Science.gov

Sample records for actual engine operating

  1. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  2. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  3. Health Behaviors of Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Sonia A.; Missel, Amanda L.; Waltje, Andrea H.; Ronis, David L.; Fowler, Karen E.; Hong, OiSaeng

    2013-01-01

    RESEARCH ABSTRACT Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators in construction) may be at particular risk for heart disease and cancer related to their exposure to environmental dust and smoking, the sedentary nature of their job, and long hours of exposure to the sun. The aim of this study was to characterize the health behaviors of Operating Engineers. This cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of Operating Engineers (N = 498) used validated instruments to measure smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, sleep, and sun exposure. Univariate and bivariate analyses to detect differences by age were conducted. The sample scored significantly worse on all five health behaviors compared to population norms. Those who were older were less likely to smoke and chew tobacco and more likely to eat fruits and vegetables. Many were interested in services to improve their health behaviors. Health behavior interventions are needed and wanted by Operating Engineers. PMID:21688764

  4. Pressurized-fluid-operated engine

    SciTech Connect

    Holleyman, J.E.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a pressurized-fluid-operated reciprocating engine for providing output power by use of a pressurized gas that expands within the engine without combustion. It comprises: an engine block having a plurality of cylinders within which respective pistons are reciprocatable to provide a rotary power output; gas inlet means connected with the engine block for introducing a pressurized gas into the respective cylinders in a predetermined, timed relationship to provide a smooth power output from the engine; gas outlet means connected with the engine block for conveying exhaust gas from the respective cylinders after the gas expanded to move the pistons within the cylinders; and recirculation means extending between the inlet means and the outlet means for recirculation a predetermined quantity of exhaust gas. The recirculation means including ejector means for drawing exhaust gas into the recirculation means.

  5. Engine and method for operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  6. Advanced diesel engineering and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    This state-of-the-art text/reference addresses advanced aspects of the design and operation of diesel engines. It is the only book to provide a comprehensive account of the adiabatic (or ceramic) diesel engine, aircraft and locomotive diesels (including both four-stroke and two-stroke configurations), an up-to-date analysis of torsional vibration shafts. Treats diesel engine vehicle noise, couplings and test instrumentation, and includes an excellent survey of fuel injection systems. All chapters are fully illustrated, most with supporting data. Contains an extensive, current bibliography.

  7. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 [degrees]F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 [degrees]F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  8. Life extension of elevated-temperature reactors considering actual operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Many reactors have experienced operating conditions less severe than those specified in the design. Their actual operating conditions may involve fewer or less severe transients, lower operating temperatures, or a combination of these. Thus the actual operating conditions become important considerations in efforts to extend the life of reactor components. If the number of transients experienced is fewer than the number specified in the design, the actual transients must be reconstructed to determine extended life. When operating temperature is below 800 {degrees}F, fatigue damage becomes the controlling factor in life assessment. At operating temperatures above 800 {degrees}F (e.g., breeder reactors), creep damage becomes another controlling factor because residual stresses have a longer time for relaxation, a fact that will reduce creep damage. This study presents an approach to assessing the life of breeder reactor components when the actual transients are fewer in number than those specified in the design. It also discusses the sensitivity of creep-fatigue damage in such factors when actual operating temperatures and the actual severity of transients fall below the design specifications.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Thermoeconomic Evaluation Criteria for an Actual Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Gülcan; Açıkkalp, Emin; Savaş, Ahmet Fevzi; Yamık, Hasan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an actual heat engine is investigated by using different thermoeconomic evaluation criteria in the literature. A criteria that has not been investigated in detail is considered and it is called as ecologico-economical criteria (F_{EC}). It is the difference of power cost and exergy destruction rate cost of the system. All four criteria are applied to an irreversible Carnot heat engine, results are presented numerically and some suggestions are made.

  10. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  11. 33 CFR 142.4 - Duties of lessees, permittees, and persons responsible for actual operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of lessees, permittees, and persons responsible for actual operations. 142.4 Section 142.4 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES...

  12. Reusable Rocket Engine Operability Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, R. L.; Komar, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology, model, input data, and analysis results of a reusable launch vehicle engine operability study conducted with the goal of supporting design from an operations perspective. Paralleling performance analyses in schedule and method, this requires the use of metrics in a validated operations model useful for design, sensitivity, and trade studies. Operations analysis in this view is one of several design functions. An operations concept was developed given an engine concept and the predicted operations and maintenance processes incorporated into simulation models. Historical operations data at a level of detail suitable to model objectives were collected, analyzed, and formatted for use with the models, the simulations were run, and results collected and presented. The input data used included scheduled and unscheduled timeline and resource information collected into a Space Transportation System (STS) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) historical launch operations database. Results reflect upon the importance not only of reliable hardware but upon operations and corrective maintenance process improvements.

  13. Algorithm Helps Monitor Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerling, Sherry J.; Panossian, Hagop V.; Kemp, Victoria R.; Taniguchi, Mike H.; Nelson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    Real-Time Failure Control (RTFC) algorithm part of automated monitoring-and-shutdown system being developed to ensure safety and prevent major damage to equipment during ground tests of main engine of space shuttle. Includes redundant sensors, controller voting logic circuits, automatic safe-limit logic circuits, and conditional-decision logic circuits, all monitored by human technicians. Basic principles of system also applicable to stationary powerplants and other complex machinery systems.

  14. A Risk Assessment Architecture for Enhanced Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sharp. Lauren M.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    On very rare occasions, in-flight emergencies have occurred that required the pilot to utilize the aircraft's capabilities to the fullest extent possible, sometimes using actuators in ways for which they were not intended. For instance, when flight control has been lost due to damage to the hydraulic systems, pilots have had to use engine thrust to maneuver the plane to the ground and in for a landing. To assist the pilot in these situations, research is being performed to enhance the engine operation by making it more responsive or able to generate more thrust. Enabled by modification of the propulsion control, enhanced engine operation can increase the probability of a safe landing during an inflight emergency. However, enhanced engine operation introduces risk as the nominal control limits, such as those on shaft speed, temperature, and acceleration, are exceeded. Therefore, an on-line tool for quantifying this risk must be developed to ensure that the use of an enhanced control mode does not actually increase the overall danger to the aircraft. This paper describes an architecture for the implementation of this tool. It describes the type of data and algorithms required and the information flow, and how the risk based on engine component lifing and operability for enhanced operation is determined.

  15. Engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matayoshi, Y.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine. The system consists of: a driving cam rotatable in timed relation to engine revolution; a rocker arm having a first end section drivingly connected to an engine valve and a second end section drivably connected to the driving cam; an elongated lever pivoted at a first end section and disposed in fulcrum contact with the rocker arm; an apparatus for biasing the rocker arm and the lever away from each other; and a hydraulic actuator having a movable end section which is in contact with a second end section of the lever and movable to control the pivotal location of the lever in accordance with an engine operating condition.

  16. Operability engineering in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Belinda

    1993-01-01

    Many operability problems exist at the three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC's) of the Deep Space Network (DSN). Four years ago, the position of DSN Operability Engineer was created to provide the opportunity for someone to take a system-level approach to solving these problems. Since that time, a process has been developed for personnel and development engineers and for enforcing user interface standards in software designed for the DSCC's. Plans are for the participation of operations personnel in the product life-cycle to expand in the future.

  17. Extended Operation of Turbojet Engine with Pentaborane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W; Jones, William L

    1957-01-01

    A full-scale turbojet engine was operated with pentaborane fuel continuously for 22 minutes at conditions simulating flight at a Mach number of 0.8 at an altitude of 50,000 feet. This period of operation is approximately three times longer than previously reported operation times. Although the specific fuel consumption was reduced from 1.3 with JP-4 fuel to 0.98 with pentaborane, a 13.2-percent reduction in net thrust was also encountered. A portion of this thrust loss is potentially recoverable with proper design of the engine components. The boron oxide deposition and erosion processes within the engine approached an equilibrium condition after approximately 22 minutes of operation with pentaborane.

  18. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.

