungauged site of interest. Central to this approach is the selection of a gauged donor catchment that is considered hydrologically similar to the ungauged catchment. A number of published studies compare various methods to define hydrologic similarity, typically using distance between the catchments or similarity in catchments characteristics; however, no one metric of hydrologic similarity has been demonstrated to provide a consistent approach to select a suitable donor catchment. For 16 unregulated catchments in the mid-Atlantic United States, this study shows that the similarity metric matters little if the catchments are classified as good receivers, which we define as catchments having more than two donor catchments that result in reasonable models of daily streamflow. Rainfall-runoff models were calibrated at each of the 16 study catchments and then the study catchments were treated as ungauged and model parameters from each of the other 15 catchments were transferred to the ungauged catchment. For catchments that are good receivers, combining the model output from several donors - no matter whether the donors were selected using distance or similarity in catchment characteristics - resulted in estimated daily streamflow comparable to the observed streamflow at the ungauged location. However, none of the similarity metrics were useful for selecting a suitable donor catchment when the ungauged catchment is considered to be a poor receiver (defined as a catchment with only one donor catchment

  3. Robust design of configurations and parameters of adaptable products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongliang; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2014-03-01

    An adaptable product can satisfy different customer requirements by changing its configuration and parameter values during the operation stage. Design of adaptable products aims at reducing the environment impact through replacement of multiple different products with single adaptable ones. Due to the complex architecture, multiple functional requirements, and changes of product configurations and parameter values in operation, impact of uncertainties to the functional performance measures needs to be considered in design of adaptable products. In this paper, a robust design approach is introduced to identify the optimal design configuration and parameters of an adaptable product whose functional performance measures are the least sensitive to uncertainties. An adaptable product in this paper is modeled by both configurations and parameters. At the configuration level, methods to model different product configuration candidates in design and different product configuration states in operation to satisfy design requirements are introduced. At the parameter level, four types of product/operating parameters and relations among these parameters are discussed. A two-level optimization approach is developed to identify the optimal design configuration and its parameter values of the adaptable product. A case study is implemented to illustrate the effectiveness of the newly developed robust adaptable design method.

  4. Multiobjective insensitive design of airplane control systems with uncertain parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Giesy, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    A multiobjective computer-aided design algorithm has been developed which minimizes the sensitivity of the design objectives to uncertainties in system parameters. The more important uncertain parameters are described by a gaussian random vector with known covariance matrix, and a vector sensitivity objective function is defined as the probabilities that the design objectives will violate specified requirements constraints. Control system parameters are found which minimize the sensitivity vector in a Pareto-optimal sense, using constrained minimization algorithms. Example results are shown for lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) design for three Shuttle flight conditions.

  5. Tuning Parameters in Heuristics by Using Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith; Unal, Resit

    2010-01-01

    With the growing complexity of today's large scale problems, it has become more difficult to find optimal solutions by using exact mathematical methods. The need to find near-optimal solutions in an acceptable time frame requires heuristic approaches. In many cases, however, most heuristics have several parameters that need to be "tuned" before they can reach good results. The problem then turns into "finding best parameter setting" for the heuristics to solve the problems efficiently and timely. One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT) approach for parameter tuning neglects the interactions between parameters. Design of Experiments (DOE) tools can be instead employed to tune the parameters more effectively. In this paper, we seek the best parameter setting for a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem in which n jobs must be scheduled on a single machine without preemption, and the objective is to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Benchmark instances for the problem are available in the literature. To fine tune the GA parameters in the most efficient way, we compare multiple DOE models including 2-level (2k ) full factorial design, orthogonal array design, central composite design, D-optimal design and signal-to-noise (SIN) ratios. In each DOE method, a mathematical model is created using regression analysis, and solved to obtain the best parameter setting. After verification runs using the tuned parameter setting, the preliminary results for optimal solutions of multiple instances were found efficiently.

  6. Novel parameter-based flexure bearing design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoedo, Simon; Thebaud, Edouard; Gschwendtner, Michael; White, David

    2016-06-01

    A parameter study was carried out on the design variables of a flexure bearing to be used in a Stirling engine with a fixed axial displacement and a fixed outer diameter. A design method was developed in order to assist identification of the optimum bearing configuration. This was achieved through a parameter study of the bearing carried out with ANSYS®. The parameters varied were the number and the width of the arms, the thickness of the bearing, the eccentricity, the size of the starting and ending holes, and the turn angle of the spiral. Comparison was made between the different designs in terms of axial and radial stiffness, the natural frequency, and the maximum induced stresses. Moreover, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was compared to theoretical results for a given design. The results led to a graphical design method which assists the selection of flexure bearing geometrical parameters based on pre-determined geometric and material constraints.

  7. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository in Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  8. Stereolithographic Bone Scaffold Design Parameters: Osteogenic Differentiation and Signal Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyobum; Yeatts, Andrew; Dean, David

    2010-01-01

    Scaffold design parameters including porosity, pore size, interconnectivity, and mechanical properties have a significant influence on osteogenic signal expression and differentiation. This review evaluates the influence of each of these parameters and then discusses the ability of stereolithography (SLA) to be used to tailor scaffold design to optimize these parameters. Scaffold porosity and pore size affect osteogenic cell signaling and ultimately in vivo bone tissue growth. Alternatively, scaffold interconnectivity has a great influence on in vivo bone growth but little work has been done to determine if interconnectivity causes changes in signaling levels. Osteogenic cell signaling could be also influenced by scaffold mechanical properties such as scaffold rigidity and dynamic relationships between the cells and their extracellular matrix. With knowledge of the effects of these parameters on cellular functions, an optimal tissue engineering scaffold can be designed, but a proper technology must exist to produce this design to specification in a repeatable manner. SLA has been shown to be capable of fabricating scaffolds with controlled architecture and micrometer-level resolution. Surgical implantation of these scaffolds is a promising clinical treatment for successful bone regeneration. By applying knowledge of how scaffold parameters influence osteogenic cell signaling to scaffold manufacturing using SLA, tissue engineers may move closer to creating the optimal tissue engineering scaffold. PMID:20504065

  9. Control design for a class of nonlinear parameter varying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiushan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Stabilisation for a class of one-sided Lipschitz nonlinear parameter varying systems is dealt with in this paper. First, the nonlinear parameter varying system is represented as a subsystem of a differential inclusion. Sufficient conditions for exponential stabilisation for the differential inclusion are given by solving linear matrix inequalities. Then a continuous control law is designed to stabilise the differential inclusion. It leads to stabilising the nonlinear parameter varying system. Finally, a simulation example is presented to show the validity and advantages of the proposed method.

  10. Estimating parameters with pre-specified accuracies in distributed parameter systems using optimal experiment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potters, M. G.; Bombois, X.; Mansoori, M.; Van den Hof, Paul M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Estimation of physical parameters in dynamical systems driven by linear partial differential equations is an important problem. In this paper, we introduce the least costly experiment design framework for these systems. It enables parameter estimation with an accuracy that is specified by the experimenter prior to the identification experiment, while at the same time minimising the cost of the experiment. We show how to adapt the classical framework for these systems and take into account scaling and stability issues. We also introduce a progressive subdivision algorithm that further generalises the experiment design framework in the sense that it returns the lowest cost by finding the optimal input signal, and optimal sensor and actuator locations. Our methodology is then applied to a relevant problem in heat transfer studies: estimation of conductivity and diffusivity parameters in front-face experiments. We find good correspondence between numerical and theoretical results.

  11. Identification of vehicle suspension parameters by design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tey, J. Y.; Ramli, R.; Kheng, C. W.; Chong, S. Y.; Abidin, M. A. Z.

    2014-05-01

    The design of a vehicle suspension system through simulation requires accurate representation of the design parameters. These parameters are usually difficult to measure or sometimes unavailable. This article proposes an efficient approach to identify the unknown parameters through optimization based on experimental results, where the covariance matrix adaptation-evolutionary strategy (CMA-es) is utilized to improve the simulation and experimental results against the kinematic and compliance tests. This speeds up the design and development cycle by recovering all the unknown data with respect to a set of kinematic measurements through a single optimization process. A case study employing a McPherson strut suspension system is modelled in a multi-body dynamic system. Three kinematic and compliance tests are examined, namely, vertical parallel wheel travel, opposite wheel travel and single wheel travel. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with 40 objectives and 49 design parameters. A hierarchical clustering method based on global sensitivity analysis is used to reduce the number of objectives to 30 by grouping correlated objectives together. Then, a dynamic summation of rank value is used as pseudo-objective functions to reformulate the multi-objective optimization to a single-objective optimization problem. The optimized results show a significant improvement in the correlation between the simulated model and the experimental model. Once accurate representation of the vehicle suspension model is achieved, further analysis, such as ride and handling performances, can be implemented for further optimization.

  12. Parameter Screening and Optimisation for ILP Using Designed Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Ashwin; Ramakrishnan, Ganesh

    Reports of experiments conducted with an Inductive Logic Programming system rarely describe how specific values of parameters of the system are arrived at when constructing models. Usually, no attempt is made to identify sensitive parameters, and those that are used are often given "factory-supplied" default values, or values obtained from some non-systematic exploratory analysis. The immediate consequence of this is, of course, that it is not clear if better models could have been obtained if some form of parameter selection and optimisation had been performed. Questions follow inevitably on the experiments themselves: specifically, are all algorithms being treated fairly, and is the exploratory phase sufficiently well-defined to allow the experiments to be replicated? In this paper, we investigate the use of parameter selection and optimisation techniques grouped under the study of experimental design. Screening and "response surface" methods determine, in turn, sensitive parameters and good values for these parameters. This combined use of parameter selection and response surface-driven optimisation has a long history of application in industrial engineering, and its role in ILP is investigated using two well-known benchmarks. The results suggest that computational overheads from this preliminary phase are not substantial, and that much can be gained, both on improving system performance and on enabling controlled experimentation, by adopting well-established procedures such as the ones proposed here.

  13. Robust integrated autopilot/autothrottle design using constrained parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher; Sanjay, Swamy

    1990-01-01

    A multivariable control design method based on constrained parameter optimization was applied to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the following: (1) direct synthesis of a multivariable 'inner-loop' feedback control system based on total energy control principles; (2) synthesis of speed/altitude-hold designs as 'outer-loop' feedback/feedforward control systems around the above inner loop; and (3) direct synthesis of a combined 'inner-loop' and 'outer-loop' multivariable control system. The design procedure offers a direct and structured approach for the determination of a set of controller gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The presented approach may be applied to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by this method following careful problem formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Performance characteristics of the optimization design were improved over the current autopilot design on the B737-100 Transport Research Vehicle (TSRV) at the landing approach and cruise flight conditions; particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping, command responses, and control activity in the presence of turbulence.

  14. Considerations for design parameters for a dedicated medical accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    There are only a very few critical parameters which determine the size, performance and cost of a heavy ion accelerator. These are the mass of the heaviest ion desired, the maximum range of this heaviest ion in tissue, and the highest intensity desired. Other parameters, such as beam emittance, beam delivery flexibility, reliability and experimental facility configurations are important, but are not primary driving factors in the design effort. The various clinical applications for a heavy ion accelerator are evaluated, detailing the most desirable beams for each application.

  15. Designing of discrete mechatronic vibrating systems with negative value parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchacz, Andrzej; Gałęziowski, Damian

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, the known problem of vibration control, authors expanded for designing of mechatronic discrete systems that contains single or multiply piezoelectric elements connected to external electric networks. Main focus has been given for investigations in relation to damping performance and parameters study, in case of potential practical application. By different configurations of considered mechatronic discrete branched structures with two degrees of freedom, key negative parameters have been identified and investigated in case of vibration control effectiveness. Results have been presented in graphical form of amplitudes and dynamical flexibility functions.

  16. A Modified Rodrigues Parameter-based Nonlinear Observer Design for Spacecraft Gyroscope Parameters Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Kilyuk; Jo, Sujang; Bang, Hyochoong

    This paper presents a modified Rodrigues parameter (MRP)-based nonlinear observer design to estimate bias, scale factor and misalignment of gyroscope measurements. A Lyapunov stability analysis is carried out for the nonlinear observer. Simulation is performed and results are presented illustrating the performance of the proposed nonlinear observer under the condition of persistent excitation maneuver. In addition, a comparison between the nonlinear observer and alignment Kalman filter (AKF) is made to highlight favorable features of the nonlinear observer.

  17. Investigation of design parameters in ultrasound reactors with confined channels.

    PubMed

    Jordens, Jeroen; Honings, Aurélie; Degrève, Jan; Braeken, Leen; Van Gerven, Tom

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional numercial simulation of sonochemical degradation upon cavitational activity. The model relates the simulation of the acoustic pressure distribution to the sonochemical reaction rate. As a case study, the thermal degradation of carbon tetrachloride during sonication is studied in a tubular milliscale reactor. The model is used to optimize the reactor diameter, ultrasound frequency and power dissipated to the ultrasound transducers. The results indicate that multiple transducers at a moderate power level are more efficient than one transducer with high power level. Furthermore, the average cavity volume fraction is proposed as a reaction independent parameter to estimate the optimal reactor design. Within the results obtained in this paper, it appears possible to optimise reactor design based on this parameter.

  18. Design parameters of a miniaturized piezoelectric underwater acoustic transmitter.

    PubMed

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    PZT ceramics have been widely used in underwater acoustic transducers. However, literature available discussing the design parameters of a miniaturized PZT-based low-duty-cycle transmitter is very limited. This paper discusses some of the design parameters--the backing material, driving voltage, PZT material type, power consumption and the transducer length of a miniaturized acoustic fish tag using a PZT tube. Four different types of PZT were evaluated with respect to the source level, energy consumption and bandwidth of the transducer. The effect of the tube length on the source level is discussed. The results demonstrate that ultralow-density closed-cell foam is the best backing material for the PZT tube. The Navy Type VI PZTs provide the best source level with relatively low energy consumption and that a low transducer capacitance is preferred for high efficiency. A 35% reduction in the transducer length results in 2 dB decrease in source level. PMID:23012534

  19. Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar

    2007-12-01

    This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor

  20. A design methodology for nonlinear systems containing parameter uncertainty: Application to nonlinear controller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G.

    1982-01-01

    A design methodology capable of dealing with nonlinear systems, such as a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), containing parameter uncertainty is discussed. The methodology was applied to the design of discrete time nonlinear controllers. The nonlinear controllers can be used to control either linear or nonlinear systems. Several controller strategies are presented to illustrate the design procedure.

  1. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Parameter Design Multiple Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Joey Dewayne

    2004-01-01

    The optimization tool described herein addresses and emphasizes the use of computer tools to model a system and focuses on a concept development approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system, but more particularly the development of the optimized system using new techniques. This methodology uses new and innovative tools to run Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, and statistical models in order to optimize a design concept. The concept launch vehicle and propulsion system were modeled and optimized to determine the best design for weight and cost by varying design and technology parameters. Uncertainty levels were applied using Monte Carlo Simulations and the model output was compared to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Main Engine. Several key conclusions are summarized here for the model results. First, the Gross Liftoff Weight and Dry Weight were 67% higher for the design case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost when compared to the weights determined by the minimization of Gross Liftoff Weight case. In turn, the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost was 53% higher for optimized Gross Liftoff Weight case when compared to the cost determined by case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost. Therefore, a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Secondly, the tool outputs define the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. A key finding was that for a Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust level the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6.6 resulted in the lowest Gross Liftoff Weight rather than at 5.2 for the maximum specific impulse, demonstrating the relationships between specific impulse, engine weight, tank volume and tank weight. Lastly, the optimum chamber pressure for

  2. Launch vehicle propulsion parameter design multiple selection criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Joey Dewayne

    The optimization tool described herein addresses and emphasizes the use of computer tools to model a system and focuses on a concept development approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system, but more particularly the development of the optimized system using new techniques. This methodology uses new and innovative tools to run Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, and statistical models in order to optimize a design concept. The concept launch vehicle and propulsion system were modeled and optimized to determine the best design for weight and cost by varying design and technology parameters. Uncertainty levels were applied using Monte Carlo Simulations and the model output was compared to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Main Engine. Several key conclusions are summarized here for the model results. First, the Gross Liftoff Weight and Dry Weight were 67% higher for the design case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost when compared to the weights determined by the minimization of Gross Liftoff Weight case. In turn, the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost was 53% higher for optimized Gross Liftoff Weight case when compared to the cost determined by case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost. Therefore, a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Secondly, the tool outputs define the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. A key finding was that for a Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust level the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6.6 resulted in the lowest Gross Liftoff Weight rather than at 5.2 for the maximum specific impulse, demonstrating the relationships between specific impulse, engine weight, tank volume and tank weight. Lastly, the optimum chamber pressure for

  3. Test verification and design of the bicycle frame parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Xiang, Zhongxia; Luo, Huan; Tian, Guan

    2015-07-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders' worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers' height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes' function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  4. Design of Life Extending Controls Using Nonlinear Parameter Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual development of a life extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel and oxidizer turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. This design approach makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of a rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using nonlinear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure.

  5. Matching and Mismatching between the Pedagogical Design Principles of a Math Game and the Actual Practices of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, P.; Gulz, A.; Haake, M.; Sjoden, B.

    2011-01-01

    The article reports and discusses a long-term qualitative study of forty 8-10-year-old students who regularly played a math game during math lessons for 9 weeks. The goal was to explore the relations between (i) some of the "pedagogical principles" that underlie the game and (ii) the "playing practice" in terms of what actually takes place when…

  6. Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26121614

  7. Optimal Parameter Design of Coarse Alignment for Fiber Optic Gyro Inertial Navigation System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Baofeng; Wang, Qiuying; Yu, Chunmei; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two different coarse alignment algorithms for Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) Inertial Navigation System (INS) based on inertial reference frame are discussed in this paper. Both of them are based on gravity vector integration, therefore, the performance of these algorithms is determined by integration time. In previous works, integration time is selected by experience. In order to give a criterion for the selection process, and make the selection of the integration time more accurate, optimal parameter design of these algorithms for FOG INS is performed in this paper. The design process is accomplished based on the analysis of the error characteristics of these two coarse alignment algorithms. Moreover, this analysis and optimal parameter design allow us to make an adequate selection of the most accurate algorithm for FOG INS according to the actual operational conditions. The analysis and simulation results show that the parameter provided by this work is the optimal value, and indicate that in different operational conditions, the coarse alignment algorithms adopted for FOG INS are different in order to achieve better performance. Lastly, the experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26121614

  8. Lens design based on lens form parameters using Gaussian brackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiangyu; Cheng, Xuemin

    2014-11-01

    The optical power distribution and the symmetry of the lens components are two important attributes that decide the ultimate lens performance and characteristics. Lens form parameters W and S are the key criteria describing the two attributes mentioned above. Lens components with smaller W and S will have a good nature of aberration balance and perform well in providing good image quality. Applying the Gaussian brackets, the two lens form parameters and the Seidel Aberration Coefficients are reconstructed. An initial lens structure can be analytically described by simultaneous equations of Seidel Aberration Coefficients and third-order aberration theory. Adding the constraints of parameters W and S in the solving process, a solution with a proper image quality and aberration distribution is achieved. The optical properties and image quality of the system based on the parameters W and S are also analyzed in this article. In the method, the aberration distribution can be controlled to some extent in the beginning of design, so that we can reduce some workload of optimization later.

  9. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations. The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested.

  10. Design Parameters Influencing Reliability of CCGA Assembly: A Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tasooji, Amaneh; Ghaffarian, Reza; Rinaldi, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Area Array microelectronic packages with small pitch and large I/O counts are now widely used in microelectronics packaging. The impact of various package design and materials/process parameters on reliability has been studied through extensive literature review. Reliability of Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) package assemblies has been evaluated using JPL thermal cycle test results (-50(deg)/75(deg)C, -55(deg)/100(deg)C, and -55(deg)/125(deg)C), as well as those reported by other investigators. A sensitivity analysis has been performed using the literature da to study the impact of design parameters and global/local stress conditions on assembly reliability. The applicability of various life-prediction models for CCGA design has been investigated by comparing model's predictions with the experimental thermal cycling data. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis has been conducted to assess the state of the stress/strain in CCGA assembly under different thermal cycling, and to explain the different failure modes and locations observed in JPL test assemblies.

  11. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    PZT ceramics have been widely used in underwater acoustic transducers. However, literature available discussing the design parameters of a miniaturized PZT-based low-duty-cycle transmitter is very limited. This paper discusses some of the design parameters—the backing material, driving voltage, PZT material type, power consumption and the transducer length of a miniaturized acoustic fish tag using a PZT tube. Four different types of PZT were evaluated with respect to the source level, energy consumption and bandwidth of the transducer. The effect of the tube length on the source level is discussed. The results demonstrate that ultralow-density closed-cell foam is the best backing material for the PZT tube. The Navy Type VI PZTs provide the best source level with relatively low energy consumption and that a low transducer capacitance is preferred for high efficiency. A 35% reduction in the transducer length results in 2 dB decrease in source level. PMID:23012534

  12. Design and parameter optimization of flip-chip bonder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyoungsub; Kang, Heuiseok; Jeong, Hoon; Cho, Youngjune; Kim, Wansoo; Kang, Shinill

    2005-12-01

    Bare-chip packaging becomes more popular along with the miniaturization of IT components. In this paper, we have studied flip-chip process, and developed automated bonding system. Among the several bonding method, NCP bonding is chosen and batch-type equipment is manufactured. The dual optics and vision system aligns the chip with the substrate. The bonding head equipped with temperature and force controllers bonds the chip. The system can be easily modified for other bonding methods such as ACF. In bonding process, the bonding force and temperature are known as the most dominant bonding parameters. A parametric study is performed for these two parameters. For the test sample, we used standard flip-chip test kit which consists of FR4 boards and dummy flip-chips. The bonding temperatures are chosen between 25°C to 300°C. The bonding forces are chosen between 5N and 300N. To test the bonding strength, a bonding strength tester was designed and constructed. After the bonding strength test, the samples are examined by microscope to determine the failure mode. The relations between the bonding strength and the bonding parameters are analyzed and compared with bonding models. Finally, the most suitable bonding condition is suggested in terms of temperature and force.

  13. Spiral profile design and parameter analysis of flexure spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, N.; Chen, X.; Wu, Y. N.; Yang, C. G.; Xu, L.

    2006-06-01

    Universal design method of spiral flexure spring has been generalized firstly. Through adjusting the space location of spiral arms together with parameters of individual spiral profile including base radius, involute pitch, involute angle, start angle of involute, width of slot, various spiral flexure springs with different performances can be obtained respectively. Then the finite element program, whose validity has been verified by experimental data, is used to analyze the performance of the flexure spring. Furthermore experimental study of the spring assembly reveals the superimposed effect of stiffness and the antitorque characteristic of spring stack, which had been ignored previously. Finally, in order to get the general relation between the axial stiffness, natural frequency of flexure spring and its geometry parameters, the theoretical model, which is based on the mechanics of material and vibration, has been set up and subsequently solved. The validity of derived expressions has been proved by finite element program and published experiment data respectively. Those induced expressions are more convenient and direct than finite element method and can be served as the guide to designation of flexure spring.

  14. Cold-Crucible Design Parameters for Next Generation HLW Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Richardson, J.; Aloy, A.; Day, D.

    2002-02-26

    The cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) design eliminates many materials and operating constraints inherent in joule-heated melter (JHM) technology, which is the standard for vitrification of high-activity wastes worldwide. The cold-crucible design is smaller, less expensive, and generates much less waste for ultimate disposal. It should also allow a much more flexible operating envelope, which will be crucial if the heterogeneous wastes at the DOE reprocessing sites are to be vitrified. A joule-heated melter operates by passing current between water-cooled electrodes through a molten pool in a refractory-lined chamber. This design is inherently limited by susceptibility of materials to corrosion and melting. In addition, redox conditions and free metal content have exacerbated materials problems or lead to electrical short-circuiting causing failures in DOE melters. In contrast, the CCIM design is based on inductive coupling of a water-cooled high-frequency electrical coil with the glass, causing eddycurrents that produce heat and mixing. A critical difference is that inductance coupling transfers energy through a nonconductive solid layer of slag coating the metal container inside the coil, whereas the jouleheated design relies on passing current through conductive molten glass in direct contact with the metal electrodes and ceramic refractories. The frozen slag in the CCIM design protects the containment and eliminates the need for refractory, while the corrosive molten glass can be the limiting factor in the JH melter design. The CCIM design also eliminates the need for electrodes that typically limit operating temperature to below 1200 degrees C. While significant marketing claims have been made by French and Russian technology suppliers and developers, little data is available for engineering and economic evaluation of the technology, and no facilities are available in the US to support testing. A currently funded project at the Idaho National Engineering

  15. Spacecraft design impacts on the post-Newtonian parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Anja Katharina; et al.

    2015-08-01

    The ESA mission BepiColombo, reaching out to explore the elusive planet Mercury, features unprecedented tracking techniques. The highly precise orbit determination around Mercury is a compelling opportunity for a modern test of General Relativity (GR). Using the software tool GRETCHEN incorporating the Square Root Information Filter (SRIF), MPO's orbit is simulated and the post-Newtonian parameters (PNP) are estimated. In this work, the influence of a specific constraint of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) on the achievable accuracy of the PNP estimates is investigated. The power system design of the spacecraft requires that ±35° around perihelion the Ka transponder needs to be switched off, thus radiometric data is only gathered via X band. This analysis shows the impact of this constraint on the achievable accuracy of PNP estimates. On a bigger scale, if GR shows some violation at a detectable level it inevitably leads to its invalidation.

  16. Performance studies of bulk Micromegas of different design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumdar, N.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sarkar, S.; Colas, P.; Attie, D.

    2014-04-01

    The present work involves the comparison of various bulk Micromegas detectors having different design parameters. Six detectors with amplification gaps of 64,128,192,220μm and mesh hole pitch of 63,78μm were tested at room temperature and normal gas pressure. Two setups were built to evaluate the effect of the variation of the amplification gap and mesh hole pitch on different detector characteristics. The gain, energy resolution and electron transmission of these Micromegas detectors were measured in Argon-Isobutane (90:10) gas mixture while the measurements of the ion backflow were carried out in P10 gas. These measured characteristics have been compared in detail to numerical simulations using the Garfield framework that combines packages such as neBEM, Magboltz and Heed.

  17. Frequency response and design parameters for differential microbarometers.

    PubMed

    Mentink, Johan H; Evers, Läslo G

    2011-07-01

    The study of infrasound is experiencing a renaissance since it was chosen as a verification technique for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Source identification is one of the main topics of research which involves detailed knowledge on the source time function, the atmosphere as medium of propagation, and the measurement system. Applications are also foreseen in using infrasound as passive probe for the upper atmosphere, taking the field beyond its monitoring application. Infrasound can be conveniently measured with differential microbarometers. An accurate description of the instrument response is an essential need to be able to attribute the recorded infrasound to a certain source or atmospheric properties. In this article, a detailed treatment is given of the response of a differential microbarometer to acoustic signals. After an historical introduction, a basic model for the frequency response is derived with its corresponding poles and zeros. The results are explained using electric analogs. In addition, thermal conduction is added to the model in order to capture the transition between adiabatic and isothermal behavior. Also discussed are high-frequency effects and the effect of external temperature variations. Eventually, the design parameters for differential microbarometers are derived. PMID:21786875

  18. Frequency response and design parameters for differential microbarometers.

    PubMed

    Mentink, Johan H; Evers, Läslo G

    2011-07-01

    The study of infrasound is experiencing a renaissance since it was chosen as a verification technique for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Source identification is one of the main topics of research which involves detailed knowledge on the source time function, the atmosphere as medium of propagation, and the measurement system. Applications are also foreseen in using infrasound as passive probe for the upper atmosphere, taking the field beyond its monitoring application. Infrasound can be conveniently measured with differential microbarometers. An accurate description of the instrument response is an essential need to be able to attribute the recorded infrasound to a certain source or atmospheric properties. In this article, a detailed treatment is given of the response of a differential microbarometer to acoustic signals. After an historical introduction, a basic model for the frequency response is derived with its corresponding poles and zeros. The results are explained using electric analogs. In addition, thermal conduction is added to the model in order to capture the transition between adiabatic and isothermal behavior. Also discussed are high-frequency effects and the effect of external temperature variations. Eventually, the design parameters for differential microbarometers are derived.

  19. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N. R.; Brown, N. R.; Baek, J. S; Hanson, A. L.; Cuadra, A.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D. J.

    2014-04-30

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.

  20. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown N. R.; Brown,N.R.; Baek,J.S; Hanson, A.L.; Cuadra,A.; Cheng,L.Y.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-03-31

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. . The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). In addition, a summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented.

  1. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-02

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length of the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.

  2. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and design parameters to be measured or observed, including any interactions between natural and... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132... Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. (a) During repository construction and operation,...

  3. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and design parameters to be measured or observed, including any interactions between natural and... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132... Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. (a) During repository construction and operation,...

  4. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, T L G; Temmink, H; Elissen, H J H; Buisman, C J N

    2010-02-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be determined by the sludge consumption rate per unit of surface area. This design parameter was determined in sequencing batch experiments using sludge from a municipal WWTP. Long-term experiments using carrier materials with 300 and 350 microm mesh sizes showed surface specific consumption rates of 45 and 58 g TSS/(m(2)d), respectively. Using a 350 microm mesh will therefore result in a 29% smaller reactor compared to using a 300 microm mesh. Large differences in consumption rates were found between different sludge types, although it was not clear what caused these differences. Worm biomass growth and decay rate were determined in sequencing batch experiments. The decay rate of 0.023 d(-1) for worms in a carrier material was considerably higher than the decay rate of 0.018 d(-1) for free worms. As a result, the net worm biomass growth rate for free worms of 0.026 d(-1) was much higher than the 0.009-0.011 d(-1) for immobilised worms. Finally, the specific oxygen uptake rate of the worms was determined at 4.9 mg O(2)/(gwwd), which needs to be supplied to the worms by aeration of the water compartment in the worm reactor.

  5. Effect of Process Parameters on Dynamic Mechanical Performance of FDM PC/ABS Printed Parts Through Design of Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Omar Ahmed; Masood, Syed Hasan; Bhowmik, Jahar Lal; Nikzad, Mostafa; Azadmanjiri, Jalal

    2016-07-01

    In fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process, it is often difficult to determine the actual levels of process parameters in order to achieve the best dynamic mechanical properties of FDM manufactured part. This is mainly due to the large number of FDM parameters and a high degree of interaction between the parameters affecting such properties. This requires a large number of experiments to be determined. This paper presents a study on the influence of six FDM process parameters (layer thickness, air gap, raster angle, build orientation, road width, and number of contours) on the dynamic mechanical properties of the FDM manufactured parts using the fraction factorial design. The most influential parameters were statistically obtained through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique, and the results indicate that the layer thickness, the air gap, and the number of contours have the largest impact on dynamic mechanical properties. The optimal parameters for maximum dynamic mechanical properties were found to be layer thickness of 0.3302 mm, air gap of 0.00 mm, raster angle of 0.0°, build orientation of 0.0°, road width of 0.4572 mm, and 10 contours. Finally, a confirmation experiment was performed using optimized levels of process parameters, which showed good fit with the estimated values.

  6. Influence of Gear Design Parameters on Gearbox Radiated Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Valco, Mark J.; Spencer, Robert H.; Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Spur and helical gears were tested in the NASA gear-noise rig to compare the noise produced by different gear designs. Sound power measurements were performed under controlled conditions for a matrix of operating conditions. Sound power was computed from near-field acoustic intensity scans taken just above the top surface of the gearbox. Test gears included four spur and five helical gear designs. The gears were designed to be as nearly identical as possible except for deliberate differences in tooth geometry and contact ratio. Test results are presented as a function of the gear design and operating conditions in the form of sound power charts and as narrow-band spectra.

  7. Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators

    SciTech Connect

    You-Hin Liau

    1982-12-01

    Anthropometric data were collected from 243 workers in a respirator fit-test programme, and an attempt was made to determine a correlation between these data and the Protection Factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing for half-mask respirators. Data were collected for two direct and five indirect facial measurements from front- and side-view slides of test subjects. For analysis, the data were normalized with relevant respirators dimensions (4 brands and 10 sizes). Results of linear regression analysis indicated that correlation coefficients between Protection Factor and anthropometric data (face length, mouth width, face width, nasal root breadth) were, respectively, 0.04, 0.22, 0.30 and 0.04. These correlation coefficients are for white males without facial hair. The analysis showed the 'critical' parameters to be mouth width and face width; however, a person with certain combinations of anthropometric parameters may provide a better correlation with Protection Factor.

  8. Effective Parameters on Seismic Design of Rectangular Underground Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Maddah, N.; Mohebi, B.

    2008-07-08

    Underground structures are a significant part of the transportation in the modern society and in the seismic zones should withstand against both seismic and static loadings. Embedded structures should conform to ground deformations during the earthquake but almost exact evaluation of structure to ground distortion is critical. Several two-dimensional finite difference models are used to find effective parameters on racking ratio (structure to ground distortion) including flexibility ratio, various cross sections, embedment depth, and Poisson's ratio of soil. Results show that influence of different cross sections, by themselves is negligible but embedment depth in addition to flexibility ratio and Poisson's ratio is known as a consequential parameter. A comparison with pseudo-static method (simplified frame analysis) is also performed. The results show that for a stiffer structure than soil, racking ratio decreases as the depth of burial decreases; on the other hand, shallow and flexible structures can suffer greater distortion than deeper ones up to 30 percents.

  9. Using a hybrid approach to optimize experimental network design for aquifer parameter identification.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Hone-Jay; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2010-10-01

    This research develops an optimum design model of groundwater network using genetic algorithm (GA) and modified Newton approach, based on the experimental design conception. The goal of experiment design is to minimize parameter uncertainty, represented by the covariance matrix determinant of estimated parameters. The design problem is constrained by a specified cost and solved by GA and a parameter identification model. The latter estimates optimum parameter value and its associated sensitivity matrices. The general problem is simplified into two classes of network design problems: an observation network design problem and a pumping network design problem. Results explore the relationship between the experimental design and the physical processes. The proposed model provides an alternative to solve optimization problems for groundwater experimental design. PMID:19757116

  10. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'.

  11. Rethinking design parameters in the search for optimal dynamic seating.

    PubMed

    Pynt, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic seating design purports to lessen damage incurred during sedentary occupations by increasing sitter movement while modifying muscle activity. Dynamic sitting is currently defined by O'Sullivan et al. ( 2013a) as relating to 'the increased motion in sitting which is facilitated by the use of specific chairs or equipment' (p. 628). Yet the evidence is conflicting that dynamic seating creates variation in the sitter's lumbar posture or muscle activity with the overall consensus being that current dynamic seating design fails to fulfill its goals. Research is needed to determine if a new generation of chairs requiring active sitter involvement fulfills the goals of dynamic seating and aids cardio/metabolic health. This paper summarises the pursuit of knowledge regarding optimal seated spinal posture and seating design. Four new forms of dynamic seating encouraging active sitting are discussed. These are 1) The Core-flex with a split seatpan to facilitate a walking action while seated 2) the Duo balans requiring body action to create rocking 3) the Back App and 4) Locus pedestal stools both using the sitter's legs to drive movement. Unsubstantiated claims made by the designers of these new forms of dynamic seating are outlined. Avenues of research are suggested to validate designer claims and investigate whether these designs fulfill the goals of dynamic seating and assist cardio/metabolic health. Should these claims be efficacious then a new definition of dynamic sitting is suggested; 'Sitting in which the action is provided by the sitter, while the dynamic mechanism of the chair accommodates that action'. PMID:25892386

  12. Improving the Design of Science Intervention Studies: An Empirical Investigation of Design Parameters for Planning Group Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westine, Carl; Spybrook, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of the field to conduct power analyses for group randomized trials (GRTs) of educational interventions has improved over the past decade (Authors, 2009). However, a power analysis depends on estimates of design parameters. Hence it is critical to build the empirical base of design parameters for GRTs across a variety of outcomes and…

  13. Percutaneous multiple electrode connector, design parameters and fabrication (biomedical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    A percutaneous multielectrode connector was designed which utilizes an ultrapure carbon collar to provide an infection free biocompatible passage through the skin. The device provides reliable electrical continuity, mates and demates readily with the implant, and is fabricated with processes and materials oriented to commercial production.

  14. Data acquisition as a design parameter in the modern AEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1993-04-01

    The components of a modern analytical electron microscope (AEM) are not necessarily optimized. A pessimistic view is presented of an AEM system, particularly on the data acquisition end. The question of how to design the instrument to collect the data efficiently, is considered. Several points for doing this are outlined.

  15. Decoupling interrelated parameters for designing high performance thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chong; Li, Zhou; Li, Kun; Huang, Pengcheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-04-15

    The world's supply of fossil fuels is quickly being exhausted, and the impact of their overuse is contributing to both climate change and global political unrest. In order to help solve these escalating problems, scientists must find a way to either replace combustion engines or reduce their use. Thermoelectric materials have attracted widespread research interest because of their potential applications as clean and renewable energy sources. They are reliable, lightweight, robust, and environmentally friendly and can reversibly convert between heat and electricity. However, after decades of development, the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has been hovering around 10%. This is far below the theoretical predictions, mainly due to the interdependence and coupling between electrical and thermal parameters, which are strongly interrelated through the electronic structure of the materials. Therefore, any strategy that balances or decouples these parameters, in addition to optimizing the materials' intrinsic electronic structure, should be critical to the development of thermoelectric technology. In this Account, we discuss our recently developed strategies to decouple thermoelectric parameters for the synergistic optimization of electrical and thermal transport. We first highlight the phase transition, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of electrical transport, such as with a metal-insulator and semiconductor-superionic conductor transition. This should be a universal and effective strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance, which takes advantage of modulated electronic structure and critical scattering across phase transitions to decouple the power factor and thermal conductivity. We propose that solid-solution homojunction nanoplates with disordered lattices are promising thermoelectric materials to meet the "phonon glass electron crystal" approach. The formation of a solid solution, coupled with homojunctions, allows for

  16. Design parameter analysis of hybrid optimal controlled structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, F.Y.; Tian, P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a hybrid control system composed of an active hydraulic actuator and a passive liquid-mass damper. The system is built with structural bracing and can reduce structural dynamic response by providing passive inertia force, passive damping force and active control force. Fundamental equations governing the hybrid control system are derived and influence parameters are numerically analyzed. Numerical results show that in this hybrid control system the effective liquid-mass plays an important role in reducing structural dynamic response and requiring smaller control forces than either passive or active control system.

  17. Parameters of a Super-B-Factory Design

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Fox, J.D.; Heifets, S.A.; Li, N.; McIntosh, P.A.; Novokhatski, A.; Sullivan, M.K.; Teytelman, D.; Wienands, U.; Biagini, M.E.; /Frascati

    2006-03-03

    Parameters are being studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity in the range of 7 to 10 x 10{sup 35}/cm{sup 2}/s. Particle physics studies dictate that a much higher luminosity collider than the present B-Factory accelerators will be needed to answer future new key physics questions. The success of the present B-Factories, PEP-II and KEKB, in producing unprecedented luminosity with very short commissioning times has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders in a new parameter regime. Such a collider could produce an integrated luminosity of 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year. A Super-B-Factory [1-8] with 30 to 50 times the performance of the present PEP-II accelerator would incorporate a higher frequency RF system, lower impedance vacuum chambers, higher power synchrotron radiation absorbers, and stronger bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The present injector based on the SLAC linac needs no improvements and is ready for the Super-B-Factory.

  18. A Method for Designing CDO Conformed to Investment Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, Tatsuya; Moritsu, Toshiyuki; Komoda, Norihisa

    We propose a method for designing CDO (Collateralized Debt Obligation) that meets investor needs about attributes of CDO. It is demonstrated that adjusting attributes (that are credit capability and issue amount) of CDO to investors' preferences causes a capital loss risk that the agent takes. We formulate a CDO optimization problem by defining an objective function using the above risk and by setting constraints that arise from investor needs and a risk premium that is paid for the agent. Our prototype experiment, in which fictitious underlying obligations and investor needs are given, verifies that CDOs can be designed without opportunity loss and dead stock loss, and that the capital loss is not more than thousandth part of the amount of annual payment under guarantee for small and midium-sized enterprises by a general credit guarantee institution.

  19. Parameter Study of the LIFE Engine Nuclear Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Meier, W R; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P

    2009-07-10

    LLNL is developing the nuclear fusion based Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant concept. The baseline design uses a depleted uranium (DU) fission fuel blanket with a flowing molten salt coolant (flibe) that also breeds the tritium needed to sustain the fusion energy source. Indirect drive targets, similar to those that will be demonstrated on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are ignited at {approx}13 Hz providing a 500 MW fusion source. The DU is in the form of a uranium oxycarbide kernel in modified TRISO-like fuel particles distributed in a carbon matrix forming 2-cm-diameter pebbles. The thermal power is held at 2000 MW by continuously varying the 6Li enrichment in the coolants. There are many options to be considered in the engine design including target yield, U-to-C ratio in the fuel, fission blanket thickness, etc. Here we report results of design variations and compare them in terms of various figures of merit such as time to reach a desired burnup, full-power years of operation, time and maximum burnup at power ramp down and the overall balance of plant utilization.

  20. Telemonitoring of vital parameters with newly designed biomedical clothing.

    PubMed

    Weber, J-L; Blanc, D; Dittmar, A; Comet, B; Corroy, C; Noury, N; Baghai, R; Vaysse, S; Blinowska, A

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of biomedical clothing for ambulatory telemonitoring of human vital parameters. VTAM (Vetement de Tele-Assistance Medicale) presents a T-shirt made from textile with woven wires and incorporating four smooth dry ECG electrodes, a breath rate sensor, a shock/fall detector and two temperature sensors. The garment is equipped for the signal pre-computing and transmission through a miniature GSM/GPRS module kept on a belt together with the power supply. Three VTAM prototypes have been tested on persons in a normal state of health using a medical protocol to assess the biomedical data that include an ECG reading, a pneumogram, temperature and fall detection in mobile situations.

  1. Comparison of process parameter optimization using different designs in nanoemulsion-based formulation for transdermal delivery of fullerene.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Cheng Loong; Basri, Mahiran; Lye, Fui Fang; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Tripathy, Minaketan; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to formulate and to optimize a nanoemulsion-based formulation containing fullerene, an antioxidant, stabilized by a low amount of mixed surfactants using high shear and the ultrasonic emulsification method for transdermal delivery. Process parameters optimization of fullerene nanoemulsions was done by employing response surface methodology, which involved statistical multivariate analysis. Optimization of independent variables was investigated using experimental design based on Box-Behnken design and central composite rotatable design. An investigation on the effect of the homogenization rate (4,000-5,000 rpm), sonication amplitude (20%-60%), and sonication time (30-150 seconds) on the particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the colloidal systems was conducted. Under the optimum conditions, the central composite rotatable design model suggested the response variables for particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the fullerene nanoemulsion were 152.5 nm, -52.6 mV, and 44.6 pascal seconds, respectively. In contrast, the Box-Behnken design model proposed that preparation under the optimum condition would produce nanoemulsion with particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of 148.5 nm, -55.2 mV, and 39.9 pascal seconds, respectively. The suggested process parameters to obtain optimum formulation by both models yielded actual response values similar to the predicted values with residual standard error of <2%. The optimum formulation showed more elastic and solid-like characteristics due to the existence of a large linear viscoelastic region. PMID:25258528

  2. Inherent uncertainties in meteorological parameters for wind turbine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Major difficulties associated with meteorological measurments such as the inability to duplicate the experimental conditions from one day to the next are discussed. This lack of consistency is compounded by the stochastic nature of many of the meteorological variables of interest. Moreover, simple relationships derived in one location may be significantly altered by topographical or synoptic differences encountered at another. The effect of such factors is a degree of inherent uncertainty if an attempt is made to describe the atmosphere in terms of universal laws. Some of these uncertainties and their causes are examined, examples are presented and some implications for wind turbine design are suggested.

  3. Understanding facilities design parameters for a remanufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Aysegul; Cullinane, Thomas

    2005-11-01

    Remanufacturing is rapidly becoming a very important element in the economies of the world. Products such as washing machines, clothes driers, automobile parts, cell phones and a wide range of consumer durable goods are being reclaimed and sent through processes that restore these products to levels of operating performance that are as good or better than their new product performance. The operations involved in the remanufacturing process add several new dimensions to the work that must be performed. Disassembly is an operation that rarely appears on the operations chart of a typical production facility. The inspection and test functions in remanufacturing most often involve several more tasks than those involved in the first time manufacturing cycle. A close evaluation of most any remanufacturing operation reveals several points in the process in which parts must be cleaned, tested and stored. Although several researchers have focused their work on optimizing the disassembly function and the inspection, test and store functions, very little research has been devoted to studying the impact of the facilities design on the effectiveness of the remanufacturing process. The purpose of this paper will be to delineate the differences between first time manufacturing operations and remanufacturing operations for durable goods and to identify the features of the facilities design that must be considered if the remanufacturing operations are to be effective.

  4. Design parameters for carbon nanobottles to absorb and store methane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard K F; Hill, James M

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the internal mechanics for methane storage in a nanobottle, which is assumed to comprise a metallofullerene located inside a carbon nanobottle, which is constructed from a half-fullerene as the base, and two nanotubes which are joined by a nanocone. The interaction potential energy for the metallofullerene is obtained from the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approximation, which assumes that a discrete atomic structure can be replaced by an average atomic surface density. This potential energy shows that the metallofullerene has two minimum energy positions, which are located close to the neck of the bottle and at the base of the nanobottle, and therefore it may be used as a bottle-stopper to open or to close the nanobottle. At the neck of the bottle, the encapsulated metallofullerene closes the nanobottle, and by applying an external electrical force, the metallofullerene can overcome the energy barrier of the nanotube, and pass from the neck of the nanobottle to the base so that the nanobottle is open. For methane storage, the metallofullerene serves the dual purposes of opening and closing the nanobottle, as well as an attractor for the methane gas. The analytical formulation gives rise to a rapid computational capacity, and enables the direct determination of the optimal dimensions necessary to ensure the correct working function of the nanobottle, and specific ranges for the critical parameters are formulated. PMID:22103096

  5. Landing on Enceladus: Mission Design Parameters and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    Since Cassini/Huygens mission results revealed the intriguing nature of Enceladus, scientists have discussed various ways to obtain more detailed information about the south-polar geysers and subsurface conditions that produce them. This includes potential science instruments and investigations, and also the kinds of spacecraft platforms that could deliver and support the instruments. The three most commonly discussed platforms are Saturn orbiters that perform multiple close Enceladus flybys, Enceladus orbiters, and landers (soft or hard). Some high-value science investigations, such as producing an accurate description of the gravity field to infer internal structure, are best done from an orbiter. Some, such as seismic investigations, can be done only with a landed package. Unlike larger satellites such as Europa and Ganymede, Enceladus's low mass yields low surface gravity (~0.11 m/s2), low orbital speeds (<200 m/s), and other mission design characteristics that make it a manageable destination for a practical, high-value lander mission. The main mission design challenge is deceleration from Enceladus approach to a direct landing approach or orbit insertion. A Hohmann transfer from Titan approaches Enceladus with a V- infinity of >4 km/s, most of which would have to be decelerated away propulsively - a sizeable, multi-stage task for current propulsion systems - if no gravity-assist pump-down is used. Preliminary conclusions from JPL mission designers suggest that a pump-down tour could reduce that V-infinity to 2 km/s or less, possibly as little as 1 km/s if a lengthy pump-down is tolerable (Strange, Russell, and Lam, 2006). Once in orbit, landing from a moderately stable, 100-km circular orbit can be accomplished with as little as 210 m/s delta-V, a relatively simple task for a simple propulsion system. Temporary use of marginally stable orbits could reduce that figure. Low surface gravity allows use of small, light thrusters and provides ample reaction time

  6. The Design Parameters for the MICE Tracker Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Chen, C.Y.; Juang, Tiki; Lau, Wing W.; Taylor,Clyde; Virostek, Steve P.; Wahrer, Robert; Wang, S.T.; Witte, Holger; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-08-20

    The first superconducting magnets to be installed in the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) will be the tracker solenoids. The tracker solenoid module is a five coil superconducting solenoid with a 400 mm diameter warm bore that is used to provide a 4 T magnetic field for the experiment tracker module. Three of the coils are used to produce a uniform field (up to 4 T with better than 1 percent uniformity) in a region that is 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long. The other two coils are used to match the muon beam into the MICE cooling channel. Two 2.94-meter long superconducting tracker solenoid modules have been ordered for MICE. The tracker solenoid will be cooled using two-coolers that produce 1.5 W each at 4.2 K. The magnet system is described. The decisions that drive the magnet design will be discussed in this report.

  7. Learning Effects in the Block Design Task: A Stimulus Parameter-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joseph C.; Ruthig, Joelle C.; Bradley, April R.; Wise, Richard A.; Pedersen, Heather A.; Ellison, Jo M.

    2009-01-01

    Learning effects were assessed for the block design (BD) task, on the basis of variation in 2 stimulus parameters: perceptual cohesiveness (PC) and set size uncertainty (U). Thirty-one nonclinical undergraduate students (19 female) each completed 3 designs for each of 4 varied sets of the stimulus parameters (high-PC/high-U, high-PC/low-U,…

  8. Structural Design Parameters for Highly Birefringent Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John R; Katz, Michael J; Williams, Vance E; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2015-07-01

    A series of coordination polymer materials incorporating the highly anisotropic 2-(2-pyridyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (phenpy) building block have been synthesized and structurally characterized. M(phenpy)[Au(CN)2]2 (M = Cd, Mn) are isostructural and form a 1-D chain through bridging [Au(CN)2](-) units and extend into a 2-D sheet through aurophilic interactions. M(phenpy)(H2O)[Au(CN)2]2·2H2O (M = Cd, Mn, and Zn) are also isostructural but differ from the first set via the inclusion of a water molecule into the coordination sphere, resulting in a 1-D topology through aurophilic interactions. In(phenpy)(Cl)2[Au(CN)2]·0.5H2O forms a dimer through bridging chlorides and contains a free [Au(CN)2](-) unit. In the plane of the primary crystal growth direction, the birefringence values (Δn) of 0.37(2) (Cd(phenpy)[Au(CN)2]2), 0.50(3) (In(phenpy)(Cl)2[Au(CN)2]·0.5H2O), 0.56(3) and 0.59(6) (M(phenpy)(H2O)[Au(CN)2]2·2H2O M = Cd and Zn, respectively) were determined. β, a structural parameter defined by phenpy units rotated in the A-C plane relative to the light propagation (C) direction, was found to correlate to Δn magnitudes. The addition of a carbon-carbon double bond to terpy has increased the molecular polarizability anisotropy of the building block, and all structures have reduced deviation from planarity in comparison to terpy and terpy derivative structures, leading to these higher Δn values, which are among the highest reported for crystalline solids. PMID:26098267

  9. Invisible cloak design with controlled constitutive parameters and arbitrary shaped boundaries through Helmholtz's equation: comment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Jin; Hu, Gengkai

    2010-02-15

    In a recent paper, Chen et al. [Opt. Express 17, 3581 (2009)] develop an approach to design invisible cloaks with controllable constitutive parameters by adjusting the constant k in the Helmholtz's equation. In this comment, we discuss the limitation of the free parameter k in designing cloaks. It is found that the real constant k can be chosen only as limited values in order to avoid the singular material parameters. PMID:20389403

  10. Structural modelling and control design under incomplete parameter information: The maximum-entropy approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    A stochastic structural control model is described. In contrast to the customary deterministic model, the stochastic minimum data/maximum entropy model directly incorporates the least possible a priori parameter information. The approach is to adopt this model as the basic design model, thus incorporating the effects of parameter uncertainty at a fundamental level, and design mean-square optimal controls (that is, choose the control law to minimize the average of a quadratic performance index over the parameter ensemble).

  11. Accuracy in parameter estimation in cluster randomized designs.

    PubMed

    Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud; Schneider, W Joel

    2014-09-01

    When planning to conduct a study, not only is it important to select a sample size that will ensure adequate statistical power, often it is important to select a sample size that results in accurate effect size estimates. In cluster-randomized designs (CRD), such planning presents special challenges. In CRD studies, instead of assigning individual objects to treatment conditions, objects are grouped in clusters, and these clusters are then assigned to different treatment conditions. Sample size in CRD studies is a function of 2 components: the number of clusters and the cluster size. Planning to conduct a CRD study is difficult because 2 distinct sample size combinations might be associated with similar costs but can result in dramatically different levels of statistical power and accuracy in effect size estimation. Thus, we present a method that assists researchers in finding the least expensive sample size combination that still results in adequate accuracy in effect size estimation. Alternatively, if researchers have a fixed budget, they can select the sample size combination that results in the most precise estimate of effect size. A free computer program that automates these procedures is available. PMID:25046449

  12. The slope parameter approach to marine cathodic protection design and its application to impressed current systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartt, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    The recently developed slope parameter approach to design of galvanic anode cathodic protection (cp) systems for marine structures constitutes an advancement in this technology compared to current practice, primarily because the former is first principles based and the latter is an empirical algorithm. In this paper, the slope parameter approach is reviewed; and related applications for which it can be utilized, including (1) design of new and retrofit cp systems, (2) evaluation of potential survey data, and (3) cp system design for complex geometries, are mentioned. The design current density is identified as the single remaining parameter for which values must be projected solely by experience or experimentation. In addition, the slope parameter approach is applied to the results of impressed current cp experiments, and it is shown how parameters for this can be interrelated with those of galvanic anode cp. Advantages of this capability are identified and discussed.

  13. A Methodology for Evaluating Technical Performance Parameter Design Margins to Control Earth and Space Science Instrument Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones-Selden, Felicia L.

    Costs of aerospace missions have increased over the last twenty years, placing the future of the space program in jeopardy. A potential source for such growth can be attributed to the complex multidisciplinary and challenging nature of earth and space science instrument development. Design margins are additional resources carried in technical performance parameters to mitigate uncertainties throughout the product lifecycle. Margins are traditionally derived and allocated based upon historical experience intrinsic to organizations, as opposed to quantitative methods, jeopardizing the development of low-cost space-based instruments. This dissertation utilizes a methodology to evaluate the interrelationships between pre-launch and actual launch margins for the key technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate to identify the extent to which excessive or insufficient margins are used in the design of space-based instruments in an effort to control instrument cost growth. The research examined 62 space-based instruments from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, and universities. Statistical analysis consisting of paired t-tests and multiple linear regression were utilized to determine the degree to which space-based instruments are over or under designed by the use of excessive or insufficient design margins and to determine the effect of design margins for the technical performance parameters of mass, power, and data-rate on the percentage instrument cost growth from the preliminary design phase to launch. Findings confirm, that in the implementation of space-based instruments, design margins are allocated to technical performance parameters above suggested government/industry standards, impacting the development of low-cost space-based instruments. The findings provide senior leadership, systems engineers, project managers, and resource managers with the ability to determine where

  14. Algorithms of D-optimal designs for Morgan Mercer Flodin (MMF) models with three parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiharih, Tatik; Haryatmi, Sri; Gunardi, Wilandari, Yuciana

    2016-02-01

    Morgan Mercer Flodin (MMF) model is used in many areas including biological growth studies, animal and husbandry, chemistry, finance, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Locally D-optimal designs for Morgan Mercer Flodin (MMF) models with three parameters are investigated. We used the Generalized Equivalence Theorem of Kiefer and Wolvowitz to determine D-optimality criteria. Number of roots for standardized variance are determined using Tchebysheff system concept and it is used to decide that the design is minimally supported design. In these models, designs are minimally supported designs with uniform weight on its support, and the upper bound of the design region is a support point.

  15. Determination of representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints for knee joint implant design.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dai Soon; Tao, Quang Bang; Todo, Mitsugu; Jeon, Insu

    2012-05-01

    Knee joint implants developed by western companies have been imported to Korea and used for Korean patients. However, many clinical problems occur in knee joints of Korean patients after total knee joint replacement owing to the geometric mismatch between the western implants and Korean knee joint structures. To solve these problems, a method to determine the representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints is introduced to aid in the design of knee joint implants appropriate for Korean patients. Measurements of the dimension parameters of 88 male Korean knee joint subjects were carried out. The distribution of the subjects versus each measured parameter value was investigated. The measured dimension parameter values of each parameter were grouped by suitable intervals called the "size group," and average values of the size groups were calculated. The knee joint subjects were grouped as the "patient group" based on "size group numbers" of each parameter. From the iterative calculations to decrease the errors between the average dimension parameter values of each "patient group" and the dimension parameter values of the subjects, the average dimension parameter values that give less than the error criterion were determined to be the representative dimension parameter values for designing knee joint implants for Korean patients.

  16. Comparison of process parameter optimization using different designs in nanoemulsion-based formulation for transdermal delivery of fullerene

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Cheng Loong; Basri, Mahiran; Lye, Fui Fang; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Tripathy, Minaketan; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to formulate and to optimize a nanoemulsion-based formulation containing fullerene, an antioxidant, stabilized by a low amount of mixed surfactants using high shear and the ultrasonic emulsification method for transdermal delivery. Process parameters optimization of fullerene nanoemulsions was done by employing response surface methodology, which involved statistical multivariate analysis. Optimization of independent variables was investigated using experimental design based on Box–Behnken design and central composite rotatable design. An investigation on the effect of the homogenization rate (4,000–5,000 rpm), sonication amplitude (20%–60%), and sonication time (30–150 seconds) on the particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the colloidal systems was conducted. Under the optimum conditions, the central composite rotatable design model suggested the response variables for particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the fullerene nanoemulsion were 152.5 nm, −52.6 mV, and 44.6 pascal seconds, respectively. In contrast, the Box–Behnken design model proposed that preparation under the optimum condition would produce nanoemulsion with particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of 148.5 nm, −55.2 mV, and 39.9 pascal seconds, respectively. The suggested process parameters to obtain optimum formulation by both models yielded actual response values similar to the predicted values with residual standard error of <2%. The optimum formulation showed more elastic and solid-like characteristics due to the existence of a large linear viscoelastic region. PMID:25258528

  17. A Study on Design Concept for a Braille Tactile Sensor Segment Using Softness Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhongwei; Arabshahi, Sayyed Alireza; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    The purpose of this report is to introduce and discuss about the design parameters for a segment of a tactile sensor reading one dot of a Braille alphabet. A sensor segment consisting of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film sandwiched between two elastic materials is designed. Experiments and simulations are used to define and examine the design parameters. With regards to the sensor structure, Free and Clamped boundary conditions are presented and the relevant equations containing the design parameters, e.g. “bending softness”, are derived. Applying different materials and thicknesses for layers surrounding the PVDF film, simulations are used to quantize the approximate values for each design parameter. The results show that the output of sensor is mostly dependent on the bending effect near the PVDF layer, and the structure encouraging more bending produces higher output. Finally, it is concluded that the real sensor has a structure which is between Free and Clamped boundary conditions, therefore design parameters are modified to compromise between the two cases and optimum values are presented.

  18. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report by Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SCC), entitled ''Design Parameters and Source Terms for a Two-Phase Repository Salt,'' 1985, to the level of the Site Characterization Plan - Conceptual Design Report. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible Salt Repository sites. 2 tabs.

  19. Design parameters for toroidal and bobbin magnetics. [conversion from English to metric units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    The adoption by NASA of the metric system for dimensioning to replace long-used English units imposes a requirement on the U.S. transformer designer to convert from the familiar units to the less familiar metric equivalents. Material is presented to assist in that transition in the field of transformer design and fabrication. The conversion data makes it possible for the designer to obtain a fast and close approximation of significant parameters such as size, weight, and temperature rise. Nomographs are included to provide a close approximation for breadboarding purposes. For greater convenience, derivations of some of the parameters are also presented.

  20. Design of Si-photonic structures to evaluate their radiation hardness dependence on design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, M.; Detraz, S.; Olantera, L.; Pezzullo, G.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Sigaud, C.; Soos, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.

    2016-01-01

    Particle detectors for future experiments at the HL-LHC will require new optical data transmitters that can provide high data rates and be resistant against high levels of radiation. Furthermore, new design paths for future optical readout systems for HL-LHC could be opened if there was a possibility to integrate the optical components with their driving electronics and possibly also the silicon particle sensors themselves. All these functionalities could potentially be combined in the silicon photonics technology which currently receives a lot of attention for conventional optical link systems. Silicon photonic test chips were designed in order to assess the suitability of this technology for deployment in high-energy physics experiments. The chips contain custom-designed Mach-Zehnder modulators, pre-designed ``building-block'' modulators, photodiodes and various other passive test structures. The simulation and design flow of the custom designed Mach-Zehnder modulators and some first measurement results of the chips are presented.

  1. Development of a parameter optimization technique for the design of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Parameter optimization techniques for the design of linear automatic control systems that are applicable to both continuous and digital systems are described. The model performance index is used as the optimization criterion because of the physical insight that can be attached to it. The design emphasis is to start with the simplest system configuration that experience indicates would be practical. Design parameters are specified, and a digital computer program is used to select that set of parameter values which minimizes the performance index. The resulting design is examined, and complexity, through the use of more complex information processing or more feedback paths, is added only if performance fails to meet operational specifications. System performance specifications are assumed to be such that the desired step function time response of the system can be inferred.

  2. Correlation of mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser performance with laser design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, R. P.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Lascola, K. M.; Towner, F. J.; Pham, J. T.; Bruno, J. D.; Gmachl, C. F.; Liu, P. Q.

    2012-06-01

    Several different quantum-cascade (QC) laser designs spanning the wavelength range between ~3.8 and ~4.8 microns were grown, and devices were fabricated and tested. The active regions of these designs consist of strained layers of (In,Ga)As and (In,Al)As. For several of these designs, we varied design parameters including injector doping, sectioncoupling strength, and the number of QC laser periods. Lasers were tested near room temperature under both quasi-cw and low-duty-cycle conditions. Device performance is compared with theoretical expectations, and conclusions are reached on the relative merit of various design modifications.

  3. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Broken Power Law Spectral Parameters with Detector Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Leonard W.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum likelihood procedure is developed for estimating the three spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses and their statistical properties investigated. The estimation procedure is then generalized for application to real cosmic-ray data. To illustrate the procedure and its utility, analytical methods were developed in conjunction with a Monte Carlo simulation to explore the combination of the expected cosmic-ray environment with a generic space-based detector and its planned life cycle, allowing us to explore various detector features and their subsequent influence on estimating the spectral parameters. This study permits instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.

  4. Optimization of design parameters for bulk micromachined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belwanshi, Vinod; Topkar, Anita

    2016-05-01

    Finite element analysis study has been carried out to optimize the design parameters for bulk micro-machined silicon membranes for piezoresistive pressure sensing applications. The design is targeted for measurement of pressure up to 200 bar for nuclear reactor applications. The mechanical behavior of bulk micro-machined silicon membranes in terms of deflection and stress generation has been simulated. Based on the simulation results, optimization of the membrane design parameters in terms of length, width and thickness has been carried out. Subsequent to optimization of membrane geometrical parameters, the dimensions and location of the high stress concentration region for implantation of piezoresistors have been obtained for sensing of pressure using piezoresistive sensing technique.

  5. Theoretical determination of design parameters for an arrayed heat sink with vertical plate fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shiang-Jiun; Chen, Yi-Jin

    2016-05-01

    This paper employs theoretical approach to determine the adequate design parameters of an arrayed plate-fins heat sink based on maximizing heat flow. According to analyzed results, increasing the dimensions of configurative parameters does not always yield the significant increase in the heat flow. As the fin length and fin space increases until a critical value, the heat flow will significantly reduce the increment or decay, respectively.

  6. Form and Actuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    A basic choice underlies physics. It consists of banishing actual situations from theoretical descriptions, in order to reach a universal formal construct. Actualities are then thought of as mere local appearances of a transcendent reality supposedly described by the formal construct. Despite its impressive success, this method has left major loopholes in the foundations of science. In this paper, I document two of these loopholes. One is the problem of time asymmetry in statistical thermodynamics, and the other is the measurement problem of quantum mechanics. Then, adopting a broader philosophical standpoint, I try to turn the whole picture upside down. Here, full priority is given to actuality (construed as a mode of the immanent reality self-reflectively being itself) over formal constructs. The characteristic aporias of this variety of "Copernican revolution" are discussed.

  7. Optimal input design for aircraft parameter estimation using dynamic programming principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Morelli, Eugene A.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.

  8. Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1990-01-01

    A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.

  9. Multiobjective sampling design for parameter estimation and model discrimination in groundwater solute transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopman, D.S.; Voss, C.I.

    1989-01-01

    Optimal design of a sampling network is a sequential process in which the next phase of sampling is designed on the basis of all available physical knowledge of the system. Three objectives are considered: model discrimination, parameter estimation, and cost minimization. For the first two objectives, physically based measures of the value of information obtained from a set of observations are specified. In model discrimination, value of information of an observation point is measured in terms of the difference in solute concentration predicted by hypothesized models of transport. Points of greatest difference in predictions can contribute the most information to the discriminatory power of a sampling design. Sensitivity of solute concentration to a change in a parameter contributes information on the relative variance of a parameter estimate. Inclusion of points in a sampling design with high sensitivities to parameters tends to reduce variance in parameter estimates. Cost minimization accounts for both the capital cost of well installation and the operating costs of collection and analysis of field samples. -from Authors

  10. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Broken Power Law Spectral Parameters with Detector Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Leonard W.

    2002-01-01

    The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate broken power law spectral parameters from real cosmic-ray data sets.

  11. Invisible cloak design with controlled constitutive parameters and arbitrary shaped boundaries through Helmholtz's equation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Fu, Yunqi; Yuan, Naichang

    2009-03-01

    An approach to design an invisible cloak with controlled constitutive parameters and arbitrary shaped boundaries is presented. Helmholtz's equation is adopted to establish a mapping between original and transformed coordinates inside the cloak. Then the constitutive parameters are obtained by the established mapping. The analytical solution of a regular cloak and the numerical solution of an irregular cloak both verify that that our method will guide electromagnetic wave efficiently and control the constitutive parameters of the cloak conveniently. It has great significance in realizing a cloak practically. PMID:19259197

  12. Influence of regenerator matrix and working fluid on optimisation of design parameters of Stirling cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atrey, M. D.; Bapat, S. L.; Narayankhedkar, K. G.

    The performance of Stirling cryocooler is governed by principal designparameters. The optimum combination of these design parameters gives maximum refrigeration effect and minimum desired efforts. The performance of the cryocooler depends significantly on the regenerator functioning and the working fluids. The mesh size of the regenerator affects dead space, pressure drop, regenerator effectiveness, etc. The working fluids differ in their thermal properties and therefore affect the performance significantly, The present paper aims to study the influence of regenerator matrix and working fluids on these design parameters. The matrix material considered is Phosphor Bronze while the working fluids considered are Helium and Hydrogen.

  13. Optimisation of the design parameters of a reflection geometry time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sankari, M.; Suryanarayana, M.V.

    1996-12-31

    Optimisation of the design parameters for a reflectron geometry time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS) has been done by a simplex optimisation method based on a Nelder-Mead Algorithm. The space and energy resolutions obtained are 6100 and 7400, respectively, for mass 200 amu. The resolution is quite adequate for all the applications of RIMS. A high resolution reflectron geometry time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOFMS) for resonance ionisation mass spectrometer (RIMS) is being fabricated, based on these optimised design parameters. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Analysis of young male anthropometric parameters for design of driving and operations in cars].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yulin; Zhou, Qianxiang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Chunhui; Cai, Gui

    2012-06-01

    Fitting formulas of typical parameters were obtained through analysis of anthropometric parameters of armored car driver and operators. These formulas could be a basis for design of product and equipment of cars, cumulating and updating of basic data of similar sample and edition of relative standards. 76 anthropometric static parameters and 11 functional parameters were chosen, and 1 243 soldiers with armored forces were chosen to be tested. The correlation and fitting formulas of body height, sitting height and other parameters were measured and obtained. We also contrasted measured data with data from GJB1835-1993. The present analysis showed that the correlation between sizes of body length and body height and sitting height was significant. Sizes of body length and enclose size and width direction were all increased compared to those in the 1980s. The present results were consistent with other researchers' current research results. The measured data could be an important basis for the data of young male anthropometric parameters and edition of relative standards and design of specific equipment.

  15. Design parameters of paraboloid-hyperboloid telescopes for X-ray astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L. P.; Chase, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic evaluation has been made of the principal optical properties of paraboloid-hyperboloid X-ray telescopes using a ray-tracing procedure. It has been found that the results obtained for resolution, focal plane curvature, and finite source distance effects may be approximated in terms of the design parameters by simple empirical formulas.

  16. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  17. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  18. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  19. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...

  20. Ditching Investigations of Dynamic Models and Effects of Design Parameters on Ditching Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J; Hoffman, Edward L

    1958-01-01

    Data from ditching investigations conducted at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory with dynamic scale models of various airplanes are presented in the form of tables. The effects of design parameters on the ditching characteristics of airplanes, based on scale-model investigations and on reports of full-scale ditchings, are discussed. Various ditching aids are also discussed as a means of improving ditching behavior.

  1. Estimating Cosmic-Ray Spectral Parameters from Simulated Detector Responses with Detector Design Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, L. W.

    2001-04-01

    A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index (alpha-1) is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 1013 eV, with a transition at knee energy (Ek) to a steeper spectral index alpha-2 > alpha-1 above Ek. The maximum likelihood procedure is developed for estimating these three spectral parameters of the broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. These estimates and their surrounding statistical uncertainty are being used to derive the requirements in energy resolution, calorimeter size, and energy response of a proposed sampling calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). This study thereby permits instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.

  2. User's manual for an aerodynamic optimization scheeme that updates flow variables and design parameters simultaneously

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizk, Magdi H.

    1988-01-01

    This user's manual is presented for an aerodynamic optimization program that updates flow variables and design parameters simultaneously. The program was developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations. The program was tested by applying it to the problem of optimizing propeller designs. Some reference to this particular application is therefore made in the manual. However, the optimization scheme is suitable for application to general aerodynamic design problems. A description of the approach used in the optimization scheme is first presented, followed by a description of the use of the program.

  3. Intelligent, Robust Control of Deteriorated Turbofan Engines via Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.

  4. Interdependence of parameters important to the design of subsonic canard-configured aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feistel, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the interrelationship of the longitudinal parameters important to the aerodynamic design of an efficient canard or tandem wing configuration. It is shown that theoretical configuration span efficiencies substantially greater than one are feasible with the proper choice of parameters. This improvement can translate into significantly increased lift/drag ratios assuming fixed spans. The Prandtl-Munk relationship for induced drag is used as a convenient qualitative guide, with stability and trim criteria superimposed. An 'aspect-ratio ratio' parameter is introduced to aid in optimizing a configuration longitudinally. It is shown that a canard/wing 'aspect-ratio ratio' of approximately 3/2 to 2 is necessary to achieve peak span efficiency for a given span ratio and gap, assuming representative parameters.

  5. Correlation of Electric Field and Critical Design Parameters for Ferroelectric Tunable Microwave Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanyam, Guru; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Miranda, Felix A.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2000-01-01

    The correlation of electric field and critical design parameters such as the insertion loss, frequency ability return loss, and bandwidth of conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric microstrip tunable K-band microwave filters is discussed in this work. This work is based primarily on barium strontium titanate (BSTO) ferroelectric thin film based tunable microstrip filters for room temperature applications. Two new parameters which we believe will simplify the evaluation of ferroelectric thin films for tunable microwave filters, are defined. The first of these, called the sensitivity parameter, is defined as the incremental change in center frequency with incremental change in maximum applied electric field (EPEAK) in the filter. The other, the loss parameter, is defined as the incremental or decremental change in insertion loss of the filter with incremental change in maximum applied electric field. At room temperature, the Au/BSTO/LAO microstrip filters exhibited a sensitivity parameter value between 15 and 5 MHz/cm/kV. The loss parameter varied for different bias configurations used for electrically tuning the filter. The loss parameter varied from 0.05 to 0.01 dB/cm/kV at room temperature.

  6. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Harvey, Judson W.

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI>>1.0), solute exchange

  7. Experimental design for estimating parameters of rate-limited mass transfer: Analysis of stream tracer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.; Harvey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Tracer experiments are valuable tools for analyzing the transport characteristics of streams and their interactions with shallow groundwater. The focus of this work is the design of tracer studies in high-gradient stream systems subject to advection, dispersion, groundwater inflow, and exchange between the active channel and zones in surface or subsurface water where flow is stagnant or slow moving. We present a methodology for (1) evaluating and comparing alternative stream tracer experiment designs and (2) identifying those combinations of stream transport properties that pose limitations to parameter estimation and therefore a challenge to tracer test design. The methodology uses the concept of global parameter uncertainty analysis, which couples solute transport simulation with parameter uncertainty analysis in a Monte Carlo framework. Two general conclusions resulted from this work. First, the solute injection and sampling strategy has an important effect on the reliability of transport parameter estimates. We found that constant injection with sampling through concentration rise, plateau, and fall provided considerably more reliable parameter estimates than a pulse injection across the spectrum of transport scenarios likely encountered in high-gradient streams. Second, for a given tracer test design, the uncertainties in mass transfer and storage-zone parameter estimates are strongly dependent on the experimental Damkohler number, DaI, which is a dimensionless combination of the rates of exchange between the stream and storage zones, the stream-water velocity, and the stream reach length of the experiment. Parameter uncertainties are lowest at DaI values on the order of 1.0. When DaI values are much less than 1.0 (owing to high velocity, long exchange timescale, and/or short reach length), parameter uncertainties are high because only a small amount of tracer interacts with storage zones in the reach. For the opposite conditions (DaI >> 1.0), solute exchange

  8. Controller design for wind turbine load reduction via multiobjective parameter synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, A. F.; Weiβ, F. A.

    2016-09-01

    During the design process for a wind turbine load reduction controller many different, sometimes conflicting requirements must be fulfilled simultaneously. If the requirements can be expressed as mathematical criteria, such a design problem can be solved by a criterion-vector and multi-objective design optimization. The software environment MOPS (Multi-Objective Parameter Synthesis) supports the engineer for such a design optimization. In this paper MOPS is applied to design a multi-objective load reduction controller for the well-known DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine. A significant reduction in the fatigue criteria especially the blade damage can be reached by the use of an additional Individual Pitch Controller (IPC) and an additional tower damper. This reduction is reached as a trade-off with an increase of actuator load.

  9. Design of experiments for measuring heat-transfer coefficients with a lumped-parameter calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to determine optimum experimental conditions for using a lumped-parameter calorimeter to measure heat-transfer coefficients and heating rates. A mathematical model of the transient temperature response of the calorimeter was used with the measured temperature response to predict the heat-transfer coefficient and the rate of heating. A sensitivity analysis was used to determine the optimum transient experiment for simultaneously measuring the heat addition during heating and the convective heat-transfer coefficient during heating and cooling of a lumped-parameter calorimeter. Optimum experiments were also designed for measuring the convective heat-transfer coefficient during both heating and cooling and cooling only.

  10. Inferring the temperature dependence of population parameters: the effects of experimental design and inference algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Palamara, Gian Marco; Childs, Dylan Z; Clements, Christopher F; Petchey, Owen L; Plebani, Marco; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying the temperature dependence of population parameters, such as intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity, is critical for predicting the ecological responses to environmental change. Many studies provide empirical estimates of such temperature dependencies, but a thorough investigation of the methods used to infer them has not been performed yet. We created artificial population time series using a stochastic logistic model parameterized with the Arrhenius equation, so that activation energy drives the temperature dependence of population parameters. We simulated different experimental designs and used different inference methods, varying the likelihood functions and other aspects of the parameter estimation methods. Finally, we applied the best performing inference methods to real data for the species Paramecium caudatum. The relative error of the estimates of activation energy varied between 5% and 30%. The fraction of habitat sampled played the most important role in determining the relative error; sampling at least 1% of the habitat kept it below 50%. We found that methods that simultaneously use all time series data (direct methods) and methods that estimate population parameters separately for each temperature (indirect methods) are complementary. Indirect methods provide a clearer insight into the shape of the functional form describing the temperature dependence of population parameters; direct methods enable a more accurate estimation of the parameters of such functional forms. Using both methods, we found that growth rate and carrying capacity of Paramecium caudatum scale with temperature according to different activation energies. Our study shows how careful choice of experimental design and inference methods can increase the accuracy of the inferred relationships between temperature and population parameters. The comparison of estimation methods provided here can increase the accuracy of model predictions, with important

  11. Inferring the temperature dependence of population parameters: the effects of experimental design and inference algorithm.

    PubMed

    Palamara, Gian Marco; Childs, Dylan Z; Clements, Christopher F; Petchey, Owen L; Plebani, Marco; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying the temperature dependence of population parameters, such as intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity, is critical for predicting the ecological responses to environmental change. Many studies provide empirical estimates of such temperature dependencies, but a thorough investigation of the methods used to infer them has not been performed yet. We created artificial population time series using a stochastic logistic model parameterized with the Arrhenius equation, so that activation energy drives the temperature dependence of population parameters. We simulated different experimental designs and used different inference methods, varying the likelihood functions and other aspects of the parameter estimation methods. Finally, we applied the best performing inference methods to real data for the species Paramecium caudatum. The relative error of the estimates of activation energy varied between 5% and 30%. The fraction of habitat sampled played the most important role in determining the relative error; sampling at least 1% of the habitat kept it below 50%. We found that methods that simultaneously use all time series data (direct methods) and methods that estimate population parameters separately for each temperature (indirect methods) are complementary. Indirect methods provide a clearer insight into the shape of the functional form describing the temperature dependence of population parameters; direct methods enable a more accurate estimation of the parameters of such functional forms. Using both methods, we found that growth rate and carrying capacity of Paramecium caudatum scale with temperature according to different activation energies. Our study shows how careful choice of experimental design and inference methods can increase the accuracy of the inferred relationships between temperature and population parameters. The comparison of estimation methods provided here can increase the accuracy of model predictions, with important

  12. Influence of Various Material Design Parameters on Deformation Behaviors of TRIP Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-11-02

    In this paper, the microstructure-based finite element modeling method is used as a virtual design tool in investigating the respective influence of various material design parameters on the deformation behaviors of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. For this purpose, the separate effects of several different material design parameters, such as the volume fraction and stability of austenite phase and the strengths of the constituent phases, on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and ductility/formability of TRIP steels are quantitatively examined using different representative volume elements (RVEs) representing different TRIP steels. The computational results suggest that higher austenite stability is helpful in enhancing the ductility and formability of TRIP steels by delaying the martensitic transformation to a later stage, whereas increase of austenite volume fraction and/or ferrite strength alone is not beneficial to improve the performance of TRIP steels. The results in this study also indicate that various material design parameters must be adjusted concurrently to develop high performance TRIP steels. For example, the austenite strength should increase over the ferrite strength in order to induce the gradual/smooth martensitic transformation, and the strength disparity between the ferrite and the freshly-formed martensite phases should decrease in order to avoid higher stress/strain concentration along the phase boundaries. The modeling approach and results presented in this paper can be helpful in providing the deformation fundamentals for the development of high performance TRIP steels.

  13. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    SciTech Connect

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-10-02

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established.

  14. Development of a turbomachinery design optimization procedure using a multiple-parameter nonlinear perturbation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to complete the preliminary development of a combined perturbation/optimization procedure and associated computational code for designing optimized blade-to-blade profiles of turbomachinery blades. The overall purpose of the procedures developed is to provide demonstration of a rapid nonlinear perturbation method for minimizing the computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of turbomachinery flows. The method combines the multiple parameter nonlinear perturbation method, successfully developed in previous phases of this study, with the NASA TSONIC blade-to-blade turbomachinery flow solver, and the COPES-CONMIN optimization procedure into a user's code for designing optimized blade-to-blade surface profiles of turbomachinery blades. Results of several design applications and a documented version of the code together with a user's manual are provided.

  15. Inrush Current Simulation of Two Windings Power Transformer using Machine Parameters Estimated by Design Procedure of Winding Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Kunihiro

    This paper presents estimation techniques of machine parameters for two windings power transformer using design procedure of winding structure. Especially, it is very difficult to obtain machine parameters for transformers in customers' facilities. Using estimation techniques, machine parameters could be calculated from the only nameplate data of these transformers. Subsequently, EMTP-ATP simulation of the inrush current was carried out using machine parameters estimated by design procedure of winding structure and simulation results were reproduced measured waveforms.

  16. Optimizing Friction Stir Welding via Statistical Design of Tool Geometry and Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blignault, C.; Hattingh, D. G.; James, M. N.

    2012-06-01

    This article considers optimization procedures for friction stir welding (FSW) in 5083-H321 aluminum alloy, via control of weld process parameters and tool design modifications. It demonstrates the potential utility of the "force footprint" (FF) diagram in providing a real-time graphical user interface (GUI) for process optimization of FSW. Multiple force, torque, and temperature responses were recorded during FS welding using 24 different tool pin geometries, and these data were statistically analyzed to determine the relative influence of a number of combinations of important process and tool geometry parameters on tensile strength. Desirability profile charts are presented, which show the influence of seven key combinations of weld process variables on tensile strength. The model developed in this study allows the weld tensile strength to be predicted for other combinations of tool geometry and process parameters to fall within an average error of 13%. General guidelines for tool profile selection and the likelihood of influencing weld tensile strength are also provided.

  17. PBFA-2 vacuum system design using a lumped parameter computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cap, J. S.; Schneider, L. X.; Boyes, J. D.

    The PBFA-2 vacuum vessel which houses the power flow lines and ion diode presented a difficult engineering problem in analyzing the pressure distribution throughout the chamber. The vessel utilizes a typical construction of stacked lucite and aluminum rings with their associated high outgassing loads. The transmission lines are a series of stacked cones and toroids that form an inter-connected network of annular pathways. Calculating the steady state pressure distribution required solving 30 simultaneous equations, and any transient solution was virtually impossible by hand. This paper describes a computer model developed using the direct analogy between fluid flow parameters and electrical parameters. This model can then be solved as a lumped parameter electrical circuit using the differential network analysis program, SCEPTRE. The overall design of the vacuum system, including the choice of helium cryopumps and water vapor cryopumps to handle the anticipated heavy water vapor load, is also discussed.

  18. Optimal design parameters of the bicycle-rider system for maximal muscle power output.

    PubMed

    Yoshihuku, Y; Herzog, W

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal values of design parameters for a bicycle-rider system (crank length, pelvic inclination, seat height, and rate of crank rotation) which maximize the power output from muscles of the human lower limb during bicycling. The human lower limb was modelled as a planar system of five rigid bodies connected by four smooth pin joints and driven by seven functional muscle groups. The muscles were assumed to behave according to an adapted form of Hill's equation. The dependence of the average power on the design parameters was examined. The instantaneous power of each muscle group was studied and simultaneous activity of two seemingly antagonistic muscle groups was analyzed. Average peak power for one full pedal revolution was found to be around 1100 W. The upper body position corresponding to this peak power output was slightly reclined, and the pedalling rate was 155 rpm for a nominal crank length of 170 mm.

  19. Numerical method to determine mechanical parameters of engineering design in rock masses.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting-He; Xiang, Yi-Qiang; Guo, Fa-Zhong

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes a new continuity model for engineering in rock masses and a new schematic method for reporting the engineering of rock continuity. This method can be used to evaluate the mechanics of every kind of medium; and is a new way to determine the mechanical parameters used in engineering design in rock masses. In the numerical simulation, the experimental parameters of intact rock were combined with the structural properties of field rock. The experimental results for orthogonally-jointed rock are given. The results included the curves of the stress-strain relationship of some rock masses, the curve of the relationship between the dimension Delta and the uniaxial pressure-resistant strength sc of these rock masses, and pictures of the destructive procedure of some rock masses in uniaxial or triaxial tests, etc. Application of the method to engineering design in rock masses showed the potential of its application to engineering practice.

  20. Electron work function-a promising guiding parameter for material design.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Liu, Ziran; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang; Parent, Leo; Tian, Harry

    2016-04-14

    Using nickel added X70 steel as a sample material, we demonstrate that electron work function (EWF), which largely reflects the electron behavior of materials, could be used as a guide parameter for material modification or design. Adding Ni having a higher electron work function to X70 steel brings more "free" electrons to the steel, leading to increased overall work function, accompanied with enhanced e(-)-nuclei interactions or higher atomic bond strength. Young's modulus and hardness increase correspondingly. However, the free electron density and work function decrease as the Ni content is continuously increased, accompanied with the formation of a second phase, FeNi3, which is softer with a lower work function. The decrease in the overall work function corresponds to deterioration of the mechanical strength of the steel. It is expected that EWF, a simple but fundamental parameter, may lead to new methodologies or supplementary approaches for metallic materials design or tailoring on a feasible electronic base.

  1. Estimation Model of Spacecraft Parameters and Cost Based on a Statistical Analysis of COMPASS Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerberich, Matthew W.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    The Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at Glenn Research Center has performed integrated system analysis of conceptual spacecraft mission designs since 2006 using a multidisciplinary concurrent engineering process. The set of completed designs was archived in a database, to allow for the study of relationships between design parameters. Although COMPASS uses a parametric spacecraft costing model, this research investigated the possibility of using a top-down approach to rapidly estimate the overall vehicle costs. This paper presents the relationships between significant design variables, including breakdowns of dry mass, wet mass, and cost. It also develops a model for a broad estimate of these parameters through basic mission characteristics, including the target location distance, the payload mass, the duration, the delta-v requirement, and the type of mission, propulsion, and electrical power. Finally, this paper examines the accuracy of this model in regards to past COMPASS designs, with an assessment of outlying spacecraft, and compares the results to historical data of completed NASA missions.

  2. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 3, Source terms: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan /endash/ Conceptual Design Report, SCP-CDR. The previous unpublished SCC Study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites.

  3. Design parameters and source terms: Volume 2, Source terms: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Design Parameters and Source Terms Document was prepared in accordance with DOE request and to provide data for the environmental impact study to be performed in the future for the Deaf Smith County, Texas site for a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document updates a previous unpublished report to the level of the Site Characterization Plan---Conceptual Design Report SCP-CDR. The previous study identifies the data needs for the Environmental Assessment effort for seven possible salt repository sites. Volume 2 contains tables of source terms.

  4. Jet pumps for thermoacoustic applications: Design guidelines based on a numerical parameter study.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H

    2015-10-01

    The oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps) is characterized by a numerical parameter study. The shape of a jet pump results in asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects which cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur under oscillatory flow conditions. Hence, jet pumps are used as streaming suppressors in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. A two-dimensional axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics model is used to calculate the performance of a large number of conical jet pump geometries in terms of time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. The investigated geometrical parameters include the jet pump length, taper angle, waist diameter, and waist curvature. In correspondence with previous work, four flow regimes are observed which characterize the jet pump performance and dimensionless parameters are introduced to scale the performance of the various jet pump geometries. The simulation results are compared to an existing quasi-steady theory and it is shown that this theory is only applicable in a small operation region. Based on the scaling parameters, an optimum operation region is defined and design guidelines are proposed which can be directly used for future jet pump design. PMID:26520283

  5. Jet pumps for thermoacoustic applications: Design guidelines based on a numerical parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterhuis, Joris P.; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H.

    2015-10-01

    The oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps) is characterized by a numerical parameter study. The shape of a jet pump results in asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects which cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur under oscillatory flow conditions. Hence, jet pumps are used as streaming suppressors in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. A two-dimensional axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics model is used to calculate the performance of a large number of conical jet pump geometries in terms of time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. The investigated geometrical parameters include the jet pump length, taper angle, waist diameter and waist curvature. In correspondence with previous work, four flow regimes are observed which characterize the jet pump performance and dimensionless parameters are introduced to scale the performance of the various jet pump geometries. The simulation results are compared to an existing quasi-steady theory and it is shown that this theory is only applicable in a small operation region. Based on the scaling parameters, an optimum operation region is defined and design guidelines are proposed which can be directly used for future jet pump design.