  19. Optimization of CCGT power plant and performance analysis using MATLAB/Simulink with actual operational data.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Naimul; Rai, Jitendra Nath; Arora, Bharat Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    In the Modern scenario, the naturally available resources for power generation are being depleted at an alarming rate; firstly due to wastage of power at consumer end, secondly due to inefficiency of various power system components. A Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) integrates two cycles- Brayton cycle (Gas Turbine) and Rankine cycle (Steam Turbine) with the objective of increasing overall plant efficiency. This is accomplished by utilising the exhaust of Gas Turbine through a waste-heat recovery boiler to run a Steam Turbine. The efficiency of a gas turbine which ranges from 28% to 33% can hence be raised to about 60% by recovering some of the low grade thermal energy from the exhaust gas for steam turbine process. This paper is a study for the modelling of CCGT and comparing it with actual operational data. The performance model for CCGT plant was developed in MATLAB/Simulink. PMID:24936394

  20. Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Sonia A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Workers in blue collar occupations have been shown to have higher rates of smokeless tobacco (ST) use compared to other occupational groups. Guided by the Health Promotion Model, the purpose of this study was to understand various factors that predict ST use in Operating Engineers. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to determine variables related to ST use among Operating Engineers. Engineers (N=498) were recruited during their three-day apprentice certification course to participate in the study. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations between personal, psychological and behavioral characteristics associated with ST use. Results Past month ST use was reported among 13% of operating engineers surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age and lower rates of past month cigarette use were significantly associated with ST use, while higher rates of problem drinking were marginally associated with ST use. Conclusions Operating Engineers, are at high risk for using ST products with rates in this sample well over the national average. Work site interventions, which have shown promise in other studies, may be useful in decreasing ST use among this population. PMID:22471777

  1. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.

  2. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  3. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  4. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  5. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  6. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  7. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  8. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  9. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a...

  10. Operations of the ATS-6 ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Whipple, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ion engine experiments on ATS 6 were operated in daylight and eclipse. The effect on particle fluxes to the spacecraft was monitored with the UCSD Auroral Particles Experiment. These data also provide information on the potential of the spacecraft with respect to the ambient plasma and on the local electric fields caused by the charge distribution on the satellite. Daylight operations of the plasma bridge neutralizer and the cesium thruster in fall, 1974, served to hold the spacecraft between -3 and -8 volts with respect to the ambient plasma. Neutralizer operation reduced differential charging effects, while operation of the thruster usually reduced the effects below the detectors sensitivity. Eclipse operations of the neutralizer reduced kilovolt negative potentials to a few volts. Operation of the thruster prevented possible charging of the satellite during substorms, making it possible to study low energy particle spectra which are at times obscured by charging during substorms.

  11. Laser engines operating by resonance absorption.

    PubMed

    Garbuny, M; Pechersky, M J

    1976-05-01

    The coherence properties and power levels of lasers available at present lend themselves to the remote operation of mechanical engines by resonance absorption in a working gas. Laser radiation is capable of producing extremely high temperatures in a gas. Limits to the achievable temperatures in the working gas of an engine are imposed by the solid walls and by loss of resonance absorption due to thermal saturation, bleaching, and dissociation. However, it is shown that by proper control of the laser beam in space, time, and frequency, as well as by choice of the absorbing gas, these limits are to a great extent removed so that very high temperatures are indeed attainable. The working gas is largely monatomic, preferably helium with the addition of a few volume percent of an absorber. Such a gas mixture, internally heated, permits an optimization of the expansion ratio, with resulting thermal efficiencies and work ratios, not achievable in conventional engines. A relationship between thermal efficiency and work ratio is derived that is quite general for the optimization condition. The performance of laser piston engines, turbines, and the Stirling cycle based on these principles is discussed and compared with conventional engine operation. Finally, a brief discussion is devoted to the possibility and concepts for the direct conversion of selective vibrational or electronic excitation into mechanical work, bypassing the translational degrees of freedom. PMID:20165143

  12. Operation of the Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1998-07-27

    The authors have developed a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to enable one to make inferences about models of a physical object from radiographs taken of it. In the BIE calculational models are represented by a data-flow diagram that can be manipulated by the analyst in a graphical-programming environment. The authors demonstrate the operation of the BIE in terms of examples of two-dimensional tomographic reconstruction including uncertainty estimation.

  13. Actual evapotranspiration modeling using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoca, Mark E.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Maupin, Molly A.; Kenny, Joan F.; Perry, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote-sensing technology and surface-energy-balance methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) when used in combination with local weather datasets over irrigated lands. Estimates of ETa may be used to provide a consistent, accurate, and efficient approach for estimating regional water withdrawals for irrigation and associated consumptive use (CU), especially in arid cropland areas that require supplemental water due to insufficient natural supplies from rainfall, soil moisture, or groundwater. ETa in these areas is considered equivalent to CU, and represents the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated and/or transpired, and is not available for immediate reuse. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study demonstrated the application of the remote-sensing-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to estimate 10-year average ETa at 1-kilometer resolution on national and regional scales, and compared those ETa values to the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Use Information Program’s 1995 county estimates of CU. The operational version of the operational SSEB (SSEBop) method is now used to construct monthly, county-level ETa maps of the conterminous United States for the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. The performance of the SSEBop was evaluated using eddy covariance flux tower datasets compiled from 2005 datasets, and the results showed a strong linear relationship in different land cover types across diverse ecosystems in the conterminous United States (correlation coefficient [r] ranging from 0.75 to 0.95). For example, r for woody savannas (0.75), grassland (0.75), forest (0.82), cropland (0.84), shrub land (0.89), and urban (0.95). A comparison of the remote-sensing SSEBop method for estimating ETa and the Hamon temperature method for estimating potential ET (ETp) also was conducted, using regressions of all available county averages of ETa for 2005 and 2010, and yielded correlations of r = 0

  14. Rocket Propellants Engine Design/Operations/Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    2002-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Astronautics Operations (LMA) was competitively awarded a contract May 21, 2001 for next generation launch system architecture definition and technology maturation. The Second Generation Launch Vehicle Program objectives include reducing the technical and programmatic risk of proceeding to full scale development of the system by establishing requirements for the next generation launch system and maturing critical technologies needed by the system. LMA will conduct analyses and trades to optimize the architecture ETO elements including configuration, conceptual designs, and preliminary operations definition. To fully understand the engine and propellant trades were conducted by LMA to yield the optimized architecture system from the operability, reliability, safety, and cost perspectives. A government/industry team addressed the required trade studies, the parameters and weighting factors, and the most critical trades were addressed. This report summarizes the participation of JCM Consulting, Inc. in the propellant trade study.

  15. Proportionate mortality among unionized construction operating engineers.

    PubMed

    Stern, F; Haring-Sweeney, M

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results of proportionate mortality ratios (PMR) and proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMR) among 15,843 members of the International Union of Operating Engineers who had died between 1988-1993. Operating engineers represent one of the 15 unions in the Building and Construction Trades Department and are responsible for the operation and maintenance of heavy earthmoving equipment used in the construction of buildings, bridges, roads, and other facilities. Using U.S. proportionate cancer mortality as the referent, statistically significant elevated mortality was observed for cancers of the lung (PCMR = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.19) and bone (PCMR = 2.14, CI = 1.19-3.52). Using U.S. proportionate mortality as the referent, statistically significant elevated mortality was observed for other benign and unspecified neoplasms (PMR = 1.54, CI = 1.09-2.13), emphysema (PMR = 1.37, CI = 1.20-1.55), other injuries (PMR = 1.43, CI = 1.20-1.70) (which included crushing under/in machinery, tractor rollover, run over by crane), and suicide (PMR = 1.22, CI = 1.06-1.40). The PMR for leukemia, and aleukemia (PMR = 1.19, CI = 1.02-1.37), but not the PCMR (1.07, CI = 0.92-1.24), was also significantly elevated. Some of the occupational exposures that may have contributed to these excesses include diesel exhaust, asphalt and welding fumes, silica dust, ionizing radiation, and coal tar pitch. The present study underscores the need to control airborne exposures to these substances and for injury prevention efforts aimed at operating engineers in the construction industry. PMID:9131212

  16. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Climb: All engines operating. 23.65 Section... Climb: All engines operating. (a) Each normal, utility, and acrobatic category reciprocating engine... than maximum continuous power on each engine; (2) The landing gear retracted; (3) The wing flaps in...

  17. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Climb: All engines operating. 23.65 Section... Climb: All engines operating. (a) Each normal, utility, and acrobatic category reciprocating engine... than maximum continuous power on each engine; (2) The landing gear retracted; (3) The wing flaps in...

  18. 14 CFR 33.7 - Engine ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine ratings and operating limitations. 33.7 Section 33.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES General § 33.7 Engine ratings and operating limitations. (a) Engine ratings and...

  19. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: All engines operating. 23.65 Section... Climb: All engines operating. (a) Each normal, utility, and acrobatic category reciprocating engine... than maximum continuous power on each engine; (2) The landing gear retracted; (3) The wing flaps in...

  20. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engines operating. (a) No person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS...

  1. 14 CFR 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated...

  2. 14 CFR 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated...

  3. 14 CFR 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated...

  4. 14 CFR 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated...

  5. 14 CFR 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated...