  6. Design optimization of structural parameters for highly sensitive photonic crystal label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jonghyun; Han, Yun-ah; Kim, Seok-min

    2013-01-01

    The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC) label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV), full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1) the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2) the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3) the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU-1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm.

  7. Design optimization of structural parameters for highly sensitive photonic crystal label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jonghyun; Han, Yun-ah; Kim, Seok-min

    2013-01-01

    The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC) label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV), full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1) the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2) the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3) the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU-1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm. PMID:23470487

  8. Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)

  9. Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.

  10. Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Social Skills Interventions for Elementary Students: Step-by-Step Procedures Based on Actual School-Based Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Menzies, Holly M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally M.; Doukas, Georgia L.; Munton, Sarah M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a step-by-step, empirically validated method for designing, implementing, and evaluating a formal social skills intervention based on specific skill deficits as identified by the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; F. M. Gresham & S. N. Elliott, 1990). The 6 steps include: (1) identifying students for participation; (2)…

  11. Inductive Powering of Subcutaneous Stimulators: Key Parameters and Their Impact on the Design Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Godfraind, Carmen; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Acuña, Vicente; Doguet, Pascal; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization, the secondary circuit and then finally the primary circuit designs. The methodology has been tested for the powering system of a device requirering a power of 300mW and implanted at a distance of 15 to 30mm from the outside power source. It allowed the identification of the most critical parameters. A satisfying efficiency of 34% was reached at 21mm and tend to validate the proposed design procedure. PMID:27478572

  12. Inductive Powering of Subcutaneous Stimulators: Key Parameters and Their Impact on the Design Methodology.

    PubMed

    Godfraind, Carmen; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Acuña, Vicente; Doguet, Pascal; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-06-13

    Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization, the secondary circuit and then finally the primary circuit designs. The methodology has been tested for the powering system of a device requirering a power of 300mW and implanted at a distance of 15 to 30mm from the outside power source. It allowed the identification of the most critical parameters. A satisfying efficiency of 34% was reached at 21mm and tend to validate the proposed design procedure. PMID:27478572

  13. Control system design using frequency domain models and parameter optimization, with application to supersonic inlet controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, R. C.; Lehtinen, B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for designing feedback control systems using frequency domain models, a quadratic cost function, and a parameter optimization computer program. FORTRAN listings for the computer program are included. The approach is applied to the design of shock position controllers for a supersonic inlet. Deterministic or random system disturbances, and the presence of random measurement noise are considered. The cost function minimization is formulated in the time domain, but the problem solution is obtained using a frequency domain system description. A scaled and constrained conjugate gradient algorithm is used for the minimization. The approach to a supersonic inlet included the calculations of the optimal proportional-plus integral (PI) and proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers. A single-loop PI controller was the most desirable of the designs considered.

  14. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Muhammad Umer Khir, M. H. Md.; Tang, T. B.; Dennis, John Ojur; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.

    2015-07-22

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.

  15. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Muhammad Umer; Dennis, John Ojur; Khir, M. H. Md.; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.; Tang, T. B.

    2015-07-01

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.

  16. Using experimental design to evaluate processing parameters in soft ferrite manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.A.T.; Reczek, S.T.; Rosen, A.

    1995-09-01

    The manufacture of soft ferrites is a complex process that involves multitudinous, interrelated steps. Seldom can one variable, such as the effect of the particle size of a raw material, be evaluated without considering other parameters. The particle size of hematite, for example, may affect reaction rate during calcination and consequently the spinel formation. Spinel content affects hardness and is reflected in grinding time. Grinding time affects the amount of iron introduced from the milling media, and so on. To optimize a process, the primary effect of a parameter and the interactions of that affect with other variables should be evaluated. This can be accomplished by using an experimental design that maximizes the information that can be obtained from each set of samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of several processing parameters on the magnetic properties of MnZn spinels. An experimental design using an orthogonal array of three variables at two levels was used to examine sintering time, atmosphere containment and part size effects. Four and eight hours at the maximum firing temperature were used for this investigation. Atmosphere containment was achieved by covering saggers with shielding of the same composition as the cores. Size effects, which could result from surface to volume ratio differences, were addressed by comparing the data for large and small cores. The surface to volume ratio of small cores was 1.4 times that of large cores.

  17. Estimating Cosmic-Ray Spectral Parameters from Simulated Detector Responses with Detector Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.

    2001-01-01

    A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index (alpha-1) is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV, with a transition at knee energy (E(sub k)) to a steeper spectral index alpha-2 > alpha-1 above E(sub k). The maximum likelihood procedure is developed for estimating these three spectral parameters of the broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. These estimates and their surrounding statistical uncertainty are being used to derive the requirements in energy resolution, calorimeter size, and energy response of a proposed sampling calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). This study thereby permits instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.

  18. Estimating Cosmic Ray Spectral Parameters From Simulated Detector Responses With Detector Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index alpha (sub 1), is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV, with a transition at knee energy E(sub k) to a steeper spectral index alpha(sub 2) greater than alpha(sub 1) above E(sub k). The maximum likelihood procedure is developed for estimating these three spectral parameters of the broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. These estimates and their surrounding statistical uncertainty are being used to derive the requirements in energy resolution, calorimeter size, and energy response of a proposed sampling calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). This study thereby permits instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.

  19. Design and parameter estimation of hybrid magnetic bearings for blood pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tau Meng; Zhang, Dongsheng; Yang, Juanjuan; Cheng, Shanbao; Low, Sze Hsien; Chua, Leok Poh; Wu, Xiaowei

    2009-10-01

    This paper discusses the design and parameter estimation of the dynamics characteristics of a high-speed hybrid magnetic bearings (HMBs) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet (PM) brushless and sensorless DC motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five-degree-of-freedom with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers; among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. Test results show that the rotor can be stably supported to speeds of 14,000 rpm. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMBs system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air—in both the radial and axial directions. The radial stiffness of the HMBs is compared to the Ansoft's Maxwell 2D/3D finite element magnetostatic results. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamics characteristics of the HMBs system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamics properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  20. Probabilistic seismic hazard characterization and design parameters for the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bernreuter, D. L.; Foxall, W.; Savy, J. B.

    1998-10-19

    The Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) updated the seismic hazard and design parameters at the Pantex Plant. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were first updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL (1993, 1998), Frankel et al. (1996), and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Amarillo-Wichita uplift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was taken from results of similar studies. Special attention was given to soil amplification factors for the site. Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and 5% damped uniform hazard spectra were calculated for six return periods (100 yr., 500 yr., 1000 yr., 2000 yr., 10,000 yr., and 100,000 yr.). The design parameters were calculated following DOE standards (DOE-STD-1022 to 1024). Response spectra for design or evaluation of Performance Category 1 through 4 structures, systems, and components are presented.

  1. Design and operational parameters of a rooftop rainwater harvesting system: definition, sensitivity and verification.

    PubMed

    Mun, J S; Han, M Y

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate design and evaluation of a rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is necessary to improve system performance and the stability of the water supply. The main design parameters (DPs) of an RWH system are rainfall, catchment area, collection efficiency, tank volume and water demand. Its operational parameters (OPs) include rainwater use efficiency (RUE), water saving efficiency (WSE) and cycle number (CN). The sensitivity analysis of a rooftop RWH system's DPs to its OPs reveals that the ratio of tank volume to catchment area (V/A) for an RWH system in Seoul, South Korea is recommended between 0.03 and 0.08 in terms of rate of change in RUE. The appropriate design value of V/A is varied with D/A. The extra tank volume up to V/A of 0.15∼0.2 is also available, if necessary to secure more water. Accordingly, we should figure out suitable value or range of DPs based on the sensitivity analysis to optimize design of an RWH system or improve operation efficiency. The operational data employed in this study, which was carried out to validate the design and evaluation method of an RWH system, were obtained from the system in use at a dormitory complex at Seoul National University (SNU) in Korea. The results of these operational data are in good agreement with those used in the initial simulation. The proposed method and the results of this research will be useful in evaluating and comparing the performance of RWH systems. It is found that RUE can be increased by expanding the variety of rainwater uses, particularly in the high rainfall season.

  2. Effect of turning parameters on A16351 T6 by using Design of Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annigeri, Ulhas K.; Charan, M.; Vishnu Sai, M.; Ram Charan, T.; Rahul Sai, L.

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium is a well known lightest engineering metals. It is the most productive element on the earth crust. It can be extracted from bauxite, kaolinite or nepheline. It can be used in making aeroplane bodies, automobile parts etc. It is mostly used in multiple applications in order to reduce the weight of the component and it has fancy corrosion resistance. In the present study Al 6351 T6 is selected and a plain turning operation is performed on it with the help of design of experiments. The surface roughness of the samples are tested by varying the cutting parameters such as speed, feed, and depth of cut. A mathematical model is developed and the parameter which affects the surface roughness is determined.

  3. Parameter Design and Optimal Control of an Open Core Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    In low earth orbit (LEO) satellite applications spacecraft power is provided by photovoltaic cells and batteries. To overcome battery shortcomings the University of Maryland, working in cooperation with NASA/GSFC and NASA/LeRC, has developed a magnetically suspended flywheel for energy storage applications. The system is referred to as an Open Core Composite Flywheel (OCCF) energy storage system. Successful application of flywheel energy storage requires integration of several technologies, viz. bearings, rotor design, motor/generator, power conditioning, and system control. In this paper we present a parameter design method which has been developed for analyzing the linear SISO model of the magnetic bearing controller for the OCCF. The objective of this continued research is to principally analyze the magnetic bearing system for nonlinear effects in order to increase the region of stability, as determined by high speed and large air gap control. This is achieved by four tasks: (1) physical modeling, design, prototyping, and testing of an improved magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system, (2) identification of problems that limit performance and their corresponding solutions, (3) development of a design methodology for magnetic bearings, and (4) design of an optimal controller for future high speed applications. Both nonlinear SISO and MIMO models of the magnetic system were built to study limit cycle oscillations and power amplifier saturation phenomenon observed in experiments. The nonlinear models include the inductance of EM coils, the power amplifier saturation, and the physical limitation of the flywheel movement as discussed earlier. The control program EASY5 is used to study the nonlinear SISO and MIMO models. Our results have shown that the characteristics and frequency responses of the magnetic bearing system obtained from modeling are comparable to those obtained experimentally. Although magnetic saturation is shown in the bearings, there

  4. Effect of design and process parameters on nip width of soft calendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanth, Neel; Ray, A. K.; Dang, Riti

    2016-07-01

    Calendering is a well-known operation in which a material is run between rolls to thin it into sheets or to produce smooth or glossy finish. An attempt has been made in this investigation to remove the drawbacks in the model of Meijers and applicable directly to soft calendering, also to make nip mechanics model generalized and applicable, so that it can be applicable where there is roll to roll or roll to plate contact. Also, the effect of various design and process parameters on results of soft calendering has been discussed using the data taken from paper industry.

  5. A normalized wave number variation parameter for acoustic black hole design.

    PubMed

    Feurtado, Philip A; Conlon, Stephen C; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the concept of the Acoustic Black Hole has been developed as an efficient passive, lightweight absorber of bending waves in plates and beams. Theory predicts greater absorption for a higher thickness taper power. However, a higher taper power also increases the violation of an underlying theory smoothness assumption. This paper explores the effects of high taper power on the reflection coefficient and spatial change in wave number and discusses the normalized wave number variation as a spatial design parameter for performance, assessment, and optimization. PMID:25096139

  6. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 developers manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Giunta, Anthony Andrew; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandia National lababoratory, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.

  7. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, developers manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.

  8. Inrush Current Simulation of Power Transformer using Machine Parameters Estimated by Design Procedure of Winding Structure and Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Yoshitaka

    This paper presents estimation techniques of machine parameters for power transformer using design procedure of transformer and genetic algorithm with real coding. Especially, it is very difficult to obtain machine parameters for transformers in customers' facilities. Using estimation techniques, machine parameters could be calculated from the only nameplate data of these transformers. Subsequently, EMTP-ATP simulation of the inrush current was carried out using machine parameters estimated by techniques developed in this study and simulation results were reproduced measured waveforms.

  9. Parameter optimization and design aspect for electrocoagulation of silica nano-particles in wafer polishing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Den, W; Huang, C

    2006-01-01

    A systematic procedure has been proposed for the design of a multi-channel, continuous-flow electrocoagulation reactor of mono-polar configuration for the removal of sub-micron particles from wastewater. Using the chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) process as the target source of wastewater, a series of laboratory-scale studies were conducted to determine the required operating conditions for the efficient removal of the ultrafine particles. These operating criteria included charge loading (> or = 8 F m(-3)), current density (> or = 5.7 A m(-2)), hydraulic retention time (> or = 60 min), as well as the initially operational pH (7 to approximately 10). Furthermore, a steady-state transport equation with second-order reaction kinetics was employed to describe the rate of coagulation as the rate-limiting factor. The actual kinetic constant determined from the laboratory-scale experiments was approximately 1.2 x 10(-21) m3 s(-1), which was three orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated based on Brownian diffusion during the coagulation. The model was subsequently validated with a series of experiments using a pilot-scale electro-coagulation reactor geometrically similar to the laboratory-scale reactor with nearly twenty times volumetric scale-up. PMID:16749457

  10. Parameter optimization and design aspect for electrocoagulation of silica nano-particles in wafer polishing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Den, W; Huang, C

    2006-01-01

    A systematic procedure has been proposed for the design of a multi-channel, continuous-flow electrocoagulation reactor of mono-polar configuration for the removal of sub-micron particles from wastewater. Using the chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) process as the target source of wastewater, a series of laboratory-scale studies were conducted to determine the required operating conditions for the efficient removal of the ultrafine particles. These operating criteria included charge loading (> or = 8 F m(-3)), current density (> or = 5.7 A m(-2)), hydraulic retention time (> or = 60 min), as well as the initially operational pH (7 to approximately 10). Furthermore, a steady-state transport equation with second-order reaction kinetics was employed to describe the rate of coagulation as the rate-limiting factor. The actual kinetic constant determined from the laboratory-scale experiments was approximately 1.2 x 10(-21) m3 s(-1), which was three orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated based on Brownian diffusion during the coagulation. The model was subsequently validated with a series of experiments using a pilot-scale electro-coagulation reactor geometrically similar to the laboratory-scale reactor with nearly twenty times volumetric scale-up.

  11. Conceptual Design Parameters for HFIR LEU U-Mo Fuel Conversion Experimental Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Renfro, David G; Cook, David Howard; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-03-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a versatile research reactor that is operated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HFIR core is loaded with high-enriched uranium (HEU) and operates at a power level of 85 MW. The primary scientific missions of the HFIR include cold and thermal neutron scattering, materials irradiation, and isotope production. An engineering design study of the conversion of the HFIR from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The LEU fuel considered is based on a uranium-molybdenum alloy that is 10 percent by weight molybdenum (U-10Mo) with a 235U enrichment of 19.75 wt %. The LEU core design discussed in this report is based on the design documented in ORNL/TM-2010/318. Much of the data reported in Sections 1 and 2 of this document was derived from or taken directly out of ORNL/TM-2010/318. The purpose of this report is to document the design parameters for and the anticipated normal operating conditions of the conceptual HFIR LEU fuel to aid in developing requirements for HFIR irradiation experiments.

  12. Sensitivity of Key Parameters in Aerodynamic Wind Turbine Rotor Design on Power and Energy Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Christian

    2007-07-01

    In this paper the influence of different key parameters in aerodynamic wind turbine rotor design on the power efficiency, Cp, and energy production has been investigated. The work was divided into an analysis of 2D airfoils/blade sections and of entire rotors. In the analysis of the 2D airfoils it was seen that there was a maximum of the local Cp for airfoils with finite maximum Cl/Cd values. The local speed ratio should be between 2.4 and 3.8 for airfoils with maximum cl/cd between 50 and 200, respectively, to obtain maximum local Cp. Also, the investigation showed that Re had a significant impact on CP and especially for Re<2mio corresponding to rotors below approximately 400kW this impact was pronounced. The investigation of Cp for rotors was made with three blades and showed that with the assumption of constant maximum cl/cd along the entire blade, the design tip speed ratio changed from X=6 to X=12 for cl/cd=50 and cl/cd=200, respectively, with corresponding values of maximum cp of 0.46 and 0.525. An analysis of existing rotors re-designed with new airfoils but maintaining the absolute thickness distribution to maintain the stiffness showed that big rotors are more aerodynamic efficient than small rotors caused by higher Re. It also showed that the design tip speed ratio was very dependent on the rotor size and on the assumptions of the airfoil flow being fully turbulent (contaminated airfoil) or free transitional (clean airfoil). The investigations showed that rotors with diameter D=1.75m, should be designed for X around 5.5, whereas rotors with diameter D=126m, should be designed for Xbetween 6.5 and 8.5, depending on the airfoil performance.

  13. Electron work function–a promising guiding parameter for material design

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hao; Liu, Ziran; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang; Parent, Leo; Tian, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Using nickel added X70 steel as a sample material, we demonstrate that electron work function (EWF), which largely reflects the electron behavior of materials, could be used as a guide parameter for material modification or design. Adding Ni having a higher electron work function to X70 steel brings more “free” electrons to the steel, leading to increased overall work function, accompanied with enhanced e−–nuclei interactions or higher atomic bond strength. Young’s modulus and hardness increase correspondingly. However, the free electron density and work function decrease as the Ni content is continuously increased, accompanied with the formation of a second phase, FeNi3, which is softer with a lower work function. The decrease in the overall work function corresponds to deterioration of the mechanical strength of the steel. It is expected that EWF, a simple but fundamental parameter, may lead to new methodologies or supplementary approaches for metallic materials design or tailoring on a feasible electronic base. PMID:27074974

  14. Empirical and theoretical studies on number comparison: design parameters and research questions.

    PubMed

    Ballan, Meltem

    2012-01-01

    For well over one-hundred years, several key factors have been well established in the study of number comparison, including mental number line, numerical distance effect, and effect of sensory representation on number processing. The purpose of this article is to put some of these studies together to discuss design parameters and research questions addressed in the mental number comparison studies. Most of the studies discuss sensory representation and abstract number representation as well as degree of their interaction. In order to give the different views on a particular research question, the author classified studies under the related research questions. For example, Stroop and size congruity effect studies are addressed under this title chronologically. It was very clear that the design parameters and research question might change the interpretation of a task. It may be time to shift attention from the question of the interaction degree of sensory representation and abstract representation to a larger scope. The larger scope would be to understand the differences and similarities between different groups using a universal approach. PMID:24278748

  15. Robust control design with real parameter uncertainty using absolute stability theory. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Hall, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate an extension of mu theory for robust control design by considering systems with linear and nonlinear real parameter uncertainties. In the process, explicit connections are made between mixed mu and absolute stability theory. In particular, it is shown that the upper bounds for mixed mu are a generalization of results from absolute stability theory. Both state space and frequency domain criteria are developed for several nonlinearities and stability multipliers using the wealth of literature on absolute stability theory and the concepts of supply rates and storage functions. The state space conditions are expressed in terms of Riccati equations and parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. For controller synthesis, these stability conditions are used to form an overbound of the H2 performance objective. A geometric interpretation of the equivalent frequency domain criteria in terms of off-axis circles clarifies the important role of the multiplier and shows that both the magnitude and phase of the uncertainty are considered. A numerical algorithm is developed to design robust controllers that minimize the bound on an H2 cost functional and satisfy an analysis test based on the Popov stability multiplier. The controller and multiplier coefficients are optimized simultaneously, which avoids the iteration and curve-fitting procedures required by the D-K procedure of mu synthesis. Several benchmark problems and experiments on the Middeck Active Control Experiment at M.I.T. demonstrate that these controllers achieve good robust performance and guaranteed stability bounds.

  16. Influence of newly designed monorail pressure sensor catheter on coronary diagnostic parameters: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rupak K; Peelukhana, Srikara V; Goswami, Ishan

    2014-02-01

    The decision to perform intervention on a patient with coronary stenosis is often based on functional diagnostic parameters obtained from pressure and flow measurements using sensor-tipped guidewire at maximal vasodilation (hyperemia). Recently, a rapid exchange Monorail Pressure Sensor catheter of 0.022″ diameter (MPS22), with pressure sensor at distal end has been developed for improved assessment of stenosis severity. The hollow shaft of the MPS22 is designed to slide over any standard 0.014″ guidewire (G14). Hence, influence of MPS22 diameter on coronary diagnostic parameters needs investigation. An in vitro experiment was conducted to replicate physiologic flows in three representative area stenosis (AS): mild (64% AS), intermediate (80% AS), and severe (90% AS), for two arterial diameters, 3mm (N2; more common) and 2.5mm (N1). Influence of MPS22 on diagnostic parameters: fractional flow reserve (FFR) and pressure drop coefficient (CDP) was evaluated both at hyperemic and basal conditions, while comparing it with G14. The FFR values decreased for the MPS22 in comparison to G14, (Mild: 0.87 vs 0.88, Intermediate: 0.68 vs 0.73, Severe: 0.48 vs 0.56) and CDP values increased (Mild: 16 vs 14, Intermediate: 75 vs 56, Severe: 370 vs 182) for N2. Similar trend was observed in the case of N1. The FFR values were found to be well above (mild) and below (intermediate and severe) the diagnostic cut-off of 0.75. Therefore, MPS22 catheter can be used as a possible alternative to G14. Further, irrespective of the MPS22 or G14, basal FFR (FFRb) had overlapping ranges in close proximity for clinically relevant mild and intermediate stenoses that will lead to diagnostic uncertainty under both N1 and N2. However, CDPb had distinct ranges for different stenosis severities and could be a potential diagnostic parameter under basal conditions.

  17. Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in a biogeochemical model using optimal experimental design methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Joscha; Piwonski, Jaroslaw; Slawig, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The statistical significance of any model-data comparison strongly depends on the quality of the used data and the criterion used to measure the model-to-data misfit. The statistical properties (such as mean values, variances and covariances) of the data should be taken into account by choosing a criterion as, e.g., ordinary, weighted or generalized least squares. Moreover, the criterion can be restricted onto regions or model quantities which are of special interest. This choice influences the quality of the model output (also for not measured quantities) and the results of a parameter estimation or optimization process. We have estimated the parameters of a three-dimensional and time-dependent marine biogeochemical model describing the phosphorus cycle in the ocean. For this purpose, we have developed a statistical model for measurements of phosphate and dissolved organic phosphorus. This statistical model includes variances and correlations varying with time and location of the measurements. We compared the obtained estimations of model output and parameters for different criteria. Another question is if (and which) further measurements would increase the model's quality at all. Using experimental design criteria, the information content of measurements can be quantified. This may refer to the uncertainty in unknown model parameters as well as the uncertainty regarding which model is closer to reality. By (another) optimization, optimal measurement properties such as locations, time instants and quantities to be measured can be identified. We have optimized such properties for additional measurement for the parameter estimation of the marine biogeochemical model. For this purpose, we have quantified the uncertainty in the optimal model parameters and the model output itself regarding the uncertainty in the measurement data using the (Fisher) information matrix. Furthermore, we have calculated the uncertainty reduction by additional measurements depending on time

  18. Effect of inflow cannula tip design on potential parameters of blood compatibility and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai Chun; Büsen, Martin; Benzinger, Carrie; Gäng, René; Bezema, Mirko; Greatrex, Nicholas; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    During ventricular assist device support, a cannula acts as a bridge between the native cardiovascular system and a foreign mechanical device. Cannula tip design strongly affects the function of the cannula and its potential for blood trauma. In this study, the flow fields of five different tip geometries within the ventricle were evaluated using stereo particle image velocimetry. Inflow cannulae with conventional tip geometries (blunt, blunt with four side ports, beveled with three side ports, and cage) and a custom-designed crown tip were interposed between a mixed-flow rotary blood pump and a compressible, translucent silicone left ventricle. The contractile function of the failing ventricle and hemodynamics were reproduced in a mock circulation loop. The rotary blood pump was interfaced with the ventricle and aorta and used to fully support the failing ventricle. Among these five tip geometries, high-shear volume ( γ ˙ ≥ 2778 / s , potential parameter of platelet activation) was found to be the greatest in the blunt tip. The cage tip was observed to have the highest low-shear volume and recirculation volume ( γ ˙ ≤ 100 / s and Vz  > 0, respectively; potential parameters of thrombus formation). The crown tip, together with conventional tip geometries with side ports (blunt with four side ports and beveled with three side ports) showed no significant difference in either high-shear volume or low-shear volume. However, recirculation volume was reduced significantly in the crown tip. Despite limited generalizability to clinical situations, these transient-state measurements supported the potential mitigation of complications by changing the design of conventional cannula tip geometries.

  19. The influence of design parameters on clogging of stormwater biofilters: a large-scale column study.

    PubMed

    Le Coustumer, Sébastien; Fletcher, Tim D; Deletic, Ana; Barraud, Sylvie; Poelsma, Peter

    2012-12-15

    A large-scale laboratory study was conducted to test the influence of design and operating conditions on the lifespan of stormwater biofilters. The evolution of hydraulic conductivity over time was studied in relation to a number of key design parameters (media type, filter depth, vegetation type, system sizing, etc). The biofilters were observed to clog over time, with average hydraulic conductivity decreasing by a factor of 3.6 over the 72 weeks of testing. The choice of plant species appears to have a significant effect on the rate of decrease in permeability, with plants with thick roots (e.g. Melaleuca) demonstrating an ability to maintain permeability over time. Other species studied, with finer roots, had no such beneficial effects. As expected, small systems relative to their catchment (and thus which are subjected to high loading rates) are more prone to clogging, as increases in hydraulic and sediment loading can lead to extremely low hydraulic conductivities. Sizing and the appropriate choice of vegetation are thus key elements in design because they can limit clogging, and therefore, indirectly increase annual load treated by limiting the volume of water bypassing the system.

  20. Planar air-bearing microgravity simulators: Review of applications, existing solutions and design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybus, Tomasz; Seweryn, Karol

    2016-03-01

    All devices designed to be used in space must be thoroughly tested in relevant conditions. For several classes of devices the reduced gravity conditions are the key factor. In early stages of development and later due to financial reasons, the tests need to be done on Earth. However, in Earth conditions it is impossible to obtain a different gravity field independent on all linear and rotational spatial coordinates. Therefore, various test-bed systems are used, with their design driven by the device's specific needs. One of such test-beds are planar air-bearing microgravity simulators. In such an approach, the tested objects (e.g., manipulators intended for on-orbit operations or vehicles simulating satellites in a close formation flight) are mounted on planar air-bearings that allow almost frictionless motion on a flat surface, thus simulating microgravity conditions in two dimensions. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of research activities related to planar air-bearing microgravity simulators, demonstrating achievements of the most active research groups and describing newest trends and ideas, such as tests of landing gears for low-g bodies. Major design parameters of air-bearing test-beds are also reviewed and a list of notable existing test-beds is presented.

  1. Particle Shape: A New Design Parameter for Micro- and Nanoscale Drug Delivery Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Julie A.; Katare, Yogesh K.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of therapeutic agents in polymer particles has been successfully used in the development of new drug carriers. A number of design parameters that govern the functional behavior of carriers, including the choice of polymer, particle size and surface chemistry, have been tuned to optimize their performance in vivo. However, particle shape, which may also have a strong impact on carrier performance, has not been investigated. This is perhaps due to the limited availability of techniques to produce non-spherical polymer particles. In recent years, a number of reports have emerged to directly address this bottleneck and initial studies have indeed confirmed that particle shape can significantly impact the performance of polymer drug carriers. This article provides a review of this field with respect to methods of particle preparation and the role of particle shape in drug delivery. PMID:17544538

  2. Deep silicon etch for biology MEMS fabrication: review of process parameters influence versus chip design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magis, T.; Ballerand, S.; Bellemin Comte, A.; Pollet, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Micro-system for biology is a growing market, especially for micro-fluidic applications (environment and health). Key part for the manufacturing of biology MEMS is the deep silicon etching by plasma to create microstructures. Usual etching process as an alternation of etching and passivation steps is a well-known method for MEMS fabrication, nowadays used in high volume production for devices like sensors and actuators. MEMS for biology applications are very different in design compared to more common micro-systems like accelerometers for instance. Indeed, their design includes on the same chip structures of very diverse size like narrow pillars, large trenches and wide cavities. This makes biology MEMS fabrication very challenging for DRIE, since each type of feature considered individually would require a specific etch process. Furthermore process parameters suited to match specifications on small size features (vertical profile, low sidewall roughness) induce issues and defects on bigger structures (undercut, micro-masking) and vice versa. Thus the process window is constrained leading to trade-offs in process development. In this paper process parameters such as source and platen powers, pressure, etching and passivation gas flows and steps duration were investigated to achieve all requirements. As well interactions between those different factors were characterized at different levels, from individual critical feature up to chip scale and to wafer scale. We will show the plasma process development and tuning to reach all these specifications. We also compared different chambers configurations of our ICP tool (source wafer distance, plasma diffusion) in order to obtain a good combination of hardware and process. With optimized etching we successfully fabricate micro-fluidic devices like micro-pumps.

  3. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables.

  4. Mathematical modeling and analysis of EDM process parameters based on Taguchi design of experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxman, J.; Raj, K. Guru

    2015-12-01

    Electro Discharge Machining is a process used for machining very hard metals, deep and complex shapes by metal erosion in all types of electro conductive materials. The metal is removed through the action of an electric discharge of short duration and high current density between the tool and the work piece. The eroded metal on the surface of both work piece and the tool is flushed away by the dielectric fluid. The objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model for an Electro Discharge Machining process which provides the necessary equations to predict the metal removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness. Regression analysis is used to investigate the relationship between various process parameters. The input parameters are taken as peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time, tool lift time. and the Metal removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness are as responses. Experiments are conducted on Titanium super alloy based on the Taguchi design of experiments i.e. L27 orthogonal experiments.

  5. Calculation of Design Parameters for an Equilibrium LEU Core in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2011-09-30

    A plan is being developed for the conversion of the NIST research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Previously, the design of the LEU fuel had been determined in order to provide the users of the NBSR with the same cycle length as exists for the current HEU fueled reactor. The fuel composition at different points within an equilibrium fuel cycle had also been determined. In the present study, neutronics parameters have been calculated for these times in the fuel cycle for both the existing HEU and the proposed LEU equilibrium cores. The results showed differences between the HEU and LEU cores that would not lead to any significant changes in the safety analysis for the converted core. In general the changes were reasonable except that the figure-of-merit for neutrons that can be used by experimentalists shows there will be a 10% reduction in performance. The calculations included kinetics parameters, reactivity coefficients, reactivity worths of control elements and abnormal configurations, and power distributions.

  6. Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Novitski, I.

    2015-06-01

    FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.

  7. As-Built design specification for PARPLT. [program to produce scatter plots of crop greenness profile parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, M. A.; Cheng, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The design and implementation of the PARPLT program are described. The program produces scatter plots of the greenness profile derived parameters alpha, beta, and t sub o computed by the CLASFYG program (alpha being the approximate greenness rise time; beta, the greenness decay time; and t sub o, the spectral crop emergence date). Statistical information concerning the parameters is also computed.

  8. Output-feedback sampled-data control design for linear parameter-varying systems with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezanifar, Amin; Mohammadpour, Javad; Grigoriadis, Karolos M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we address the sampled-data output-feedback control design problem for continuous-time linear parameter-varying systems with time-varying delay in the system states. Due to the combination of the plant's continuous-time dynamics and the controller's discrete-time dynamics connected through A/D and D/A converter devices, the closed-loop system is a hybrid system. In order to analyse this hybrid system from stability and performance perspectives we use the input-delay approach to map the closed-loop system into the continuous-time domain with delay in the states. This results in a closed-loop system containing two types of delays, the system internal delay and the one imposed by the mapping. Next, we use delay-dependent conditions for analysis of stability and ?-norm performance which result in a sampled-data control synthesis procedure. The proposed output-feedback sampled-data controller is obtained based on the solution to a linear matrix inequality optimisation problem using a set of appropriately defined slack variables. A numerical example of a milling machine is presented to demonstrate the viability of the proposed sampled-data control design method to satisfy the stability and performance objectives even with a varying sampling rate.

  9. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  10. The Effects of Various Design Parameters on the Free Vibration of Doubly Curved Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CUNNINGHAM, P. R.; WHITE, R. G.; AGLIETTI, G. S.

    2000-02-01

    Sandwich panels have a very high stiffness to weight ratio, which makes them particularly useful in the aerospace industry where carbon fibre reinforced plastics and lightweight honeycomb cores are being used in the construction of floor panels, fairings and intake barrel panels. In the latter case, the geometry of the panels can be considered doubly curved. This paper presents an introduction to an ongoing study investigating the dynamic response prediction of acoustically excited composite sandwich panels which have double curvature. The final objective is to assess and hopefully produce an up to date set of acoustic fatigue design guidelines for this type of structure. The free vibration of doubly curved composite honeycomb sandwich panels is investigated here, both experimentally and theoretically, the latter using a commerically available finite element package. The design and manufacture of three test panels is covered before presenting experimental results for the natural frequencies of vibration with freely supported boundary conditions. Once validated against the experimental results, the theoretical investigation is extended to study the effects of changing radii of curvature, orthotropic properties of the core, and ply orientation on the natural frequencies of vibration of rectangular panels with various boundary conditions. The results from the parameter studies show curve veering, particularly when studying the effect of changing radii and ply orientation, however, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is due to the approximation method used or occurs in the physical system.

  11. Bioreactor process parameter screening utilizing a Plackett-Burman design for a model monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Agarabi, Cyrus D; Schiel, John E; Lute, Scott C; Chavez, Brittany K; Boyne, Michael T; Brorson, Kurt A; Khan, Mansoor A; Read, Erik K

    2015-06-01

    Consistent high-quality antibody yield is a key goal for cell culture bioprocessing. This endpoint is typically achieved in commercial settings through product and process engineering of bioreactor parameters during development. When the process is complex and not optimized, small changes in composition and control may yield a finished product of less desirable quality. Therefore, changes proposed to currently validated processes usually require justification and are reported to the US FDA for approval. Recently, design-of-experiments-based approaches have been explored to rapidly and efficiently achieve this goal of optimized yield with a better understanding of product and process variables that affect a product's critical quality attributes. Here, we present a laboratory-scale model culture where we apply a Plackett-Burman screening design to parallel cultures to study the main effects of 11 process variables. This exercise allowed us to determine the relative importance of these variables and identify the most important factors to be further optimized in order to control both desirable and undesirable glycan profiles. We found engineering changes relating to culture temperature and nonessential amino acid supplementation significantly impacted glycan profiles associated with fucosylation, β-galactosylation, and sialylation. All of these are important for monoclonal antibody product quality.

  12. Variation of Mqw Design Parameters in a GaAs/InP-BASED Lw-Vcsel and its Effects on the Spectral Linewidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, P. Susthitha; Kandiah, Kumarajah; Shaari, Sahbudin

    This paper reports on the simulative and comparative study on the effects of multi quantum well (MQW) design parameters on the spectral linewidth of a wafer-bonded GaAs/InP-based, 1.5 μm long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (LW-VCSEL). The device employs InGaAsP MQWs sandwiched between GaAs/AlGaAs and GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) and utilizes a bottom-emitting, air-post design for current confinement. Among the modeled LW-VCSEL devices, the best linewidth achieved was 41.29 MHz at a peak wavelength of 1.57 μm for 8 MQWs with well thicknesses of 5.5 nm each and barrier thicknesses of 8 nm; equivalent to the experimental device developed in the past. Comparison of linewidth values calculated using developed analytical equations that link the MQW parameters to the spectral linewidth versus the actual linewidth from fabricated devices yields error ratios of ~ 6% proving a robust approximation has been achieved.

  13. Development of a multiple-parameter nonlinear perturbation procedure for transonic turbomachinery flows: Preliminary application to design/optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.; Elliott, J. P.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to continue the development of perturbation procedures and associated computational codes for rapidly determining approximations to nonlinear flow solutions, with the purpose of establishing a method for minimizing computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of transonic flows in turbomachines. The results reported here concern the extension of the previously developed successful method for single parameter perturbations to simultaneous multiple-parameter perturbations, and the preliminary application of the multiple-parameter procedure in combination with an optimization method to blade design/optimization problem. In order to provide as severe a test as possible of the method, attention is focused in particular on transonic flows which are highly supercritical. Flows past both isolated blades and compressor cascades, involving simultaneous changes in both flow and geometric parameters, are considered. Comparisons with the corresponding exact nonlinear solutions display remarkable accuracy and range of validity, in direct correspondence with previous results for single-parameter perturbations.

  14. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  15. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  16. Effect of process design and operating parameters on aerobic methane oxidation in municipal WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; Van Eynde, Tamara; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2014-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and its emission from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should be prevented. One way to do this is to promote the biological conversion of dissolved methane over stripping in aeration tanks. In this study, the well-established Activated Sludge Model n°1 (ASM1) and Benchmark Simulation Model n°1 (BSM1) were extended to study the influence of process design and operating parameters on biological methane oxidation. The aeration function used in BSM 1 was upgraded to more accurately describe gas-liquid transfer of oxygen and methane in aeration tanks equipped with subsurface aeration. Dissolved methane could be effectively removed in an aeration tank at an aeration rate that is in agreement with optimal effluent quality. Subsurface bubble aeration proved to be better than surface aeration, while a CSTR configuration was superior to plug flow conditions in avoiding methane emissions. The conversion of methane in the activated sludge tank benefits from higher methane concentrations in the WWTP's influent. Finally, if an activated sludge tank is aerated with methane containing off-gas, a limited amount of methane is absorbed and converted in the mixed liquor. This knowledge helps to stimulate the methane oxidizing capacity of activated sludge in order to abate methane emissions from wastewater treatment to the atmosphere. PMID:25225767

  17. A less field-intensive robust design for estimating demographic parameters with Mark-resight data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    The robust design has become popular among animal ecologists as a means for estimating population abundance and related demographic parameters with mark-recapture data. However, two drawbacks of traditional mark-recapture are financial cost and repeated disturbance to animals. Mark-resight methodology may in many circumstances be a less expensive and less invasive alternative to mark-recapture, but the models developed to date for these data have overwhelmingly concentrated only on the estimation of abundance. Here we introduce a mark-resight model analogous to that used in mark-recapture for the simultaneous estimation of abundance, apparent survival, and transition probabilities between observable and unobservable states. The model may be implemented using standard statistical computing software, but it has also been incorporated into the freeware package Program MARK. We illustrate the use of our model with mainland New Zealand Robin (Petroica australis) data collected to ascertain whether this methodology may be a reliable alternative for monitoring endangered populations of a closely related species inhabiting the Chatham Islands. We found this method to be a viable alternative to traditional mark-recapture when cost or disturbance to species is of particular concern in long-term population monitoring programs. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Design parameters of stainless steel plates for maximizing high frequency ultrasound wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Mark; Leong, Thomas; Swiergon, Piotr; Juliano, Pablo; Knoerzer, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This work validated, in a higher frequency range, the theoretical predictions made by Boyle around 1930, which state that the optimal transmission of sound pressure through a metal plate occurs when the plate thickness equals a multiple of half the wavelength of the sound wave. Several reactor design parameters influencing the transmission of high frequency ultrasonic waves through a stainless steel plate were examined. The transmission properties of steel plates of various thicknesses (1-7 mm) were studied for frequencies ranging from 400 kHz to 2 MHz and at different distances between plates and transducers. It was shown that transmission of sound pressure through a steel plate showed high dependence of the thickness of the plate to the frequency of the sound wave (thickness ratio). Maximum sound pressure transmission of ∼ 60% of the incident pressure was observed when the ratio of the plate thickness to the applied frequency was a multiple of a half wavelength (2 MHz, 6mm stainless steel plate). In contrast, minimal sound pressure transmission (∼ 10-20%) was measured for thickness ratios that were not a multiple of a half wavelength. Furthermore, the attenuation of the sound pressure in the transmission region was also investigated. As expected, it was confirmed that higher frequencies have more pronounced sound pressure attenuation than lower frequencies. The spatial distribution of the sound pressure transmitted through the plate characterized by sonochemiluminescence measurements using luminol emission, supports the validity of the pressure measurements in this study.

  19. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  20. Effect of process design and operating parameters on aerobic methane oxidation in municipal WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Matthijs R J; Van Eynde, Tamara; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2014-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and its emission from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should be prevented. One way to do this is to promote the biological conversion of dissolved methane over stripping in aeration tanks. In this study, the well-established Activated Sludge Model n°1 (ASM1) and Benchmark Simulation Model n°1 (BSM1) were extended to study the influence of process design and operating parameters on biological methane oxidation. The aeration function used in BSM 1 was upgraded to more accurately describe gas-liquid transfer of oxygen and methane in aeration tanks equipped with subsurface aeration. Dissolved methane could be effectively removed in an aeration tank at an aeration rate that is in agreement with optimal effluent quality. Subsurface bubble aeration proved to be better than surface aeration, while a CSTR configuration was superior to plug flow conditions in avoiding methane emissions. The conversion of methane in the activated sludge tank benefits from higher methane concentrations in the WWTP's influent. Finally, if an activated sludge tank is aerated with methane containing off-gas, a limited amount of methane is absorbed and converted in the mixed liquor. This knowledge helps to stimulate the methane oxidizing capacity of activated sludge in order to abate methane emissions from wastewater treatment to the atmosphere.

  1. Effects of design parameters and puff topography on heating coil temperature and mainstream aerosols in electronic cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tongke; Shu, Shi; Guo, Qiuju; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-06-01

    Emissions from electronic cigarettes (ECs) may contribute to both indoor and outdoor air pollution and the number of users is increasing rapidly. ECs operate based on the evaporation of e-liquid by a high-temperature heating coil. Both puff topography and design parameters can affect this evaporation process. In this study, both mainstream aerosols and heating coil temperature were measured concurrently to study the effects of design parameters and puff topography. The heating coil temperatures and mainstream aerosols varied over a wide range across different brands and within same brand. The peak heating coil temperature and the count median diameter (CMD) of EC aerosols increased with a longer puff duration and a lower puff flow rate. The particle number concentration was positively associated with the puff duration and puff flow rate. These results provide a better understanding of how EC emissions are affected by design parameters and puff topography and emphasize the urgent need to better regulate EC products.

  2. Multi-parameter optimization tool for low-cost commercial fuselage crown designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, Zelda; Tuttle, Mark; Graesser, Douglas; Kim, Gun-In; Hatcher, Darrin; Swanson, Gary; Ilcewicz, Larry

    1991-01-01

    The work in progress for developing a methodology and software tool to aid in the optimal design of composite structures is discussed. The methodology is being developed to take advantage of the ability to tailor the composite material in conjunction with the design of the structure. The composites optimization design software UWCODA was found to be very successful in preliminary testing and early experience. UWCODA is a composites design code that uses a number of plies and fiber angles as design variables, employs maximum strain failure criteria for objective function and additional constraints, includes Boeing design tools for stiffened panels, and includes stiffener geometry in the design variables.

  3. BEHAVIOR OF SENSITIVITIES IN THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL ADVECTION-DISPERSION EQUATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR PARAMETER ESTIMATION AND SAMPLING DESIGN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopman, Debra S.; Voss, Clifford I.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of sensitivities has a significant impact on parameter estimation and sampling design for studies of solute transport in porous media. Physical insight into the behavior of sensitivities is offered through an analysis of analytically derived sensitivities for the one-dimensional form of the advection-dispersion equation. When parameters are estimated in regression models of one-dimensional transport, the spatial and temporal variability in sensitivities influences variance and covariance of parameter estimates. Several principles account for the observed influence of sensitivities on parameter uncertainty. (1) Information about a physical parameter may be most accurately gained at points in space and time. (2) As the distance of observation points from the upstream boundary increases, maximum sensitivity to velocity during passage of the solute front increases. (3) The frequency of sampling must be 'in phase' with the S shape of the dispersion sensitivity curve to yield the most information on dispersion. (4) The sensitivity to the dispersion coefficient is usually at least an order of magnitude less than the sensitivity to velocity. (5) The assumed probability distribution of random error in observations of solute concentration determines the form of the sensitivities. (6) If variance in random error in observations is large, trends in sensitivities of observation points may be obscured by noise. (7) Designs that minimize the variance of one parameter may not necessarily minimize the variance of other parameters.

  4. Dynamic System Model of LS-VHTR to Estimate Design Parameter Impacts on Safety Margin and Reactor Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A.L.; Wilson Jr, T.L.

    2006-07-01

    Early reactor analysis work for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Liquid Salt - Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR) concept has focused primarily on detailed analyses of the core. This paper discusses ongoing analyses of the balance of plant and how it impacts overall system design. A dynamic system model of the end-to-end LS-VHTR has been developed to investigate the impact of major design parameters on systems performance, safety margin, and plant economics. The core model uses simplified thermal-hydraulic analyses to calculate four characteristic radial coolant channel parameters during transients. The core model is coupled to a multi-reheat Brayton power conversion system model through an intermediate salt-coolant loop model. A passive, safety-related heat-removal system is modeled for reactor pressure vessel protection. Critical parameters, such as peak fuel and vessel temperatures and peak temperatures and pressures in the power conversion loop, are estimated during proposed transients. The impacts of design parameters on component design requirements, safety margin, and economics are to be investigated. Transients initially analyzed will include loss-of-coolant-flow accidents. For initial transients, the axial- and radial-power profiles within the core will remain constant, with power levels decreasing in proportion to the time-dependent decay heating rate of the fuel. Later transients will represent spatial core power shifts during transients without scram. Results from simplified economic models will support relative comparisons among system design options. (authors)

  5. Methods for combining payload parameter variations with input environment. [calculating design limit loads compatible with probabilistic structural design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods are presented for calculating design limit loads compatible with probabilistic structural design criteria. The approach is based on the concept that the desired limit load, defined as the largest load occurring in a mission, is a random variable having a specific probability distribution which may be determined from extreme-value theory. The design limit load, defined as a particular of this random limit load, is the value conventionally used in structural design. Methods are presented for determining the limit load probability distributions from both time-domain and frequency-domain dynamic load simulations. Numerical demonstrations of the method are also presented.

  6. Determination of design and operation parameters for upper atmospheric research instrumentation to yield optimum resolution with deconvolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

    1991-01-01

    The final report for work on the determination of design and operation parameters for upper atmospheric research instrumentation to yield optimum resolution with deconvolution is presented. Papers and theses prepared during the research report period are included. Among all the research results reported, note should be made of the specific investigation of the determination of design and operation parameters for upper atmospheric research instrumentation to yield optimum resolution with deconvolution. A methodology was developed to determine design and operation parameters for error minimization when deconvolution is included in data analysis. An error surface is plotted versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and all parameters of interest. Instrumental characteristics will determine a curve in this space. The SNR and parameter values which give the projection from the curve to the surface, corresponding to the smallest value for the error, are the optimum values. These values are constrained by the curve and so will not necessarily correspond to an absolute minimum in the error surface.

  7. A design of experiments test to define critical spray cleaning parameters for Brulin 815 GD and Jettacin cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keen, Jill M.; Evans, Kurt B.; Schiffman, Robert L.; Deweese, C. Darrell; Prince, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental design testing was conducted to identify critical parameters of an aqueous spray process intended for cleaning solid rocket motor metal components (steel and aluminum). A two-level, six-parameter, fractional factorial matrix was constructed and conducted for two cleaners, Brulin 815 GD and Diversey Jettacin. The matrix parameters included cleaner temperature and concentration, wash density, wash pressure, rinse pressure, and dishwasher type. Other spray parameters: nozzle stand-off, rinse water temperature, wash and rinse time, dry conditions, and type of rinse water (deionized) were held constant. Matrix response testing utilized discriminating bond specimens (fracture energy and tensile adhesion strength) which represent critical production bond lines. Overall, Jettacin spray cleaning was insensitive to the range of conditions tested for all parameters and exhibited bond strengths significantly above the TCA test baseline for all bond lines tested. Brulin 815 was sensitive to cleaning temperature, but produced bond strengths above the TCA test baseline even at the lower temperatures. Ultimately, the experimental design database was utilized to recommend process parameter settings for future aqueous spray cleaning characterization work.

  8. a Simplified Parameter Design Method for Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Innovative Cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting-Hua; Huang, Ming; Yang, Jing-Jing; Lu, Jin; Cao, Hui-Lu

    2013-10-01

    Transformation optics-based innovative cloak which combines the virtues of both internal and external cloaks to enable arbitrary multi-objects hidden with visions and movements was first proposed by Huang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 151901 (2012)]. But it is rather difficult to implement in practice, for the required material parameters vary with radius and even have singular values. To accelerate its practical realization but still keep good performance of invisibility, a simplified innovative cloak with only spatially varying axial parameter is developed via choosing appropriate transformation function. The advantage of such a cloak is that both radial and azimuthal parameters are constants, and all three components are nonsingular and finite. Full-wave simulation confirms the perfect cloaking effect of the cloak. Besides, the influences of metamaterials loss and parameter deviation on the performance of cloak are also investigated. This work provides a simple and feasible solution to push metamaterial-assisted innovative cloak more closely to the practice.

  9. Parameter-dependent vibration-attenuation controller design for electro-hydraulic actuated linear structural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Falu; Mao, Weijie

    2012-03-01

    The problem of robust active vibration control for a class of electro-hydraulic actuated structural systems with time-delay in the control input channel and parameter uncertainties appearing in all the mass, damping and stiffness matrices is investigated in this paper. First, by introducing a linear varying parameter, the nonlinear system is described as a linear parameter varying (LPV) model. Second, based on this LPV model, an LMI-based condition for the system to be asymptotically stabilized is deduced. By solving these LMIs, a parameter-dependent controller is established for the closedloop system to be stable with a prescribed level of disturbance attenuation. The condition is also extended to the uncertain case. Finally, some numerical simulations demonstrate the satisfying performance of the proposed controller.

  10. Parametric appraisal of process parameters for adhesion of plasma sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings using Taguchi experimental design.

    PubMed

    Mantry, Sisir; Mishra, Barada K; Chakraborty, Madhusudan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Taguchi experimental design in developing nanostructured yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings by plasma spraying process. This paper depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on various process parameters, and effect of those process parameters on performance output has been studied using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array design. Particle velocities prior to impacting the substrate, stand-off-distance, and particle temperature are found to be the most significant parameter affecting the bond strength. To achieve retention of nanostructure, molten state of nanoagglomerates (temperature and velocity) has been monitored using particle diagnostics tool. Maximum adhesion strength of 40.56 MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of selected factors. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nanozones.

  11. Parametric Appraisal of Process Parameters for Adhesion of Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured YSZ Coatings Using Taguchi Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Mantry, Sisir; Mishra, Barada K.; Chakraborty, Madhusudan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the Taguchi experimental design in developing nanostructured yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings by plasma spraying process. This paper depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on various process parameters, and effect of those process parameters on performance output has been studied using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array design. Particle velocities prior to impacting the substrate, stand-off-distance, and particle temperature are found to be the most significant parameter affecting the bond strength. To achieve retention of nanostructure, molten state of nanoagglomerates (temperature and velocity) has been monitored using particle diagnostics tool. Maximum adhesion strength of 40.56 MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of selected factors. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nanozones. PMID:24288490

  12. Sensitivity-constrained nonlinear programming: a general approach for planning and design under parameter uncertainty and an application to treatment plant design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Uber, J.G.; Kao, J.J.; Brill, E.D.; Pfeffer, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    One important problem with using mathematical models is that parameter values, and thus the model results, are often uncertain. A general approach, Sensitivity Constrained Nonlinear Programming (SCNLP), was developed for extending nonlinear optimization models to include functions that depend on the system sensitivity to changes in parameter values. Such sensitivity-based functions include first-order measures of variance, reliability, and robustness. Thus SCNLP can be used to generate solutions or designs that are good with respect to modeled objectives, and that also reflect concerns about uncertainty in parameter values. A solution procedure and an implementation based on an existing nonlinear-programming code are presented. SCNLP was applied to a complex activated sludge waste-water treatment plant design problem.

  13. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  14. El Observatorio Gemini - Status actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Se hace una breve descripción de la situación actual del Observatorio Gemini y de las últimas decisiones del Board para incrementar la eficiencia operativa. Se hace también una breve referencia al uso argentino del observatorio.

  15. Estimating parameters of hidden Markov models based on marked individuals: use of robust design data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; White, Gary C.; Hines, James E.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Yoshizaki, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Development and use of multistate mark-recapture models, which provide estimates of parameters of Markov processes in the face of imperfect detection, have become common over the last twenty years. Recently, estimating parameters of hidden Markov models, where the state of an individual can be uncertain even when it is detected, has received attention. Previous work has shown that ignoring state uncertainty biases estimates of survival and state transition probabilities, thereby reducing the power to detect effects. Efforts to adjust for state uncertainty have included special cases and a general framework for a single sample per period of interest. We provide a flexible framework for adjusting for state uncertainty in multistate models, while utilizing multiple sampling occasions per period of interest to increase precision and remove parameter redundancy. These models also produce direct estimates of state structure for each primary period, even for the case where there is just one sampling occasion. We apply our model to expected value data, and to data from a study of Florida manatees, to provide examples of the improvement in precision due to secondary capture occasions. We also provide user-friendly software to implement these models. This general framework could also be used by practitioners to consider constrained models of particular interest, or model the relationship between within-primary period parameters (e.g., state structure) and between-primary period parameters (e.g., state transition probabilities).

  16. Engineering Parameters in Bioreactor's Design: A Critical Aspect in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Amoabediny, Ghassem; Pouran, Behdad; Tabesh, Hadi; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Khatibi, Nahid; Mottaghy, Khosrow; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    Bioreactors are important inevitable part of any tissue engineering (TE) strategy as they aid the construction of three-dimensional functional tissues. Since the ultimate aim of a bioreactor is to create a biological product, the engineering parameters, for example, internal and external mass transfer, fluid velocity, shear stress, electrical current distribution, and so forth, are worth to be thoroughly investigated. The effects of such engineering parameters on biological cultures have been addressed in only a few preceding studies. Furthermore, it would be highly inefficient to determine the optimal engineering parameters by trial and error method. A solution is provided by emerging modeling and computational tools and by analyzing oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrient and metabolism waste material transports, which can simulate and predict the experimental results. Discovering the optimal engineering parameters is crucial not only to reduce the cost and time of experiments, but also to enhance efficacy and functionality of the tissue construct. This review intends to provide an inclusive package of the engineering parameters together with their calculation procedure in addition to the modeling techniques in TE bioreactors. PMID:24000327

  17. Estimating parameters of hidden Markov models based on marked individuals: use of robust design data.

    PubMed

    Kendall, William L; White, Gary C; Hines, James E; Langtimm, Catherine A; Yoshizaki, Jun

    2012-04-01

    Development and use of multistate mark-recapture models, which provide estimates of parameters of Markov processes in the face of imperfect detection, have become common over the last 20 years. Recently, estimating parameters of hidden Markov models, where the state of an individual can be uncertain even when it is detected, has received attention. Previous work has shown that ignoring state uncertainty biases estimates of survival and state transition probabilities, thereby reducing the power to detect effects. Efforts to adjust for state uncertainty have included special cases and a general framework for a single sample per period of interest. We provide a flexible framework for adjusting for state uncertainty in multistate models, while utilizing multiple sampling occasions per period of interest to increase precision and remove parameter redundancy. These models also produce direct estimates of state structure for each primary period, even for the case where there is just one sampling occasion. We apply our model to expected-value data, and to data from a study of Florida manatees, to provide examples of the improvement in precision due to secondary capture occasions. We have also implemented these models in program MARK. This general framework could also be used by practitioners to consider constrained models of particular interest, or to model the relationship between within-primary-period parameters (e.g., state structure) and between-primary-period parameters (e.g., state transition probabilities). PMID:22690641

  18. Application of Taguchi Philosophy for Optimization of Design Parameters in a Rectangular Enclosure with Triangular Fin Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Ankur; Das, Debasish

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an optimum parametric design yielding maximum heat transfer has been suggested using Taguchi Philosophy. This statistical approach has been applied to the results of an experimental parametric study conducted to investigate the influence of fin height ( L); fin spacing ( S) and Rayleigh number ( Ra) on convection heat transfer from triangular fin array within a vertically oriented rectangular enclosure. Taguchi's L9 (3**3) orthogonal array design has been adopted for three different levels of influencing parameters. The goal of this study is to reach maximum heat transfer (i.e. Nusselt number). The dependence of optimum fin spacing on fin height has been also reported. The results proved the suitability of the application of Taguchi design approach in this kind of study, and the predictions by the method are reported in very good agreement with experimental results. This paper also compares the application of classical design approach with Taguchi's methodology used for determination of optimum parametric design

  19. Investigation of the effect of physical parameters on the design of tumour targeting agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Joanne Lois

    Tumour targeting using radiolabelled antibodies for radioimmunodetection (RAID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been studied for many years. The main factors that have limited clinical success are low tumour uptake, immunogenicity and poor therapeutic ratios. This thesis has applied current technology to make advances in this area of research. The effect of physical parameters (antibody size, valency, affinity and charge) on the design of tumour targeting agents was studied by constructing divalent (DFM) and trivalent (TFM) forms of the murine anti-CEA antibody A5B7 Fab' by chemical cross-linking. This involves partial reduction of the hinge disulphides to expose thiol (-SH) groups and subsequent reaction with a maleimide cross-linker to form a thioether bond at the hinge region. Previous studies have suggested that the stability of thioether bonds is superior to naturally occurring disulphide bonds present at the hinge region of IgG and F(ab')2. The aim was to compare the functional affinities and in vivo tumour targeting in nude mice bearing human tumour xenografts of DFM and TFM to similar sized parent IgG and F(ab')2. Radiolabelling with 131I and 90Y was also compared with a view to determine which combination would be optimal for RIT. Results clearly demonstrated a significantly faster on-rate of DFM compared to all other antibody forms and estimated dosimetry analysis suggested that DFM would be the most suitable antibody form radiolabelled with 131I for RIT. Both F(ab')2 and DFM showed high kidney uptake levels on labelling with which is unacceptable for RIT. Despite the improved tumour: blood ratios for TFM, the increased estimated dose to normal tissues and lower therapeutic effect in RIT studies suggests that the most promising combination with the radionuclide appears to be IgG. A humanised version of A5B7 hFab' has been constructed previously in order to reduce its immunogenicity in man. The in vivo stability of hDFM proved to be superior to hF(ab')2

  20. Effects of Design Properties on Parameter Estimation in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Martin; Weirich, Sebastian; Siegle, Thilo; Frey, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate booklet design is an important element of large-scale assessments of student achievement. Two design properties that are typically optimized are the "balance" with respect to the positions the items are presented and with respect to the mutual occurrence of pairs of items in the same booklet. The purpose…

  1. Planned Missing Designs to Optimize the Efficiency of Latent Growth Parameter Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhemtulla, Mijke; Jia, Fan; Wu, Wei; Little, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the performance of planned missing (PM) designs for correlated latent growth curve models. Using simulated data from a model where latent growth curves are fitted to two constructs over five time points, we apply three kinds of planned missingness. The first is item-level planned missingness using a three-form design at each wave such…

  2. Design parameters for a stereoptic television system based on direct vision depth perception cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Malone, T. B.; Huggins, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled systems which use television for visual feedback require that depth cues be available to the operator. A number of techniques have been developed to provide stereoptic video. An analysis of parameters of such systems as related to the depth cues of convergence and retinal disparity was carried out. Parameter requirements were determined for the provision of natural and exaggerated stereoptic cues and expressions were developed for range resolution limits based on the retinal disparity threshold. An empirical study was conducted using a stereoptic video system to determine threshold values

  3. Application of the Solubility Parameter Concept to the Design of Chemiresistor Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, M.P.; Hughes, R.C.; Jenkins, M.W.; Patel, S.V.; Ricco, A.J.; Yelton, G.

    1999-01-11

    Arrays of unheated chemically sensitive resistors (chemiresistors) can serve as extremely small, low-power-consumption sensors with simple read-out electronics. We report here results on carbon-loaded polymer composites, as well as polymeric ionic conductors, as chemiresistor sensors. We use the volubility parameter concept to understand and categorize the chemiresistor responses and, in particular, we compare chemiresistors fabricated from polyisobutylene (PIB) to results from PIB-coated acoustic wave sensors. One goal is to examine the possibility that a small number of diverse chemiresistors can sense all possible solvents-the "Universal Solvent Sensor Array". keywords: chemiresistor, volubility parameter, chemical sensor

  4. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  5. Speedy standing wave design of size-exclusion simulated moving bed: Solvent consumption and sorbent productivity related to material properties and design parameters.

    PubMed

    Weeden, George S; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-10-30

    Size-exclusion simulated moving beds (SEC-SMB) have been used for large-scale separations of linear alkanes from branched alkanes. While SEC-SMBs are orders of magnitude more efficient than batch chromatography, they are not widely used. One key barrier is the complexity in design and optimization. A four-zone SEC-SMB for a binary separation has seven material properties and 14 design parameters (two yields, five operating parameters, and seven equipment parameters). Previous optimization studies using numerical methods do not guarantee global optima or explicitly express solvent consumption (D/F) or sorbent productivity (PR) as functions of the material properties and design parameters. The standing wave concept is used to develop analytical expressions for D/F and PR as functions of 14 dimensionless groups, which consist of 21 material and design parameters. The resulting speedy standing wave design (SSWD) solutions are simplified for two limiting cases: diffusion or dispersion controlled. An example of SEC-SMB for insulin purification is used to illustrate how D/F and PR change with the dimensionless groups. The results show that maximum PR for both diffusion and dispersion controlled systems is mainly determined by yields, equipment parameters, material properties, and two key dimensionless groups: (1) the ratio of step time to diffusion time and (2) the ratio of diffusion time to pressure-limited convection time. A sharp trade off of D/F and PR occurs when the yield is greater than 99%. The column configuration for maximum PR is analytically related to the diffusivity ratio and the selectivity. To achieve maximum sorbent productivity, one should match step time, diffusion time, and pressure-limited convection time for diffusion controlled systems. For dispersion controlled systems, the axial dispersion time should be about 10 times the step time and about 50 times the pressure-limited convection time. Its value can be estimated from given yields, material

  6. Electrical Characterization of 4H-SiC JFET Wafer: DC Parameter Variations for Extreme Temperature IC Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liangyu; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Chang, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    This work reports DC electrical characterization of a 76 mm diameter 4H-SiC JFET test wafer fabricated as part of NASA's on-going efforts to realize medium-scale ICs with prolonged and stable circuit operation at temperatures as high as 500 degC. In particular, these measurements provide quantitative parameter ranges for use in JFET IC design and simulation. Larger than expected parameter variations were observed both as a function of position across the wafer as well as a function of ambient testing temperature from 23 degC to 500 degC.

  7. An assessment of separable fluid connector system parameters to perform a connector system design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    The key to optimization of design where there are a large number of variables, all of which may not be known precisely, lies in the mathematical tool of dynamic programming developed by Bellman. This methodology can lead to optimized solutions to the design of critical systems in a minimum amount of time, even when there are a great number of acceptable configurations to be considered. To demonstrate the usefulness of dynamic programming, an analytical method is developed for evaluating the relationship among existing numerous connector designs to find the optimum configuration. The data utilized in the study were generated from 900 flanges designed for six subsystems of the S-1B stage of the Saturn 1B space carrier vehicle.

  8. Concept design theory and model for multi-use space facilities: Analysis of key system design parameters through variance of mission requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles Martin

    This research has been performed to create concept design and economic feasibility data for space business parks. A space business park is a commercially run multi-use space station facility designed for use by a wide variety of customers. Both space hardware and crew are considered as revenue producing payloads. Examples of commercial markets may include biological and materials research, processing, and production, space tourism habitats, and satellite maintenance and resupply depots. This research develops a design methodology and an analytical tool to create feasible preliminary design information for space business parks. The design tool is validated against a number of real facility designs. Appropriate model variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is used to analyze the effect of various payload requirements on the size, weight and power of the facility. The approach for the analytical tool was to input potential payloads as simple requirements, such as volume, weight, power, crew size, and endurance. In creating the theory, basic principles are used and combined with parametric estimation of data when necessary. Key system parameters are identified for overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are identified based on real human spaceflight systems. To connect the economics to design, a life-cycle cost model is created based upon facility mass. This rough cost model estimates potential return on investments, initial investment requirements and number of years to return on the initial investment. Example cases are analyzed for both performance and cost driven requirements for space hotels, microgravity processing facilities, and multi-use facilities. In combining both engineering and economic models, a design-to-cost methodology is created for more accurately estimating the commercial viability for multiple space business park markets.

  9. An Adaptive Sequential Design for Model Discrimination and Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Nested Models

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasi, C.; May, C.

    2010-09-30

    The DKL-optimality criterion has been recently proposed for the dual problem of model discrimination and parameter estimation, for the case of two rival models. A sequential version of the DKL-optimality criterion is herein proposed in order to discriminate and efficiently estimate more than two nested non-linear models. Our sequential method is inspired by the procedure of Biswas and Chaudhuri (2002), which is however useful only in the set up of nested linear models.

  10. Effect of cigarette design on biomarkers of exposure, puffing topography and respiratory parameters

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Scott; Liu, Jianmin; Lipowicz, Peter J.; Sarkar, Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the lack of evidence, many reports exist which have implied that smokers inhale low-yield cigarette smoke more deeply than that of high-yield cigarettes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term switching between smoker’s own brand and test cigarettes with different smoke yields on puffing topography, respiratory parameters and biomarkers of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to smoke either a Test Cigarette-High Tar (TCH), for two days, and then switched to a Test Cigarette-Low Tar (TCL), for two days or the reverse order (n = 10 each sequence). Puffing topography (CReSS microdevice), respiratory parameters (inductive plethysmography) and biomarkers of exposure (BOE, urinary nicotine equivalents – NE and blood carboxyhemoglobin – COHb) were measured at baseline and on days 2 and 4. The average puffs per cigarette, puff volume and puff durations were statistically significantly lower, and inter-puff interval was significantly longer for the TCH compared to the TCL groups. Respiratory parameters were not statistically significantly different between the TCH and TCL groups. Post-baseline NE and COHb were statistically significantly lower in the TCL compared to the TCH groups. Under the conditions of this study, we found no indication of changes in respiratory parameters, particularly inhalation time and volume, between study participants smoking lower versus higher yield cigarettes. Likewise, the BOE provides no indication of deeper inhalation when smoking low- versus high-yield cigarettes. These findings are consistent with the published literature indicating smoking low-yield cigarettes does not increase the depth of inhalation. PMID:25830813

  11. Rational Design of Methodology-Independent Metal Parameters Using a Nonbonded Dummy Model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Haiyang; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-12

    A nonbonded dummy model for metal ions is highly imperative for the computation of complex biological systems with for instance multiple metal centers. Here we present nonbonded dummy parameters of 11 divalent metallic cations, namely, Mg(2+), V(2+), Cr(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Sn(2+), and Hg(2+), that are optimized to be compatible with three widely used water models (TIP3P, SPC/E, and TIP4P-EW). The three sets of metal parameters reproduce simultaneously the solvation free energies (ΔGsol), the ion-oxygen distance in the first solvation shell (IOD), and coordination numbers (CN) in explicit water with a relative error less than 1%. The main sources of errors to ΔGsol that arise from the boundary conditions and treatment of electrostatic interactions are corrected rationally, which ensures the independence of the proposed parameters on the methodology used in the calculation. This work will be of great value for the computational study of metal-containing biological systems. PMID:27182744

  12. Error analysis and optimization design of wide spectrum AOTF's optical performance parameter measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiage; He, Zhiping; Xu, Rui; Wu, Yu; Shu, Rong

    2015-10-01

    As a new type of light dispersion device, Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) based on the acousto-optic interaction principle which can achieve diffractive spectral, has rapidly developed and been widely used in the technical fields of spectral analysis and remote sensing detection since it launched. The precise measurement of AOTF's optical performance parameter is the precondition to ensure spectral radiometric calibration and data inversion in the process of quantitation for spectrometer based on AOTF. In this paper, a kind of AOTF performance analysis system in 450~3200nm wide spectrum was introduced, including the fundamental principle of the basic system and the test method of the key optical parameters of AOTF. The error sources and the influence of the magnitude of the error in the whole test system were analyzed and verified emphatically. The numerical simulation of the noise in detecting circuit and the instability of light source was carried out, and based on the simulation result, the method for improving the measuring accuracy of the system were proposed such as improving light source parameters, correcting and changing test method by using dual light path detecting, etc. Experimental results indicate that: the relative error can be reduced by 20%, and the stability of the test signal is better than 98%. Finally, this error analysis model and the potential applicability in other optoelectronic measuring system were also discussed in the paper.

  13. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future.

  14. Parameter-free methods distinguish Wnt pathway models and guide design of experiments

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Adam L.; Rosen, Zvi; Byrne, Helen M.; Harrington, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, mediated by β-catenin, is crucially involved in development, adult stem cell tissue maintenance, and a host of diseases including cancer. We analyze existing mathematical models of Wnt and compare them to a new Wnt signaling model that targets spatial localization; our aim is to distinguish between the models and distill biological insight from them. Using Bayesian methods we infer parameters for each model from mammalian Wnt signaling data and find that all models can fit this time course. We appeal to algebraic methods (concepts from chemical reaction network theory and matroid theory) to analyze the models without recourse to specific parameter values. These approaches provide insight into aspects of Wnt regulation: the new model, via control of shuttling and degradation parameters, permits multiple stable steady states corresponding to stem-like vs. committed cell states in the differentiation hierarchy. Our analysis also identifies groups of variables that should be measured to fully characterize and discriminate between competing models, and thus serves as a guide for performing minimal experiments for model comparison. PMID:25730853

  15. Rational Design of Methodology-Independent Metal Parameters Using a Nonbonded Dummy Model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Haiyang; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-12

    A nonbonded dummy model for metal ions is highly imperative for the computation of complex biological systems with for instance multiple metal centers. Here we present nonbonded dummy parameters of 11 divalent metallic cations, namely, Mg(2+), V(2+), Cr(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Sn(2+), and Hg(2+), that are optimized to be compatible with three widely used water models (TIP3P, SPC/E, and TIP4P-EW). The three sets of metal parameters reproduce simultaneously the solvation free energies (ΔGsol), the ion-oxygen distance in the first solvation shell (IOD), and coordination numbers (CN) in explicit water with a relative error less than 1%. The main sources of errors to ΔGsol that arise from the boundary conditions and treatment of electrostatic interactions are corrected rationally, which ensures the independence of the proposed parameters on the methodology used in the calculation. This work will be of great value for the computational study of metal-containing biological systems.

  16. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future. PMID:26429347

  17. A stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty for groundwater remediation design--part I. Model development.

    PubMed

    He, L; Huang, G H; Lu, H W

    2010-04-15

    Solving groundwater remediation optimization problems based on proxy simulators can usually yield optimal solutions differing from the "true" ones of the problem. This study presents a new stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty (SOMUM) and the associated solution method for simultaneously addressing modeling uncertainty associated with simulator residuals and optimizing groundwater remediation processes. This is a new attempt different from the previous modeling efforts. The previous ones focused on addressing uncertainty in physical parameters (i.e. soil porosity) while this one aims to deal with uncertainty in mathematical simulator (arising from model residuals). Compared to the existing modeling approaches (i.e. only parameter uncertainty is considered), the model has the advantages of providing mean-variance analysis for contaminant concentrations, mitigating the effects of modeling uncertainties on optimal remediation strategies, offering confidence level of optimal remediation strategies to system designers, and reducing computational cost in optimization processes.

  18. A stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty and parameter certainty for groundwater remediation design: part II. Model application.

    PubMed

    He, L; Huang, G H; Lu, H W

    2010-04-15

    A new stochastic optimization model under modeling uncertainty (SOMUM) and parameter certainty is applied to a practical site located in western Canada. Various groundwater remediation strategies under different significance levels are obtained from the SOMUM model. The impact of modeling uncertainty (proxy-simulator residuals) on optimal remediation strategies is compared to that of parameter uncertainty (arising from physical properties). The results show that the increased remediation cost for mitigating modeling-uncertainty impact would be higher than those from models where the coefficient of variance of input parameters approximates to 40%. This provides new evidence that the modeling uncertainty in proxy-simulator residuals can hardly be ignored; there is thus a need of investigating and mitigating the impact of such uncertainties on groundwater remediation design. This work would be helpful for lowering the risk of system failure due to potential environmental-standard violation when determining optimal groundwater remediation strategies.

  19. Dissipated energy as a design parameter of coated conductors for their use in resistive fault current limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schacherer, C.; Kudymow, A.; Noe, M.

    2008-02-01

    Coated conductors are suitable for many power applications like motors, magnets and superconducting fault current limiters (SCFCLs). For their use in resistive SCFCLs main requirements are quench stability and resistance development above Tc. Several coated conductors are available with different kinds of stabilization like thickness or material of cap-layer and additional stabilization. The stabilization can vary and has a great influence on the quench stability and quench behaviour of a coated conductor. Thus, for the dimensioning of a superconducting current limiting element there is a need of reliable and universal design parameters. This paper presents experimental quench test results on several coated conductor types with different stabilization and geometry. The test results show that the dissipated energy during a quench is a very useful parameter for the SCFCL design.

  20. Determination of Optimal Parameters for Dual-Layer Cathode of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Using Computational Intelligence-Aided Design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Huang, Weina; Peng, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Because of the demands for sustainable and renewable energy, fuel cells have become increasingly popular, particularly the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Among the various components, the cathode plays a key role in the operation of a PEFC. In this study, a quantitative dual-layer cathode model was proposed for determining the optimal parameters that minimize the over-potential difference and improve the efficiency using a newly developed bat swarm algorithm with a variable population embedded in the computational intelligence-aided design. The simulation results were in agreement with previously reported results, suggesting that the proposed technique has potential applications for automating and optimizing the design of PEFCs. PMID:25490761

  1. Optimization of thiamethoxam adsorption parameters using multi-walled carbon nanotubes by means of fractional factorial design.

    PubMed

    Panić, Sanja; Rakić, Dušan; Guzsvány, Valéria; Kiss, Erne; Boskovic, Goran; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate significant factors affecting the thiamethoxam adsorption efficiency using oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbents. Five factors (initial solution concentration of thiamethoxam in water, temperature, solution pH, MWCNTs weight and contact time) were investigated using 2V(5-1) fractional factorial design. The obtained linear model was statistically tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the analysis of residuals was used to investigate the model validity. It was observed that the factors and their second-order interactions affecting the thiamethoxam removal can be divided into three groups: very important, moderately important and insignificant ones. The initial solution concentration was found to be the most influencing parameter on thiamethoxam adsorption from water. Optimization of the factors levels was carried out by minimizing those parameters which are usually critical in real life: the temperature (energy), contact time (money) and weight of MWCNTs (potential health hazard), in order to maximize the adsorbed amount of the pollutant. The results of maximal adsorbed thiamethoxam amount in both real and optimized experiments indicate that among minimized parameters the adsorption time is one that makes the largest difference. The results of this study indicate that fractional factorial design is very useful tool for screening the higher number of parameters and reducing the number of adsorption experiments.

  2. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  3. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission. PMID:19571896

  4. Linear Equating for the NEAT Design: Parameter Substitution Models and Chained Linear Relationship Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.; Mroch, Andrew A.; Suh, Youngsuk; Ripkey, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes five linear equating models for the "nonequivalent groups with anchor test" (NEAT) design with internal anchors (i.e., the anchor test is part of the full test). The analysis employs a two-dimensional framework. The first dimension contrasts two general approaches to developing the equating relationship. Under a "parameter…

  5. Design approaches and parameters for magnetically levitated transport systems. [Null flux suspension (Maglev)

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Powell, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanically levitated transport system approaches are assessed with regard to thrust power needs, track cost, suspension stability, and safety. The null flux suspension appears as the favored approach, having the least thrust power requirements, highest stability, and lowest amount of track material. Various null flux configurations are described together with their operating parameters. The Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) propulsion system is also described for propelling the suspended vehicles. Cryogenics and superconductivity aspects are discussed and the effect of high T/sub c/ superconductors evaluated. 13 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Use of solubility parameter to design dry suspension of cefaclor as a dual pack system.

    PubMed

    Kuksal, Kiran; Pathak, Kamla

    2008-09-01

    One of the important methods to improve the solubility of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of co solvents. The solubility enhancement produced by two binary blends with a common co solvent (water-propylene glycol and propylene glycol-ethyl acetate) was studied against the solubility parameter of solvent blends (δ(1)) to evaluate the solubility parameter of drug (δ(2)). The binary blend water:propylene glycol (20:80) gave maximum solubility with an experimental δ(2) value of 16.52 (Cal/cm(3))(0.5) that was comparable to the theoretical value of 16.52 (Cal/cm(3))(0.5) determined by molar volume method and 16.35 (Cal/cm(3))(0.5) when determined by method proposed by Lin and Nash. The solvent blend water:propylene glycol (20:80) in which the drug exhibited maximum solubility was used as the reconstituting medium for formulation of dry suspension of cefaclor. The percentage cumulative drug release of cefaclor from the formulation F7 was compared to the marketed formulation by calculating the f1 (dissimilarity factor) and f2 (similarity factor) factors. A higher f1 value and f2 value below 50 indicates difference between the two dissolution profiles. PMID:21394257

  7. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Vigil, Dena M.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Lefantzi, Sophia; Hough, Patricia Diane; Eddy, John P.

    2011-12-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the DAKOTA software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of DAKOTA-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quantification, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of DAKOTA's iterative analysis capabilities.

  8. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis :

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S.; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the Dakota software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  9. Robust H(infinity) control design for the Space Station with structured parameter uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, Kuk-Whan; Wie, Bong; Geller, David; Sunkel, John

    1990-01-01

    A robust H(infinity) control design methodology and its application to a Space Station attitude and momentum control problem are presented. This new approach incorporates nonlinear multiparameter variations in the state-space formulation of H(infinity) control theory. An application of this robust control synthesis technique tothe Space Station control problem yields a remarkable result in stability robustness with respect to the moments-of-inertia variation of about 73 percent in one of the structured uncertainty directions. The performance and stability of this new robust H(infinity) controller for the Space Station are compared to those of other controllers designed using a standard linear-quadratic-regulator synthesis technique.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Veers, P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces the development of a new software framework for research, design, and development of wind energy systems which is meant to 1) represent a full wind plant including all physical and nonphysical assets and associated costs up to the point of grid interconnection, 2) allow use of interchangeable models of varying fidelity for different aspects of the system, and 3) support system level multidisciplinary analyses and optimizations. This paper describes the design of the overall software capability and applies it to a global sensitivity analysis of wind turbine and plant performance and cost. The analysis was performed using three different model configurations involving different levels of fidelity, which illustrate how increasing fidelity can preserve important system interactions that build up to overall system performance and cost. Analyses were performed for a reference wind plant based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 5-MW reference turbine at a mid-Atlantic offshore location within the United States.

  11. Design parameters of a resonant infrared photoconductor with unity quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of a resonant infrared photoconductor that has characteristics of 100 percent quantum efficiency, high photoconductive gain, and very low noise equivalent power. Central to this concept is an establishment of a high-finesse absorption cavity internal to the detector element. A theoretical analysis is carried out, demonstrating this concept and providing some design guidelines. A Ge:Ga FIR detector is presently being fabricated using this approach.

  12. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  13. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

    2000-03-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

  14. The effect of various environmental and design parameters on methane oxidation in a model biofilter.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Brown, Kirk W; Thomas, James C

    2002-10-01

    Methane from landfills built with RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) covers is frequently vented directly to the atmosphere. Alternatively, landfill gasses could be vented through a layer of soil that could serve as a biofilter to oxidize CH4 to carbon dioxide and water. Properly designed soil biofilters may reduce atmospheric CH4 emissions from landfills and help reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. This study was conducted to investigate the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system using soil as the filterbed medium in packed columns to measure the effect of a variety of environmental and design factors on the CH4 oxidation capacity of a soil biofilter. Biofilter performance was tested under a variety of environmental and design conditions. The optimum soil moisture content for CH4 oxidation in a loamy sand was 13% by weight. Addition of NO3-N did not affect the CH4 oxidation rate. Soil depths of 30 cm and 60 cm were equally efficient in CH4 oxidation. When the CH4 loading rate was decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. The maximum CH4 oxidation rate was 27.2 mol m(-2) d(-1) under optimum conditions.

  15. The effect of various environmental and design parameters on methane oxidation in a model biofilter.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Brown, Kirk W; Thomas, James C

    2002-10-01

    Methane from landfills built with RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) covers is frequently vented directly to the atmosphere. Alternatively, landfill gasses could be vented through a layer of soil that could serve as a biofilter to oxidize CH4 to carbon dioxide and water. Properly designed soil biofilters may reduce atmospheric CH4 emissions from landfills and help reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. This study was conducted to investigate the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system using soil as the filterbed medium in packed columns to measure the effect of a variety of environmental and design factors on the CH4 oxidation capacity of a soil biofilter. Biofilter performance was tested under a variety of environmental and design conditions. The optimum soil moisture content for CH4 oxidation in a loamy sand was 13% by weight. Addition of NO3-N did not affect the CH4 oxidation rate. Soil depths of 30 cm and 60 cm were equally efficient in CH4 oxidation. When the CH4 loading rate was decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. The maximum CH4 oxidation rate was 27.2 mol m(-2) d(-1) under optimum conditions. PMID:12498480

  16. High rate biomethanation technology for solid waste management and rapid biogas production: An emphasis on reactor design parameters.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Shikha; Joseph, Johny

    2015-01-01

    A high rate biomethanation digester was designed and fabricated to study its real field treatment efficiency and simultaneous biogas generation. The major design parameters like self mixing, delinking hydraulic retention time and solid retention time etc. were considered for efficient performance. It was operated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5kg/m(3)d(-1) with composite food waste for about one year. The maximum treatment efficiency achieved with respect to total solid (TS) reduction and volatile solids (VS) reduction was 94.5% and 89.7%, respectively. Annual mean biogas of about 0.16m(3)/kgVSd(-1) was observed with methane content varying from 56% to 60% (v/v). The high competence of high rate digester is attributed to its specific design features and intermittent mixing of the digester contents and also due to the hydrodynamic principles involved in its operation.

  17. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  18. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

    2010-06-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  19. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  20. Parameter Studies, time-dependent simulations and design with automated Cartesian methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA has made a substantial investment in developing adaptive Cartesian grid methods for aerodynamic simulation. Cartesian-based methods played a key role in both the Space Shuttle Accident Investigation and in NASA's return to flight activities. The talk will provide an overview of recent technological developments focusing on the generation of large-scale aerodynamic databases, automated CAD-based design, and time-dependent simulations with of bodies in relative motion. Automation, scalability and robustness underly all of these applications and research in each of these topics will be presented.

  1. Large Mass, Entry, Descent and Landing Sensitivity Results for Environmental, Performance, and Design Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shidner, Jeremy D.; Davis, Jody L.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, RIchard W.

    2010-01-01

    Landing on Mars has been a challenging task. Past NASA missions have shown resilience to increases in spacecraft mass by scaling back requirements such as landing site altitude, landing site location and arrival time. Knowledge of the partials relating requirements to mass is critical for mission designers to understand so that the project can retain margin throughout the process. Looking forward to new missions that will land 1.5 metric tons or greater, the current level of technology is insufficient, and new technologies will need to be developed. Understanding the sensitivity of these new technologies to requirements is the purpose of this paper.

  2. The use of interpractive graphic displays for interpretation of surface design parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics technique known as the Graphic Display Data method has been developed to provide a convenient means for rapidly interpreting large amounts of surface design data. The display technique should prove valuable in such disciplines as aerodynamic analysis, structural analysis, and experimental data analysis. To demonstrate the system's features, an example is presented of the Graphic Data Display method used as an interpretive tool for radiation equilibrium temperature distributions over the surface of an aerodynamic vehicle. Color graphic displays were also examined as a logical extension of the technique to improve its clarity and to allow the presentation of greater detail in a single display.

  3. Optimization of parameters affecting signal intensity in an LTQ-orbitrap in negative ion mode: A design of experiments approach.

    PubMed

    Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos

    2016-01-15

    A multistage optimization of all the parameters affecting detection/response in an LTQ-orbitrap analyzer was performed, using a design of experiments methodology. The signal intensity, a critical issue for mass analysis, was investigated and the optimization process was completed in three successive steps, taking into account the three main regions of an orbitrap, the ion generation, the ion transmission and the ion detection regions. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were selected as the model compounds. Overall, applying this methodology the sensitivity was increased more than 24%, the resolution more than 6.5%, whereas the elapsed scan time was reduced nearly to its half. A high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap Discovery mass spectrometer was used for the determination of the analytes of interest. Thus, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were infused via the instruments syringe pump and they were analyzed employing electrospray ionization (ESI) in the negative high-resolution full-scan ion mode. The parameters of the three main regions of the LTQ-orbitrap were independently optimized in terms of maximum sensitivity. In this context, factorial design, response surface model and Plackett-Burman experiments were performed and analysis of variance was carried out to evaluate the validity of the statistical model and to determine the most significant parameters for signal intensity. The optimum MS conditions for each analyte were summarized and the method optimum condition was achieved by maximizing the desirability function. Our observation showed good agreement between the predicted optimum response and the responses collected at the predicted optimum conditions.

  4. The Sensitivity of Precooled Air-Breathing Engine Performance to Heat Exchanger Design Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, H.; Bond, A.; Hempsell, M.

    The issues relevant to propulsion design for Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are considered. In particular two air- breathing engine concepts involving precooling are compared; SABRE (Synergetic Air-Breathing and Rocket Engine) as designed for the Skylon SSTO launch vehicle, and a LACE (Liquid Air Cycle Engine) considered in the 1960's by the Americans for an early generation spaceplane. It is shown that through entropy minimisation the SABRE has made substantial gains in performance over the traditional LACE precooled engine concept, and has shown itself as the basis of a viable means of realising a SSTO vehicle. Further, it is demonstrated that the precooler is a major source of thermodynamic irreversibility within the engine cycle and that further reduction in entropy can be realised by increasing the heat transfer coefficient on the air side of the precooler. If this were to be achieved, it would improve the payload mass delivered to orbit by the Skylon launch vehicle by between 5 and 10%.

  5. Materials for MW sized aerogenerators. I - The influence of design on operating parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, L. M.

    1983-09-01

    Materials and fatigue design deficiencies in the development and production of MW-scale wind turbines with 30-yr, reliable, cost-effective lifetimes are surveyed. Attention is given to existing wind turbines, the performance of materials to date, and fundamental materials properties. Failures thus far have arisen from the coincidence of fundamental vibration frequency or a low order harmonic of components with an exciting frequency, malfunction of control mechanisms, and inadequate engineering. All the failures can be avoided, and most occur in the rotor. Two-bladed horizontal configurations permit use of a through-center section while requiring teetering to reduce stresses; three-bladed designs offer higher output for the same diameter and less of a stress moment on the tower and yaw components. Hydraulic components have caused trouble, which could be eliminated with redundancy. The torsional vibrations to which a Darrieus wind turbine is subject in every revolution can be ameliorated with three blades and eradicated with four. The Musgrove wind turbine requires thin blades to maintain a high aspect ratio, but simultaneously introduces buckling stresses. Blade materials used or proposed are carbon steel, GFRP, wood, stainless steel, CFRP, aluminum, titanium, and prestressed concrete.

  6. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  7. The influence of Monte Carlo source parameters on detector design and dose perturbation in small field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P. H.; Crowe, S. B.; Kairn, T.; Knight, R.; Hill, B.; Kenny, J.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.