  6. Analysis of Actual Operating Conditions of an Off-grid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    Fuel cells have been proposed as ideal replacements for other technologies in remote locations such as Rural Alaska. A number of suppliers have developed systems that might be applicable in these locations, but there are several requirements that must be met before they can be deployed: they must be able to operate on portable fuels, and be able to operate with little operator assistance for long periods of time. This project was intended to demonstrate the operation of a 5 kW fuel cell on propane at a remote site (defined as one without access to grid power, internet, or cell phone, but on the road system). A fuel cell was purchased by the National Park Service for installation in their newly constructed visitor center at Exit Glacier in the Kenai Fjords National Park. The DOE participation in this project as initially scoped was for independent verification of the operation of this demonstration. This project met with mixed success. The fuel cell has operated over 6 seasons at the facility with varying degrees of success, with one very good run of about 1049 hours late in the summer of 2006, but in general the operation has been below expectations. There have been numerous stack failures, the efficiency of electrical generation has been lower than expected, and the field support effort required has been far higher than expected. Based on the results to date, it appears that this technology has not developed to the point where demonstrations in off road sites are justified.

  7. Small Engines Care, Operation, Maintenance and Repair. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard

    Developed by teacher educators and agricultural engineers and tested by vocational agriculture teachers, this reference is for student and teacher use as part of a course on servicing and operating an engine. Content includes: (1) Distinguishing Features of Small Engines, (2) How Small Gasoline Engines Work, (3) Comparing 4-(Stroke)Cycle and…

  8. Selection of the most advantageous gas turbine air filtration system: Comparative study of actual operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gilani, S.I.; Mehr, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses relative merits of three types of air filtration systems used by Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Ltd. (Pakistan), on its gas turbine compressor packages. These Filtration systems are: (i) Two stage inertial plus auto oil bath type multi-duty filters by AAF used on Saturn Mark-1 packages manufactured by Solar Turbines Inc. (ii) Three stage high efficiency barrier filters by AAF used on Centaur packages by Solar. (iii) Single stage pulse-jet self-cleaning filter by Donaldson again used on a Centaur package. The selection is primarily based in package performance data collected over a 15 month period analyzing power loss due to fouling effects and related operation and maintenance costs for the three systems. The Company's operating experience indicates that on new installations the pulse clean system offers the best advantage both in terms of filtration costs as well as availability of additional horse power when operating under moderate to severe environmental conditions.

  9. Operational actual wetland evapotranspiration estimation for the Everglades using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melesse, Assefa; Cereon, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems with varied functions and structures. Humans have drained wetlands and altered the structure and functions of wetlands for various uses. Wetland restoration efforts require assessment of the level of ecohydrological restoration for the intended functions. Among the various indicators of success in wetland restoration, achieving the desired water level (hydrology) is the most important, faster to achieve and easier to monitor than the establishment of the hydric soils and wetland vegetation. Monitoring wetland hydrology using remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) is a useful tool and approach since point measurements for understanding the temporal (before and after restoration) and spatial (impacted and restored) parts of the wetland are not effective for large areas. Evapotranspiration accounts over 80% of the water budget of the wetlands necessitating the need for spatiotemporal monitoring of ET flux. A study employing remotely sensed data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and modeling tools was conducted for a weekly spatial estimation of Everglades ET. Weekly surface temperature data were generated from the MODIS thermal band and evaporative fraction was estimated using the simplified surface energy balance (SSEB) approach. Based on the Simple Method, potential ET (PET) was estimated. Actual weekly wetland ET was computed as the (product of the PET and evaporative fraction). The ET product will be useful information for environmental restoration and wetland hydrology managers. The on-going restoration and monitoring work in the Everglades will benefit from this product and assist in evaluating progress and success in the restoration.

  10. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 3 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 3 compares flight plans developed on the Suitland forecast with actual data observed by the aircraft (and averaged over 10 degree segments). The results show that the average difference between the forecast and observed wind speed is 9 kts. without considering direction, and the average difference in the component of the forecast wind parallel to the direction of the observed wind is 13 kts. - both indicating that the Suitland forecast underestimates the wind speeds. The Root Mean Square (RMS) vector error is 30.1 kts. The average absolute difference in direction between the forecast and observed wind is 26 degrees and the temperature difference is 3 degree Centigrade. These results indicate that the forecast model as well as the verifying analysis used to develop comparison flight plans in Tasks 1 and 2 is a limiting factor and that the average potential fuel savings or penalty are up to 3.6 percent depending on the direction of flight.

  11. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be

  12. Actual operation and regulatory activities on steam generator replacement in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the operating reactors in Japan, and the status of the steam generators in these plants. It reviews plans for replacement of existing steam generators, and then goes into more detail on the planning and regulatory steps which must be addressed in the process of accomplishing this maintenance. The paper also reviews the typical steps involved in the process of removal and replacement of steam generators.

  13. Evaluating thermographic phosphors in an operating turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M. ); Lewis, W.; Turley, W.D. ); Beshears, D.L.; Capps, G.J.; Cates, M.R.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The results of a field test in a commercial turbine engine showed that we can remotely measure the temperature of engine components in operating engines using thermographic phosphors. The remote- measurement method exploits the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors. This paper summarizes recent work leading up to and including a successful test of the thermographic-phosphor method in an operating turbine engine. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Factors that Affect Operational Reliability of Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    The problem of improving operational reliability of turbojet engines is studied in a series of papers. Failure statistics for this engine are presented, the theory and experimental evidence on how engine failures occur are described, and the methods available for avoiding failure in operation are discussed. The individual papers of the series are Objectives, Failure Statistics, Foreign-Object Damage, Compressor Blades, Combustor Assembly, Nozzle Diaphrams, Turbine Buckets, Turbine Disks, Rolling Contact Bearings, Engine Fuel Controls, and Summary Discussion.

  15. Requirements of diesel engine oil as it relates to low temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, R.J.G. )

    1989-01-01

    The performance requirements of heavy duty engine oils designed for equipment operating at ambient temperatures of less than -25{degrees}C are discussed. Experience has shown that the use of properly formulated, partially synthetic SAE 5W20 arctic oils can lead to improved startability and actually increase equipment life and engine durability. A further benefit may be realized through an increase in fuel economy over that of heavier oils. Better performance may be obtained through the use of partially synthetic SAE OW30 arctic oils which are useful over a wider temperature range and allow operation of equipment at ambient temperature consistently below -40{degrees}C. Recommendations by various engine manufacturers and the US military regarding low temperature operation of diesel engines are reviewed.

  16. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.

  17. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  18. Comparative analysis of operational forecasts versus actual weather conditions in airline flight planning, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keitz, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.

  19. Actual Performance Prediction of Split-type Room Air Conditioner which Considered Unsteady Operation Concerning Heat Island Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Tomohiro

    Split type air conditioners are operated actually in the situation unlike the condition that was described in a product catalog. On the other hand, exhaust heat from air conditioner is considered as one of the causes of heat island problem in urban area, and the air conditioner performance and heat load affect exhaust heat amount. In this study, air conditioner performances in both standard summer day and severe hot day were examined by dynamic simulation which considered outdoor weather changes. As a result, actual performances of the air conditioner were demonstrated as a function of outdoor temperature, heat load and indoor temperature. The higher the outdoor temperature and heat load rise, the smaller influences of indoor temperature against COP became. In standard summer day, relative performance exceeded by 15 to 45% than that of JIS operating condition. Also, COP in severe hot day decreased about 6% at the peak time than that of standard day. As a result, the air conditioner exhaust heat during one day which was predicted by the proposed simulation model became about 16% smaller than the conventional prediction model.

  20. Seismographic recording of large rocket engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalins, I.; Mc Carty, V.

    1969-01-01

    Recording equipment for rocket engine vibration is adaptable to determining the structural strength of building materials. This seismographic system is portable and is capable of measuring displacements in the direction of three mutually perpendicular axes.

  1. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40,000) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  2. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  3. Operational maintenance data base development for kinematic Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, A.; Smith, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the initial stages of developing the automotive Stirling engine (ASE), data has been accumulated under the program's Quality Assurance Report (QAR) program to identify problem areas encountered during engine operation. This data has been used as the basis for developing design modifications to existing hardware, identifying diagnostic techniques and instrumentation, and providing guidance towards component and system development requirements for future engine designs, such as the Mod II engine currently in the initial design stage. The QAR has proven itself to be an essential part of the ASE Program, and has successfully guided the development of the automotive application of this emerging engine technology.