    2014-03-01

    To obtain accurate Monte Carlo simulations of small radiation fields, it is important model the initial source parameters (electron energy and spot size) accurately. However recent studies have shown that small field dosimetry correction factors are insensitive to these parameters. The aim of this work is to extend this concept to test if these parameters affect dose perturbations in general, which is important for detector design and calculating perturbation correction factors. The EGSnrc C++ user code cavity was used for all simulations. Varying amounts of air between 0 and 2 mm were deliberately introduced upstream to a diode and the dose perturbation caused by the air was quantified. These simulations were then repeated using a range of initial electron energies (5.5 to 7.0 MeV) and electron spot sizes (0.7 to 2.2 FWHM). The resultant dose perturbations were large. For example 2 mm of air caused a dose reduction of up to 31% when simulated with a 6 mm field size. However these values did not vary by more than 2 % when simulated across the full range of source parameters tested. If a detector is modified by the introduction of air, one can be confident that the response of the detector will be the same across all similar linear accelerators and the Monte Carlo modelling of each machine is not required.

  8. Effects of cutting parameters and machining environments on surface roughness in hard turning using design of experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Mozammel; Bashir, Mahmood Al; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Hard turning is gradually replacing the time consuming conventional turning process, which is typically followed by grinding, by producing surface quality compatible to grinding. The hard turned surface roughness depends on the cutting parameters, machining environments and tool insert configurations. In this article the variation of the surface roughness of the produced surfaces with the changes in tool insert configuration, use of coolant and different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate) has been investigated. This investigation was performed in machining AISI 1060 steel, hardened to 56 HRC by heat treatment, using coated carbide inserts under two different machining environments. The depth of cut, fluid pressure and material hardness were kept constant. The Design of Experiment (DOE) was performed to determine the number and combination sets of different cutting parameters. A full factorial analysis has been performed to examine the effect of main factors as well as interaction effect of factors on surface roughness. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to determine the combined effect of cutting parameters, environment and tool configuration. The result of this analysis reveals that environment has the most significant impact on surface roughness followed by feed rate and tool configuration respectively.

  9. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. PMID:27523619

  10. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration.

  11. Assessment of design parameters of a slab track railway system from a dynamic viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenbergen, M. J. M. M.; Metrikine, A. V.; Esveld, C.

    2007-09-01

    The development of the ballastless slab track, with applications especially on soft soil in combination with loading by high-speed trains, puts several specific engineering demands. One of these is how to provide the required vertical stiffness of the track system. According to the most common approach massive soil improvements are applied. An alternative to this would be to increase the bending stiffness of the slab, e.g. by applying an eccentric reinforcement. Both solutions have consequences for the dynamic track and ground response. In this contribution, the classical model of a beam on elastic half-space subject to a moving load is employed to assess effectiveness of these engineering solutions by analysis of their influence on the generalized dynamic track stiffness. The aim is to minimize the level of slab vibrations, in order to prevent deterioration. The effect of variation of other track properties is also evaluated. It is shown that for high frequencies an increase of the track stiffness is most effective, whereas for low frequencies soil improvement is a better solution. It is further shown that a relatively high track mass generally decreases track vibrations in the relevant frequency domain and that the width of the slab is an important parameter to control the level of track vibrations.

  12. Development of Design Basis Earthquake Parameters for TMI-2 Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services; Geomatrix Consultants; Pacific Engineering and Analysis; S. M. Payne

    1999-11-01

    Probabilistically-based Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) ground motion parameters have been developed for the TMI-2 Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The probabilistic seismic hazard at INTEC has been recomputed using ground motion attenuation relationships more appropriate for extensional tectonic regimes. The empirical attenuation relationships used in this analysis were adjusted for extensional tectonic regimes as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. Seismic hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra for rock produced using the revised attenuation relationships result in lower ground motions when compared to the results of the 1996 INEEL site-wide seismic hazard evaluation. The DBE ground motions for rock and soil have been developed to be applicable to the TMI-2 ISFSI and the entire INTEC site by incorporating variations in the rock and soil properties over the INTEC area. The DBE rock and soil ground motions presented in the report are recommended for use in developing final design earthquake parameters. Peer reviewers of this report support this recommendation. Because the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations have recently evolved to incorporate probabilistically-based seismic design for independent fuel storage facilities, a deterministic Maximum Credible Earthquake analysis performed for INTEC earlier in this study is also presented in this report.

  13. Optimal blood sampling time windows for parameter estimation using a population approach: design of a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Marylore; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Duval, Vincent; Laveille, Christian; Jochemsen, Roeline; Aarons, Leon

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine optimal blood sampling time windows for the estimation of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters by a population approach within the clinical constraints. A population PK model was developed to describe a reference phase II PK dataset. Using this model and the parameter estimates, D-optimal sampling times were determined by optimising the determinant of the population Fisher information matrix (PFIM) using PFIM_ _M 1.2 and the modified Fedorov exchange algorithm. Optimal sampling time windows were then determined by allowing the D-optimal windows design to result in a specified level of efficiency when compared to the fixed-times D-optimal design. The best results were obtained when K(a) and IIV on K(a) were fixed. Windows were determined using this approach assuming 90% level of efficiency and uniform sample distribution. Four optimal sampling time windows were determined as follow: at trough between 22 h and new drug administration; between 2 and 4 h after dose for all patients; and for 1/3 of the patients only 2 sampling time windows between 4 and 10 h after dose, equal to [4 h-5 h 05] and [9 h 10-10 h]. This work permitted the determination of an optimal design, with suitable sampling time windows which was then evaluated by simulations. The sampling time windows will be used to define the sampling schedule in a prospective phase II study.

  14. Simulation and Flight Evaluation of a Parameter Estimation Input Design Method for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve emissions, noise, and performance of next generation aircraft, it is expected that future aircraft will make use of distributed, multi-objective control effectors in a closed-loop flight control system. Correlation challenges associated with parameter estimation will arise with this expected aircraft configuration. Research presented in this paper focuses on addressing the correlation problem with an appropriate input design technique and validating this technique through simulation and flight test of the X-48B aircraft. The X-48B aircraft is an 8.5 percent-scale hybrid wing body aircraft demonstrator designed by The Boeing Company (Chicago, Illinois, USA), built by Cranfield Aerospace Limited (Cranfield, Bedford, United Kingdom) and flight tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA). Based on data from flight test maneuvers performed at Dryden Flight Research Center, aerodynamic parameter estimation was performed using linear regression and output error techniques. An input design technique that uses temporal separation for de-correlation of control surfaces is proposed, and simulation and flight test results are compared with the aerodynamic database. This paper will present a method to determine individual control surface aerodynamic derivatives.

  15. Piecewise function parameters as responses of the design of experiment in the development of a pulsatile release chronopharmaceutical system.

    PubMed

    Vonica-Gligor, Andreea Loredana; Tomuţă, Ioan; Leucuţa, Sorin E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a pulsatile release system with metoprolol for chronotherapeutical use by coating swellable mini-tablets with Eudragit RS. To study the influence of the formulation factors (amount of coating polymer, plasticizer percentage in film coating and swelling agent percentage in mini-tablets), a Box-Behnken design of experiment (DoE) was used. To evaluate the influence of the studied factors on the sigmoid shape of the dissolution profile, piecewise function parameters were used as the responses of DoE. The results show that higher concentrations of coating polymer and higher concentrations of plasticizer polymer led to a thicker and more elastic polymeric film, which led to a delay in drug release. Using the parameters of the piecewise function as DoE responses, an optimum formulation with a sigmoid shape dissolution profile and a 2.5-h lag time followed by rapid drug release were obtained. PMID:27279062

  16. Rational Design of Particle Mesh Ewald Compatible Lennard-Jones Parameters for +2 Metal Cations in Explicit Solvent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Roberts, Benjamin P.; Chakravorty, Dhruva K.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal ions play significant roles in biological systems. Accurate molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on these systems require a validated set of parameters. Although there are more detailed ways to model metal ions, the nonbonded model, which employs a 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) term plus an electrostatic potential is still widely used in MD simulations today due to its simple form. However, LJ parameters have limited transferability due to different combining rules, various water models and diverse simulation methods. Recently, simulations employing a Particle Mesh Ewald (PME) treatment for long-range electrostatics have become more and more popular owing to their speed and accuracy. In the present work we have systematically designed LJ parameters for 24 +2 metal (M(II)) cations to reproduce different experimental properties appropriate for the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules and PME simulations. We began by testing the transferability of currently available M(II) ion LJ parameters. The results showed that there are differences between simulations employing Ewald summation with other simulation methods and that it was necessary to design new parameters specific for PME based simulations. Employing the thermodynamic integration (TI) method and performing periodic boundary MD simulations employing PME, allowed for the systematic investigation of the LJ parameter space. Hydration free energies (HFEs), the ion-oxygen distance in the first solvation shell (IOD) and coordination numbers (CNs) were obtained for various combinations of the parameters of the LJ potential for four widely used water models (TIP3P, SPC/E, TIP4P and TIP4PEW). Results showed that the three simulated properties were highly correlated. Meanwhile, M(II) ions with the same parameters in different water models produce remarkably different HFEs but similar structural properties. It is difficult to reproduce various experimental values simultaneously because the nonbonded model underestimates the

  17. Influence of design and operation parameters on bag-cleaning performance of pulse-jet baghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.C.; Tsai, C.J.

    1999-06-01

    In this study, a filter test system with clean new fabric bags was used to measure the pulse pressure and acceleration of the filter bag. Fabric acceleration and pulse pressure were used as an index of bag-cleaning intensity. The jet pump curves, which relate the flow rate through the venturi to the average developed pressure by the venturi, were determined by the similar system. The intersection of the jet pump curve and the bag operating line, which relates the pressure drop to flow rate across the bag during pulse-jet cleaning, is the system operating point that was used to predict the average pulse pressure can be achieved without the venturi at the top of the bag for bag materials with low resistance coefficient. For bags with higher resistance coefficients, higher pulse pressure is obtained with a venturi installed at the top of the bag. The predicted pressure values are in good agreement with experimental data. Dimensional analysis for jet pump performance was developed to reduce the experimental data. The results show that the jet pump curves obtained under different operating conditions can be reduced to the same nondimensional curve, which can be used to facilitate the design and operation of a pulse-jet cleaning system.

  18. Optimization of photo-Fenton process parameters on carbofuran degradation using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li A; Ma, Ying S; Daverey, Achlesh; Lin, Jih G

    2012-01-01

    Carbofuran, one of the most toxic and biorefractory carbamate compounds, is widely used in insecticides in Taiwan (9-18% of total insecticides production per year). In the present study, a central composite design experiment was used to study the effect of photo-Fenton treatment on carbofuran solution and to optimize the process variables such as carbofuran concentration (1-100 mg L(-1)), H(2)O(2) dosage rate (0.25-6 mg L(-1) min(-1)) and Fe(3+) dosage (1-50 mg L(-1)), which influenced the efficiency of carbofuran degradation and mineralization. The results indicated that all the variables investigated in this study had significant roles in the degradation and mineralization of carbofuran in solution. The carbofuran degradation and mineralization efficiencies were increased with increase in H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage, and with decrease in carbofuran concentration. Furthermore, optimum values of both H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage were found to shift to higher values as carbofuran concentration increased. Based on the model obtained in this study, optimum H(2)O(2) dosage rate and Fe(3+) dosage were found to be 4 mg L(-1) min(-1) and 20 mg L(-1), respectively, for 51 mg L(-1) of carbofuran concentration. Under these conditions, carbofuran was completely removed within 30 min and coupled with 78% mineralization at the end of experiment.

  19. Optimization of space borne imaging ladar sensor for asteroid studies using parameter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheel, Peter J.; Dobbs, Michael E.; Sharp, William E.

    2002-10-01

    Imaging LADAR is a hybrid technology that offers the ability to measure basic physical and morphological characteristics (topography, rotational state, and density) of a small body from a single fast flyby, without requiring months in orbit. In addition, the imaging LADAR provides key flight navigation information including range, altitude, hazard/target avoidance, and closed-loop landing/fly-by navigation information. The Near Laser Ranger demonstrated many of these capabilities as part of the NEAR mission. The imaging LADAR scales the concept of a laser ranger into a full 3D imager. Imaging LADAR systems combine laser illumination of the target (which means that imaging is independent of solar illumination and the image SNR is controlled by the observer), with laser ranging and imaging (producing high resolution 3D images in a fraction of the time necessary for a passive imager). The technical concept described below alters the traditional design space (dominated by pulsed LADAR systems) with the introduction of a pseudo-noise (PN) coded continuous wave (CW) laser system which allows for variable range resolution mapping and leverages enormous commercial investments in high power, long-life lasers for telecommunications.

  20. A Method for Optimizing Lightweight-Gypsum Design Based on Sequential Measurements of Physical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimmrová, Alena; Kočí, Václav; Krejsová, Jitka; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    A method for lightweight-gypsum material design using waste stone dust as the foaming agent is described. The main objective is to reach several physical properties which are inversely related in a certain way. Therefore, a linear optimization method is applied to handle this task systematically. The optimization process is based on sequential measurement of physical properties. The results are subsequently point-awarded according to a complex point criterion and new composition is proposed. After 17 trials the final mixture is obtained, having the bulk density equal to (586 ± 19) kg/m3 and compressive strength (1.10 ± 0.07) MPa. According to a detailed comparative analysis with reference gypsum, the newly developed material can be used as excellent thermally insulating interior plaster with the thermal conductivity of (0.082 ± 0.005) W/(m·K). In addition, its practical application can bring substantial economic and environmental benefits as the material contains 25 % of waste stone dust.

  1. DAKOTA, A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework for Design Optimization, Parameter Estimation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Sensitivity Analysis Version 3.0 Developers Manual (title change from electronic posting)

    SciTech Connect

    ELDRED, MICHAEL S.; GIUNTA, ANTHONY A.; VAN BLOEMEN WAANDERS, BART G.; WOJTKIEWICZ JR., STEVEN F.; HART, WILLIAM E.; ALLEVA, MARIO

    2002-04-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, analytic reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a developers manual for the DAKOTA software and describes the DAKOTA class hierarchies and their interrelationships. It derives directly from annotation of the actual source code and provides detailed class documentation, including all member functions and attributes.

  2. Operational Parameters, Considerations, and Design Decisions for Resource-Constrained Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danell, Ryan M.; VanAmerom, Friso H. W.; Pinnick, Veronica; Cotter, Robert J.; Brickerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometers are increasingly finding applications in new and unique areas, often in situations where key operational resources (i.e. power, weight and size) are limited. One such example is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). This instrument is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop an ion trap mass spectrometer for chemical analysis on Mars. The constraints on such an instrument are significant as are the performance requirements. While the ideal operating parameters for an ion trap are generally well characterized, methods to maintain analytical performance with limited power and system weight need to be investigated and tested. Methods Experiments have been performed on two custom ion trap mass spectrometers developed as prototypes for the MOMA instrument. This hardware consists of quadrupole ion trap electrodes that are 70% the size of common commercial instrumentation. The trapping RF voltage is created with a custom tank circuit that can be tuned over a range of RF frequencies and is driven using laboratory supplies and amplifiers. The entire instrument is controlled with custom Lab VIEW software that allows a high degree of flexibility in the definition of the scan function defining the ion trap experiment. Ions are typically generated via an internal electron ionization source, however, a laser desorption source is also in development for analysis of larger intact molecules. Preliminary Data The main goals in this work have been to reduce the power required to generate the radio frequency trapping field used in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Generally minimizing the power will also reduce the volume and mass of the electronics to support the instrument. In order to achieve optimum performance, commercial instruments typically utilize RF frequencies in the 1 MHz range. Without much concern for power usage, they simply generate the voltage required to access the mass range of interest. In order to reduce the

  3. Application of quality by design approach to optimize process and formulation parameters of rizatriptan loaded chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shirsat, Ajinath Eknath; Chitlange, Sohan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to optimize rizatriptan (RZT) chitosan (CS) nanoparticles using ionic gelation method by application of quality by design (QbD) approach. Based on risk assessment, effect of three variables, that is CS %, tripolyphosphate % and stirring speed were studied on critical quality attributes (CQAs); particle size and entrapment efficiency. Central composite design (CCD) was implemented for design of experimentation with 20 runs. RZT CS nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro release study, differential scanning calorimetric, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on QbD approach, design space (DS) was optimized with a combination of selected variables with entrapment efficiency > 50% w/w and a particle size between 400 and 600 nm. Validation of model was performed with 3 representative formulations from DS for which standard error of − 0.70–3.29 was observed between experimental and predicted values. In-vitro drug release followed initial burst release 20.26 ± 2.34% in 3–4 h with sustained drug release of 98.43 ± 2.45% in 60 h. Lower magnitude of standard error for CQAs confirms the validation of selected CCD model for optimization of RZT CS nanoparticles. In-vitro drug release followed dual mechanism via, diffusion and polymer erosion. RZT CS nanoparticles were prepared successfully using QbD approach with the understanding of the high risk process and formulation parameters involved and optimized DS with a multifactorial combination of critical parameters to obtain predetermined RZT loaded CS nanoparticle specifications. PMID:26317071

  4. The influence of dynamic chamber design and operating parameters on calculated surface-to-air mercury fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckley, C. S.; Gustin, M.; Lin, C.-J.; Li, X.; Miller, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic Flux Chambers (DFCs) are commonly applied for the measurement of non-point source mercury (Hg) emissions from a wide range of surfaces. A standard operating protocol and design for DFCs does not exist, and as a result there is a large diversity in methods described in the literature. Because natural and anthropogenic non-point sources are thought to contribute significantly to the atmosphere Hg pool, development of accurate fluxes during field campaigns is essential. The objective of this research was to determine how differences in chamber material, sample port placement, vertical cross sectional area/volume, and flushing flow rate influence the Hg flux from geologic materials. Hg fluxes measured with a Teflon chamber were higher than those obtained using a polycarbonate chamber, with differences related to light transmission and substrate type. Differences in sample port placement (side versus top) did not have an influence on Hg fluxes. When the same flushing flow rate was applied to two chambers of different volumes, higher fluxes were calculated for the chamber with the smaller volume. Conversely, when two chambers with different volumes were maintained at similar turnover times, the larger volume chamber yielded higher Hg fluxes. Overall, the flushing flow rate and associated chamber turnover time had the largest influence on Hg flux relative to the other parameters tested. Results from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling inside a DFC confirm that the smaller diffusion resistance at higher flushing flows contributes to the higher measured flux. These results clearly illustrate that differences in chamber design and operation can significantly influence the resulting calculated Hg flux, and thus impact the comparability of results obtained using DFC designs and/or operating parameters. A protocol for determining a flushing flow rate that results in fluxes less affected by chamber operating conditions and design is proposed. Application of this

  5. A parameter-tuned genetic algorithm for statistically constrained economic design of multivariate CUSUM control charts: a Taguchi loss approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Javad Ershadi, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    In this research, the main parameters of the multivariate cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart (the reference value k, the control limit H, the sample size n and the sampling interval h) are determined by minimising the Lorenzen-Vance cost function [Lorenzen, T.J., and Vance, L.C. (1986), 'The Economic Design of Control Charts: A Unified Approach', Technometrics, 28, 3-10], in which the external costs of employing the chart are added. In addition, the model is statistically constrained to achieve desired in-control and out-of-control average run lengths. The Taguchi loss approach is used to model the problem and a genetic algorithm, for which its main parameters are tuned using the response surface methodology (RSM), is proposed to solve it. At the end, sensitivity analyses on the main parameters of the cost function are presented and their practical conclusions are drawn. The results show that RSM significantly improves the performance of the proposed algorithm and the external costs of applying the chart, which are due to real-world constraints, do not increase the average total loss very much.

  6. Optimization of operating parameters for efficient photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli based on a statistical design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Feilizadeh, Mehrzad; Alemzadeh, Iran; Delparish, Amin; Estahbanati, M R Karimi; Soleimani, Mahdi; Jangjou, Yasser; Vosoughi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the individual and interaction effects of three key operating parameters of the photocatalytic disinfection process were evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for the first time. The chosen operating parameters were: reaction temperature, initial pH of the reaction mixture and TiO2 P-25 photocatalyst loading. Escherichia coli concentration, after 90 minutes irradiation of UV-A light, was selected as the response. Twenty sets of photocatalytic disinfection experiments were conducted by adjusting operating parameters at five levels using the central composite design. Based on the experimental data, a semi-empirical expression was established and applied to predict the response. Analysis of variance revealed a strong correlation between predicted and experimental values of the response. The optimum values of the reaction temperature, initial pH of the reaction mixture and photocatalyst loading were found to be 40.3 °C, 5.9 g/L, and 1.0 g/L, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, E. coli concentration was observed to reduce from 10(7) to about 11 CFU/mL during the photocatalytic process. Moreover, all these results showed the great significance of the RSM in developing high performance processes for photocatalytic water disinfection.

  7. A systematic optimization of design parameters in strained silicon waveguides to further enhance the linear electro-optic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Irene; Angelova, Todora I.; Pinilla-Cienfuegos, Elena; Sanchis, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The electro-optic Pockels effect may be generated in silicon photonics structures by breaking the crystal symmetry by means of a highly stressing cladding layer (typically silicon nitride, SiN) deposited on top of the silicon waveguide. In this work, the influence of the waveguide parameters on the strain distribution and its overlap with the optical mode to enhance the Pockels effect has been analyzed. The optimum waveguide structure have been designed based on the definition and quantification of a figure of merit. The fabrication of highly stressing SiN layers by PECVD has also been optimized to characterize the designed structures. The residual stress has been controlled during the growth process by analyzing the influence of the main deposition parameters. Therefore, two identical samples with low and high stress conditions were fabricated and electro-optically characterized to test the induced Pockels effect and the influence of carrier effects. Electro-optical modulation was only measured in the sample with the high stressing SiN layer that could be attributed to the Pockels effect. Nevertheless, the influence of carriers were also observed thus making necessary additional experiments to decouple both effects.

  8. Life-Prediction Parameters of Sapphire Determined for the Design of a Space Station Combustion Facility Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the stress corrosion parameters and predict the life of a sapphire window being considered for use in the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center conducted stress corrosion tests, fracture toughness tests, and reliability analyses, as shown in the figures. Standardized test methods, developed and updated by the author under the auspices of American Society for Testing and Materials, were employed. One interesting finding is that sapphire exhibits a susceptibility to stress corrosion in water similar to that of glass. In addition to generating the stress corrosion parameters and fracture toughness data, closed-form expressions for the variances of the crack growth parameters were derived. The expressions allow confidence bands to be easily placed on life predictions of ceramic components. Brittle materials such as sapphire and quartz are required for windows in a variety of applications such as the Fluids and Combustion Facility. To minimize the launch weight of such facilities, researchers must design the windows to be as lightweight as possible. The safe use of lightweight, brittle windows in structural applications is limited by two factors: low fracture toughness and slow crack growth, or stress corrosion. Stress corrosion of these and other optical materials can occur in relatively common environments, such as humid air. Access to the data has been requested by designers for use in the life prediction of a Northrop Grumman F16 instrument window and a Jet Propulsion Laboratory instrument window. One Space Act Agreement has been formed. Future work includes the measurement of the life of subscale windows.

  9. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  10. 'Sum of activities' as dependent parameter: a new CoMFA-based approach for the design of pan PPAR agonists.

    PubMed

    Sundriyal, Sandeep; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2009-01-01

    A 'sum-model' (3D QSAR - CoMFA) has been developed to design PPAR(alpha/gamma/delta) (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor) pan agonists by using the sum of activities (EC(50)) of compounds against individual subtypes as a dependent parameter. In addition, the three subtype specific CoMFA models were also generated using the identical training set molecules (N=28). All four models were validated using the popular 'leave-one-out' (LOO) method and with a test set of 9 molecules. The generated models were found to be statistically significant with r(cv)(2)>0.5 and r(ncv)(2)>0.9 and the lower values of standard error of estimation (SEE) ranging from 0.097 to 0.160. From the contour map analyses the 'sum-model' was found to represent the three subtype specific models and also predicted the sum of activities of the training set molecules with reasonable accuracy. The new molecules were designed based on the 'sum-model' and were found to dock well in the PPARgamma active site. This approach may find wider applications in the research related to other classes of 'designed multiple ligands'. PMID:18448203

  11. Model parameters conditioning on regional hydrologic signatures for process-based design flood estimation in ungauged basins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Daniela; De Luca, Davide Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The use of rainfall-runoff models represents an alternative to statistical approaches (such as at-site or regional flood frequency analysis) for design flood estimation, and constitutes an answer to the increasing need for synthetic design hydrographs (SDHs) associated to a specific return period. However, the lack of streamflow observations and the consequent high uncertainty associated with parameter estimation, usually pose serious limitations to the use of process-based approaches in ungauged catchments, which in contrast represent the majority in practical applications. This work presents the application of a Bayesian procedure that, for a predefined rainfall-runoff model, allows for the assessment of posterior parameters distribution, using the limited and uncertain information available for the response of an ungauged catchment (Bulygina et al. 2009; 2011). The use of regional estimates of river flow statistics, interpreted as hydrological signatures that measure theoretically relevant system process behaviours (Gupta et al. 2008), within this framework represents a valuable option and has shown significant developments in recent literature to constrain the plausible model response and to reduce the uncertainty in ungauged basins. In this study we rely on the first three L-moments of annual streamflow maxima, for which regressions are available from previous studies (Biondi et al. 2012; Laio et al. 2011). The methodology was carried out for a catchment located in southern Italy, and used within a Monte Carlo scheme (MCs) considering both event-based and continuous simulation approaches for design flood estimation. The applied procedure offers promising perspectives to perform model calibration and uncertainty analysis in ungauged basins; moreover, in the context of design flood estimation, process-based methods coupled with MCs approach have the advantage of providing simulated floods uncertainty analysis that represents an asset in risk-based decision

  12. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, C. H.; Fernandes, D. C.; Lavínia, N. C.; Caldas, L. V. E.; Pires, S. R.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  13. Actual innocence: is death different?

    PubMed

    Acker, James R

    2009-01-01

    Supreme Court jurisprudence relies heavily on the premise that "death is different" from other criminal sanctions, and that capital cases entail commensurately demanding standards of reliability. Although invoked most frequently with respect to sentencing, both precedent and logic suggest that heightened reliability applies as well to guilt determination in capital trials. Nevertheless, recurrent and highly visible wrongful convictions in capital cases have affected public opinion, contributed to a precipitous decline in new death sentences, and led to calls for reforms designed to guard against the risk of executing innocent persons. This article examines the implications of the "death is different" doctrine for the problem of wrongful convictions in both capital and non-capital cases. It argues that innovations designed to enhance reliability in the special context of death-penalty prosecutions are important in their own right, but relevant new safeguards also should extend to criminal cases generally, where innocent people are similarly at risk and wrongful convictions are far more prevalent.

  14. Dependence of the mechanical behavior of alloys on their electron work function—An alternative parameter for materials design

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hao; Hua, Guomin; Li, Dongyang

    2013-12-23

    In this article, we demonstrate that the electron work function (EWF) as an intrinsic parameter can provide information or clues in a simple or straightforward way for material design, modification, and development. A higher work function of a material represents a more stable electronic state, which consequently generates a higher resistance to any attempt of changing the electronic state and other corresponding states, e.g., changes in structure or microstructure caused by mechanical and electrochemical actions. Using Cu-Ni alloy as an example, we demonstrate the correlation between the EWF and Young's modulus of the material as well as its hardness. The properties of a material can be modified using elements with appropriate work functions. This is also applicable for tailoring inter-phase boundaries or interfaces.

  15. Effects of Materials Parameters and Design Details on the Fatigue of Composite Materials for Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, J.F.; Samborsky, D.D.; Sutherland, H.J.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an analysis of the results of nine years of fatigue testing represented in the USDOE/Montana State University (DOE/MSU) Composite Materials Fatigue Database. The focus of the program has been to explore a broad range of glass-fiber-based materials parameters encompassing over 4500 data points for 130 materials systems. Significant trends and transitions in fatigue resistance are shown as the fiber content and fabric architecture are varied. The effects of structural details including ply drops, bonded stiffeners, and other geometries that produce local variations in fiber packing and geometry are also described. Fatigue tests on composite beam structures are then discussed; these show generally good correlation with coupon fatigue data in the database. Goodman diagrams for fatigue design are presented, and their application to predicting the service lifetime of blades is described.

  16. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  17. Identifying the Cognitive Needs of Visitors and Content Selection Parameters for Designing the Interactive Kiosk Software for Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katre, Dinesh; Sarnaik, Mandar

    This research presents the findings of contextual interviews, visitor survey and behavioural study that were carried out in Indian museums. It originates from the hypothesis that the museum exhibits are unable to express their relevance, historical significance and related knowledge to satisfy the curiosity of visitors. Our objective is to identify the cognitive needs of museum visitors and the content selection parameters for designing the interactive kiosk software, which is expected to be set up in every thematic gallery of the museum. The kiosk software is intended to offer higher level of engaging and learnable experience to the museum visitors. The research involved participation of 100+ visitors in Indian museums. The access restrictions and constraints of museums cause cognitive deprivation of visitors and compromise the quality of experience. Therefore, the interactivity, animations and multimedia capabilities of kiosk software must be focused on overcoming these limitations.

  18. Robust design of (s, S) inventory policy parameters in supply chains with demand and lead time uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Movahed, Kamran; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2015-09-01

    Demand and lead time uncertainties have significant effects on supply chain behaviour. In this paper, we present a single-product three-level multi-period supply chain with uncertain demands and lead times by using robust techniques to study the managerial insights of the supply chain inventory system under uncertainty. We formulate this problem as a robust mixed-integer linear program with minimised expected cost and total cost variation to determine the optimal (s, S) values of the inventory parameters. Several numerical studies are performed to investigate the supply chain behaviour. Useful guidelines for the design of a robust supply chain are also provided. Results show that the order variance and the expected cost in a supply chain significantly increase when the manufacturer's review period is an integer ratio of the distributor's and the retailer's review periods.

  19. Design and Development of Microcontroller-Based Clinical Chemistry Analyser for Measurement of Various Blood Biochemistry Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, S. R.; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K. K.; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  20. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments.

  1. Evaluation of transverse dispersion effects in tank experiments by numerical modeling: parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis and revision of experimental design.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, E; Bauer, S; Eberhardt, C; Beyer, C

    2012-06-01

    Transverse dispersion represents an important mixing process for transport of contaminants in groundwater and constitutes an essential prerequisite for geochemical and biodegradation reactions. Within this context, this work describes the detailed numerical simulation of highly controlled laboratory experiments using uranine, bromide and oxygen depleted water as conservative tracers for the quantification of transverse mixing in porous media. Synthetic numerical experiments reproducing an existing laboratory experimental set-up of quasi two-dimensional flow through tank were performed to assess the applicability of an analytical solution of the 2D advection-dispersion equation for the estimation of transverse dispersivity as fitting parameter. The fitted dispersivities were compared to the "true" values introduced in the numerical simulations and the associated error could be precisely estimated. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the experimental set-up in order to evaluate the sensitivities of the measurements taken at the tank experiment on the individual hydraulic and transport parameters. From the results, an improved experimental set-up as well as a numerical evaluation procedure could be developed, which allow for a precise and reliable determination of dispersivities. The improved tank set-up was used for new laboratory experiments, performed at advective velocities of 4.9 m d(-1) and 10.5 m d(-1). Numerical evaluation of these experiments yielded a unique and reliable parameter set, which closely fits the measured tracer concentration data. For the porous medium with a grain size of 0.25-0.30 mm, the fitted longitudinal and transverse dispersivities were 3.49×10(-4) m and 1.48×10(-5) m, respectively. The procedures developed in this paper for the synthetic and rigorous design and evaluation of the experiments can be generalized and transferred to comparable applications. PMID:22575873

  2. Evaluation of transverse dispersion effects in tank experiments by numerical modeling: parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis and revision of experimental design.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, E; Bauer, S; Eberhardt, C; Beyer, C

    2012-06-01

    Transverse dispersion represents an important mixing process for transport of contaminants in groundwater and constitutes an essential prerequisite for geochemical and biodegradation reactions. Within this context, this work describes the detailed numerical simulation of highly controlled laboratory experiments using uranine, bromide and oxygen depleted water as conservative tracers for the quantification of transverse mixing in porous media. Synthetic numerical experiments reproducing an existing laboratory experimental set-up of quasi two-dimensional flow through tank were performed to assess the applicability of an analytical solution of the 2D advection-dispersion equation for the estimation of transverse dispersivity as fitting parameter. The fitted dispersivities were compared to the "true" values introduced in the numerical simulations and the associated error could be precisely estimated. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the experimental set-up in order to evaluate the sensitivities of the measurements taken at the tank experiment on the individual hydraulic and transport parameters. From the results, an improved experimental set-up as well as a numerical evaluation procedure could be developed, which allow for a precise and reliable determination of dispersivities. The improved tank set-up was used for new laboratory experiments, performed at advective velocities of 4.9 m d(-1) and 10.5 m d(-1). Numerical evaluation of these experiments yielded a unique and reliable parameter set, which closely fits the measured tracer concentration data. For the porous medium with a grain size of 0.25-0.30 mm, the fitted longitudinal and transverse dispersivities were 3.49×10(-4) m and 1.48×10(-5) m, respectively. The procedures developed in this paper for the synthetic and rigorous design and evaluation of the experiments can be generalized and transferred to comparable applications.

  3. Numerical Study of the Gas Distribution in an Oxygen Blast Furnace. Part 2: Effects of the Design and Operating Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2015-09-01

    Gas distribution plays a significant role in an oxygen blast furnace. The uneven distribution of recycling gas from the shaft tuyere has been shown to affect the heat distribution and energy utilization in an oxygen blast furnace. Therefore, the optimal design and operating parameters beneficial to the gas distribution in an oxygen blast furnace should be determined. In total, three parameters and 22 different conditions in an oxygen blast furnace multifluid model were considered. The gas and heat distributions in an oxygen blast furnace under different conditions were simulated and compared. The study revealed that when the height of shaft tuyere decreased from 7.8 m to 3.8 m, the difference in top gas CO concentration between the center and edge decreased by 11.6%. When the recycling gas temperature increased from 1123 K to 1473 K, the difference in the top gas CO concentration between the center and edge decreased by 3.9%. As the allocation ratio increased from 0.90 to 1.94, the difference in the top gas CO concentration between the center and edge decreased by 3.0%. Considering both gas and heat distributions, a shaft tuyere height of 3.8 m to 4.8 m, a recycling gas temperature of 1473 K and an allocation ratio of 1.94 are recommended in practice under the conditions of this study.

  4. Design of a Hybrid (Wired/Wireless) Acquisition Data System for Monitoring of Cultural Heritage Physical Parameters in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board’s designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation. PMID:25815447

  5. The Importance of Temporal Design: How Do Measurement Intervals Affect the Accuracy and Efficiency of Parameter Estimates in Longitudinal Research?

    PubMed

    Timmons, Adela C; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2015-01-01

    The timing (spacing) of assessments is an important component of longitudinal research. The purpose of the present study is to determine methods of timing the collection of longitudinal data that provide better parameter recovery in mixed effects nonlinear growth modeling. A simulation study was conducted, varying function type, as well as the number of measurement occasions, in order to examine the effect of timing on the accuracy and efficiency of parameter estimates. The number of measurement occasions was associated with greater efficiency for all functional forms and was associated with greater accuracy for the intrinsically nonlinear functions. In general, concentrating measurement occasions toward the left or at the extremes was associated with increased efficiency when estimating the intercepts of intrinsically linear functions, and concentrating values where the curvature of the function was greatest generally resulted in the best recovery for intrinsically nonlinear functions. Results from this study can be used in conjunction with theory to improve the design of longitudinal research studies. In addition, an R program is provided for researchers to run customized simulations to identify optimal sampling schedules for their own research.

  6. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research.

  7. A sensitivity analysis of process design parameters, commodity prices and robustness on the economics of odour abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Lebrero, Raquel; Muñoz, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of the five most commonly applied odour abatement technologies (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing and a hybrid technology consisting of a biotrickling filter coupled with carbon adsorption) towards design parameters and commodity prices was evaluated. Besides, the influence of the geographical location on the Net Present Value calculated for a 20 years lifespan (NPV20) of each technology and its robustness towards typical process fluctuations and operational upsets were also assessed. This comparative analysis showed that biological techniques present lower operating costs (up to 6 times) and lower sensitivity than their physical/chemical counterparts, with the packing material being the key parameter affecting their operating costs (40-50% of the total operating costs). The use of recycled or partially treated water (e.g. secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants) offers an opportunity to significantly reduce costs in biological techniques. Physical/chemical technologies present a high sensitivity towards H2S concentration, which is an important drawback due to the fluctuating nature of malodorous emissions. The geographical analysis evidenced high NPV20 variations around the world for all the technologies evaluated, but despite the differences in wage and price levels, biofiltration and biotrickling filtration are always the most cost-efficient alternatives (NPV20). When, in an economical evaluation, the robustness is as relevant as the overall costs (NPV20), the hybrid technology would move up next to BTF as the most preferred technologies.

  8. Design of a hybrid (wired/wireless) acquisition data system for monitoring of cultural heritage physical parameters in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-03-25

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board's designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation.

  9. Design of a hybrid (wired/wireless) acquisition data system for monitoring of cultural heritage physical parameters in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    García Diego, Fernando-Juan; Esteban, Borja; Merello, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Preventive conservation represents a working method and combination of techniques which helps in determining and controlling the deterioration process of cultural heritage in order to take the necessary actions before it occurs. It is acknowledged as important, both in terms of preserving and also reducing the cost of future conservation measures. Therefore, long-term monitoring of physical parameters influencing cultural heritage is necessary. In the context of Smart Cities, monitoring of cultural heritage is of interest in order to perform future comparative studies and load information into the cloud that will be useful for the conservation of other heritage sites. In this paper the development of an economical and appropriate acquisition data system combining wired and wireless communication, as well as third party hardware for increased versatility, is presented. The device allows monitoring a complex network of points with high sampling frequency, with wired sensors in a 1-wire bus and a wireless centralized system recording data for monitoring of physical parameters, as well as the future possibility of attaching an alarm system or sending data over the Internet. This has been possible with the development of three board's designs and more than 5000 algorithm lines. System tests have shown an adequate system operation. PMID:25815447

  10. Production of biodiesel from coastal macroalgae (Chara vulgaris) and optimization of process parameters using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Siddiqua, Shaila; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Enayetul Babar, Sheikh Md

    2015-01-01

    Renewable biodiesels are needed as an alternative to petroleum-derived transport fuels, which contribute to global warming and are of limited availability. Algae biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuels. This study introduces an integrated method for the production of biodiesel from Chara vulgaris algae collected from the coastal region of Bangladesh. The Box-Behnken design based on response surface methods (RSM) used as the statistical tool to optimize three variables for predicting the best performing conditions (calorific value and yield) of algae biodiesel. The three parameters for production condition were chloroform (X1), sodium chloride concentration (X2) and temperature (X3). Optimal conditions were estimated by the aid of statistical regression analysis and surface plot chart. The optimal condition of biodiesel production parameter for 12 g of dry algae biomass was observed to be 198 ml chloroform with 0.75 % sodium chloride at 65 °C temperature, where the calorific value of biodiesel is 9255.106 kcal/kg and yield 3.6 ml. PMID:26636008

  11. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  12. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate by catalytic wet air oxidation: Assessment of the role of operating parameters by factorial design

    SciTech Connect

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ane; Ortiz, Inmaculada; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Landfill leachates can be treated effectively by catalytic wet oxidation. > Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of transition metals promotes degradation. > Factorial design evaluates the statistically significant operating conditions. > H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, reaction time and temperature are critical in determining performance. - Abstract: The wet air oxidation (WAO) of municipal landfill leachate catalyzed by cupric ions and promoted by hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The effect of operating conditions such as WAO treatment time (15-30 min), temperature (160-200 deg. C), Cu{sup 2+} concentration (250-750 mg L{sup -1}) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1500 mg L{sup -1}) on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was investigated by factorial design considering a two-stage, sequential process comprising the heating-up of the reactor and the actual WAO. The leachate, at an initial COD of 4920 mg L{sup -1}, was acidified to pH 3 leading to 31% COD decrease presumably due to the coagulation/precipitation of colloidal and other organic matter. During the 45 min long heating-up period of the WAO reactor under an inert atmosphere, COD removal values up to 35% (based on the initial COD value) were recorded as a result of the catalytic decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to reactive hydroxyl radicals. WAO at 2.5 MPa oxygen partial pressure advanced treatment further; for example, 22 min of oxidation at 200 deg. C, 250 mg L{sup -1} Cu{sup 2+} and 0-1500 mg L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in an overall (i.e. including acidification and heating-up) COD reduction of 78%. Amongst the operating variables in question, temperature had the strongest influence on both the heating-up and WAO stages, while H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration strongly affected the former and reaction time the latter. Nonetheless, the effects of temperature and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration were found to depend on the concentration levels of catalyst as suggested by the

  13. Interaction of fission products and SiC in TRISO fuel particles: a limiting HTGR design parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.; Homan, F.J.; Simon, W.A.; Turner, R.F.

    1983-09-01

    The fuel particle system for the steam cycle cogeneration HTGR being developed in the US consists of 20% enriched UC/sub 0/./sub 3/O/sub 1/./sub 7/ and ThO/sub 2/ kernels with TRISO coatings. The reaction of fission products with the SiC coating is the limiting thermochemical coating failure mechanism affecting performance. The attack of the SiC by palladium (Pd) is considered the controlling reaction with systems of either oxide or carbide fuels. The lanthanides, such as cerium, neodymium, and praseodymium, also attack SiC in carbide fuel particles. In reactor design, the time-temperature relationships at local points in the core are used to calculate the depth of SiC-Pd reaction. The depth of penetration into the SiC during service varies with core power density, power distribution, outlet gas temperature, and fuel residence time. These parameters are adjusted in specifying the core design to avoid SiC coating failure.

  14. The solids retention time-a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Clara, M; Kreuzinger, N; Strenn, B; Gans, O; Kroiss, H

    2005-01-01

    Micropollutants as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) or pharmaceuticals are of increased interest in water pollution control. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are relevant point sources for residues of these compounds in the aquatic environment. The solids retention time (SRT) is one important parameter for the design of WWTPs, relating to growth rate of microorganisms and to effluent concentrations. If a specific substance is degraded in dependency on the SRT, a critical value for the sludge age can be determined. In WWTPs operating SRTs below this critical value, effluent concentrations in the range of influent concentrations or a distribution according to the adsorption equilibrium have to be expected, whereas in WWTPs operating at SRTs higher than the critical value degradation will occur. Critical SRTs were determined for different micropollutants, indicating that the design criteria based on the sludge age allows an estimation of emissions. Different treatment technologies as conventional activated sludge systems and a membrane bioreactor were considered and no significant differences in the treatment efficiency were detected when operated at comparable SRT. The results of the investigations lead to the conclusion that low effluent concentrations can be achieved in WWTPs operating SRTs higher than 10 days (referred to a temperature of 10 degrees C). This corresponds to the requirements for WWTPs situated in sensitive areas according to the urban wastewater directive of the European Community (91/271/EEC) in moderate climatic zones. PMID:15607169

  15. Use of computational fluid dynamics to simulate the effects of design and operating parameters on the overall performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.