  4. Enhanced Engine Control for Emergency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    C-MAPSS40k engine simulation has been developed and is available to the public. The authenticity of the engine performance and controller enabled the development of realistic enhanced control modes through controller modification alone. Use of enhanced control modes improved stability and control of an impaired aircraft. - Fast Response is useful for manual manipulation of the throttles - Use of Fast Response improved stability as part of a yaw rate feedback system. - Use of Overthrust shortened takeoff distance, but was generally useful in flight, too. Initial lack of pilot familiarity resulted in discomfort, especially with yaw rate feedback, but that was the only drawback, overall the pilot found the enhanced modes very helpful.

  5. Lessons Learned from Eight Years' Experience of Actual Operation, and Future Prospects of JMA Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Nishimae, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, experiences of actual operation of EEW have been gained by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). During this period, we have learned lessons from many M6- and M7-class earthquakes, and the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake. During the Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake, JMA system functioned well: it issued a warning message more than 15 s before strong ground shaking in the Tohoku district (relatively near distance from the epicenter). However, it was not perfect: in addition to the problem of large extent of fault rupture, some false warning messages were issued due to the confusion of the system because of simultaneous multiple aftershocks which occurred at the wide rupture area. To address the problems, JMA will introduce two new methods into the operational system this year to start their tests, aiming at practical operation within a couple of years. One is Integrated Particle Filter (IPF) method, which is an integrated algorithm of multiple hypocenter determination techniques with Bayesian estimation, in which amplitude information is also used for hypocenter determination. The other is Propagation of Local Undamped Motion (PLUM) method, in which warning message is issued when strong ground shaking is detected at nearby stations around the target site (e.g., within 30 km). Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not required in PLUM. Aiming at application for several years later, we are investigating a new approach, in which current wavefield is estimated in real time, and then future wavefield is predicted time evolutionally from the current situation using physics of wave propagation. Here, hypocenter and magnitude are not necessarily required, but real-time observation of ground shaking is necessary. JMA also plans to predict long period ground motion (up to 8 s) with the EEW system for earthquake damage mitigation in high-rise buildings. Its test will start using the operational system in the near future.

  6. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  7. Small Engines Care, Operation, Maintenance and Repair. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard

    Developed by teacher educators and agricultural engineers, this teacher and student reference is for use in a course in small engine operation and maintenance. Content includes: (1) Principles of Good Workmanship, (2) Repairing Starters, (3) Maintaining and Repairing Ignition Systems, (4) Repairing Fuel Systems, (5) Repairing Governors, (6)…

  8. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  9. Factors Associated With Smoking Behavior Among Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Pohl, Joanne M.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Redman, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Although disparities in smoking prevalence between white collar workers and blue collar workers have been documented, reasons for these disparities have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to determine variables associated with smoking among Operating Engineers, using the Health Promotion Model as a guide. With cross-sectional data from a convenience sample of 498 Operating Engineers, logistic regression was used to determine personal and health behaviors associated with smoking. Approximately 29% of Operating Engineers currently smoked cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that younger age, unmarried, problem drinking, physical inactivity, and a lower body mass index were associated with smoking. Operating Engineers were at high risk of smoking, and smokers were more likely to engage in other risky health behaviors, which supports bundled health behavior interventions. PMID:23957830

  10. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... route limitations: All engines operating. 121.179 Section 121.179 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...) This section does not apply to airplanes certificated under part 4a of the Civil Air Regulations. (c... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  11. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... route limitations: All engines operating. 121.179 Section 121.179 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...) This section does not apply to airplanes certificated under part 4a of the Civil Air Regulations. (c... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  12. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... route limitations: All engines operating. 121.179 Section 121.179 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...) This section does not apply to airplanes certificated under part 4a of the Civil Air Regulations. (c... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations:...

  13. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  14. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. Avionics system engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, P. A.; Neubaur, R. J.; Welsh, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The shuttle avionics integration laboratory (SAIL) requirements for supporting the Spacelab/orbiter avionics verification process are defined. The principal topics are a Spacelab avionics hardware assessment, test operations center/electronic systems test laboratory (TOC/ESL) data processing requirements definition, SAIL (Building 16) payload accommodations study, and projected funding and test scheduling. Because of the complex nature of the Spacelab/orbiter computer systems, the PCM data link, and the high rate digital data system hardware/software relationships, early avionics interface verification is required. The SAIL is a prime candidate test location to accomplish this early avionics verification.

  15. A simple Quantum heat engine operating between two negative temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Tolasa A.; Bekele, Mulugeta

    We study a heat engine that operates between two reservoirs at negative temperatures. A system of spin-half particles, in the thermodynamic limit, subject to a time dependent external magnetic field, is used as a working substance because of its capability to demonstrate negative absolute temperature. We explored the finite-time quantities: period, power and efficiency. The engine is explored in its maximum power and optimum mode of operation from which its figure of merit is defined as the product of scaled power and scaled efficiency. We found that power-wise the engine provides better performance under its maximum power mode of operation than the optimized mode; however, efficiency-wise, the optimized mode of operation is better than its maximum mode operation. We thank the Internationa Science programme,IPS, Upsala,Sweden for the support to this research?.

  16. Systems engineering considerations for operational support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    Operations support as considered here is the infrastructure of people, procedures, facilities and systems that provide NASA with the capability to conduct space missions. This infrastructure involves most of the Centers but is concentrated principally at the Johnson Space Center, the Kennedy Space Center, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes mission training and planning, launch and recovery, mission control, tracking, communications, data retrieval and data processing.

  17. Analysis of unregulated emissions from an off-road diesel engine during realistic work operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Magnus; Arrhenius, Karine; Larsson, Gunnar; Bäfver, Linda; Arvidsson, Hans; Wetterberg, Christian; Hansson, Per-Anders; Rosell, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Emissions from vehicle diesel engines constitute a considerable share of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants, including many non-regulated compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes. One way to reduce these emissions might be to use fuels with low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesels. Therefore this study compared Swedish Environmental Class 1 diesel (EC1) with the F-T diesel fuel Ecopar™ in terms of emissions under varied conditions (steady state, controlled transients and realistic work operations) in order to identify factors influencing emissions in actual operation. Using F-T diesel reduced emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons, but not alkenes. Emissions were equally dependent on work operation character (load, engine speed, occurrence of transients) for both fuels. There were indications that the emissions originated from unburnt fuel, rather than from combustion products.

  18. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  19. Environmental Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John T., Ed.

    This manual was prepared for the purpose of stimulating the development of effective unit operations and unit processes laboratory courses in environmental engineering. Laboratory activities emphasizing physical operations, biological, and chemical processes are designed for various educational and equipment levels. An introductory section reviews…

  20. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  1. Engineering, construction, and operations in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    The century-old Mond process for carbonyl extraction of metals from ore shows great promise as an efficient low energy scheme for producing high-purity Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Co from lunar or asteroidal feedstocks. Scenarios for winning oxygen from the lunar regolith can be enhanced by carbonyl processing of the metallic alloy by-products of such operations. The native metal content of asteroidal regoliths is even more suitable to carbonyl processing. High-purity, corrosion resistant Fe and Ni can be extracted from asteroidial feedstocks along with a Co-rich residue containing 0.5 percent platinum-group metals. The resulting gaseous metal carbonyl can produce a variety of end products using efficient vapor forming techniques.

  2. Engineering, construction, and operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W. (Editor); Wetzel, John P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The century-old Mond process for carbonyl extraction of metals from ore shows great promise as an efficient low energy scheme for producing high-purity Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Co from lunar or asteroidal feedstocks. Scenarios for winning oxygen from the lunar regolith can be enhanced by carbonyl processing of the metallic alloy by-products of such operations. The native metal content of asteroidal regoliths is even more suitable to carbonyl processing. High-purity, corrosion resistant Fe and Ni can be extracted from asteroidial feedstocks along with a Co-rich residue containing 0.5 percent platinum-group metals. The resulting gaseous metal carbonyl can produce a variety of end products using efficient vapor forming techniques.

  3. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Liechty, Michael P.; Hardy, William L.; Rodman, Anthony; Hergart, Carl-Anders

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  4. Operation of gas turbine engines in volcanic ash clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.G.; Baran, A.J.; Miatech, J.

    1996-10-01

    Results are reported for a technology program designed to determine the behavior of gas turbine engines when operating in particle-laden clouds. There are several ways that such clouds may be created, i.e., explosive volcanic eruption, sand storm, military conflict, etc. The response of several different engines, among them the Pratt and Whitney JT3D turbofan, the Pratt and Whitney J57 turbojet, a Pratt and Whitney engine of the JT9 vintage, and an engine of the General Electric CF6 vintage has been determined. The particular damage mode that will be dominant when an engine experiences a dust cloud depends upon the particular engine (the turbine inlet temperature at which the engine is operating when it encounters the dust cloud), the concentration of foreign material in the cloud, and the constituents of the foreign material (the respective melting temperature of the various constituents). Further, the rate at which engine damage will occur depends upon all of the factors given above, and the damage is cumulative with continued exposure. An important part of the Calspan effort has been to identify environmental warning signs and to determine which of the engine parameters available for monitoring by the flight crew can provide an early indication of impending difficulty. On the basis of current knowledge, if one knows the location of a particle-laden cloud, then that region should be avoided. However, if the cloud location is unknown, which is generally the case, then it is important to know how to recognize when an encounter has occurred and to understand how to operate safely, which is another part of the Calspan effort.

  5. Engine Operation in Flight for Minimum Fuel Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, George

    1939-01-01

    Engine and airplane performance data have been gathered from various sources and analyzed to determine indications of the most economical methods of flight operation from a consideration of fuel expenditure. The analysis includes the influence of such facts as fuel-air ratio, engine speed, engine knock, altitude, cylinder cooling, spark timing, and limits of cruising brake mean effective pressure. The results indicate that the cheapest power is obtained with approximately correct mixture at low engine speed and highest permissible manifold pressure. If more power is desired, the methods of obtaining it are, in order of fuel economy: (a) increasing the engine speed and maintaining safe cylinder temperatures by cooling; (b) retarding the spark or cooling further to permit higher manifold pressure; and, (c) riching the mixture. The analysis further shows that the maximum time endurance of flight occurs at the air speed corresponding to minimum thrust horsepower required and with minimum practicable engine speed. Maximum mileage per pound of fuel is obtained at slightly higher air speed. The fuel-air ratio should be approximately the theoretically correct ratio in both cases. For an engine equipped with a geared supercharger, as in the example presented, and with knock as the limiting condition, a comparison of operation at sea level and at 6,000 feet shoes flight at altitude to be more economical on the basis of both range and endurance.

  6. Integrating International Engineering Organizations For Successful ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blome, Elizabeth; Duggan, Matt; Patten, L.; Pieterek, Hhtrud

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a multinational orbiting space laboratory that is built in cooperation with 16 nations. The design and sustaining engineering expertise is spread worldwide. As the number of Partners with orbiting elements on the ISS grows, the challenge NASA is facing as the ISS integrator is to ensure that engineering expertise and data are accessible in a timely fashion to ensure ongoing operations and mission success. Integrating international engineering teams requires definition and agreement on common processes and responsibilities, joint training and the emergence of a unique engineering team culture. ISS engineers face daunting logistical and political challenges regarding data sharing requirements. To assure systematic information sharing and anomaly resolution of integrated anomalies, the ISS Partners are developing multi-lateral engineering interface procedures. Data sharing and individual responsibility are key aspects of this plan. This paper describes several examples of successful multilateral anomaly resolution. These successes were used to form the framework of the Partner to Partner engineering interface procedures, and this paper describes those currently documented multilateral engineering processes. Furthermore, it addresses the challenges experienced to date, and the forward work expected in establishing a successful working relationship with Partners as their hardware is launched.

  7. Factors Associated With Sleep Quality Among Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Pohl, Joanne M.; Redman, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Blue collar workers generally report high job stress and are exposed to loud noises at work and engage in many of the health behavioral factors, all of which have been associated with poor sleep quality. However, sleep quality of blue collar workers has not been studied extensively, and no studies have focused Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) among whom daytime fatigue would place them at high risk for accidents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine variables associated with sleep quality among Operating Engineers. This was a cross-sectional survey design with a dependent variable of sleep quality and independent variables of personal and related health behavioral factors. A convenience sample of 498 Operating Engineers was recruited from approximately 16,000 Operating Engineers from entire State of Michigan in 2008. Linear regression was used to determine personal and related health behavior factors associated with sleep quality. Multivariate analyses showed that personal factors related to poor sleep quality were younger age, female sex, higher pain, more medical comorbidities and depressive symptoms and behavioral factors related to poor sleep quality were nicotine dependence. While sleep scores were similar to population norms, approximately 34% (n=143) showed interest in health services for sleep problems. While many personal factors are not changeable, interventions to improve sleep hygiene as well as interventions to treat pain, depression and smoking may improve sleep quality resulting in less absenteeism, fatal work accidents, use of sick leave, work disability, medical comorbidities, as well as subsequent mortality. PMID:23393021

  8. An engineering database management system for spacecraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipollone, Gregorio; Mckay, Michael H.; Paris, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Studies at ESOC have demonstrated the feasibility of a flexible and powerful Engineering Database Management System in support for spacecraft operations documentation. The objectives set out were three-fold: first an analysis of the problems encountered by the Operations team in obtaining and managing operations documents; secondly, the definition of a concept for operations documentation and the implementation of prototype to prove the feasibility of the concept; and thirdly, definition of standards and protocols required for the exchange of data between the top-level partners in a satellite project. The EDMS prototype was populated with ERS-l satellite design data and has been used by the operations team at ESOC to gather operational experience. An operational EDMS would be implemented at the satellite prime contractor's site as a common database for all technical information surrounding a project and would be accessible by the cocontractor's and ESA teams.

  9. An automated environment for multiple spacecraft engineering subsystem mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K. A.; Hioe, K.; Lai, J.; Imlay, E.; Schwuttke, U.; Hsu, E.; Mikes, S.

    1990-01-01

    Flight operations at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are now performed by teams of specialists, each team dedicated to a particular spacecraft. Certain members of each team are responsible for monitoring the performances of their respective spacecraft subsystems. Ground operations, which are very complex, are manual, labor-intensive, slow, and tedious, and therefore costly and inefficient. The challenge of the new decade is to operate a large number of spacecraft simultaneously while sharing limited human and computer resources, without compromising overall reliability. The Engineering Analysis Subsystem Environment (EASE) is an architecture that enables fewer controllers to monitor and control spacecraft engineering subsystems. A prototype of EASE has been installed in the JPL Space Flight Operations Facility for on-line testing. This article describes the underlying concept, development, testing, and benefits of the EASE prototype.

  10. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Systems Operation Overview and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benefield, Philip A.; Kan, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a large thrust class, reusable, staged combustion cycle rocket engine employing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. A cluster of three SSMEs is used on every space shuttle mission to propel the space shuttle orbiter vehicle into low earth orbit. Development of the SSME began in the early 70's and the first flight of the space shuttle occurred in 1981. Today, the SSME has accrued over one million seconds of ground test and flight operational time, launching 129 space shuttle missions. The systems operation of the SSME was developed and evolved to support the specific requirements of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). This paper provides a systems operation overview of the SSME, including: engine cycle, propellant flowpaths, and major components; control system; operations during pre-start, start, mainstage, and shutdown phases; launch commit criteria (LCCs) and operational redlines. Furthermore, this paper will discuss how changes to the SSME over its history have impacted systems operations.

  11. Analysis of dry cylinder liner behavior during engine operation

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Kazunori; Murata, Katsuhiro; Suzawa, Takashi; Niitsu, Yasuhiko

    1996-09-01

    Engine manufacturers are continuing to develop new engine designs that provide higher power output, lower fuel consumption and lower engine weight. In order to achieve significant engine weight reduction, the light weight cylinder block structure employs dry cylinder liners rather than wet cylinder liners. The cast iron dry liner structure is utilized because of the superior wear and scuff resistance of the cast iron. Thin wall dry cast iron liners are being employed in both gasoline and diesel engines. Dry cylinder liners with wall thickness of 1.5 mm are in production for Japanese automotive diesel engines. In the case of the dry thin wall cast iron liners, 2 design configurations are employed: loose-fit type having a specified clearance between the outer liner surface and the cylinder bore surface; press-in type having an interference fit between the outer surface of liner and the cylinder bore surface. The physical properties of cast iron must be considered during the design phase if successful production designs are to be provided. In addition the operating stress caused by piston slap, combustion pressure variation and resultant effect on operating stress in the liner must be considered during the design. This paper summarizes the results of a series of studies undertaken to determine the effect of piston slap, combustion pressure and initial stress on resultant behavior of thin wall cylinder liners under engine operating conditions. The resultant data may be utilized to improve the overall design of thin wall dry cylinder liners, especially for loose-fit liners.

  12. 14 CFR 33.7 - Engine ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... turbine wheel inlet gas. (5) Pressure of— (i) Fuel at the fuel inlet; and (ii) Oil at the main oil gallery. (6) Accessory drive torque and overhang moment. (7) Component life. (8) Turbosupercharger turbine wheel r.p.m. (c) For turbine engines, ratings and operating limitations are established relating to...

  13. Computer Programs for Chemical Engineering, Volume VI: Stagewise Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, James H., Ed.