    1995-10-01

    With around 10 tonnes of waste being generated for every man, woman and child each year across the globe, safe disposal of it all has become an urgent environmental problem. In 1993, Western Europe, the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia and New Zealand produced a total of 480 million tonnes of industrial waste and 8 billion tonnes from activities such as energy production, agriculture, mining and sewage disposal. The emission to the atmosphere of both heavy metals and acid gases and perhaps more important in the longer term, the Dioxins/Furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), promises to be one of the key issues facing not only the industry but the society as a whole over the next decade and more. Although it is increasingly likely that measures to control toxic emissions will have to be directed at a wider target than just the waste incinerators, it is equally certain that both public opinion and legislation will, at least in the first instance, see the incinerators as one of the most obvious candidates for tighter regulation. These days, virtually all the new research and development techniques in combustion technology involve the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to combustor design. This seems to be the best approach to solving design problems. Mathematical modelling thus is seen as an inherent part of practically all combustion research programmes. The new discipline of computational fluid dynamics can also be used to help minimise flame generated pollutants released to the atmosphere. These pollutants include; CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, HCl, Hydrocarbons, soot, particulates, heavy metals and dioxins/furans. CFD studies of their release to the atmosphere must include not only their source in the flame, but also their removal from the flue gases by scrubbing and other techniques. The governing differential equations for the process being studied must be defined and solved simultaneously if the parameters in the equations are interacting. At present, this procedure

  16. Evaluation of design parameters of dental implant shape, diameter and length on stress distribution: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Ibrahim, M; Thulasingam, C; Nasser, K S G A; Balaji, V; Rajakumar, M; Rupkumar, P

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the design parameters of dental implants shape, diameter and length on stress distribution by finite element analysis (FEA).The objectives of the study was to compare the influence of stress distribution in the implants of screw-vent tapered and parallel design by varying the implant diameter with a standard implant length. Six dental implant models have been simulated three-dimensionally. The influence of diameter and length on stress distribution was evaluated by Group I: for screw-vent tapered design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (1) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (2) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (3) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. Group II: for parallel design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (4) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (5) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (6) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. The 3-D model of the implant was created in the pro-e wildfire 4.0 software by giving various commands. This model was imported to the ANSYS software through IGES (initial graphic exchange specification) file for further analysis. All six models were loaded with a force of 17.1, 114.6 and 23.4 N in a lingual, an axial and disto-mesial direction respectively, simulating average masticatory force in a natural oblique direction, to analyze the stress distribution on these implants. The increase in implant diameter in Group I and Group II from 3.7 to 4.1 mm and from 4.1 to 4.7 mm with constant 13 mm length for screw-vent tapered and parallel design implant resulted in a reduction in maximum value of Von Mises stress in the bone surrounding the implant was statistically significant at 5% level done by student "t" test. The overall maximum value of Von Mises stress was decreased in parallel design implant diameter of 4.7 mm with constant

  17. Physical effects of mechanical design parameters on photon sensitivity and spatial resolution performance of a breast-dedicated PET system

    PubMed Central

    Spanoudaki, V. C.; Lau, F. W. Y.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Levin, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to address design considerations of a high resolution, high sensitivity positron emission tomography scanner dedicated to breast imaging. Methods: The methodology uses a detailed Monte Carlo model of the system structures to obtain a quantitative evaluation of several performance parameters. Special focus was given to the effect of dense mechanical structures designed to provide mechanical robustness and thermal regulation to the minuscule and temperature sensitive detectors. Results: For the energies of interest around the photopeak (450–700 keV energy window), the simulation results predict a 6.5% reduction in the single photon detection efficiency and a 12.5% reduction in the coincidence photon detection efficiency in the case that the mechanical structures are interspersed between the detectors. However for lower energies, a substantial increase in the number of detected events (approximately 14% and 7% for singles at a 100–200 keV energy window and coincidences at a lower energy threshold of 100 keV, respectively) was observed with the presence of these structures due to backscatter. The number of photon events that involve multiple interactions in various crystal elements is also affected by the presence of the structures. For photon events involving multiple interactions among various crystal elements, the coincidence photon sensitivity is reduced by as much as 20% for a point source at the center of the field of view. There is no observable effect on the intrinsic and the reconstructed spatial resolution and spatial resolution uniformity. Conclusions: Mechanical structures can have a considerable effect on system sensitivity, especially for systems processing multi-interaction photon events. This effect, however, does not impact the spatial resolution. Various mechanical structure designs are currently under evaluation in order to achieve optimum trade-off between temperature stability, accurate detector positioning, and minimum

  18. Further comments on sensitivities, parameter estimation, and sampling design in one-dimensional analysis of solute transport in porous media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopman, D.S.; Voss, C.I.

    1988-01-01

    Sensitivities of solute concentration to parameters associated with first-order chemical decay, boundary conditions, initial conditions, and multilayer transport are examined. A sensitivity is a change in solute concentration resulting from a change in a model parameter. Minimum information required in regression on chemical data for the estimation of model parameters by regression is expressed in terms of sensitivities. Nonlinear regression models were tested on sets of noiseless observations from known models that exceeded the minimum sensitivity information requirements. Results demonstrate that the regression models consistently converged to the correct parameters when the initial sets of parameter values substantially deviated from the correct parameters. -from Authors

  19. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  20. Influence of design, physico-chemical and environmental parameters on pharmaceuticals and fragrances removal by constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hijosa-Valsero, M; Matamoros, V; Sidrach-Cardona, R; Pedescoll, A; Martín-Villacorta, J; García, J; Bayona, J M; Bécares, E

    2011-01-01

    The ability of several mesocosm-scale and full-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) to remove pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater was assessed. The results of three previous works were considered as a whole to find common patterns in PPCP removal. The experiment took place outdoors under winter and summer conditions. The mesocosm-scale CWs differed in some design parameters, namely the presence of plants, the vegetal species chosen (Typha angustifolia versus Phragmites australis), the flow configuration (surface flow versus subsurface flow), the primary treatment (sedimentation tank versus HUSB), the feeding regime (batch flow versus continuous saturation) and the presence of gravel bed. The full-scale CWs consisted of a combination of various subsystems (ponds, surface flow CWs and subsurface flow CWs). The studied PPCPs were ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, salicylic acid, carbamazepine, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide. The performance of the evaluated treatment systems was compound dependent and varied as a function of the CW-configuration. In addition, PPCP removal efficiencies were lower during winter. The presence of plants favoured naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, salicylic acid, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide removal. Significant positive correlations were observed between the removal of most PPCPs and temperature or redox potential. Accordingly, microbiological pathways appear to be the most likely degradation route for the target PPCPs in the CWs studied.

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

  2. The thermal expansion coefficient as a key design parameter for thermoelectric materials and its relationship to processing-dependent bloating

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Jennifer E.; Case, Eldon D; Schmidt, Robert; Wu, Chun-I; Hogan, Timothy; Trejo, Rosa M; Kirkham, Melanie J; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-01-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a key design parameter for thermoelectric (TE) materials, especially in energy harvesting applications since stresses generated by CTE mismatch, thermal gradients, and thermal transients scale with the CTE of the TE material. For the PbTe PbS-based TE material (Pb 0.95 Sn 0.05 Te) 0.92(PbS) 0.08 0.055 % PbI 2 over the temperature ranges of 293 543 and 293 773 K, a CTE, alpha avg , of 21.4 0.3 x 10-6 K-1 was measured using (1) dilatometry and (2) high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) for powder and bulk specimens. The CTE values measured via dilatometry and HT-XRD are similar to the literature values for other Pb-based chalcogenides. However, the processing technique was found to impact the thermal expansion such that bloating (which leads to a hysteresis in thermal expansion) occurred for hot pressed billets heated to temperatures [603 K while specimens fabricated by pulsed electric current sintering and as-cast specimens did not show a bloating-modified thermal expansion even for temperatures up to 663 K. The relationship of bloating to the processing techniques is discussed, along with a pos- sible mechanism for inhibiting bloating in powder processed specimens.

  3. Effects of operating parameters on advanced oxidation of diuron by the Fenton's reagent: a statistical design approach.

    PubMed

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-09-01

    Advanced oxidation of diuron in aqueous solution by Fenton's reagent using FeSO(4) as source of Fe(II) was investigated in the absence of light. Effects of operating parameters namely the concentrations of pesticide (diuron), H(2)O(2) and Fe(II) on oxidation of diuron was investigated by using Box-Behnken statistical experiment design and the surface response analysis. Diuron oxidation by the Fenton reagent was evaluated by determining the total organic carbon (TOC), diuron, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) removals. Concentration ranges of the reagents resulting in the highest level of diuron oxidation were determined. Diuron removal increased with increasing H(2)O(2) and Fe(II) concentrations up to a certain level. Diuron concentration had a more profound effect than H(2)O(2) and Fe(II) in removal of diuron, TOC and AOX from the aqueous solution. Nearly complete (98.5%) disappearance of diuron was achieved after 15min reaction period. However, only 58% of diuron was mineralized after 240min under optimal operating conditions indicating formation of some intermediate products. Optimal H(2)O(2)/Fe(II)/diuron ratio resulting in the maximum diuron removal (98.5%) was found to be 302/38/20 (mgl(-1)).

  4. Selecting training and test images for optimized anomaly detection algorithms in hyperspectral imagery through robust parameter design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindrup, Frank M.; Friend, Mark A.; Bauer, Kenneth W.

    2011-06-01

    There are numerous anomaly detection algorithms proposed for hyperspectral imagery. Robust parameter design (RPD) techniques have been applied to some of these algorithms in an attempt to choose robust settings capable of operating consistently across a large variety of image scenes. Typically, training and test sets of hyperspectral images are chosen randomly. Previous research developed a frameworkfor optimizing anomaly detection in HSI by considering specific image characteristics as noise variables within the context of RPD; these characteristics include the Fisher's score, ratio of target pixels and number of clusters. This paper describes a method for selecting hyperspectral image training and test subsets yielding consistent RPD results based on these noise features. These subsets are not necessarily orthogonal, but still provide improvements over random training and test subset assignments by maximizing the volume and average distance between image noise characteristics. Several different mathematical models representing the value of a training and test set based on such measures as the D-optimal score and various distance norms are tested in a simulation experiment.

  5. Student Exposure to Actual Patients in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…

  6. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  7. Information content of measurements from tracer microlysimeter experiments designed for parameter identification in dual-permeability models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2006-06-01

    Parameters regulating the degree of preferential flow in the dual-permeability water flow and solute transport model MACRO are difficult or impossible to derive from direct measurements. The objectives were (i) to find an improved temporal measurement scheme for identification of these parameters using laboratory microlysimeter experiments and (ii) to evaluate the possibilities of parameter identification in the MACRO model. Artificial data from laboratory microlysimeter experiments consisting of high time-resolution 'measurements' of percolation rate, effluent concentration and resident concentrations at six depths were used with PIMLI (parameter identification method using the localisation of information). The data contained enough information to successfully reduce the uncertainty in the parameter governing mass exchange between pore domains, the saturated micropore hydraulic conductivity and the dispersivity for two hypothetical soils representing one typical clay and one loam. Parameters governing water flow in the macropores were shown to be sensitive in a screening analysis with the Morris method and the uncertainty in these parameters was also reduced by PIMLI. However, some of these parameters did not converge towards their true values probably because of parameter interdependence. In all cases, 'measurements' with large information content were found early in the experiments where less than 0.2 pore volumes of water had passed through the column. For successful identification of parameters determining the degree of preferential flow, efforts should be made to perform high time-resolution measurements during the first irrigations following solute application.

  8. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  9. Ethanol production from orange peels: two-stage hydrolysis and fermentation studies using optimized parameters through experimental design.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen Venkata; Madl, Ronald L; Saida, Lavudi; Abeykoon, Jithma P

    2010-03-24

    Orange peels were evaluated as a fermentation feedstock, and process conditions for enhanced ethanol production were determined. Primary hydrolysis of orange peel powder (OPP) was carried out at acid concentrations from 0 to 1.0% (w/v) at 121 degrees C and 15 psi for 15 min. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sugars and inhibitory compounds showed a higher production of hydroxymethyfurfural and acetic acid and a decrease in sugar concentration when the acid level was beyond 0.5% (w/v). Secondary hydrolysis of pretreated biomass obtained from primary hydrolysis was carried out at 0.5% (w/v) acid. Response surface methodology using three factors and a two-level central composite design was employed to optimize the effect of pH, temperature, and fermentation time on ethanol production from OPP hydrolysate at the shake flask level. On the basis of results obtained from the optimization experiment and numerical optimization software, a validation study was carried out in a 2 L batch fermenter at pH 5.4 and a temperature of 34 degrees C for 15 h. The hydrolysate obtained from primary and secondary hydrolysis processes was fermented separately employing parameters optimized through RSM. Ethanol yields of 0.25 g/g on a biomass basis (YP/X) and 0.46 g/g on a substrate-consumed basis (YP/S) and a promising volumetric ethanol productivity of 3.37 g/L/h were attained using this process at the fermenter level, which shows promise for further scale-up studies. PMID:20158208

  10. Material parameter retrieval procedure for general bi-isotropic metamaterials and its application to optical chiral negative-index metamaterial design.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H; Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2008-08-01

    A chiral optical negative-index metamaterial design of doubly periodic construction for the near-infrared spectrum is presented. The chirality is realized by incorporating sub-wavelength planar silver-aluminasilver resonators and arranging them in a left-handed helical (i.e., stair-step) configuration as a wave propagates through the metamaterial. An effective material parameter retrieval procedure is developed for general bi-isotropic metamaterials. A numerical design example is presented and the retrieved effective material parameters exhibiting a negative index of refraction are provided. PMID:18679454

  11. Estimation of genetic parameters and their sampling variances of quantitative traits in the type 2 modified augmented design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We proposed a method to estimate the error variance among non-replicated genotypes, thus to estimate the genetic parameters by using replicated controls. We derived formulas to estimate sampling variances of the genetic parameters. Computer simulation indicated that the proposed methods of estimatin...

  12. DAKOTA, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Guinta, Anthony A.; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  13. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's reference manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a reference manual for the commands specification for the DAKOTA software, providing input overviews, option descriptions, and example specifications.

  14. Self-Actualization, Liberalism, and Humanistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Charles Mack

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between personality factors and political orientation has long been of interest to psychologists. This study tests the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between self-actualization and liberalism-conservatism. The hypothesis is supported. (Author)

  15. Use of the robust design to estimate seasonal abundance and demographic parameters of a coastal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population.

    PubMed

    Smith, Holly C; Pollock, Ken; Waples, Kelly; Bradley, Stuart; Bejder, Lars

    2013-01-01

    As delphinid populations become increasingly exposed to human activities we rely on our capacity to produce accurate abundance estimates upon which to base management decisions. This study applied mark-recapture methods following the Robust Design to estimate abundance, demographic parameters, and temporary emigration rates of an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population off Bunbury, Western Australia. Boat-based photo-identification surveys were conducted year-round over three consecutive years along pre-determined transect lines to create a consistent sampling effort throughout the study period and area. The best fitting capture-recapture model showed a population with a seasonal Markovian temporary emigration with time varying survival and capture probabilities. Abundance estimates were seasonally dependent with consistently lower numbers obtained during winter and higher during summer and autumn across the three-year study period. Specifically, abundance estimates for all adults and juveniles (combined) varied from a low of 63 (95% CI 59 to 73) in winter of 2007 to a high of 139 (95% CI 134 to148) in autumn of 2009. Temporary emigration rates (γ') for animals absent in the previous period ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 (mean  =  0.54; ±SE 0.11) with a peak during spring. Temporary emigration rates for animals present during the previous period (γ'') were lower, ranging from 0.00 to 0.29, with a mean of 0.16 (± SE 0.04). This model yielded a mean apparent survival estimate for juveniles and adults (combined) of 0.95 (± SE 0.02) and a capture probability from 0.07 to 0.51 with a mean of 0.30 (± SE 0.04). This study demonstrates the importance of incorporating temporary emigration to accurately estimate abundance of coastal delphinids. Temporary emigration rates were high in this study, despite the large area surveyed, indicating the challenges of sampling highly mobile animals which range over large spatial areas. PMID:24130781

  16. Validation of Slosh Model Parameters and Anti-Slosh Baffle Designs of Propellant Tanks by Using Lateral Slosh Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Jose G.; Parks, Russel, A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    The slosh dynamics of propellant tanks can be represented by an equivalent mass-pendulum-dashpot mechanical model. The parameters of this equivalent model, identified as slosh mechanical model parameters, are slosh frequency, slosh mass, and pendulum hinge point location. They can be obtained by both analysis and testing for discrete fill levels. Anti-slosh baffles are usually needed in propellant tanks to control the movement of the fluid inside the tank. Lateral slosh testing, involving both random excitation testing and free-decay testing, are performed to validate the slosh mechanical model parameters and the damping added to the fluid by the anti-slosh baffles. Traditional modal analysis procedures were used to extract the parameters from the experimental data. Test setup of sub-scale tanks will be described. A comparison between experimental results and analysis will be presented.

  17. Validation of Slosh Model Parameters and Anti-Slosh Baffle Designs of Propellant Tanks by Using Lateral Slosh Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Jose G.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    The slosh dynamics of propellant tanks can be represented by an equivalent pendulum-mass mechanical model. The parameters of this equivalent model, identified as slosh model parameters, are slosh mass, slosh mass center of gravity, slosh frequency, and smooth-wall damping. They can be obtained by both analysis and testing for discrete fill heights. Anti-slosh baffles are usually needed in propellant tanks to control the movement of the fluid inside the tank. Lateral slosh testing, involving both random testing and free-decay testing, are performed to validate the slosh model parameters and the damping added to the fluid by the anti-slosh baffles. Traditional modal analysis procedures are used to extract the parameters from the experimental data. Test setup of sub-scale test articles of cylindrical and spherical shapes will be described. A comparison between experimental results and analysis will be presented.

  18. Parameter Design in Fusion Welding of AA 6061 Aluminium Alloy using Desirability Grey Relational Analysis (DGRA) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adalarasan, R.; Santhanakumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, yield strength, ultimate strength and micro-hardness of the lap joints formed with Al 6061 alloy sheets by using the processes of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding were studied for various combinations of the welding parameters. The parameters taken for study include welding current, voltage, welding speed and inert gas flow rate. Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the experiments and an integrated technique of desirability grey relational analysis was disclosed for optimizing the welding parameters. The ignored robustness in desirability approach is compensated by the grey relational approach to predict the optimal setting of input parameters for the TIG and MIG welding processes which were validated through the confirmation experiments.

  19. Optimal design of monitoring networks for multiple groundwater quality parameters using a Kalman filter: application to the Irapuato-Valle aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S; González-Hita, L; Cardona, A; Mora-Rodríguez, J

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the optimal design of groundwater quality monitoring networks is introduced in this paper. Various indicator parameters were considered simultaneously and tested for the Irapuato-Valle aquifer in Mexico. The steps followed in the design were (1) establishment of the monitoring network objectives, (2) definition of a groundwater quality conceptual model for the study area, (3) selection of the parameters to be sampled, and (4) selection of a monitoring network by choosing the well positions that minimize the estimate error variance of the selected indicator parameters. Equal weight for each parameter was given to most of the aquifer positions and a higher weight to priority zones. The objective for the monitoring network in the specific application was to obtain a general reconnaissance of the water quality, including water types, water origin, and first indications of contamination. Water quality indicator parameters were chosen in accordance with this objective, and for the selection of the optimal monitoring sites, it was sought to obtain a low-uncertainty estimate of these parameters for the entire aquifer and with more certainty in priority zones. The optimal monitoring network was selected using a combination of geostatistical methods, a Kalman filter and a heuristic optimization method. Results show that when monitoring the 69 locations with higher priority order (the optimal monitoring network), the joint average standard error in the study area for all the groundwater quality parameters was approximately 90 % of the obtained with the 140 available sampling locations (the set of pilot wells). This demonstrates that an optimal design can help to reduce monitoring costs, by avoiding redundancy in data acquisition. PMID:26681183

  20. Optimal design of monitoring networks for multiple groundwater quality parameters using a Kalman filter: application to the Irapuato-Valle aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S; González-Hita, L; Cardona, A; Mora-Rodríguez, J

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the optimal design of groundwater quality monitoring networks is introduced in this paper. Various indicator parameters were considered simultaneously and tested for the Irapuato-Valle aquifer in Mexico. The steps followed in the design were (1) establishment of the monitoring network objectives, (2) definition of a groundwater quality conceptual model for the study area, (3) selection of the parameters to be sampled, and (4) selection of a monitoring network by choosing the well positions that minimize the estimate error variance of the selected indicator parameters. Equal weight for each parameter was given to most of the aquifer positions and a higher weight to priority zones. The objective for the monitoring network in the specific application was to obtain a general reconnaissance of the water quality, including water types, water origin, and first indications of contamination. Water quality indicator parameters were chosen in accordance with this objective, and for the selection of the optimal monitoring sites, it was sought to obtain a low-uncertainty estimate of these parameters for the entire aquifer and with more certainty in priority zones. The optimal monitoring network was selected using a combination of geostatistical methods, a Kalman filter and a heuristic optimization method. Results show that when monitoring the 69 locations with higher priority order (the optimal monitoring network), the joint average standard error in the study area for all the groundwater quality parameters was approximately 90 % of the obtained with the 140 available sampling locations (the set of pilot wells). This demonstrates that an optimal design can help to reduce monitoring costs, by avoiding redundancy in data acquisition.

  1. Network topology and parameter estimation: from experimental design methods to gene regulatory network kinetics using a community based approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate estimation of parameters of biochemical models is required to characterize the dynamics of molecular processes. This problem is intimately linked to identifying the most informative experiments for accomplishing such tasks. While significant progress has been made, effective experimental strategies for parameter identification and for distinguishing among alternative network topologies remain unclear. We approached these questions in an unbiased manner using a unique community-based approach in the context of the DREAM initiative (Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessment of Methods). We created an in silico test framework under which participants could probe a network with hidden parameters by requesting a range of experimental assays; results of these experiments were simulated according to a model of network dynamics only partially revealed to participants. Results We proposed two challenges; in the first, participants were given the topology and underlying biochemical structure of a 9-gene regulatory network and were asked to determine its parameter values. In the second challenge, participants were given an incomplete topology with 11 genes and asked to find three missing links in the model. In both challenges, a budget was provided to buy experimental data generated in silico with the model and mimicking the features of different common experimental techniques, such as microarrays and fluorescence microscopy. Data could be bought at any stage, allowing participants to implement an iterative loop of experiments and computation. Conclusions A total of 19 teams participated in this competition. The results suggest that the combination of state-of-the-art parameter estimation and a varied set of experimental methods using a few datasets, mostly fluorescence imaging data, can accurately determine parameters of biochemical models of gene regulation. However, the task is considerably more difficult if the gene network topology is not completely

  2. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  3. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  4. Calculation of Design Parameters for an Equilibrium LEU Core in the NBSR using a U7Mo Dispersion Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson A. L.; Diamond D.

    2014-06-30

    A plan is being developed for the conversion of the NIST research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The LEU fuel may be a monolithic foil (LEUm) of U10Mo (10% molybdenum by weight in an alloy with uranium) or a dispersion of U7Mo in aluminum (LEUd). A previous report provided neutronic calculations for the LEUm fuel and this report presents the neutronics parameters for the LEUd fuel. The neutronics parameters for the LEUd fuel are compared to those previously obtained for the present HEU fuel and the proposed LEUm fuel. The results show no significant differences between the LEUm and the LEUd other than the LEUd fuel requires slightly less uranium than the LEUm fuel due to less molybdenum being present. The calculations include kinetics parameters, reactivity coefficients, reactivity worths of control elements and abnormal configurations, and power distributions under normal operation and with misloaded fuel elements.

  5. New Estimates of Design Parameters for Clustered Randomization Studies: Findings from North Carolina and Florida. Working Paper 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zeyu; Nichols, Austin

    2010-01-01

    The gold standard in making causal inference on program effects is a randomized trial. Most randomization designs in education randomize classrooms or schools rather than individual students. Such "clustered randomization" designs have one principal drawback: They tend to have limited statistical power or precision. This study aims to provide…

  6. A Case Study on the Application of a Structured Experimental Method for Optimal Parameter Design of a Complex Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents a case study on the application of Reliability Engineering techniques to achieve an optimal balance between performance and robustness by tuning the functional parameters of a complex non-linear control system. For complex systems with intricate and non-linear patterns of interaction between system components, analytical derivation of a mathematical model of system performance and robustness in terms of functional parameters may not be feasible or cost-effective. The demonstrated approach is simple, structured, effective, repeatable, and cost and time efficient. This general approach is suitable for a wide range of systems.

  7. Designing Rural School Improvement Networks: Aspirations and Actualities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy; Parsley, Danette; Cox, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Rural school educators are often isolated and have few opportunities to learn from neighboring schools or colleagues. This is an especially daunting challenge for low-performing rural schools faced with implementing significant reform efforts (e.g., turnaround approaches, educator effectiveness systems, college- and career-ready standards and…

  8. SU-E-T-99: Design and Development of Isocenter Parameter System for CT Simulation Laser Based On DICOM RT

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In order to receive DICOM files from treatment planning system and generate patient isocenter positioning parameter file for CT laser system automatically, this paper presents a method for communication with treatment planning system and calculation of isocenter parameter for each radiation field. Methods: Coordinate transformation and laser positioning file formats were analyzed, isocenter parameter was calculated via data from DICOM CT Data and DICOM RTPLAN file. An in-house software-DicomGenie was developed based on the object-oriented program platform-Qt with DCMTK SDK (Germany OFFIS company DICOM SDK) . DicomGenie was tested for accuracy using Philips CT simulation plan system (Tumor LOC, Philips) and A2J CT positioning laser system (Thorigny Sur Marne, France). Results: DicomGenie successfully established DICOM communication between treatment planning system, DICOM files were received by DicomGenie and patient laser isocenter information was generated accurately. Patient laser parameter data files can be used for for CT laser system directly. Conclusion: In-house software DicomGenie received and extracted DICOM data, isocenter laser positioning data files were created by DicomGenie and can be use for A2J laser positioning system.

  9. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  10. [Actual diet of patients with gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Shakhovskaia, A K; Pavliuchkova, M S

    2000-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition of patients with erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal zone and of patients with operated ulcer has revealed defects in intake of essential nutrients by these patients: overeating of animal fat and refined carbohydrates, deficiency of oil, vitamins A, B2, C, D and food fibers.

  11. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  12. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  13. Teenagers' Perceived and Actual Probabilities of Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namerow, Pearila Brickner; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescent females' (N=425) actual and perceived probabilities of pregnancy. Subjects estimated their likelihood of becoming pregnant the last time they had intercourse, and indicated the dates of last intercourse and last menstrual period. Found that the distributions of perceived probability of pregnancy were nearly identical for both…

  14. Quantitative microscopy of the lung: a problem-based approach. Part 2: stereological parameters and study designs in various diseases of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Design-based stereology provides efficient methods to obtain valuable quantitative information of the respiratory tract in various diseases. However, the choice of the most relevant parameters in a specific disease setting has to be deduced from the present pathobiological knowledge. Often it is difficult to express the pathological alterations by interpretable parameters in terms of volume, surface area, length, or number. In the second part of this companion review article, we analyze the present pathophysiological knowledge about acute lung injury, diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, and asthma to come up with recommendations for the disease-specific application of stereological principles for obtaining relevant parameters. Worked examples with illustrative images are used to demonstrate the work flow, estimation procedure, and calculation and to facilitate the practical performance of equivalent analyses. PMID:23709622

  15. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  16. Factorial experimental design for the culture of human embryonic stem cells as aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactors reveals the potential for interaction effects between bioprocess parameters.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Megan M; Meng, Guoliang; Rancourt, Derrick E; Gates, Ian D; Kallos, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Traditional optimization of culture parameters for the large-scale culture of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as aggregates is carried out in a stepwise manner whereby the effect of varying each culture parameter is investigated individually. However, as evidenced by the wide range of published protocols and culture performance indicators (growth rates, pluripotency marker expression, etc.), there is a lack of systematic investigation into the true effect of varying culture parameters especially with respect to potential interactions between culture variables. Here we describe the design and execution of a two-parameter, three-level (3(2)) factorial experiment resulting in nine conditions that were run in duplicate 125-mL stirred suspension bioreactors. The two parameters investigated here were inoculation density and agitation rate, which are easily controlled, but currently, poorly characterized. Cell readouts analyzed included fold expansion, maximum density, and exponential growth rate. Our results reveal that the choice of best case culture parameters was dependent on which cell property was chosen as the primary output variable. Subsequent statistical analyses via two-way analysis of variance indicated significant interaction effects between inoculation density and agitation rate specifically in the case of exponential growth rates. Results indicate that stepwise optimization has the potential to miss out on the true optimal case. In addition, choosing an optimum condition for a culture output of interest from the factorial design yielded similar results when repeated with the same cell line indicating reproducibility. We finally validated that human ESCs remain pluripotent in suspension culture as aggregates under our optimal conditions and maintain their differentiation capabilities as well as a stable karyotype and strong expression levels of specific human ESC markers over several passages in suspension bioreactors.

  17. Generation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone from rhamnose as affected by reaction parameters: experimental design approach.

    PubMed

    Illmann, Silke; Davidek, Tomas; Gouézec, Elisabeth; Rytz, Andreas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Blank, Imre

    2009-04-01

    The formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) was studied in aqueous model systems containing L-rhamnose and L-lysine. The approach consisted in systematically varying four reaction parameters (rhamnose concentration, rhamnose to lysine ratio, pH, and phosphate concentration) at 3 levels. A fractional factorial design was used to reduce the number of trials. The degradation of rhamnose was followed by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of HDMF by solid phase extraction in combination with GC/MS. The study permitted the identification of critical reaction parameters that affect the formation of HDMF from rhamnose in aqueous systems. Although all studied parameters have some impact on the HDMF formation and rhamnose degradation kinetics, the effect of phosphate is by far the most important, followed by concentration of precursors and pH. The experimental design approach permitted us, with a limited number of experiments, to accurately model the effects of the four investigated reaction parameters on the kinetics of rhamnose degradation and HDMF formation (R(2)>0.93). Overall, the results indicate that rhamnose can be an excellent precursor of HDMF (yield >40 mol%), if the reaction conditions are well mastered. PMID:19256512

  18. An Analysis of Document Category Prediction Responses to Classifier Model Parameter Treatment Permutations within the Software Design Patterns Subject Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankau, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study evaluates the document category prediction effectiveness of Naive Bayes (NB) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier treatments built from different feature selection and machine learning settings and trained and tested against textual corpora of 2300 Gang-Of-Four (GOF) design pattern documents. Analysis of the experiment's…

  19. Cloud parameters from IR lidar and other instruments - CLARET design and preliminary results. [Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.; Willis, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the objectives and experimental design of the Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) project. Early results for some of the objectives are presented. Particular attention is given to polarization of IR lidar backscatter, cirrus size distribution, and cirrus emissivity. CLARET has produced a good data set for cloud/radiation research and evaluation of remote sensing methods and technologies.

  20. Biochemical, photosynthetic and productive parameters of Chinese cabbage grown under blue-red LED assembly designed for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Pogosyan, Sergey; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei; Zhigalova, Tatiana

    2014-06-01

    Currently light emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be most preferable source for space plant growth facilities. We performed a complex study of growth and photosynthesis in Chinese cabbage plants (Brassica chinensis L.) grown with continuous LED lighting based on red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs with a red to blue photon ratio of 7:1. Plants grown with high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps were used as a control. PPF levels used were about 100 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 100) and nearly 400 μmol/(m2 s) (PPF 400). One group of plants was grown with PPF 100 and transferred to PPF 400 at the age of 12 days. Plants were studied at the age of 15 and 28 days (harvest age); some plants were left to naturally end their life cycle. We studied a number of parameters reflecting different stages of photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigment content; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (photosystem II quantum yield, photochemical and non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching); electron transport rate, proton gradient on thylakoid membranes (ΔpH), and photophosphorylation rate in isolated chloroplasts. We also tested parameters reflecting plant growth and productivity: shoot and root fresh and dry weight, sugar content and ascorbic acid content in shoots. Our results had shown that at PPF 100, plants grown with LEDs did not differ from control plants in shoot fresh weight, but showed substantial differences in photophosphorylation rate and sugar content. Differences observed in plants grown with PPF 100 become more pronounced in plants grown with PPF 400. Most parameters characterizing the plant photosynthetic performance, such as photosynthetic pigment content, electron transport rate, and ΔpH did not react strongly to light spectrum. Photophosphorylation rate differed strongly in plants grown with different spectrum and PPF level, but did not always reflect final plant yield. Results of the present work suggest that narrow-band LED lighting caused changes in Chinese

  1. WWTP design in warm climates - guideline comparison and parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant using mass balancing.

    PubMed

    Walder, C; Lindtner, S; Proesl, A; Klegraf, F; Weissenbacher, N

    2013-01-01

    The ATV-A-131 guideline and the design approach published in 'Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse (WE)' are widely used for the design of activated sludge plants. They are both based on simplified steady-state assumptions tailored to the boundary conditions of temperate climates. Using design guidelines beyond the designated temperature range may lead to inappropriate results. The objectives of this paper are (1) to summarise temperature relevant differences between ATV-A-131 and WE; (2) to show the related design components; and (3) to demonstrate a procedure for design parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant located in a warm climate region. To gain steady-state data required for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design according to ATV-A-131 and WE, full-scale plant data were acquired for a period of 6 months as a basis for analyses and adaptation. Mass balances were calculated for the verification of the measurements and for analysing excess sludge production. The two approaches showed relevant temperature related differences. WE default application resulted in lower deviation in the mass balance results for excess sludge production. However, with the adaptation of the heterotrophic decay rates for both approaches and the inert organic and mineral solids fraction additionally for ATV-A-131, a good fit to the observed excess sludge production could be achieved.

  2. Design of Free Parameters of State-Dependent Coefficient Form Based on the Relation between State-Dependent Riccati Inequality and Hamilton Jacobi Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakayanagi, Yoshihiro; Nakaura, Shigeki; Sampei, Mitsuji

    The solvable condition of nonlinear H∞ control problems is given by the Hamilton Jacobi inequality (HJI). The state-dependent Riccati inequality (SDRI) is one of the approaches used to solve the HJI. The SDRI contains the state-dependent coefficient (SDC) form of a nonlinear system. The SDC form is not unique. If a poor SDC form is chosen, then there is no solution for the SDRI. In other words, there exist free parameters of the SDC form that affect the solvability of the SDRI. This study focuses on the free parameters of the SDC form. First, a representation of the free parameters of the SDC form is introduced. The solvability of an SDRI is a sufficient condition for that of the related HJI, and the free parameters affect the conservativeness of the SDRI approach. In addition, a new method for designing the free parameters that reduces the conservativeness of the SDRI approach is introduced. Finally, numerical examples to verify the effect of this method are presented.

  3. Correlation Between Material Properties of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Design Parameters for Microwave Device Applications: Modeling Examples and Experimental Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Subramanyam, Guru; Mueller, Carl H.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Rosado, Gerardo

    2000-01-01

    The application of thin ferroelectric films for frequency and phase agile components is the topic of interest of many research groups worldwide. Consequently, proof-of-concepts (POC) of different tunable microwave components using either (HTS, metal)/ferroelectric thin film/dielectric heterostructures or (thick, thin) film "flip-chip" technology have been reported. Either as ferroelectric thin film characterization tools or from the point of view of circuit implementation approach, both configurations have their respective advantages and limitations. However, we believe that because of the progress made so far using the heterostructure (i.e., multilayer) approach, and due to its intrinsic features such as planar configuration and monolithic integration, a study on the correlation of circuit geometry aspects and ferroelectric material properties could accelerate the insertion of this technology into working systems. In this paper, we will discuss our study performed on circuits based on microstrip lines at frequencies above 10 GHz, where the multilayer configuration offers greater ease of insertion due to circuit's size reduction. Modeled results of relevant circuit parameters such as the characteristic impedance, effective dielectric constant, and attenuation as a function of ferroelectric film's dielectric constant, tans, and thickness, will be presented for SrTiO3 and Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 ferroelectric films. A comparison between the modeled and experimental data for some of these parameters will be presented.

  4. Reproducing Actual Morphology of Planetary Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.

    1996-03-01

    Assuming that lava flows behave as non-isothermal laminar Bingham fluids, we developed a numerical code of lava flows. We take the self gravity effects and cooling mechanisms into account. The calculation method is a kind of cellular automata using a reduced random space method, which can eliminate the mesh shape dependence. We can calculate large scale lava flows precisely without numerical instability and reproduce morphology of actual lava flows.

  5. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  6. DAKOTA, a multilevel parellel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis:version 4.0 uers's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Joshua D. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Eldred, Michael Scott; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kolda, Tamara Gibson; Giunta, Anthony Andrew; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Williams, Pamela J. (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Hough, Patricia Diane (Sandai National Labs, Livermore, CA); Gay, David M.; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Eddy, John P.; Hart, William Eugene; Brown, Shannon L.

    2006-10-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the DAKOTA software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  7. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. Version 5.0, user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Gay, David M.; Eddy, John P.; Haskell, Karen H.

    2010-05-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic finite element methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the DAKOTA software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  8. Optimization of experimental parameters based on the Taguchi robust design for the formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals by solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Yiamsawas, Doungporn; Boonpavanitchakul, Kanittha; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Taguchi robust design can be applied to study ZnO nanocrystal growth. {yields} Spherical-like and rod-like shaped of ZnO nanocrystals can be obtained from solvothermal method. {yields} [NaOH]/[Zn{sup 2+}] ratio plays the most important factor on the aspect ratio of prepared ZnO. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and nanorods were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal process. Taguchi robust design was applied to study the factors which result in stronger ZnO nanocrystal growth. The factors which have been studied are molar concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate, amount of polymer templates and molecular weight of polymer templates. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique were used to analyze the experiment results. The results show that the concentration ratio of sodium hydroxide and zinc acetate ratio has the greatest effect on ZnO nanocrystal growth.

  9. Effect of Selection of Design Parameters on the Optimization of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine via Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpman, Emre

    2014-06-01

    The effect of selecting the twist angle and chord length distributions on the wind turbine blade design was investigated by performing aerodynamic optimization of a two-bladed stall regulated horizontal axis wind turbine. Twist angle and chord length distributions were defined using Bezier curve using 3, 5, 7 and 9 control points uniformly distributed along the span. Optimizations performed using a micro-genetic algorithm with populations composed of 5, 10, 15, 20 individuals showed that, the number of control points clearly affected the outcome of the process; however the effects were different for different population sizes. The results also showed the superiority of micro-genetic algorithm over a standard genetic algorithm, for the selected population sizes. Optimizations were also performed using a macroevolutionary algorithm and the resulting best blade design was compared with that yielded by micro-genetic algorithm.

  10. Hydro/Engineering Geophysical Parameters and Design Response Spectrum for Sustainable Development in Ras Muhammed National Park, Sinai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2016-06-01

    The Egyptian government is preparing a sustainable development master plan for the Ras Muhammed National Park (RMNP), south Sinai. Noteworthy, the scarcity of the freshwater resources and close proximity to the active seismic zones of the Gulf of Aqaba implicate geophysical investigations for the fresh groundwater aquifers and construct a design response spectrum, respectively. Accordingly, 14 VESs, hydro/engineering geophysical analysis, pumping tests, downhole seismic test, a design response spectrum for buildings, and borehole data were carried out in the study area. The unconfined freshwater aquifer was effectively depicted with true resistivities, thickness, and EC ranged from 56 to 135 Ω m, 11 to 112 m, and 1.4 to 7.1 mS/m, respectively. The Northeastern part was characterized by higher aquifer potentiality, where coarser grains size, highest thickness (112 m), high true resistivity (135 Ω m), groundwater flow (0.074 m3/day), tortuosity (1.293-1.312), formation resistivity factor (4.1-4.6), and storativity (0.281-0.276). An increase in pumping rate was accompanied by an increase in well loss, increase in aquifer losses, decrease in well specific capacity, and decrease in well efficiency. Design response spectrum prognosticated the short buildings (<7 floors) in RMNP to be suffering from a high peak horizontal acceleration and shear forces for acceleration between 0.25 and 0.35 g. Therefore, appropriate detailing of shear reinforcement is indispensable to reduce the risk of structural damages at RMNP.

  11. Stress-resultant models for ultimate load design of reinforced concrete frames and multi-scale parameter estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, B. H.; Brancherie, D.; Davenne, L.; Ibrahimbegovic, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we present a new finite element for (geometrically linear) Timoshenko beam model for ultimate load computation of reinforced concrete frames. The proposed model combines the descriptions of the diffuse plastic failure in the beam-column followed by the creation of plastic hinges due to the failure or collapse of the concrete and of the re-bars. A modified multi-scale analysis is performed in order to identify the parameters for stress-resultant-based macro model, which is used to described the behavior of the Timoshenko beam element. For clarity, we focus upon the micro-scale models using the multi-fiber elements with embedded displacement discontinuities in mode I, which would typically be triggered by bending failure mode. More general case of micro-scale model capable of describing shear failure is described by Ibrahimbegovic et al. (Int J Numer Methods Eng 83(4):452-481, 2010).

  12. Optimization of parameters for the quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of mephedrone using a fractional factorial design and a portable Raman spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Samuel; Correa, Elon; Cowcher, David P; Allwood, J William; Goodacre, Royston

    2013-01-15

    A new optimization strategy for the SERS detection of mephedrone using a portable Raman system has been developed. A fractional factorial design was employed, and the number of statistically significant experiments (288) was greatly reduced from the actual total number of experiments (1722), which minimized the workload while maintaining the statistical integrity of the results. A number of conditions were explored in relation to mephedrone SERS signal optimization including the type of nanoparticle, pH, and aggregating agents (salts). Through exercising this design, it was possible to derive the significance of each of the individual variables, and we discovered four optimized SERS protocols for which the reproducibility of the SERS signal and the limit of detection (LOD) of mephedrone were established. Using traditional nanoparticles with a combination of salts and pHs, it was shown that the relative standard deviations of mephedrone-specific Raman peaks were as low as 0.51%, and the LOD was estimated to be around 1.6 μg/mL (9.06 × 10(-6) M), a detection limit well beyond the scope of conventional Raman and extremely low for an analytical method optimized for quick and uncomplicated in-field use.

  13. Nuclear data uncertainty propagation for neutronic key parameters of CEA's SFR V2B and CFV sodium fast reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Archier, P.; Buiron, L.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dos Santos, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a nuclear data uncertainty propagation analysis for two CEA's Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor designs: the SFR V2B and CFV cores. The nuclear data covariance matrices are provided by the DER/SPRC/LEPh's nuclear data team (see companion paper) for several major isotopes. From the current status of this analysis, improvements on certain nuclear data reactions are highlighted as well as the need for new specific integral experiments in order to meet the technological breakthroughs proposed by the CFV core. (authors)

  14. Self-tuning control algorithm design for vehicle adaptive cruise control system through real-time estimation of vehicle parameters and road grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Tahbaz-zadeh Moghaddam, Iman

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to design a self-tuning control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system that can adapt its behaviour to variations of vehicle dynamics and uncertain road grade. To this aim, short-time linear quadratic form (STLQF) estimation technique is developed so as to track simultaneously the trend of the time-varying parameters of vehicle longitudinal dynamics with a small delay. These parameters are vehicle mass, road grade and aerodynamic drag-area coefficient. Next, the values of estimated parameters are used to tune the throttle and brake control inputs and to regulate the throttle/brake switching logic that governs the throttle and brake switching. The performance of the designed STLQF-based self-tuning control (STLQF-STC) algorithm for ACC system is compared with the conventional method based on fixed control structure regarding the speed/distance tracking control modes. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm improves the performance of throttle and brake controllers, providing more comfort while travelling, enhancing driving safety and giving a satisfactory performance in the presence of different payloads and road grade variations.

  15. Development of a constructed wetland water treatment system for selenium removal: use of mesocosms to evaluate design parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jung-Chen; Passeport, Elodie; Terry, Norman

    2012-11-01

    The Salton Sea in California is an important habitat for fish and waterfowl. Its ecosystem is threatened due to diminishing water supplies and increasing salinity. An alternative source of water to support species conservation habitat may be obtained from local rivers (e.g., Alamo or New Rivers), provided that a wetland treatment system can be developed to remove selenium (Se), fertilizer nutrients, and other contaminants. Here, we used mesocosms to evaluate a number of potential design options (e.g., plant species selection, sediment composition and arrangement, forced aeration, organic amendments, etc.) to improve the efficiency of Se removal using treatment wetlands. Our results show that, of five different substrate arrangements tested for Se removal, the most efficient was obtained for cattails growing in a substrate of cattail litter overlying sand and peat moss sediment (water column Se was reduced from 15 μg Se/L to <0.1 μg Se/L in 72 h). The addition of organic amendments in the form of alfalfa hay or alfalfa meal was also helpful in lowering Se levels. These results suggest that it may be possible to design constructed wetland water treatment systems capable of reducing Se concentrations in river water to values below 1 μg Se/L. PMID:23057702

  16. Water-quality parameters and benthic algal communities at selected streams in Minnesota, August 2000 - Study design, methods and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the study design, sampling methods, and summarizes the physical, chemical, and benthic algal data for a component of the multiagency study that was designed to document diurnal water-quality measurements (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen), benthic algal community composition and chlorophyll-a content, and primary productivity at 12 stream sites on 6 streams in Minnesota during August 2000. Specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentrations and percent dissolved oxygen saturation measurements were made with submersible data recorders at 30 minute intervals for a period of 3-6 days during August 2000. Benthic algae collected from wood and rock substrate were identified and enumerated. Biovolume (volume of algal cells per unit area), density (number of cells per unit area), and chlorophyll-a content from benthic algae were determined. These data can be used as part of the multiagency study to develop an understanding of the relations among nutrient concentrations, algal abundance, algal community composition, and primary production and respiration processes in rivers of differing ecoregions in Minnesota.