    Presented are some computer programs for undergraduate students. These computer programs were designed for use in standard chemical engineering courses such as kinetics, control, thermodynamics, transport, stagewise operation, and stoichiometry. Each of the 17 computer programs is presented in a separate section. Each section presents problem…

  14. 16. VIEW OF THE STATIONARY OPERATING ENGINEER CONTROL PANEL INSTALLATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE STATIONARY OPERATING ENGINEER CONTROL PANEL INSTALLATION. THE PANEL CONTROLS AIR-HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND AIR PRESSURE WITHIN THE BUILDING. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Combustion Enhancement in Scramjet-Operation of a RBCC Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatake Tomioka, By; Ryohei Kobayashi; Murakami, Atsuo; Shuichi Ueda; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Katsuhiro Itoh, And

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for Booster stage of space launch vehicles. At hypersonic regime, it will be operated at rather high rocket engine output for final acceleration with some Isp gains due to air-breathing effects. In this regime, attaining thrust at this high-speed regime becomes very difficult, so that parallel injection of the fuel for scramjet combustion is favorable as the momentum of the injection can contribute to the thrust production. Thus, embedded rocket chamber was supposed to the operated as fuel rich gas generator at very high output. This configuration was tested at simulated flight Mach number of 7-11 at High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) with detonation tube as the source of the simulated rocket exhaust. However, combustion of the residual fuel in the rocket exhaust with airflow could not be attained. Direct-connect combustor tests were performed to evaluate effectiveness of a combustion enhancement technique termed auxiliary injection, i.e., a portion of fuel to be directly injected into airflow to provide ignition source for the residual fuel. Results of both the engine model tests at HIEST and the direct-connect tests are summarized and presented, and modification to the engine model for combustion enhancement was proposed.

  16. Exploring the operation of a tiny heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Mesfin; Bekele, Mulugeta

    2007-10-01

    We model a tiny heat engine as a Brownian particle that moves in a viscous medium in a sawtooth potential (with or without load) assisted by alternately placed hot and cold heat baths along its path. We find closed form expression for the steady-state current as a function of the model parameters. This enables us to deal with the energetics of the model and evaluate either its efficiency or its coefficient of performance depending upon whether the model functions either as a heat engine or as a refrigerator, respectively. We also study the way current changes with changes in parameters of interest. When we plot the phase diagrams showing the way the model operates, we not only find regions where it functions as a heat engine and as a refrigerator but we also identify a region where the model functions as neither of the two.

  17. Preliminary Performance Data on Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator Operating on J34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, James R.; Blivas, Darnold; Pack, George J.

    1950-01-01

    The behavior of the Westinghouse electronic power regulator operating on a J34-WE-32 turbojet engine was investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy. The object of the program was to determine the, steady-state stability and transient characteristics of the engine under control at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios, without afterburning. Recordings of the response of the following parameters to step changes in power lever position throughout the available operating range of the engine were obtained; ram pressure ratio, compressor-discharge pressure, exhaust-nozzle area, engine speed, turbine-outlet temperature, fuel-valve position, jet thrust, air flow, turbine-discharge pressure, fuel flow, throttle position, and boost-pump pressure. Representative preliminary data showing the actual time response of these variables are presented. These data are presented in the form of reproductions of oscillographic traces.

  18. Solid waste operations complex engineering verification program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-28

    This plan supersedes, but does not replace, the previous Waste Receiving and Processing/Solid Waste Engineering Development Program Plan. In doing this, it does not repeat the basic definitions of the various types or classes of development activities nor provide the rigorous written description of each facility and assign the equipment to development classes. The methodology described in the previous document is still valid and was used to determine the types of verification efforts required. This Engineering Verification Program Plan will be updated on a yearly basis. This EVPP provides programmatic definition of all engineering verification activities for the following SWOC projects: (1) Project W-026 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1; (2) Project W-100 - Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A; (3) Project W-112 - Phase V Storage Facility; and (4) Project W-113 - Solid Waste Retrieval. No engineering verification activities are defined for Project W-112 as no verification work was identified. The Acceptance Test Procedures/Operational Test Procedures will be part of each project`s Title III operation test efforts. The ATPs/OTPs are not covered by this EVPP.

  19. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  20. Turboprop engine and method of operating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a turboprop engine consisting of: 1.) A compressor; 2.) A turbine; 3.) A combustion section; 4.) A variable pitch propeller; 5.) A speed reducing transmission; 6.) An air inlet; 7.) An air inlet bypass; 8.) An air outlet bypass duct; 9.) A flow control operatively positioned to receive air flow from the air inlet bypass and air flow from the low pressure compressor component. To direct the air flow to the air outlet bypass duct, and the air flow to the high pressure compressor component, the flow control has a first position where the air flow is from. The high and low pressure compressor components and is directed to the air outlet bypass duct. The flow control has a second position for the air flow from the air inlet bypass duct to the air outlet bypass duct and air from the low pressure compressor component is directed to the high pressure compressor component. A method of operating a turboprop engine.

  1. The workload book: Assessment of operator workload to engineering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopher, D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure and initial work performed toward the creation of a handbook for workload analysis directed at the operational community of engineers and human factors psychologists are described. The goal, when complete, will be to make accessible to such individuals the results of theoretically-based research that are of practical interest and utility in the analysis and prediction of operator workload in advanced and existing systems. In addition, the results of laboratory study focused on the development of a subjective rating technique for workload that is based on psychophysical scaling techniques are described.

  2. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  3. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  4. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  5. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  6. 46 CFR 113.35-13 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-13 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; operation. If more than one transmitter operates...

  7. Analysis of Performance of Jet Engine from Characteristics of Components II : Interaction of Components as Determined from Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William; Kovach, Karl

    1949-01-01

    In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

  8. A development environment for operational concepts and systems engineering analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2004-03-01

    The work reported in this document involves a development effort to provide combat commanders and systems engineers with a capability to explore and optimize system concepts that include operational concepts as part of the design effort. An infrastructure and analytic framework has been designed and partially developed that meets a gap in systems engineering design for combat related complex systems. The system consists of three major components: The first component consists of a design environment that permits the combat commander to perform 'what-if' types of analyses in which parts of a course of action (COA) can be automated by generic system constructs. The second component consists of suites of optimization tools designed to integrate into the analytical architecture to explore the massive design space of an integrated design and operational space. These optimization tools have been selected for their utility in requirements development and operational concept development. The third component involves the design of a modeling paradigm for the complex system that takes advantage of functional definitions and the coupled state space representations, generic measures of effectiveness and performance, and a number of modeling constructs to maximize the efficiency of computer simulations. The system architecture has been developed to allow for a future extension in which the operational concept development aspects can be performed in a co-evolutionary process to ensure the most robust designs may be gleaned from the design space(s).

  9. Space Operations Analysis Using the Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angster, Scott; Brewer, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment has been under development at the NASA Langley Research Center to aid in the understanding of the operations of spacecraft. This is accomplished through the integration of multiple data sets, analysis tools, spacecraft geometric models, and a visualization environment to create an interactive virtual simulation of the spacecraft. Initially designed to support the needs of the International Space Station, the SEE has broadened the scope to include spacecraft ranging from low-earth orbit to deep space missions. Analysis capabilities within the SEE include rigid body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. This provides the user the ability to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses in areas including flight attitudes and maneuvers, visiting vehicle docking scenarios, robotic operations, plume impingement, field of view obscuration, and alternative assembly configurations. The SEE has been used to aid in the understanding of several operational procedures related to the International Space Station. This paper will address the capabilities of the first build of the SEE, present several use cases of the SEE, and discuss the next build of the SEE.

  10. Installation, Operation, and Operator's Maintenance of Diesel-Engine-Driven Generator Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, contains three study units dealing with the skills needed by individuals responsible for the installation, operation, and maintenance of diesel engine-driven generator sets. The first two units cover…

  11. Modeling of Multi-Tube Pulse Detonation Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Houshang B.; Mohanraj, Rajendran; Merkle, Charles L.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper explores some preliminary issues concerning the operational characteristics of multiple-tube pulsed detonation engines (PDEs). The study is based on a two-dimensional analysis of the first-pulse operation of two detonation tubes exhausting through a common nozzle. Computations are first performed to assess isolated tube behavior followed by results for multi-tube flow phenomena. The computations are based on an eight-species, finite-rate transient flow-field model. The results serve as an important precursor to understanding appropriate propellant fill procedures and shock wave propagation in multi-tube, multi-dimensional simulations. Differences in behavior between single and multi-tube PDE models are discussed, The influence of multi-tube geometry and the preferred times for injecting the fresh propellant mixture during multi-tube PDE operation are studied.