  17. Development of a constructed wetland water treatment system for selenium removal: use of mesocosms to evaluate design parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jung-Chen; Passeport, Elodie; Terry, Norman

    2012-11-01

    The Salton Sea in California is an important habitat for fish and waterfowl. Its ecosystem is threatened due to diminishing water supplies and increasing salinity. An alternative source of water to support species conservation habitat may be obtained from local rivers (e.g., Alamo or New Rivers), provided that a wetland treatment system can be developed to remove selenium (Se), fertilizer nutrients, and other contaminants. Here, we used mesocosms to evaluate a number of potential design options (e.g., plant species selection, sediment composition and arrangement, forced aeration, organic amendments, etc.) to improve the efficiency of Se removal using treatment wetlands. Our results show that, of five different substrate arrangements tested for Se removal, the most efficient was obtained for cattails growing in a substrate of cattail litter overlying sand and peat moss sediment (water column Se was reduced from 15 μg Se/L to <0.1 μg Se/L in 72 h). The addition of organic amendments in the form of alfalfa hay or alfalfa meal was also helpful in lowering Se levels. These results suggest that it may be possible to design constructed wetland water treatment systems capable of reducing Se concentrations in river water to values below 1 μg Se/L.

  18. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  19. A primer of statistical methods for correlating parameters and properties of electrospun poly(L-lactide) scaffolds for tissue engineering--PART 1: design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Seyedmahmoud, Rasoul; Rainer, Alberto; Mozetic, Pamela; Maria Giannitelli, Sara; Trombetta, Marcella; Traversa, Enrico; Licoccia, Silvia; Rinaldi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds produced by electrospinning are of enormous interest, but still lack a true understanding about the fundamental connection between the outstanding functional properties, the architecture, the mechanical properties, and the process parameters. Fragmentary results from several parametric studies only render some partial insights that are hard to compare and generally miss the role of parameters interactions. To bridge this gap, this article (Part-1 of 2) features a case study on poly-L-lactide scaffolds to demonstrate how statistical methods such as design of experiments can quantitatively identify the correlations existing between key scaffold properties and control parameters, in a systematic, consistent, and comprehensive manner disentangling main effects from interactions. The morphological properties (i.e., fiber distribution and porosity) and mechanical properties (Young's modulus) are "charted" as a function of molecular weight (MW) and other electrospinning process parameters (the Xs), considering the single effect as well as interactions between Xs. For the first time, the major role of the MW emerges clearly in controlling all scaffold properties. The correlation between mechanical and morphological properties is also addressed.

  20. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  1. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  2. A Recommended Procedure for Estimating the Cosmic-Ray Spectral Parameter of a Simple Power Law With Applications to Detector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.

    2001-01-01

    A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index alpha-1 is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10(exp 13) eV. Two procedures for estimating alpha-1 the method of moments and maximum likelihood (ML), are developed and their statistical performance compared. It is concluded that the ML procedure attains the most desirable statistical properties and is hence the recommended statistical estimation procedure for estimating alpha-1. The ML procedure is then generalized for application to a set of real cosmic-ray data and thereby makes this approach applicable to existing cosmic-ray data sets. Several other important results, such as the relationship between collecting power and detector energy resolution, as well as inclusion of a non-Gaussian detector response function, are presented. These results have many practical benefits in the design phase of a cosmic-ray detector as they permit instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of one of the science objectives. This is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope.

  3. Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Suzette

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

  4. A balance procedure for calculating the model fuel assemblies reflooding during design basis accident and its verification on PARAMETER test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyuk, S. S.; Ignat'ev, D. N.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.

    2013-05-01

    A balance procedure is proposed for estimating the main parameters characterizing the process of model fuel assemblies reflooding of a VVER reactor made on different scales under the conditions of a design basis accident by subjecting them to bottom reflooding1. The proposed procedure satisfactorily describes the experimental data obtained on PARAMETER test facility in the temperature range up to 1200°C. The times of fuel assemblies quenching by bottom reflooding calculated using the proposed procedure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data obtained on model fuel assemblies of VVER- and PWR-type reactors and can be used in developing measures aimed at enhancing the safety of nuclear power stations.

  5. Numerical investigation for finding the appropriate design parameters of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger with delta-winglet vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behfard, M.; Sohankar, A.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to investigate the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of three-row inline tube bundles as a part of a heat exchanger (Re = 1000, Pr = 4.29). To enhance heat transfer, two pairs of delta winglet-type vortex generators (VGs) installed beside the first row and between the first and second rows of the tube bundles. The diameter of the second row of the tubes is chosen smaller than those of the first and third. A comprehensive study on the effects of various geometrical parameters such as transverse and longitudinal positions of VGs, length and height of VGs and angle of attack of the delta winglets is performed to augment heat transfer. Based on this study the best values of these design parameters are determined. The results showed that the best model increases the convective heat transfer ratio and thermal performance factor about 59 and 43 %, respectively, in compare with the geometry without VG.

  6. Optical parameter measurement of highly diffusive tissue body phantoms with specifically designed sample holder for photo diagnostic and PDT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.; Rehman, K.; Anwar, S.; Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of optical properties (absorption coefficients, scattering Coefficients, and anisotropy) is necessary for understanding light tissue interactions. Optical parameters define the behavior of light in the tissues. Intralipid and Indian ink are well-established tissue body phantoms. Quantitative characterization of biological tissues in terms of optical properties is achieved with integrating sphere. However, samples having significantly higher scattering and absorption coefficients such as malignant tissues potentially reduce the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and accuracy of integrating sphere. We have measured the diffuse reflection and transmission of these phantoms by placing them in integrating sphere at 632.8 nm and then applied IAD method to determine the optical properties tissue phantoms composed of Indian ink (1.0%) and Intralipid (20%). We have fabricated a special sample holder with thin microscopic cover slips which can be used to measure signal from highly concentrated intralipid and Indian ink solutions. Experiments conducted with various phantoms reveal significant improvement of SNR for a wide range of optical properties. This approach opens up a field for potential applications in measurement of optical properties of highly diffusive biological tissues. For 20% intralipid μa =0.112+/-0.046 cm-1 and μs =392.299+/-10.090 cm-1 at 632.8 nm and for 1.0% Indian ink μa =9.808+/-0.490 cm-1 and μs =1.258+/-0.063 cm-1 at same wavelength. System shows good repeatability and reproducibility within 4.9% error. Work may have important biomedical applications in photo-diagnosis and Photodynamic therapy.

  7. High-rate activated sludge system for carbon management--Evaluation of crucial process mechanisms and design parameters.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose; Miller, Mark; Bott, Charles; Murthy, Sudhir; De Clippeleir, Haydee; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-12-15

    The high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) process is a technology suitable for the removal and redirection of organics from wastewater to energy generating processes in an efficient manner. A HRAS pilot plant was operated under controlled conditions resulting in concentrating the influent particulate, colloidal, and soluble COD to a waste solids stream with minimal energy input by maximizing sludge production, bacterial storage, and bioflocculation. The impact of important process parameters such as solids retention time (SRT), hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on the performance of a HRAS system was demonstrated in a pilot study. The results showed that maximum removal efficiencies of soluble COD were reached at a DO > 0.3 mg O2/L, SRT > 0.5 days and HRT > 15 min which indicates that minimizing the oxidation of the soluble COD in the high-rate activated sludge process is difficult. The study of DO, SRT and HRT exhibited high degree of impact on the colloidal and particulate COD removal. Thus, more attention should be focused on controlling the removal of these COD fractions. Colloidal COD removal plateaued at a DO > 0.7 mg O2/L, SRT > 1.5 days and HRT > 30 min, similar to particulate COD removal. Concurrent increase in extracellular polymers (EPS) production in the reactor and the association of particulate and colloidal material into sludge flocs (bioflocculation) indicated carbon capture by biomass. The SRT impacted the overall mass and energy balance of the high-rate process indicating that at low SRT conditions, lower COD mineralization or loss of COD content occurred. In addition, the lower SRT conditions resulted in higher sludge yields and higher COD content in the WAS.

  8. High-rate activated sludge system for carbon management--Evaluation of crucial process mechanisms and design parameters.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose; Miller, Mark; Bott, Charles; Murthy, Sudhir; De Clippeleir, Haydee; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-12-15

    The high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) process is a technology suitable for the removal and redirection of organics from wastewater to energy generating processes in an efficient manner. A HRAS pilot plant was operated under controlled conditions resulting in concentrating the influent particulate, colloidal, and soluble COD to a waste solids stream with minimal energy input by maximizing sludge production, bacterial storage, and bioflocculation. The impact of important process parameters such as solids retention time (SRT), hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on the performance of a HRAS system was demonstrated in a pilot study. The results showed that maximum removal efficiencies of soluble COD were reached at a DO > 0.3 mg O2/L, SRT > 0.5 days and HRT > 15 min which indicates that minimizing the oxidation of the soluble COD in the high-rate activated sludge process is difficult. The study of DO, SRT and HRT exhibited high degree of impact on the colloidal and particulate COD removal. Thus, more attention should be focused on controlling the removal of these COD fractions. Colloidal COD removal plateaued at a DO > 0.7 mg O2/L, SRT > 1.5 days and HRT > 30 min, similar to particulate COD removal. Concurrent increase in extracellular polymers (EPS) production in the reactor and the association of particulate and colloidal material into sludge flocs (bioflocculation) indicated carbon capture by biomass. The SRT impacted the overall mass and energy balance of the high-rate process indicating that at low SRT conditions, lower COD mineralization or loss of COD content occurred. In addition, the lower SRT conditions resulted in higher sludge yields and higher COD content in the WAS. PMID:26260539

  9. The effect of design parameters of dynamic pedicle screw systems on kinematics and load bearing: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Schilling, C; Krüger, S; Grupp, T M; Duda, G N; Blömer, W; Rohlmann, A

    2011-02-01

    As an alternative treatment for chronic back pain due to disc degeneration motion preserving techniques such as posterior dynamic stabilization (PDS) has been clinically introduced, with the intention to alter the load transfer and the kinematics at the affected level to delay degeneration. However, up to the present, it remains unclear when a PDS is clinically indicated and how the ideal PDS mechanism should be designed to achieve this goal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare different PDS devices against rigid fixation to investigate the biomechanical impact of PDS design on stabilization and load transfer in the treated and adjacent cranial segment. Six human lumbar spine specimens (L3-L5) were tested in a spine loading apparatus. In vitro flexibility testing was performed by applying pure bending moments of 7.5 Nm without and with additional preload of 400 N in the three principal motion planes. Four PDS devices, "DYN" (Dynesys(®), Zimmer GmbH, Switzerland), "DSS™" (Paradigm Spine, Wurmlingen, Germany), and two prototypes of dynamic rods, "LSC" with a leaf spring, and "STC" with a spring tube (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany), were tested in comparison to a rigid fixation device S(4) (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) "RIG", to the native situation "NAT" and to a defect situation "DEF" of the specimens. The instrumented level was L4-L5. The tested PDS devices comprising a stiffness range for axial stiffness of 10 N/mm to 230 N/mm and for bending stiffness of 3 N/mm to 15 N/mm. Range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), and intradiscal pressure (IDP) were analyzed for all instrumentation steps and load cases of the instrumented and non-instrumented level. In flexion, extension, and lateral bending, all systems, except STC, showed a significant reduction of ROM and NZ compared to the native situation (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we found no significant difference between DYN and RIG (p > 0.1). In axial rotation, only DSS and STC reduced the ROM

  10. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Christian; Grothendick, Beau; Zhang, Lin; Borror, Connie M.; Barbano, Duane; Cornelius, Angela J.; Gilpin, Brent J.; Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Zaragoza, William J.; Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Lastovica, Albert J.; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Sandrin, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: (1) 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone (2) 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams (3) 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and (4) 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin, B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra) of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra). We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson) was applied rather than a peak based (Dice) and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: (1) 5% (2) 9% (3) 10%, and (4) 2%. An additional second categorization was created from the

  11. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Penny, Christian; Grothendick, Beau; Zhang, Lin; Borror, Connie M; Barbano, Duane; Cornelius, Angela J; Gilpin, Brent J; Fagerquist, Clifton K; Zaragoza, William J; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Lastovica, Albert J; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Sandrin, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: (1) 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone (2) 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams (3) 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and (4) 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin, B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra) of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra). We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson) was applied rather than a peak based (Dice) and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: (1) 5% (2) 9% (3) 10%, and (4) 2%. An additional second categorization was created from the

  12. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Penny, Christian; Grothendick, Beau; Zhang, Lin; Borror, Connie M; Barbano, Duane; Cornelius, Angela J; Gilpin, Brent J; Fagerquist, Clifton K; Zaragoza, William J; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Lastovica, Albert J; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Sandrin, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: (1) 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone (2) 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams (3) 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and (4) 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin, B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra) of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra). We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson) was applied rather than a peak based (Dice) and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: (1) 5% (2) 9% (3) 10%, and (4) 2%. An additional second categorization was created from the

  13. Injecting parameters design and performance test of the pre-igniter for continuous wave DF/HF chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bing; Yuan, Shengfu; Yang, Lijia; Fang, Xiaoting

    2014-11-01

    Combustion-driven continuous wave (CW) DF/HF chemical lasers cannot be inflamed successfully sometimes because the spark-plug-igniter is intolerant of ablation especially after long-time operation which deeply affected the reliability of the lasers. In this paper, a pre-igniter is designed as a new igniter system to produce F2 to solve the problem. Based on the engineering practices and the principle that high-intensity spontaneous combustion will happen when mixing F2 and H2. The results of NF3 and H2 reacting with different mole ratios were calculated by CEA software. The operation reliability of the pre-igniter, the mole concentration of F2 in the mixing gas, and the equilibrium temperature were validated by a series of experiments. The experimental results were consistent with the calculated data: with the mole ratio of NF3 to H2 increasing, the equilibrium temperature decreased gradually and finally leveled off; the mole concentration of F2 in the mixing gas first increased and then decreased, achieving the maximum of about 40% when the mole ratio of NF3 to H2 was about 3.2. Experimental results outlined that the pre-igniter performed reliability and could produce high output of F2. The ignition system with a pre-igniter and a spark plug could provide a new alternative for combustion-driven CW DF/HF chemical lasers.

  14. An Exploratory Exercise in Taguchi Analysis of Design Parameters: Application to a Shuttle-to-space Station Automated Approach Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deal, Don E.

    1991-01-01

    The chief goals of the summer project have been twofold - first, for my host group and myself to learn as much of the working details of Taguchi analysis as possible in the time allotted, and, secondly, to apply the methodology to a design problem with the intention of establishing a preliminary set of near-optimal (in the sense of producing a desired response) design parameter values from among a large number of candidate factor combinations. The selected problem is concerned with determining design factor settings for an automated approach program which is to have the capability of guiding the Shuttle into the docking port of the Space Station under controlled conditions so as to meet and/or optimize certain target criteria. The candidate design parameters under study were glide path (i.e., approach) angle, path intercept and approach gains, and minimum impulse bit mode (a parameter which defines how Shuttle jets shall be fired). Several performance criteria were of concern: terminal relative velocity at the instant the two spacecraft are mated; docking offset; number of Shuttle jet firings in certain specified directions (of interest due to possible plume impingement on the Station's solar arrays), and total RCS (a measure of the energy expended in performing the approach/docking maneuver). In the material discussed here, we have focused on single performance criteria - total RCS. An analysis of the possibility of employing a multiobjective function composed of a weighted sum of the various individual criteria has been undertaken, but is, at this writing, incomplete. Results from the Taguchi statistical analysis indicate that only three of the original four posited factors are significant in affecting RCS response. A comparison of model simulation output (via Monte Carlo) with predictions based on estimated factor effects inferred through the Taguchi experiment array data suggested acceptable or close agreement between the two except at the predicted optimum

  15. Determination of design and operation parameters for upper atmospheric research instrumentation to yield optimum resolution with deconvolution, appendix 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

    1989-01-01

    The power spectrum for a stationary random process can be defined with the Wiener-Khintchine Theorem, which says that the power spectrum and the auto correlation function are a Fourier transform pair. To implement this theorem for signals that are discrete and of finite length we can use the Blackman-Tukey method. Blackman and Tukey (1958) show that a function w(tau), called a lag window, can be applied to the auto correlation estimates to obtain power spectrum estimates that are statistically stable. The Fourier transform of w(r) is called a spectral window. Typical choices for spectral windows show a distinct trade-off between the main lobe width and side lobe strength. A new idea for designing windows by taking linear combinations of the standard windows to produce hybrid windows was introduced by Smith (1985). We implement Smith's idea to obtain spectral windows with narrow main lobes and smaller (compared with typical windows) near side lobes. One of the main contributions of this thesis is that we show that Smith's problem is equivalent to a Quadratic Programming (QP) problem with linear equality and inequality constraints. A computer program was written to produce hybrid windows by setting up and solving the QP problem. We also developed and solved two variations of the original problem. The two variations involved changing the inequality constraints in both cases from non negativity on the combination coefficients to non negativity on the hybrid lag window itself. For the second variation, the window functions used to construct the hybrid window were changed to a frequency-variable set of truncated cosinusoids. A series of tests was run with the three computer programs to investigate the behavior of the hybrid spectral and lag windows. Emphasis was put on obtaining spectral windows with both relatively narrow main lobes and the lowest possible (for these algorithms) near side lobes. Some success was achieved for this goal. A 10 dB peak side lobe reduction

  16. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  17. MODIS Solar Diffuser: Modelled and Actual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiao-Xiong; Esposito, Joe; Wang, Xin-Dong; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument's solar diffuser is used in its radiometric calibration for the reflective solar bands (VIS, NTR, and SWIR) ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The sun illuminates the solar diffuser either directly or through a attenuation screen. The attenuation screen consists of a regular array of pin holes. The attenuated illumination pattern on the solar diffuser is not uniform, but consists of a multitude of pin-hole images of the sun. This non-uniform illumination produces small, but noticeable radiometric effects. A description of the computer model used to simulate the effects of the attenuation screen is given and the predictions of the model are compared with actual, on-orbit, calibration measurements.

  18. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  19. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  20. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  3. Designing for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynerson, Charles M.

    2004-02-01

    This presentation addresses a concept-level model that produces technical design parameters and economic feasibility information addressing future human spaceflight exploration platforms. This paper uses a design methodology and analytical tools to create feasible concept design information for these space platforms. The design tool has been validated against a number of actual facility designs, and appropriate modal variables are adjusted to ensure that statistical approximations are valid for subsequent analyses. The tool is then employed in the examination of the impact of various payloads on the power, size (volume), and mass of the platform proposed. The development of the analytical tool employed an approach that accommodated possible payloads characterized as simplified parameters such as power, weight, volume, crew size, and endurance. In creating the approach, basic principles are employed and combined with parametric estimates as necessary. Key system parameters are identified in conjunction with overall system design. Typical ranges for these key parameters are provided based on empirical data extracted from actual human spaceflight systems. In order to provide a credible basis for a valid engineering model, an extensive survey of existing manned space platforms was conducted. This survey yielded key engineering specifications that were incorporated in the engineering model. Data from this survey is also used to create parametric equations and graphical representations in order to establish a realistic range of engineering quantities used in the design of manned space platforms.

  4. Aluminium sulfate as coagulant for highly polluted cork processing wastewater: Evaluation of settleability parameters and design of a clarifier-thickener unit.

    PubMed

    González, Teresa; Domínguez, Joaquín R; Beltrán-Heredia, Jesús; García, Héctor M; Sanchez-Lavado, F

    2007-09-01

    This is the second part of a master project on the chemistry of aluminium as coagulant in the treatment of highly polluted cork-process-wastewater. The main aim of this second part was to determine the influence of the operating conditions on the system's settleability parameters. It is well known that it is just as important to achieve good settleability parameters in the physico-chemical treatment of wastewaters as it is to attain a high level of decontamination. These parameters will determine the dimensions of the required equipment, and hence the costs of the installation. This part of the study therefore analyzes the influence of the different operating variables on the following settleability parameters: sediment volumetric percentage, settling velocity, sludge volume index and total suspended solids just after mixture with the coagulant. The ranges used for the experimental variables were: coagulant dose (83-166 mgL(-1) of Al(3+)), coagulation mixing time (5-30 min), stirring rate (60-300 rpm), contamination level of the wastewater (Wastewater II COD approximately 2000 mg O(2) L(-1), Wastewater III COD approximately 3000 mg O(2) L(-1)), and pH (5-11). The optimal conditions found for the settling process were not the same as those that had been determined for the organic matter removal. In this case the optimal conditions were: coagulation mixing time (30 min), stirring rate (60 rpm), coagulant dose (83 mgL(-1) of Al(3+)) and pH (7-9). Finally, the Talmadge-Fitch method is used to apply the results to the design of a clarifier-thickener unit to treat 2m(3)h(-1) of wastewater. The required minimum area of the unit would be 4.11 m(2).

  5. Optimization of the Ion Source-Mass Spectrometry Parameters in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Pharmaceuticals Analysis by a Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paíga, Paula; Silva, Luís M. S.; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The flow rates of drying and nebulizing gas, heat block and desolvation line temperatures and interface voltage are potential electrospray ionization parameters as they may enhance sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. The conditions that give higher sensitivity of 13 pharmaceuticals were explored. First, Plackett-Burman design was implemented to screen significant factors, and it was concluded that interface voltage and nebulizing gas flow were the only factors that influence the intensity signal for all pharmaceuticals. This fractionated factorial design was projected to set a full 22 factorial design with center points. The lack-of-fit test proved to be significant. Then, a central composite face-centered design was conducted. Finally, a stepwise multiple linear regression and subsequently an optimization problem solving were carried out. Two main drug clusters were found concerning the signal intensities of all runs of the augmented factorial design. p-Aminophenol, salicylic acid, and nimesulide constitute one cluster as a result of showing much higher sensitivity than the remaining drugs. The other cluster is more homogeneous with some sub-clusters comprising one pharmaceutical and its respective metabolite. It was observed that instrumental signal increased when both significant factors increased with maximum signal occurring when both codified factors are set at level +1. It was also found that, for most of the pharmaceuticals, interface voltage influences the intensity of the instrument more than the nebulizing gas flowrate. The only exceptions refer to nimesulide where the relative importance of the factors is reversed and still salicylic acid where both factors equally influence the instrumental signal.

  6. Optimization of the Ion Source-Mass Spectrometry Parameters in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Pharmaceuticals Analysis by a Design of Experiments Approach.

    PubMed

    Paíga, Paula; Silva, Luís M S; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The flow rates of drying and nebulizing gas, heat block and desolvation line temperatures and interface voltage are potential electrospray ionization parameters as they may enhance sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. The conditions that give higher sensitivity of 13 pharmaceuticals were explored. First, Plackett-Burman design was implemented to screen significant factors, and it was concluded that interface voltage and nebulizing gas flow were the only factors that influence the intensity signal for all pharmaceuticals. This fractionated factorial design was projected to set a full 2(2) factorial design with center points. The lack-of-fit test proved to be significant. Then, a central composite face-centered design was conducted. Finally, a stepwise multiple linear regression and subsequently an optimization problem solving were carried out. Two main drug clusters were found concerning the signal intensities of all runs of the augmented factorial design. p-Aminophenol, salicylic acid, and nimesulide constitute one cluster as a result of showing much higher sensitivity than the remaining drugs. The other cluster is more homogeneous with some sub-clusters comprising one pharmaceutical and its respective metabolite. It was observed that instrumental signal increased when both significant factors increased with maximum signal occurring when both codified factors are set at level +1. It was also found that, for most of the pharmaceuticals, interface voltage influences the intensity of the instrument more than the nebulizing gas flowrate. The only exceptions refer to nimesulide where the relative importance of the factors is reversed and still salicylic acid where both factors equally influence the instrumental signal. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27527098

  7. Optimization of the Ion Source-Mass Spectrometry Parameters in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Pharmaceuticals Analysis by a Design of Experiments Approach.

    PubMed

    Paíga, Paula; Silva, Luís M S; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The flow rates of drying and nebulizing gas, heat block and desolvation line temperatures and interface voltage are potential electrospray ionization parameters as they may enhance sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. The conditions that give higher sensitivity of 13 pharmaceuticals were explored. First, Plackett-Burman design was implemented to screen significant factors, and it was concluded that interface voltage and nebulizing gas flow were the only factors that influence the intensity signal for all pharmaceuticals. This fractionated factorial design was projected to set a full 2(2) factorial design with center points. The lack-of-fit test proved to be significant. Then, a central composite face-centered design was conducted. Finally, a stepwise multiple linear regression and subsequently an optimization problem solving were carried out. Two main drug clusters were found concerning the signal intensities of all runs of the augmented factorial design. p-Aminophenol, salicylic acid, and nimesulide constitute one cluster as a result of showing much higher sensitivity than the remaining drugs. The other cluster is more homogeneous with some sub-clusters comprising one pharmaceutical and its respective metabolite. It was observed that instrumental signal increased when both significant factors increased with maximum signal occurring when both codified factors are set at level +1. It was also found that, for most of the pharmaceuticals, interface voltage influences the intensity of the instrument more than the nebulizing gas flowrate. The only exceptions refer to nimesulide where the relative importance of the factors is reversed and still salicylic acid where both factors equally influence the instrumental signal. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Optimization of the Ion Source-Mass Spectrometry Parameters in Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Pharmaceuticals Analysis by a Design of Experiments Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paíga, Paula; Silva, Luís M. S.; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The flow rates of drying and nebulizing gas, heat block and desolvation line temperatures and interface voltage are potential electrospray ionization parameters as they may enhance sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. The conditions that give higher sensitivity of 13 pharmaceuticals were explored. First, Plackett-Burman design was implemented to screen significant factors, and it was concluded that interface voltage and nebulizing gas flow were the only factors that influence the intensity signal for all pharmaceuticals. This fractionated factorial design was projected to set a full 22 factorial design with center points. The lack-of-fit test proved to be significant. Then, a central composite face-centered design was conducted. Finally, a stepwise multiple linear regression and subsequently an optimization problem solving were carried out. Two main drug clusters were found concerning the signal intensities of all runs of the augmented factorial design. p-Aminophenol, salicylic acid, and nimesulide constitute one cluster as a result of showing much higher sensitivity than the remaining drugs. The other cluster is more homogeneous with some sub-clusters comprising one pharmaceutical and its respective metabolite. It was observed that instrumental signal increased when both significant factors increased with maximum signal occurring when both codified factors are set at level +1. It was also found that, for most of the pharmaceuticals, interface voltage influences the intensity of the instrument more than the nebulizing gas flowrate. The only exceptions refer to nimesulide where the relative importance of the factors is reversed and still salicylic acid where both factors equally influence the instrumental signal.

  9. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  10. Instructional Design Parameters in Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kathleen M.

    The Restructuring Education in the Sciences for Industrial Alignment (RESIA) project examined the feasibility of combining college science faculty and industrial experts to produce instructional materials. These materials were intended for on-the-job training and college credit. Through informal contact, professors were identified who were willing…

  11. Isolating the actual signal of paleointensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J. M.; Moreno, E.; Bassinot, F.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Signals of relative and absolute paleointensity suffer inaccuracies and contaminations that must be considered to improve our knowledge of the field variations. Climatically related changes in rock magnetic parameters are frequently suspected of influencing the signal of relative paleointensity extrated from marine sediments. High resolution measurements of climatic and magnetic parameters have been performed on two cores from the eastern China Sea and the western Caroline Basin. On both cores, magnetic parameters show a strong imprint of climatic changes but the absence of relationship between the inclination and the bulk density indicates that the directional changes do not depend on lithology. All normalization parameters yielded similar estimates of relative paleointensity (RPI), but we have noticed the persistence of climatic components in the signal. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to different parameters related to climate, lithology and paleointensity has allowed to extract a "clean" magnetic signal that we refer as "principal component of paleointensity (PCP)" which is in better agreement with the Sint-2000 composite curve and provides a reliable record of relative paleointensity. The presence of climatic frequencies in RPIs most likely reflects the influence of lithology on the response of magnetization to field intensity. We suggest that PCA analysis can be very useful to approach these problems. Not only can the calculation separate overlapping climatic and magnetic signals, but it indicates what confidence should be given to the data. Incidentally, the present results emphasize the importance of carrying out detailed paleoclimatic analyses along with paleointensity studies. Many approaches have been proposed during the past 20 years for experiments of absolute paleointensity in order to reduce the duration of the experiments and increase the number of field determinations. However, this is frequently obtained to the detriment of the accuracy

  12. Influence of the Formulation Parameters on the Particle Size and Encapsulation Efficiency of Resveratrol in PLA and PLA-PEG Blend Nanoparticles: A Factorial Design.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Gabriela da Rocha; Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal systems that promote protection and modification of physicochemical characteristics of a drug and that also ensure controlled and extended drug release. This paper reports a 2(3) factorial design study to optimize poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide)-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing resveratrol (RVT) for prolonged release. The independent variables analyzed were solvent composition, surfactant concentration and ratio of aqueous to organic phase (two levels each factor). Mean particle size and RVT encapsulation efficiency were set as the dependent variables. The selected optimized parameters were set as organic phase comprised of a mixture of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, 1% of surfactant polyvinyl alcohol and a 3:1 ratio of aqueous to organic phase, for both PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles. This formulation originated nanoparticles with size of 228 ± 10 nm and 185 ± 70 nm and RVT encapsulation efficiency of 82 ± 10% and 76 ± 7% for PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles, respectively. The in vitro release study showed a biphasic pattern with prolonged RVT release and PEG did not influence the RVT release. The in vitro release data were in favor of Higuchi-diffusion kinetics for both nanoformulations and the Kossmeyer-Peppas coefficient indicated that anomalous transport was the main release mechanism of RVT. PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles produced with single emulsion-solvent evaporation technology were found to be a promising approach for the incorporation of RVT and promoted its controlled release. The factorial design is a tool of great value in choosing formulations with optimized parameters.

  13. Design of Experiments to Study the Impact of Process Parameters on Droplet Size and Development of Non-Invasive Imaging Techniques in Tablet Coating.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Thomas J; Smith, Julian; Hofmann, Michael P; Bland, Charlotte E; Badhan, Raj K; Al-Khattawi, Ali; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2016-01-01

    Atomisation of an aqueous solution for tablet film coating is a complex process with multiple factors determining droplet formation and properties. The importance of droplet size for an efficient process and a high quality final product has been noted in the literature, with smaller droplets reported to produce smoother, more homogenous coatings whilst simultaneously avoiding the risk of damage through over-wetting of the tablet core. In this work the effect of droplet size on tablet film coat characteristics was investigated using X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A quality by design approach utilising design of experiments (DOE) was used to optimise the conditions necessary for production of droplets at a small (20 μm) and large (70 μm) droplet size. Droplet size distribution was measured using real-time laser diffraction and the volume median diameter taken as a response. DOE yielded information on the relationship three critical process parameters: pump rate, atomisation pressure and coating-polymer concentration, had upon droplet size. The model generated was robust, scoring highly for model fit (R2 = 0.977), predictability (Q2 = 0.837), validity and reproducibility. Modelling confirmed that all parameters had either a linear or quadratic effect on droplet size and revealed an interaction between pump rate and atomisation pressure. Fluidised bed coating of tablet cores was performed with either small or large droplets followed by CLSM and XμCT imaging. Addition of commonly used contrast materials to the coating solution improved visualisation of the coating by XμCT, showing the coat as a discrete section of the overall tablet. Imaging provided qualitative and quantitative evidence revealing that smaller droplets formed thinner, more uniform and less porous film coats. PMID:27548263

  14. Design of Experiments to Study the Impact of Process Parameters on Droplet Size and Development of Non-Invasive Imaging Techniques in Tablet Coating

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Thomas J.; Smith, Julian; Hofmann, Michael P.; Bland, Charlotte E.; Badhan, Raj K.; Al-Khattawi, Ali; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2016-01-01

    Atomisation of an aqueous solution for tablet film coating is a complex process with multiple factors determining droplet formation and properties. The importance of droplet size for an efficient process and a high quality final product has been noted in the literature, with smaller droplets reported to produce smoother, more homogenous coatings whilst simultaneously avoiding the risk of damage through over-wetting of the tablet core. In this work the effect of droplet size on tablet film coat characteristics was investigated using X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A quality by design approach utilising design of experiments (DOE) was used to optimise the conditions necessary for production of droplets at a small (20 μm) and large (70 μm) droplet size. Droplet size distribution was measured using real-time laser diffraction and the volume median diameter taken as a response. DOE yielded information on the relationship three critical process parameters: pump rate, atomisation pressure and coating-polymer concentration, had upon droplet size. The model generated was robust, scoring highly for model fit (R2 = 0.977), predictability (Q2 = 0.837), validity and reproducibility. Modelling confirmed that all parameters had either a linear or quadratic effect on droplet size and revealed an interaction between pump rate and atomisation pressure. Fluidised bed coating of tablet cores was performed with either small or large droplets followed by CLSM and XμCT imaging. Addition of commonly used contrast materials to the coating solution improved visualisation of the coating by XμCT, showing the coat as a discrete section of the overall tablet. Imaging provided qualitative and quantitative evidence revealing that smaller droplets formed thinner, more uniform and less porous film coats. PMID:27548263

  15. VS30 – A site-characterization parameter for use in building Codes, simplified earthquake resistant design, GMPEs, and ShakeMaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    VS30, defined as the average seismic shear-wave velocity from the surface to a depth of 30 meters, has found wide-spread use as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified earthquake resistant design as implemented in building codes worldwide. VS30 , as initially introduced by the author for the US 1994 NEHRP Building Code, provides unambiguous definitions of site classes and site coefficients for site-dependent response spectra based on correlations derived from extensive borehole logging and comparative ground-motion measurement programs in California. Subsequent use of VS30 for development of strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and measurement of extensive sets of VS borehole data have confirmed the previous empirical correlations and established correlations of SVS30 with VSZ at other depths. These correlations provide closed form expressions to predict S30 V at a large number of additional sites and further justify S30 V as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified building codes, GMPEs, ShakeMap, and seismic hazard mapping.

  16. Montessori, Maslow, and Self-Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    What must never be forgotten by the Montessori teacher, or by any teacher of young children, is that his or her "primary" task, his or her "primary" obligation, his or her "primary" sacred duty is not the teaching of the "three Rs" but that of nurturing the psychological health of the child. Every element of Montessori methodology is designed for…

  17. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  18. Twenty years (actually 16) in retrospect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1990-01-01

    I have been editor of Earthquakes and Volcanoes for the last 16 years. Since I will soon be handing over the reins to a consortium of editors who will produce the magazine at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, I thought I would offer a tetrospective view of editing a magazine designed for a diversified audience. 

  19. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actual SO2 emissions rate. 74.22... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2 emissions... actual SO2 emissions rate shall be 1985. (2) For combustion sources that commenced operation...

  20. Actualization and the Fear of Death: Retesting an Existential Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Keith; Robinson, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    Demonstrates that within a group of highly actualized individuals, the degree to which "own death" is integrated into constructs of self is a far more powerful predictor of fear of death than actualization. Findings suggest that actualization and integration are independent in their overall effect on fear of death. (Author)

  1. Numerical modeling of piezoelectric transducers using physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Cappon, Hans; Keesman, Karel J

    2012-05-01

    Design of ultrasonic equipment is frequently facilitated with numerical models. These numerical models, however, need a calibration step, because usually not all characteristics of the materials used are known. Characterization of material properties combined with numerical simulations and experimental data can be used to acquire valid estimates of the material parameters. In our design application, a finite element (FE) model of an ultrasonic particle separator, driven by an ultrasonic transducer in thickness mode, is required. A limited set of material parameters for the piezoelectric transducer were obtained from the manufacturer, thus preserving prior physical knowledge to a large extent. The remaining unknown parameters were estimated from impedance analysis with a simple experimental setup combined with a numerical optimization routine using 2-D and 3-D FE models. Thus, a full set of physically interpretable material parameters was obtained for our specific purpose. The approach provides adequate accuracy of the estimates of the material parameters, near 1%. These parameter estimates will subsequently be applied in future design simulations, without the need to go through an entire series of characterization experiments. Finally, a sensitivity study showed that small variations of 1% in the main parameters caused changes near 1% in the eigenfrequency, but changes up to 7% in the admittance peak, thus influencing the efficiency of the system. Temperature will already cause these small variations in response; thus, a frequency control unit is required when actually manufacturing an efficient ultrasonic separation system.

  2. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  3. Differential tuning of the electron transfer parameters in 1,3,5-triarylpyrazolines: a rational design approach for optimizing the contrast ratio of fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Cody, John; Mandal, Subrata; Yang, Liuchun; Fahrni, Christoph J

    2008-10-01

    A large class of cation-responsive fluorescent sensors utilizes a donor-spacer-acceptor (D-A) molecular framework that can modulate the fluorescence emission intensity through a fast photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer (PET) process. The emission enhancement upon binding of the analyte defines the contrast ratio of the probe, a key property that is particularly relevant in fluorescence microscopy imaging applications. Due to their unusual electronic structure, 1,3,5-triarylpyrazoline fluorophores allow for the differential tuning of the excited-state energy DeltaE(00) and the fluorophore acceptor potential E(A/A(-)), both of which are critical parameters that define the electron transfer (ET) thermodynamics and thus the contrast ratio. By systematically varying the number and attachment positions of fluoro substituents on the fluorophore pi-system, DeltaE(00) can be adjusted over a broad range (0.4 eV) without significantly altering the acceptor potential E(A/A(-)). Experimentally measured D-A coupling and reorganization energies were used to draw a potential map for identifying the optimal ET driving force that is expected to give a maximum fluorescence enhancement for a given change in donor potential upon binding of the analyte. The rational design strategy was tested by optimizing the fluorescence response of a pH-sensitive probe, thus yielding a maximum emission enhancement factor of 400 upon acidification. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculations were used to reproduce the experimental trends of reduction potentials, excited-state energies, and ET driving forces within the framework of linear free energy relationships (LFERs). Such LFERs should be suitable to semiempirically predict ET driving forces with an average unsigned error of 0.03 eV, consequently allowing for the computational prescreening of substituent combinations to best match the donor potential of a given cation receptor. Within the scaffold of the triarylpyrazoline platform, the

  4. Parameters optimization using experimental design for headspace solid phase micro-extraction analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in waters under the European water framework directive.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, F; Malleret, L; Sergent, M; Doumenq, P

    2015-08-01

    The water framework directives (WFD 2000/60/EC and 2013/39/EU) force European countries to monitor the quality of their aquatic environment. Among the priority hazardous substances targeted by the WFD, short chain chlorinated paraffins C10-C13 (SCCPs), still represent an analytical challenge, because few laboratories are nowadays able to analyze them. Moreover, an annual average quality standards as low as 0.4μgL(-1) was set for SCCPs in surface water. Therefore, to test for compliance, the implementation of sensitive and reliable analysis method of SCCPs in water are required. The aim of this work was to address this issue by evaluating automated solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined on line with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Fiber polymer, extraction mode, ionic strength, extraction temperature and time were the most significant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters studied. To determine the suitable factors working ranges, the study of the extraction conditions was first carried out by using a classical one factor-at-a-time approach. Then a mixed level factorial 3×2(3) design was performed, in order to give rise to the most influent parameters and to estimate potential interactions effects between them. The most influent factors, i.e. extraction temperature and duration, were optimized by using a second experimental design, in order to maximize the chromatographic response. At the close of the study, a method involving headspace SPME (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/ECNI-MS is proposed. The optimum extraction conditions were sample temperature 90°C, extraction time 80min, with the PDMS 100μm fiber and desorption at 250°C during 2min. Linear response from 0.2ngmL(-1) to 10ngmL(-1) with r(2)=0.99 and limits of detection and quantification, respectively of 4pgmL(-1) and 120pgmL(-1) in MilliQ water, were achieved. The method proved to be applicable in different types of waters and show key advantages, such

  5. Parameters optimization using experimental design for headspace solid phase micro-extraction analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in waters under the European water framework directive.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, F; Malleret, L; Sergent, M; Doumenq, P

    2015-08-01

    The water framework directives (WFD 2000/60/EC and 2013/39/EU) force European countries to monitor the quality of their aquatic environment. Among the priority hazardous substances targeted by the WFD, short chain chlorinated paraffins C10-C13 (SCCPs), still represent an analytical challenge, because few laboratories are nowadays able to analyze them. Moreover, an annual average quality standards as low as 0.4μgL(-1) was set for SCCPs in surface water. Therefore, to test for compliance, the implementation of sensitive and reliable analysis method of SCCPs in water are required. The aim of this work was to address this issue by evaluating automated solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined on line with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Fiber polymer, extraction mode, ionic strength, extraction temperature and time were the most significant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters studied. To determine the suitable factors working ranges, the study of the extraction conditions was first carried out by using a classical one factor-at-a-time approach. Then a mixed level factorial 3×2(3) design was performed, in order to give rise to the most influent parameters and to estimate potential interactions effects between them. The most influent factors, i.e. extraction temperature and duration, were optimized by using a second experimental design, in order to maximize the chromatographic response. At the close of the study, a method involving headspace SPME (HS-SPME) coupled to GC/ECNI-MS is proposed. The optimum extraction conditions were sample temperature 90°C, extraction time 80min, with the PDMS 100μm fiber and desorption at 250°C during 2min. Linear response from 0.2ngmL(-1) to 10ngmL(-1) with r(2)=0.99 and limits of detection and quantification, respectively of 4pgmL(-1) and 120pgmL(-1) in MilliQ water, were achieved. The method proved to be applicable in different types of waters and show key advantages, such

  6. An Impact Study of the Design of Exergaming Parameters on Body Intensity from Objective and Gameplay-Based Player Experience Perspectives, Based on Balance Training Exergame

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Kinect-based exergames allow players to undertake physical exercise in an interactive manner with visual stimulation. Previous studies focused on investigating physical fitness based on calories or heart rate to ascertain the effectiveness of exergames. However, designing an exergame for specific training purposes, with intensity levels suited to the needs and skills of the players, requires the investigation of motion performance to study player experience. This study investigates how parameters of a Kinect-based exergame, combined with balance training exercises, influence the balance control ability and intensity level the player can tolerate, by analyzing both objective and gameplay-based player experience, and taking enjoyment and difficulty levels into account. The exergame tested required participants to maintain their balance standing on one leg within a posture frame (PF) while a force plate evaluated the player's balance control ability in both static and dynamic gaming modes. The number of collisions with the PF depended on the frame's travel time for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate and angle for dynamic PFs. In terms of center of pressure (COP) metrics, significant impacts were caused by the frame's travel time on MDIST-AP for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate on MDIST-ML and TOTEX for dynamic PFs. The best static PF balance control performance was observed with a larger frame offset by a travel time of 2 seconds, and the worst performance with a smaller frame and a travel time of 1 second. The best dynamic PF performance was with a leg-raising rate of 1 second at a 45-degree angle, while the worst performance was with a rate of 2 seconds at a 90-degree angle. The results demonstrated that different evaluation methods for player experience could result in different findings, making it harder to study the design of those exergames with training purposes based on player experience. PMID:23922716

  7. An impact study of the design of exergaming parameters on body intensity from objective and gameplay-based player experience perspectives, based on balance training exergame.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tien-Lung; Lee, Chia-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Kinect-based exergames allow players to undertake physical exercise in an interactive manner with visual stimulation. Previous studies focused on investigating physical fitness based on calories or heart rate to ascertain the effectiveness of exergames. However, designing an exergame for specific training purposes, with intensity levels suited to the needs and skills of the players, requires the investigation of motion performance to study player experience. This study investigates how parameters of a Kinect-based exergame, combined with balance training exercises, influence the balance control ability and intensity level the player can tolerate, by analyzing both objective and gameplay-based player experience, and taking enjoyment and difficulty levels into account. The exergame tested required participants to maintain their balance standing on one leg within a posture frame (PF) while a force plate evaluated the player's balance control ability in both static and dynamic gaming modes. The number of collisions with the PF depended on the frame's travel time for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate and angle for dynamic PFs. In terms of center of pressure (COP) metrics, significant impacts were caused by the frame's travel time on MDIST-AP for static PFs, and the leg-raising rate on MDIST-ML and TOTEX for dynamic PFs. The best static PF balance control performance was observed with a larger frame offset by a travel time of 2 seconds, and the worst performance with a smaller frame and a travel time of 1 second. The best dynamic PF performance was with a leg-raising rate of 1 second at a 45-degree angle, while the worst performance was with a rate of 2 seconds at a 90-degree angle. The results demonstrated that different evaluation methods for player experience could result in different findings, making it harder to study the design of those exergames with training purposes based on player experience.