  12. Performance of a RBCC Engine in Rocket-Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Kubo, Takahiro; Noboru Sakuranaka; Tani, Koichiro

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket-based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for space launch vehicles. Either SSTO (Single Stage To Orbit) system or TSTO (Two Stage To Orbit) system with separation at high altitude needs final stage acceleration in space, so that the RBCC (Rocket Based Combined Cycle) engine should be operated as rocket engines. Performance of the scramjet combustor as the extension to the rocket nozzle, was experimentally evaluated by injecting inert gas at various pressure through the embedded rocket chamber while the whole sub-scaled model was placed in a low pressure chamber connected to an air-driven ejector system. The results showed that the thrust coefficient was about 1.2, the low value being found to mainly due to the friction force on the scramjet combustor wall, while blocking the scramjet flow pass’s opening to increase nozzle extension thrust surface, was found to have little effects on the thrust performance. The combustor was shortened to reduce the friction loss, however, degree of reduction was limited as friction decreased rapidly with distance from the onset of the scramjet combustor.

  13. Actual Condition Evaluation of Cogeneration System in an Urbanized Hotel, and Study of the Optimal Operation to Minimize the CO2 Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Masafumi; Kaneko, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru

    Recently, there is an important subject to reduce of the CO2 emission discharged from a building. A cogeneration system (CGS) is one of the effective facilities to reduce of the CO2 emission, but prudent consideration is required in design and operation. Because it is necessary to be matching electric demand and heat demand in order to obtain the high efficiency. In this paper, it is evaluated the power generation efficiency and heat recovery one of CGS in the actual urbanized hotel as measurement result. In addition, the optimal operation analysis is carried out in order to minimize CO2 emission in the present facility.

  14. Simultaneous dual mode combustion engine operating on spark ignition and homogenous charge compression ignition

    DOEpatents

    Fiveland, Scott B.; Wiggers, Timothy E.

    2004-06-22

    An engine particularly suited to single speed operation environments, such as stationary power generators. The engine includes a plurality of combustion cylinders operable under homogenous charge compression ignition, and at least one combustion cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts. The cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts can be convertible to operate under homogenous charge compression ignition. The engine is started using the cylinders operable under spark ignition concepts.

  15. Reverse engineering of a Hamiltonian by designing the evolution operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Wu, Qi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie

    2016-07-01

    We propose an effective and flexible scheme for reverse engineering of a Hamiltonian by designing the evolution operators to eliminate the terms of Hamiltonian which are hard to be realized in practice. Different from transitionless quantum driving (TQD), the present scheme is focus on only one or parts of moving states in a D-dimension (D ≥ 3) system. The numerical simulation shows that the present scheme not only contains the results of TQD, but also has more free parameters, which make this scheme more flexible. An example is given by using this scheme to realize the population transfer for a Rydberg atom. The influences of various decoherence processes are discussed by numerical simulation and the result shows that the scheme is fast and robust against the decoherence and operational imperfection. Therefore, this scheme may be used to construct a Hamiltonian which can be realized in experiments.

  16. Aerodynamic Heat-Power Engine Operating on a Closed Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J.; Keller, D. C.

    1942-01-01

    Hot-air engines with dynamic compressors and turbines offer new prospects of success through utilization of units of high efficiencies and through the employment of modern materials of great strength at high temperature. Particular consideration is given to an aerodynamic prime mover operating on a closed circuit and heated externally. Increase of the pressure level of the circulating air permits a great increase of limit load of the unit. This also affords a possibility of regulation for which the internal efficiency of the unit changes but slightly. The effect of pressure and temperature losses is investigated. A general discussion is given of the experimental installation operating at the Escher Wyss plant in Zurich for a considerable time at high temperatures.

  17. Reverse engineering of a Hamiltonian by designing the evolution operators.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Wu, Qi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie

    2016-01-01

    We propose an effective and flexible scheme for reverse engineering of a Hamiltonian by designing the evolution operators to eliminate the terms of Hamiltonian which are hard to be realized in practice. Different from transitionless quantum driving (TQD), the present scheme is focus on only one or parts of moving states in a D-dimension (D ≥ 3) system. The numerical simulation shows that the present scheme not only contains the results of TQD, but also has more free parameters, which make this scheme more flexible. An example is given by using this scheme to realize the population transfer for a Rydberg atom. The influences of various decoherence processes are discussed by numerical simulation and the result shows that the scheme is fast and robust against the decoherence and operational imperfection. Therefore, this scheme may be used to construct a Hamiltonian which can be realized in experiments. PMID:27444137

  18. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

  19. Reverse engineering of a Hamiltonian by designing the evolution operators

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ye-Hong; Wu, Qi-Cheng; Huang, Bi-Hua; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie

    2016-01-01

    We propose an effective and flexible scheme for reverse engineering of a Hamiltonian by designing the evolution operators to eliminate the terms of Hamiltonian which are hard to be realized in practice. Different from transitionless quantum driving (TQD), the present scheme is focus on only one or parts of moving states in a D-dimension (D ≥ 3) system. The numerical simulation shows that the present scheme not only contains the results of TQD, but also has more free parameters, which make this scheme more flexible. An example is given by using this scheme to realize the population transfer for a Rydberg atom. The influences of various decoherence processes are discussed by numerical simulation and the result shows that the scheme is fast and robust against the decoherence and operational imperfection. Therefore, this scheme may be used to construct a Hamiltonian which can be realized in experiments. PMID:27444137

  20. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-12-31

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

  1. The Software Engineering Laboratory: An operational software experience factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software and software processes within a production software development environment at NASA/GSFC. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) NASA/GSFC, Flight Dynamics Division; (2) University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science; and (3) Computer Sciences Corporation, Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents, all of which describe some aspect of the software engineering technology that was analyzed in the flight dynamics environment at NASA. The studies range from small, controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus that of functional testing) to large, multiple project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The organization's driving goal is to improve the software process continually, so that sustained improvement may be observed in the resulting products. This paper discusses the SEL as a functioning example of an operational software experience factory and summarizes the characteristics of and major lessons learned from 15 years of SEL operations.

  2. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  3. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  4. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  5. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  6. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  7. Life-span knowledge engineering for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Ordinarily, knowledge engineering is thought of as the process of translating the knowledge and problem solving strategies of a human expert into rules and procedures incorporated into a machine based expert system which can, given adequate input, solve the same sorts of problems as the expert. One appeal of these knowledge based systems is their ability to take care of problems without having a human expert present. For work in space, being independent of humans is especially important both for situations where devices will be in remote or dangerous locales and for situations such as space stations where human resources are limited and schedules are tight. In qualification of the above ideas, it is argued herein that the notion of knowledge engineering and the expectations for its application should be extended beyond the period of construction of unit expert systems to the entire knowledge system management associated with one or another real systems, whether it is a piece of hardware or an entire human-machine operation such as a lunar factory.

  8. CONFIG: Integrated engineering of systems and their operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses CONFIG 3, a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operations of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. CONFIG supports integration among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. CONFIG is designed to support integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems.

  9. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  10. Operations engineering: Applying hands-on experience to the development process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcott, Gary; Peters, Wende

    1996-01-01

    The concepts behind operations engineering as applied to the requirements, design, development and testing of data processing systems are presented, together with the associated benefits. The objective of operations engineering is to reduce the overall life cycle costs by integrating operations experience with the development process. To achieve this goal, operations engineering seeks to reduce the development costs by that assuring operational requirements are incorporated into the design and development process as early as possible, and reduce the operational costs by decreasing operations staffing requirements and other related costs through improved system capabilities. The areas for improved system capabilities include: system recovery; data recovery; fault isolation; system operability; system flexibility; system automation; and system reporting. It is described how operations engineering is integrated with the development process, and the difficulties and misconceptions experienced in using operations engineering are discussed.

  11. Managing the equipment service life in rendering engineering support to NPP operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryasnyy, S. I.

    2015-05-01

    Apart from subjecting metal to nondestructive testing and determining its actual state, which are the traditional methods used for managing the service life of NPP equipment during its operation, other approaches closely linked with rendering engineering support to NPP operation have emerged in recent decades, which, however, have been covered in publications to a lesser extent. Service life management matters occupy the central place in the structure of engineering support measures. Application of the concept of repairing NPP equipment based on assessing its technical state and the risk of its failure makes it possible to achieve significantly smaller costs for maintenance and repairs and produce a larger amount of electricity due to shorter planned outages. Decreasing the occurrence probability of a process-related abnormality through its prediction is a further development of techniques for monitoring the technical state of equipment and systems. The proposed and implemented procedure for predicting the occurrence of process-related deviations from normal NPP operation opens the possibility to record in the online mode the trends in changes of process parameters that are likely to lead to malfunctions in equipment operation and to reduce the probability of power unit unloading when an abnormal technical state of equipment occurs and develops by recording changes in the state at an early stage and taking timely corrective measures. The article presents the structure of interconnections between the objectives and conditions of adjustment and commissioning tests, in which the management of equipment service life (saving and optimizing the service life) occupies the central place. Special attention is paid to differences in resource saving and optimization measures.