  8. Model parameter updating using Bayesian networks

    SciTech Connect

    Treml, C. A.; Ross, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines a model parameter updating technique for a new method of model validation using a modified model reference adaptive control (MRAC) framework with Bayesian Networks (BNs). The model parameter updating within this method is generic in the sense that the model/simulation to be validated is treated as a black box. It must have updateable parameters to which its outputs are sensitive, and those outputs must have metrics that can be compared to that of the model reference, i.e., experimental data. Furthermore, no assumptions are made about the statistics of the model parameter uncertainty, only upper and lower bounds need to be specified. This method is designed for situations where a model is not intended to predict a complete point-by-point time domain description of the item/system behavior; rather, there are specific points, features, or events of interest that need to be predicted. These specific points are compared to the model reference derived from actual experimental data. The logic for updating the model parameters to match the model reference is formed via a BN. The nodes of this BN consist of updateable model input parameters and the specific output values or features of interest. Each time the model is executed, the input/output pairs are used to adapt the conditional probabilities of the BN. Each iteration further refines the inferred model parameters to produce the desired model output. After parameter updating is complete and model inputs are inferred, reliabilities for the model output are supplied. Finally, this method is applied to a simulation of a resonance control cooling system for a prototype coupled cavity linac. The results are compared to experimental data.

  9. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  10. Optimization of Tape Winding Process Parameters to Enhance the Performance of Solid Rocket Nozzle Throat Back Up Liners using Taguchi's Robust Design Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Nayani Kishore

    2016-06-01

    The throat back up liners is used to protect the nozzle structural members from the severe thermal environment in solid rocket nozzles. The throat back up liners is made with E-glass phenolic prepregs by tape winding process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the optimization of process parameters of tape winding process to achieve better insulative resistance using Taguchi's robust design methodology. In this method four control factors machine speed, roller pressure, tape tension, tape temperature that were investigated for the tape winding process. The presented work was to study the cogency and acceptability of Taguchi's methodology in manufacturing of throat back up liners. The quality characteristic identified was Back wall temperature. Experiments carried out using L{9/'} (34) orthogonal array with three levels of four different control factors. The test results were analyzed using smaller the better criteria for Signal to Noise ratio in order to optimize the process. The experimental results were analyzed conformed and successfully used to achieve the minimum back wall temperature of the throat back up liners. The enhancement in performance of the throat back up liners was observed by carrying out the oxy-acetylene tests. The influence of back wall temperature on the performance of throat back up liners was verified by ground firing test.

  11. Effect of operational and design parameters on performance of pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating university campus wastewater.

    PubMed

    Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2016-10-01

    Three horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) units operated for 3 years treating municipal wastewater originating from a university campus. The main objective of the study was the evaluation of the performance of these systems under several operational, design, and climatic conditions. Several parameters and factors were investigated, including the influence of temperature, vegetation, and hydraulic residence time. The results were compared to those of a previous study conducted in the same pilot-scale units and under the same operational conditions where synthetic municipal wastewater was used. Results show the satisfying overall performance of the CW units. Performance seems to be influenced by vegetation, temperature, and hydraulic residence time (HRT). The planted units produced better results than the unplanted one while, generally, all units operated better under warmer conditions. In addition, longer HRTs contributed to higher removal efficiencies. Finally, the systems showed higher removal efficiencies in the previous study (synthetic wastewater) regarding organic matter removal, while for the other pollutants, the present study (real wastewater) showed higher or comparable performance in most cases and especially in the planted units. The study also shows the overall good, continuous, and long-term operation of CW systems, since these systems operate for about 13 years. PMID:27388592

  12. Gas phase bio-filter for the removal of triethylamine (TEA) from air: microbial diversity analysis with reference to design parameters.

    PubMed

    Gandu, Bharath; Sandhya, K; Gangagni Rao, A; Swamy, Y V

    2013-07-01

    Biotic (packed bio-filter; PBF) and abiotic (packed filter; PF) studies were carried out on two similar 2L gas phase filters for the removal of triethylamine (TEA) at inlet concentration in the range of 250-280 ppmV. Removal efficiency (RE) of PBF remained in the range of 90-99% during the stable period of operation (170 days) whereas RE of PF dropped gradually to 10% in a span of 90 days. Five different bacterial species viz; Aeromonas sp., Alcaligenes sp., Arthrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., and Pseudomonas sp., were identified in PBF. It was observed that diethyl amine, ethylamine and nitrate were formed as metabolites during the degradation pathway. Empty bed residence time of 20s, mass loading rate of 202.26 g/m(3)/h, space velocity of 178.82 m(3)/m(3)/h and elimination capacity of 201.52 g/m(3)/h were found to be optimum design parameters for PBF to get RE in the range of 90-99%.

  13. Effect of operational and design parameters on performance of pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating university campus wastewater.

    PubMed

    Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2016-10-01

    Three horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) units operated for 3 years treating municipal wastewater originating from a university campus. The main objective of the study was the evaluation of the performance of these systems under several operational, design, and climatic conditions. Several parameters and factors were investigated, including the influence of temperature, vegetation, and hydraulic residence time. The results were compared to those of a previous study conducted in the same pilot-scale units and under the same operational conditions where synthetic municipal wastewater was used. Results show the satisfying overall performance of the CW units. Performance seems to be influenced by vegetation, temperature, and hydraulic residence time (HRT). The planted units produced better results than the unplanted one while, generally, all units operated better under warmer conditions. In addition, longer HRTs contributed to higher removal efficiencies. Finally, the systems showed higher removal efficiencies in the previous study (synthetic wastewater) regarding organic matter removal, while for the other pollutants, the present study (real wastewater) showed higher or comparable performance in most cases and especially in the planted units. The study also shows the overall good, continuous, and long-term operation of CW systems, since these systems operate for about 13 years.

  14. Quantitative parameters of complexes of tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts with serum albumin: Relevance for the design of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Durandin, Nikita A; Tsvetkov, Vladimir B; Bykov, Evgeny E; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Lavrenov, Sergey N; Tevyashova, Anna N; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2016-09-01

    Triarylmethane derivatives are extensively investigated as antitumor and antibacterial drug candidates alone and as photoactivatable compounds. In the series of tris(1-alkylindol-3-yl)methylium salts (TIMs) these two activities differed depending on the length of N-alkyl chain, with C4-5 derivatives being the most potent compared to the shorter or longer chain analogs and to the natural compound turbomycin A (no N-substituent). Given that the human serum albumin (HSA) is a major transporter protein with which TIMs can form stable complexes, and that the formation of these complexes might be advantageous for phototoxicity of TIMs we determined the quantitative parameters of TIMs-HSA binding using spectroscopic methods and molecular docking. TIMs bound to HSA (1:1 stoichiometry) altered the protein's secondary structure by changing the α-helix/β-turn ratio. The IIa subdomain (Sudlow site I) is the preferred TIM binding site in HSA as determined in competition experiments with reference drugs ibuprofen and warfarin. The values of binding constants increased with the number of CH2 groups from 0 to 6 and then dropped down for C10 compound, a dependence similar to the one observed for cytocidal potency of TIMs. We tend to attribute this non-linear dependence to an interplay between hydrophobicity and steric hindrance, the two key characteristics of TIMs-HSA complexes calculated in the molecular docking procedure. These structure-activity relationships provide evidence for rational design of TIMs-based antitumor and antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27475780

  15. Gauging triple stores with actual biological data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semantic Web technologies have been developed to overcome the limitations of the current Web and conventional data integration solutions. The Semantic Web is expected to link all the data present on the Internet instead of linking just documents. One of the foundations of the Semantic Web technologies is the knowledge representation language Resource Description Framework (RDF). Knowledge expressed in RDF is typically stored in so-called triple stores (also known as RDF stores), from which it can be retrieved with SPARQL, a language designed for querying RDF-based models. The Semantic Web technologies should allow federated queries over multiple triple stores. In this paper we compare the efficiency of a set of biologically relevant queries as applied to a number of different triple store implementations. Results Previously we developed a library of queries to guide the use of our knowledge base Cell Cycle Ontology implemented as a triple store. We have now compared the performance of these queries on five non-commercial triple stores: OpenLink Virtuoso (Open-Source Edition), Jena SDB, Jena TDB, SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. We examined three performance aspects: the data uploading time, the query execution time and the scalability. The queries we had chosen addressed diverse ontological or biological questions, and we found that individual store performance was quite query-specific. We identified three groups of queries displaying similar behaviour across the different stores: 1) relatively short response time queries, 2) moderate response time queries and 3) relatively long response time queries. SwiftOWLIM proved to be a winner in the first group, 4Store in the second one and Virtuoso in the third one. Conclusions Our analysis showed that some queries behaved idiosyncratically, in a triple store specific manner, mainly with SwiftOWLIM and 4Store. Virtuoso, as expected, displayed a very balanced performance - its load time and its response time for all the

  16. Simulation-guided design and fabrication of long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber as refractive index transduction platform for multi-parameter sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zonghu

    2011-12-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology based on conventional, all-solid optical fiber has been broadly used for chemical and biological sensing and detection. The advent of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) offers transformative opportunities due to its unique waveguiding and microstructural features. Incorporating long period gratings (LPG) in PCF has the potential to further catapult LPG-PCF based sensing technology in terms of greatly improved sensing capabilities and significantly expanded field of applications. This doctoral dissertation aims to synergistically integrate LPG and index guiding PCF as refractive index transduction platform to explore its potential for multi-parameter sensing and measurements. The phase matching conditions, core mode to cladding mode coupling, and power overlap were theoretically simulated to aid in the design and fabrication of the LPG-PCF platform using CO2 laser. For sensing of aqueous solutions, we developed a novel means of LPG fabrication while maintaining a steady liquid flow in the PCF air channels. This approach greatly improves the quality and reproducibility of the fabrication process. More importantly, it helps preserve the general resonance coupling condition when an aqueous analyte solution is probed. We have theoretically predicted and experimentally achieved a sensitivity of ˜10-7 refractive index unit using our fabricated LPG-PCF platform due to the strong overlap between the cladding mode evanescent field and the analyte within the PCF air channels. For label-free biosensing, we integrated the LPG-PCF with a home-build microfluidic flow cell that can be optically coupled with the sensing platform while allowing continuous flow of the reagents. As a result, we have demonstrated the ability to monitor a series of surface binding events in situ. Our LPG-PCF is able to consistently detect monolayer biomolecular binding events with a measured resonance wavelength shift of about 0.75 nm per nanometer thick layer formed. Overall

  17. Relationship between perceived and actual motor competence among college students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Bian, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between perceived and actual motor competence was examined among college students. Participants were 114 college students (55 men, 59 women; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 3.9). All participants completed a short survey on perception of motor competence in basketball and took a Control Basketball Dribble Test to assess their actual motor skill. Perceived motor competence in basketball was significantly related to basketball dribbling performance. Given the positive relationship between actual motor competence and perceived competence, enhancing an individual's actual motor competence may contribute to their perceived competence, which may improve an individual's physical activity participation.

  18. Differences Between the Perceived and Actual Age of Overweight Onset in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Rahimi, Amanda M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Roberts, Mary D.; Theim, Kelly R.; Menzie, Carolyn M.; Mirch, Margaret C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Little is known about whether children or their parents can accurately recall the age at which they became overweight. Design, Subjects and Main Outcome Measures We interviewed 64 overweight children (7–18 years old) about their weight history and compared reported age of overweight onset with actual onset, as determined by the age at which the child's measured BMI first exceeded the 95th percentile. Results Only 28% of children reported overweight onset within 1 year of actual overweight onset. Reported overweight onset age (7.6 ± 2.5y) and actual onset age (5.3 ± 2.5y; P < .001) were not significantly correlated (r2 = .03, P = .22). Children who became overweight before 8 years of age tended to report becoming overweight at a later age than actual onset, whereas children who became overweight after 8 years of age tended to report becoming overweight at an earlier age than actual onset (P < .001), with 27% of children either underreporting or overreporting their overweight onset by at least 5 years. Similar results were found when analyzing parent reports of their children's overweight onset. Conclusions Reported and actual overweight onset ages were uncorrelated in our sample, suggesting that families may not be cognizant of children's growth trajectories. Greater efforts should be made to help parents and children understand and track growth patterns with the aim of preventing excessive weight gain. PMID:17406158

  19. Evaluation of critical formulation parameters in design and differentiation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) for oral delivery of aciclovir.

    PubMed

    Janković, Jovana; Djekic, Ljiljana; Dobričić, Vladimir; Primorac, Marija

    2016-01-30

    The study investigated the influence of formulation parameters for design of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) comprising oil (medium chain triglycerides) (10%), surfactant (Labrasol(®), polysorbate 20, or Kolliphor(®) RH40), cosurfactant (Plurol(®) Oleique CC 497) (q.s. ad 100%), and cosolvent (glycerol or macrogol 400) (20% or 30%), and evaluate their potential as carriers for oral delivery of a poorly permeable antivirotic aciclovir (acyclovir). The drug loading capacity of the prepared formulations ranged from 0.18-31.66 mg/ml. Among a total of 60 formulations, three formulations meet the limits for average droplet size (Z-ave) and polydispersity index (PdI) that have been set for SMEDDSs (Z-ave≤100nm, PdI<0.250) upon spontaneous dispersion in 0.1M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 7.2. SMEDDSs with the highest aciclovir loading capacity (24.06 mg/ml and 21.12 mg/ml) provided the in vitro drug release rates of 0.325 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.323 mg cm(-2)min(-1), respectively, and significantly enhanced drug permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), in comparison with the pure drug substance. The results revealed that development of SMEDDSs with enhanced drug loading capacity and oral delivery potential, required optimization of hydrophilic ingredients, in terms of size of hydrophilic moiety of the surfactant, surfactant-to-cosurfactant mass ratio (Km), and log P of the cosolvent. PMID:26611669

  20. Evaluation of critical formulation parameters in design and differentiation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) for oral delivery of aciclovir.

    PubMed

    Janković, Jovana; Djekic, Ljiljana; Dobričić, Vladimir; Primorac, Marija

    2016-01-30

    The study investigated the influence of formulation parameters for design of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) comprising oil (medium chain triglycerides) (10%), surfactant (Labrasol(®), polysorbate 20, or Kolliphor(®) RH40), cosurfactant (Plurol(®) Oleique CC 497) (q.s. ad 100%), and cosolvent (glycerol or macrogol 400) (20% or 30%), and evaluate their potential as carriers for oral delivery of a poorly permeable antivirotic aciclovir (acyclovir). The drug loading capacity of the prepared formulations ranged from 0.18-31.66 mg/ml. Among a total of 60 formulations, three formulations meet the limits for average droplet size (Z-ave) and polydispersity index (PdI) that have been set for SMEDDSs (Z-ave≤100nm, PdI<0.250) upon spontaneous dispersion in 0.1M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 7.2. SMEDDSs with the highest aciclovir loading capacity (24.06 mg/ml and 21.12 mg/ml) provided the in vitro drug release rates of 0.325 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.323 mg cm(-2)min(-1), respectively, and significantly enhanced drug permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), in comparison with the pure drug substance. The results revealed that development of SMEDDSs with enhanced drug loading capacity and oral delivery potential, required optimization of hydrophilic ingredients, in terms of size of hydrophilic moiety of the surfactant, surfactant-to-cosurfactant mass ratio (Km), and log P of the cosolvent.

  1. How to actualize potential: a bioecological approach to talent development.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams-Ceci, Sterling; Williams, Wendy M

    2016-08-01

    Bioecological theory posits three interacting principles to explain developmental outcomes such as fluctuating achievement levels and changing heritability coefficients. Here, we apply the theory to the domain of talent development, by reviewing short-term and long-term cognitive interventions. We argue that macro-level analyses of cultural practices (e.g., matrilineal inheritance and property ownership) and national systems of education are consistent with the bioecological theory; when the findings from these analyses are unpacked, the engines that drive them are so-called proximal processes. This finding has implications for the design and delivery of instruction and the development of talent. We argue that talent is fostered by the same three bioecological mechanisms that explain the actualization of genetic potential. We conclude by discussing several self-descriptions and personal narratives by gifted students in which they spontaneously refer to these bioecological mechanisms in their own talent-development processes. Similar testimonials have been documented by historic talent researchers such as Benjamin Bloom, noting the importance of continual adjustments in feedback.

  2. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy. PMID:21725841

  3. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy.

  4. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  5. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  6. Depression and Self-Actualization in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, David J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between depressive affect and self-actualization in gifted adolescents (N=248). Found that gifted students who were not self-actualizing types were more depressed; and guilt, low self-esteem, learned helplessness, and cognitive difficulty were important symptoms. Gifted adolescents tended to be more socially…

  7. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  8. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  9. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  10. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  11. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of actual cost....

  12. SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRENCH, JOHN R.P.; MILLER, DANIEL R.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED (1) TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS RELATED TO THE UTILIZATION OF TALENT, (2) TO FIT THE THEORY TO EXISTING DATA, AND (3) TO PLAN ONE OR MORE RESEARCH PROJECTS TO TEST THE THEORY. TWO ARTICLES ON IDENTITY AND MOTIVATION AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION AND SELF-IDENTITY THEORY REPORTED THE…

  13. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  14. A Study of Self-Actualization and Facilitative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-actualization measures and ability in facilitative communication of trainees from counseling, social work, and psychology programs to determine if differences existed between the three groups. Self-actualization indexes were significantly correlated with ability in facilitative communication. (RC)

  15. 26 CFR 1.962-3 - Treatment of actual distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of actual distributions. 1.962-3... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.962-3 Treatment of actual... a foreign corporation. (ii) Treatment of section 962 earnings and profits under § 1.959-3....

  16. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  17. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors. PMID:22327537

  18. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors.

  19. Testing data evaluation strategies for estimating precipitation and actual evaporation from precision lysimeter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Frederik; Durner, Wolfgang; Fank, Johann; Pütz, Thomas; Wollschläger, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Weighing lysimeters have long been recognized as valuable tools not only for monitoring of groundwater recharge and solute transport, but also for the determination of the soil water balance and quantification of water exchange processes at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. If well embedded into an equally-vegetated environment, they reach a hitherto unprecedented accuracy in estimating precipitation (P) by rain, dew, fog, rime and snow, as well as actual evapotranspiration (ET). At the same time, they largely avoid errors made by traditional micrometeorological instruments, such as the wind error of Hellman rain samplers or the influence of subsurface heterogeneity on readings from in situ instrumentation of soil water state variables. Beginning in 2008, the Helmholtz Association established a network of terrestrial environmental observatories (TERENO) that aim at long-term monitoring of climate and land-use change consequences. A total of 126 identically designed large weighing lysimeters, operating at a sampling frequency of 1 min-1, were installed for this purpose, which raises the demand for standardized data processing methods. In theory, estimating P and ET from these measurements is straightforward: An increase in the combined mass of the soil monolith and the collected seepage water indicates P, while a decrease indicates ET. However, in practice, lysimeter data are prone to numerous sources of error, including, but not limited to, outliers, systematic errors due to plant growth and removal, data gaps, and stochastic fluctuations. The latter pose a particularly challenging problem - if we would directly calculate P and ET from a time-series that is affected by random noise, every positive fluctuation would be interpreted as P and every negative one as ET. Consequently, we would overestimate both quantities by far. The aim of this study was to evaluate algorithms that focus on eliminating the effect of these fluctuations and to estimate actual fluxes

  20. Safety of patients--actual problem of modern medicine (review).

    PubMed

    Tsintsadze, Neriman; Samnidze, L; Beridze, T; Tsintsadze, M; Tsintsadze, Nino

    2011-09-01

    Safety of patients is actual problem of up-to-date medicine. The current successful treatment of various sicknesses is achieved by implementation in clinical practice such medical preparations (medications), which are characterized with the high therapeutic activity, low toxicity and prolonged effects. In spite of evidence of the pharmacotherapeutical advances, the frequency of complications after medication has grown - that is why the safety of patients is the acute actual problem of medicine and ecological state of human population today. PMID:22156680

  1. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  2. Which spectral distortions does ΛCDM actually predict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Ever refined cosmological measurements have established the ΛCDM concordance model, with the key cosmological parameters being determined to per cent-level precision today. This allows us to make explicit predictions for the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) created by various processes occurring in the early Universe. Here, we summarize all guaranteed CMB distortions and assess their total uncertainty within ΛCDM. We also compare simple methods for approximating them, highlighting some of the subtle aspects when it comes to interpreting future distortion measurements. Under simplified assumptions, we briefly study how well a PIXIE-like experiment may measure the main distortion parameters (i.e. μ and y). Next-generation CMB spectrometers are expected to detect the distortion caused by reionization and structure formation at extremely high significance. They will also be able to constrain the small-scale power spectrum through the associated μ-distortion, improving limits on running of the spectral index. Distortions from the recombination era, adiabatic cooling of matter relative to the CMB and dark matter annihilation require a higher sensitivity than PIXIE in its current design. The crucial next step is an improved modelling of foregrounds and instrumental aspects, as we briefly discuss here.

  3. Forcefield_NCAA: ab initio charge parameters to aid in the discovery and design of therapeutic proteins and peptides with unnatural amino acids and their application to complement inhibitors of the compstatin family.

    PubMed

    Khoury, George A; Smadbeck, James; Tamamis, Phanourios; Vandris, Andrew C; Kieslich, Chris A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-12-19

    We describe the development and testing of ab initio derived, AMBER ff03 compatible charge parameters for a large library of 147 noncanonical amino acids including β- and N-methylated amino acids for use in applications such as protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. The charge parameter derivation was performed using the RESP fitting approach. Studies were performed assessing the suitability of the derived charge parameters in discriminating the activity/inactivity between 63 analogs of the complement inhibitor Compstatin on the basis of previously published experimental IC50 data and a screening procedure involving short simulations and binding free energy calculations. We found that both the approximate binding affinity (K*) and the binding free energy calculated through MM-GBSA are capable of discriminating between active and inactive Compstatin analogs, with MM-GBSA performing significantly better. Key interactions between the most potent Compstatin analog that contains a noncanonical amino acid are presented and compared to the most potent analog containing only natural amino acids and native Compstatin. We make the derived parameters and an associated web interface that is capable of performing modifications on proteins using Forcefield_NCAA and outputting AMBER-ready topology and parameter files freely available for academic use at http://selene.princeton.edu/FFNCAA . The forcefield allows one to incorporate these customized amino acids into design applications with control over size, van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions.

  4. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  5. Randomized Comparison of Actual and Ideal Body Weight for Size Selection of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic in Overweight Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Sang Beom; Kang, Hyo Jong; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-08-01

    Size selection of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Classic based on actual body weight remains a common practice. However, ideal body weight might allow for a better size selection in obese patients. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of ideal body weight and actual body weight when choosing the appropriate size of the LMA Classic by a randomized clinical trial. One hundred patients with age 20 to 70 yr, body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), and the difference between LMA sizes based on actual weight and ideal weight were allocated to insert the LMA Classic using either actual body weight or ideal body weight in a weight-based formula for size selection. After insertion of the device, several variables including insertion parameters, sealing function, fiberoptic imaging, and complications were investigated. The insertion success rate at the first attempt was lower in the actual weight group (82%) than in the ideal weight group (96%), even it did not show significant difference. The ideal weight group had significantly shorter insertion time and easier placement. However, fiberoptic views were significantly better in the actual weight group. Intraoperative complications, sore throat in the recovery room, and dysphonia at postoperative 24 hr occurred significantly less often in the ideal weight group than in the actual weight group. It is suggested that the ideal body weight may be beneficial to the size selection of the LMA Classic in overweight patients (Clinical Trial Registry, NCT 01843270).

  6. An analytical procedure and automated computer code used to design model nozzles which meet MSFC base pressure similarity parameter criteria. [space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulyma, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    Fundamental equations and similarity definition and application are described as well as the computational steps of a computer program developed to design model nozzles for wind tunnel tests conducted to define power-on aerodynamic characteristics of the space shuttle over a range of ascent trajectory conditions. The computer code capabilities, a user's guide for the model nozzle design program, and the output format are examined. A program listing is included.

  7. Relationship of perceived and actual motor competence in children.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Liblik, Raino

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's actual and perceived motor competence. 280 children between the ages of 10 and 13 years individually completed the Children's Physical Self-perception Profile which assesses perceptions of sport competence, physical conditioning, strength, body attractiveness, and general physical self-worth. The internal reliabilities (a) of the subscales ranged from .75 to .82. After completing the profile, the subject's actual motor competence was measured using tests of aerobic fitness and functional strength. Body fatness (sum of five skinfolds) was measured as an objective measure of perceived body attractiveness. Analysis of variance showed that boys and girls differed in perceived competence and actual motor competence. The boys showed higher perceived competence on four scores, but there was no sex difference in perception of body attractiveness. Correlations and regression analysis showed that actual and perceived motor competence were significantly but only moderately (r =.25-.56) correlated. In addition, items of perceived physical competence and age accounted for 17% (sit-ups) to 25% (endurance shuttle run) of the variance in actual motor competence of the children. These findings showed that 10- to 13-yr-old children can only moderately assess personal motor competence. PMID:12186225

  8. Estimating Building Simulation Parameters via Bayesian Structure Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Richard E; New, Joshua Ryan; Parker, Lynne Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Many key building design policies are made using sophisticated computer simulations such as EnergyPlus (E+), the DOE flagship whole-building energy simulation engine. E+ and other sophisticated computer simulations have several major problems. The two main issues are 1) gaps between the simulation model and the actual structure, and 2) limitations of the modeling engine's capabilities. Currently, these problems are addressed by having an engineer manually calibrate simulation parameters to real world data or using algorithmic optimization methods to adjust the building parameters. However, some simulations engines, like E+, are computationally expensive, which makes repeatedly evaluating the simulation engine costly. This work explores addressing this issue by automatically discovering the simulation's internal input and output dependencies from 20 Gigabytes of E+ simulation data, future extensions will use 200 Terabytes of E+ simulation data. The model is validated by inferring building parameters for E+ simulations with ground truth building parameters. Our results indicate that the model accurately represents parameter means with some deviation from the means, but does not support inferring parameter values that exist on the distribution's tail.

  9. Design by simulation of the UT array inspection of a nozzle with a flexible probe: Definition of 3D trajectories and focusing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoye, A.; Casula, O.; Moussebois, D.

    2013-01-01

    The inspection of 3D components such as a nozzle weld requires overcoming the difficulties due to the complex geometry. The use of flexible array has been proven to be an efficient solution allowing to compensate the effect of the varying profile and to ensure the quality of the ultrasonic beam transmitted in the material along the probe scanning. The definition of the trajectory of the probe and the focusing parameters (parameters introduced in the delay law calculations) is allowed by using a flexible probe on this evolving 3D geometry (saddle) compared to a solid wedge probe. In this communication we present a study performed in the case of the inspection of a nozzle weld using a flexible array. This study aims at ensuring an efficient coverage of the region of interest around the weld based on software tools. These tools allow calculation of an efficient trajectory and the focusing parameters. A strategy has been implemented in order to minimize the number of delay laws applied to reach this coverage. The probe performances have been assessed by using the CIVA software to detect notch located in the zone of interest.

  10. Supergranular Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayashankar, Paniveni

    2016-07-01

    I study the complexity of supergranular cells using intensity patterns from Kodaikanal solar observatory. The chaotic and turbulent aspect of the solar supergranulation can be studied by examining the interrelationships amongst the parameters characterizing supergranular cells namely size, horizontal flow field, lifetime and physical dimensions of the cells and the fractal dimension deduced from the size data. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence. The Data consists of visually identified supergranular cells, from which a fractal dimension 'D' for supergranulation is obtained according to the relation P α AD/2 where 'A' is the area and 'P' is the perimeter of the supergranular cells. I find a fractal dimension close to about 1.3 which is consistent with that for isobars and suggests a possible turbulent origin. The cell circularity shows a dependence on the perimeter with a peak around (1.1-1.2) x 105 m. The findings are supportive of Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence.

  11. The optimization of operating parameters on microalgae upscaling process planning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-An; Huang, Hsin-Fu; Yu, Chung-Chyi

    2016-03-01

    The upscaling process planning developed in this study primarily involved optimizing operating parameters, i.e., dilution ratios, during process designs. Minimal variable cost was used as an indicator for selecting the optimal combination of dilution ratios. The upper and lower mean confidence intervals obtained from the actual cultured cell density data were used as the final cell density stability indicator after the operating parameters or dilution ratios were selected. The process planning method and results were demonstrated through three case studies of batch culture simulation. They are (1) final objective cell densities were adjusted, (2) high and low light intensities were used for intermediate-scale cultures, and (3) the number of culture days was expressed as integers for the intermediate-scale culture.

  12. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  13. Meditation and college students' self-actualization and rated stress.

    PubMed

    Janowiak, J J; Hackman, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper concerns the efficacy of meditation and relaxation in promoting self-actualization and changes in self-reported stress among 62 college students. Two groups were given mantra meditation and a yogic relaxation technique referred to as Shavasana. Pre- and posttest measures were taken on the Personal Orientation Inventory and the Behavioral Relaxation Scale. Both groups showed significant increases in scores on self-actualization; however, no differences were found between groups. Meditation training was associated with larger gains in scores on measures of systematic relaxed behavior than of the relaxation training.

  14. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  15. Investigations on the magnetic field coupling of automotive high voltage systems to determine relevant parameters for an EMR-optimized designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David; John, Werner; Weigel, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of electrical drive trains in modern vehicles is a new challenge for EMC development. This contribution depicts a variety of investigations on magnetic field coupling of automotive high-voltage (HV) systems in order to fulfil the requirements of an EMR-optimized designing. The theoretical background is discussed within the scope of current analysis, including the determination of current paths and spectral behaviour. It furthermore presents models of shielded HV cables with particular focus on the magnetic shielding efficiency. Derived findings are validated by experimental measurements of a state-of-the-art demonstrator on system level. Finally EMC design rules are discussed in the context of minimized magnetic fields.

  16. Genetic parameters of piglet survival and birth weight from a two-generation crossbreeding experiment under outdoor conditions designed to disentangle direct and maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Roehe, R; Shrestha, N P; Mekkawy, W; Baxter, E M; Knap, P W; Smurthwaite, K M; Jarvis, S; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2010-04-01

    Multivariate Bayesian linear-threshold models were used to estimate genetic parameters of peri- and postnatal piglet survival and individual birth weight of piglets reared under outdoor conditions. Data of 21,835 individual piglet observations were available from a 2-generation crossbreeding experiment selected for direct and maternal genetic effects of postnatal piglet survival on piglet and dam levels, respectively. In the first generation, approximately one-half of the Landrace sires used were selected for large or average breeding values of maternal genetic effects on postnatal piglet survival, whereas in the second generation the Large White sires used were selected for direct genetic effects of the same trait. Estimates of direct and maternal heritability were 0.21 and 0.15, 0.24 and 0.14, and 0.36 and 0.28 for piglet survival at birth and during the nursing period, and individual birth weight, respectively. In particular, direct heritabilities are substantially larger than those from the literature estimated for indoor-reared piglets, suggesting that genetic effects of these traits are substantially greater under outdoor conditions. Direct or maternal genetic correlations between survival traits or with birth weight were small (ranging from 0.06 to 0.17), indicating that peri- and postnatal survival are genetically under rather different control, and survival was only slightly positively influenced by birth weight. There were significant (P < 0.05) negative genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects within each of the analyzed traits ranging from -0.36 to -0.45, which have to be considered when selecting for piglet survival. Adjustment of traits for litter size or inclusion of genetic groups showed insignificant effects on the magnitude of the estimated genetic parameters. The magnitude of genetic parameters suggested that there is substantial potential for genetic improvement of survival traits and birth weight in direct and maternal

  17. Effect of the crown design and interface lute parameters on the stress-state of a machined crown-tooth system: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Shahrbaf, Shirin; vanNoort, Richard; Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Ghassemieh, Elaheh; Martin, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    The effect of preparation design and the physical properties of the interface lute on the restored machined ceramic crown-tooth complex are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to determine, by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) the effect of the tooth preparation design and the elastic modulus of the cement on the stress state of the cemented machined ceramic crown-tooth complex. The three-dimensional structure of human premolar teeth, restored with adhesively cemented machined ceramic crowns, was digitized with a micro-CT scanner. An accurate, high resolution, digital replica model of a restored tooth was created. Two preparation designs, with different occlusal morphologies, were modeled with cements of 3 different elastic moduli. Interactive medical image processing software (mimics and professional CAD modeling software) was used to create sophisticated digital models that included the supporting structures; periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The generated models were imported into an FEA software program (hypermesh version 10.0, Altair Engineering Inc.) with all degrees of freedom constrained at the outer surface of the supporting cortical bone of the crown-tooth complex. Five different elastic moduli values were given to the adhesive cement interface 1.8GPa, 4GPa, 8GPa, 18.3GPa and 40GPa; the four lower values are representative of currently used cementing lutes and 40GPa is set as an extreme high value. The stress distribution under simulated applied loads was determined. The preparation design demonstrated an effect on the stress state of the restored tooth system. The cement elastic modulus affected the stress state in the cement and dentin structures but not in the crown, the pulp, the periodontal ligament or the cancellous and cortical bone. The results of this study suggest that both the choice of the preparation design and the cement elastic modulus can affect the stress state within the restored crown

  18. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  19. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  20. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  1. Reported vs. Actual Job Search by Unemployment Insurance Claimants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Robert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares self-reported job search contacts of unemployment insurance recipients with independently verified job-search contacts. The separate equations estimated for reported and actual job contacts suggest that systematic misreporting may distort the conclusions. Some implications of the findings for reported unemployment rates also are explored.…

  2. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  3. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (2) For a combustion source submitting annual data: ER04AP95.005 where, “quantity of fuel consumed... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2...

  4. 40 CFR 74.22 - Actual SO2 emissions rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....6 for natural gas For other fuels, the combustion source must specify the SO2 emissions factor. (c... (2) For a combustion source submitting annual data: ER04AP95.005 where, “quantity of fuel consumed... (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.22 Actual SO2...

  5. The Implications of Language for Facilitating Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charleen Katharine

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the implications of language within an educational context as a means of facilitating self-actualization. Three premises identified in a priori fashion were drawn from the literature in linguistics, psychology, and general semantics, creating a three-part language continuum--acquisition, development, and…

  6. Stability Tests with Actual Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    solutions in two laboratory experiments. The first experiment tested four waste solutions for supersaturation of aluminum by monitoring the aluminum concentration after seeding with gibbsite. The second experiment tested two waste samples for precipitation of aluminosilicates by heating the solutions to accelerate solids formation. The results of the experiments with actual waste solutions are supported in this report.

  7. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  8. 24 CFR 242.42 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.42 Certificates of actual cost. (a) The... cost, such certification shall be final and incontestable except for fraud or...

  9. Commitment to Change Statements Can Predict Actual Change in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Jacqueline; Herbert, Carol P.; Maclure, Malcolm; Dormuth, Colin; Wright, James M.; Legare, Jeanne; Brett-MacLean, Pamela; Premi, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Statements of commitment to change are advocated both to promote and to assess continuing education interventions. However, most studies of commitment to change have used self-reported outcomes, and self-reports may significantly overestimate actual performance. As part of an educational randomized controlled trial, this study…

  10. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  11. A dc model for power switching transistors suitable for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P. M.; George, R. T., Jr.; Owen, H. A.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    A model for bipolar junction power switching transistors whose parameters can be readily obtained by the circuit design engineer, and which can be conveniently incorporated into standard computer-based circuit analysis programs is presented. This formulation results from measurements which may be made with standard laboratory equipment. Measurement procedures, as well as a comparison between actual and computed results, are presented.

  12. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High-­Resolution X-­ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Gates, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Roquemore, A L; Morita, S; Goto, M; Yamada, H

    2010-05-19

    A high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, whose instrumental concept was thoroughly tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, is presently being designed for LHD. The instrument will record spatially resolved spectra of helium-like Ar16+ and provide ion temperature profiles with spatial and temporal resolutions of 1 cm and > 10 ms which are obtained by a tomographic inversion of the spectral data, using the stellarator equilibrium reconstruction codes, STELLOPT and PIES. Since the spectrometer will be equipped with radiation hardened, high count rate, PILATUS detectors,, it is expected to be operational for all experimental conditions on LHD, which include plasmas of high density and plasmas with auxiliary RF and neutral beam heating. The special design features required by the magnetic field structure at LHD will be described.

  13. Soil thermal resistivity and thermal stability measuring instrument. Volume 2: Manual for operation and use of the thermal property analyzer and statistical weather analysis program to determine thermal design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. A.; Radhakrishna, H. S.; Chu, F. Y.; Ford, G. L.; Griffin, J. D. A.; Steinmanis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Numerous considerations influence the thermal design of an underground power cable, including the soil thermal resistivity, thermal diffusivity and thermal stability. Each of these properties is a function of soil moisture which is in turn a function of past weather, soil composition, and biological burden. The Neher-McGrath formalism has been widely used for thermal cable design. However, this formalism assumes knowledge of soil thermal properties (resistivity and diffusivity). For design purposes, these parameters should be treated statistically, since weather varies greatly from year to year. As well, soil thermal property surveys are normally required along the route to assess the thermal quality of the native soil. This project is intended to fill the gap between the need to carry out thermal design and the use of the Neher-McGrath formalism which is normally employed. This goal has been addressed through: development of instrumentation and methods of measuring soil thermal properties in situ and in the laboratory; recommendation of methods for conducting soil surveys along a proposed cable route and of assessing the thermal quality of soils; and development of a computerized method to treat soil thermal design parameters on a statistical basis using computerized weather records as supplied by the US Environmental Data Service. The use of the methods and instrumentation developed as a result of this contract should permit less conservative thermal design thereby improving the economics of underground transmission. As well, these techniques and instrumentation facilitate weather-dependent prediction of cable ampacity for installed cables, monitoring of backfill thermal stability, and many other new practices.

  14. 19 CFR 162.79b - Recovery of actual loss of duties, taxes and fees or actual loss of revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... case in which a monetary penalty is not assessed or a written notification of claim of monetary penalty is not issued, the port director will issue a written notice to the person of the liability for the... actual loss of revenue. Whether or not a monetary penalty is assessed under this subpart, the...

  15. Applications of Experimental Design to the Optimization of Microextraction Sample Preparation Parameters for the Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Abdulra'uf, Lukman Bola; Sirhan, Ala Yahya; Tan, Guan Huat

    2015-01-01

    Sample preparation has been identified as the most important step in analytical chemistry and has been tagged as the bottleneck of analytical methodology. The current trend is aimed at developing cost-effective, miniaturized, simplified, and environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. The fundamentals and applications of multivariate statistical techniques for the optimization of microextraction sample preparation and chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues are described in this review. The use of Placket-Burman, Doehlert matrix, and Box-Behnken designs are discussed. As observed in this review, a number of analytical chemists have combined chemometrics and microextraction techniques, which has helped to streamline sample preparation and improve sample throughput. PMID:26525235

  16. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances ('toxicants') by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.). In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the 'waterpipe' antismoking literature since 2002 is based. PMID:21584212

  17. Back Pain During 6 deg Head-Down Tilt Approximates That During Actual Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Karen J.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Murthy, Gita; Convertino, Victor A.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts often experience back pain during spaceflight. It was found that during spaceflight, 14 of 19 Shuttle crewmembers experienced back pain, which they described as dull (62%), localized to the lower back (500/6), and with an intensity of 2 on a 5-point scale. Further, the spine lengthens 4-7 cm in microgravity. Our objective was to compare back pain and spinal lengthening (body height increase) during simulated microgravity (6 deg head-down tilt, HDT) with the some parameters during actual microgravity. Eight male subjects completed a modified McGill pain questionnaire with intensity graded from zero (no pain) to five (intense and incapacitating gain) each day at 7.-OO pm during 2 d pre-HDT control, 16 d HDT, and I d post-HDT recovery periods. Only 2 subjects reported any pain after day 9 of HDT and during recov- ery. Heights increased 2.1 t 0.5 cm by day 3 of HDT and re- mained at that level until the end of the HDT period. Although spinal lengthening in space is greater than that during HDT, the HDT model approximates the level, type, distribution, and time course of back pain associated with actual microgrovity. In the HDT model, pain subsides in intensity when spinal lengthening stops. Therefore, back pain in actual and simulated microgravity may result from stretching of spinal andlor paraspinal tissues until a new spinal length is reached.

  18. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC`s Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ``proof-of-principle`` demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings.

  19. [Biomechanical analysis of different ProDisc-C arthroplasty design parameters after implanted: a numerical sensitivity study based on finite element method].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiaohong; Mo, Zhongjun; Yao, Jie; Li, Qi; Du, Chenfei; Wang, Lizhen; Fan, Yubo

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed to estimate the effect of different ProDisc-C arthroplasty designs after it was implanted to C5-C6 cervicalspine. Finite element (FE) model of intact C5-C6 segments including the vertebrae and disc was developed and validated. Ball-and-socket artificial disc prosthesis model (ProDisc-C, Synthes) was implanted into the validated FE model and the curvature of the ProDisc-C prosthesis was varied. All models were loaded with compressed force 74 N and the pure moment of 1.8 Nm along flexion-extension and bilateral bending and axial torsion separately. The results indicated that the variation in the curvature of ball and socket configuration would influence the range of motion in flexion/extension, while there were not apparently differences under other conditions of loads. The method increasing the curvature will solve the stress concentration of the polyethylene, but it will also bring adverse outcomes, such as facet joint force increasing and ligament tension increasing. Therefore, the design of artificial discs should be considered comprehensively to reserve the range of motion as well as to avoid the adverse problems, so as not to affect the long-term clinical results.

  20. Reliability of COPVs Accounting for Margin of Safety on Design Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the stress rupture reliability of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) is examined utilizing the classic Phoenix model and accounting for the differences between the design and the actual burst pressure, and the liner contribution effects. Stress rupture life primarily depends upon the fiber stress ratio which is defined as the ratio of stress in fibers at the maximum expected operating pressure to actual delivered fiber strength. The actual delivered fiber strength is calculated using the actual burst pressures of vessels established through burst tests. However, during the design phase the actual burst pressure is generally not known and to estimate the reliability of the vessels calculations are usually performed based upon the design burst pressure only. Since the design burst is lower than the actual burst, this process yields a much higher value for the stress ratio and consequently a conservative estimate for the reliability. Other complications arise due to the fact that the actual burst pressure and the liner contributions have inherent variability and therefore must be treated as random variables in order to compute the stress rupture reliability. Furthermore, the model parameters, which have to be established based on stress rupture tests of subscale vessels or coupons, have significant variability as well due to limited available data and hence must be properly accounted for. In this work an assessment of reliability of COPVs including both parameter uncertainties and physical variability inherent in liner and overwrap material behavior is made and estimates are provided in terms of degree of uncertainty in the actual burst pressure and the liner load sharing.