  12. 14 CFR 33.5 - Instruction manual for installing and operating the engine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not part of the engine type design, the interface conditions and reliability requirements for those... operating the engine. 33.5 Section 33.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... installing and operating the engine. Each applicant must prepare and make available to the...

  13. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. 113.35-7 Section 113.35-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7 Electric engine order telegraph...

  14. Laser engines operating by resonance absorption. [thermodynamic feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Pechersky, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    Basic tutorial article on the thermodynamic feasibility of laser engines at the present state of the art. Three main options are considered: (1) laser power applied externally to a heat reservoir (boiler approach); (2) internal heating of working fluid by resonance absorption; and (3) direct conversion of selective excitation into work. Only (2) is considered practically feasible at present. Basic concepts and variants, efficiency relations, upper temperature limits of laser engines, selection of absorbing gases, engine walls, bleaching, thermodynamic cycles of optimized laser engines, laser-powered turbines, laser heat pumps are discussed. Photon engines and laser dissociation engines are also considered.

  15. Controlling And Operating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Hcci) Engines

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, Daniel L.

    2005-08-02

    A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine system includes an engine that produces exhaust gas. A vaporization means vaporizes fuel for the engine an air induction means provides air for the engine. An exhaust gas recirculation means recirculates the exhaust gas. A blending means blends the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air. An induction means inducts the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine. A control means controls the blending of the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air and for controls the inducting the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine.

  16. Memory alloy heat engine and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Alfred Davis

    1977-01-01

    A heat engine and method of operation employing an alloy having a shape memory effect. A memory alloy element such as one or more wire loops are cyclically moved through a heat source, along a path toward a heat sink, through the heat sink and then along another path in counter-flow heat exchange relationship with the wire in the first path. The portion of the wire along the first path is caused to elongate to its trained length under minimum tension as it is cooled. The portion of the wire along the second path is caused to contract under maximum tension as it is heated. The resultant tension differential between the wires in the two paths is applied as a force through a distance to produce mechanical work. In one embodiment a first set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement between a pair of pulleys which are mounted for conjoint rotation within respective hot and cold reservoirs. Another set of endless memory alloy wires are reeved in non-slip engagement about another pair of pulleys which are mounted in the respective hot and cold reservoirs. The pulleys in the cold reservoir are of a larger diameter than those in the hot reservoir and the opposite reaches of the wires between the two sets of pulleys extend in closely spaced-apart relationship in counter-flow heat regenerator zones. The pulleys are turned to move the two sets of wires in opposite directions. The wires are stretched as they are cooled upon movement through the heat regenerator toward the cold reservoirs, and the wires contract as they are heated upon movement through the regenerator zones toward the hot reservoir. This contraction of wires exerts a larger torque on the greater diameter pulleys for turning the pulleys and supplying mechanical power. Means is provided for applying a variable tension to the wires. Phase change means is provided for controlling the angular phase of the pulleys of each set for purposes of start up procedure as well as for optimizing engine

  17. Engineering Education in Europe: Towards Co-Operation and Interdisciplinarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuori, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the present state of engineering education in Europe and attempts to compare the different educational systems. Gives views on how to develop engineering education in Europe and how to organize collaboration between universities and their centers of excellence. Discusses the role of the European Society for Engineering Education. (CW)

  18. Computer controlled operation of a two-engine xenon ion propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The development and testing of a computer control system for a two-engine xenon ion propulsion module is described. The computer system controls all aspects of the propulsion module operation including: start-up, steady-state operation, throttling and shutdown of the engines; start-up, operation and shutdown of the central neutralizer subsystem; control of the gimbal system for each engine; and operation of the valves in the propellant storage and distribution system. The most important engine control algorithms are described in detail. These control algorithms provide flexibility in the operation and throttling of ion engines which has never before been possible. This flexibility is made possible in large part through the use of flow controllers which maintain the total flow rate of propellant into the engine at the proper level. Data demonstrating the throttle capabilities of the engine and control system are presented. 11 references.

  19. Computer controlled operation of a two-engine xenon ion propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a computer control system for a two-engine xenon ion propulsion module is described. The computer system controls all aspects of the propulsion module operation including: start-up, steady-state operation, throttling and shutdown of the engines; start-up, operation and shutdown of the central neutralizer subsystem; control of the gimbal system for each engine; and operation of the valves in the propellant storage and distribution system. The most important engine control algorithms are described in detail. These control algorithms provide flexibility in the operation and throttling of ion engines which has never before been possible. This flexibility is made possible in large part through the use of flow controllers which maintain the total flow rate of propellant into the engine at the proper level. Data demonstrating the throttle capabilities of the engine and control system are presented.

  20. Control device for controlling the operation of a supercharger in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Horii, K.

    1987-04-28

    An internal combustion engine is described having a crankshaft and a supercharger mechanically driven by and connected to the crankshaft via an electromagentic clutch, a control device for controlling the operation of the supercharger in response to engine operating conditions, comprising, a first sensor means for detecting a temperature of the engine, a second sensor means for detecting racing of the engine, and a control means responsive to outputs from the first and second sensors for causing the electromagnetic clutch to be disengaged.

  1. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  2. Legal science as catalyzer of SETI science, engineering and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocca, A. A.

    Law is the oldest social science; in this condition it has a protagonic role in the development of other sciences, engineering and operations, because it allows them to aim for the desired goal in order and in a frame of legal possibility. The search for extraterrestrial intelligence implies the will of establishing a further relation. Relationships imply law. The role of law is not only participative as in multidisciplinary programs, but also interdisciplinary in the sense of harmonizing the several legal frameworks of the diverse sciences. SETI protocols I and II show, since their first draft, the harmonizing role of law. They are appropriated guidelines for a code of ethics and a code of conduct. The refinement of the concepts must be continued to reach finally the legal principles that shall govern these activities. Principles must be established before the production of facts, because law as a science, does not conceive the lacunae. Moreover, space law has always anticipated the technical facts hierarchizing its scientific condition.

  3. Ethical issues in engineering models: an operations researcher's reflections.

    PubMed

    Kleijnen, J

    2011-09-01

    This article starts with an overview of the author's personal involvement--as an Operations Research consultant--in several engineering case-studies that may raise ethical questions; e.g., case-studies on nuclear waste, water management, sustainable ecology, military tactics, and animal welfare. All these case studies employ computer simulation models. In general, models are meant to solve practical problems, which may have ethical implications for the various stakeholders; namely, the modelers, the clients, and the public at large. The article further presents an overview of codes of ethics in a variety of disciples. It discusses the role of mathematical models, focusing on the validation of these models' assumptions. Documentation of these model assumptions needs special attention. Some ethical norms and values may be quantified through the model's multiple performance measures, which might be optimized. The uncertainty about the validity of the model leads to risk or uncertainty analysis and to a search for robust models. Ethical questions may be pressing in military models, including war games. However, computer games and the related experimental economics may also provide a special tool to study ethical issues. Finally, the article briefly discusses whistleblowing. Its many references to publications and websites enable further study of ethical issues in modeling. PMID:20535643

  4. Continuous Operation Test at Engineering Scale Uranium Crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Tayama, Toshimitsu; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Yano, Kimihiko; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Chikazawa, Takahiro; Nagata, Masanobu; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    Uranium crystallization based on solubility difference is one of the remarkable technologies which can provide simple reprocessing process to separate uranium in nitric acid solution since the process is mainly controlled by temperature and concentration of solute ions. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) are developing the crystallization process for elemental technology of FBR fuel reprocessing. [1-3] The uranium (U) crystallization process is a key technology for New Extraction System for TRU Recovery (NEXT) process that was evaluated as the most promising process for future FBR reprocessing. [4-6] We had developed an innovative crystallizer and carried out several fundamental investigations. On the basis of the results, we fabricated an engineering-scale crystallizer and have carried out continuous operation test to investigate the stability of the equipment at steady and non-steady state conditions by using depleted uranium. As for simulating typical failure events in the crystallizer, crystal accumulation and crystal blockage were induced intentionally, and monitoring method and resuming procedure were evaluated in this work. As the test results, no significant phenomenon was observed in the steady state test. And in the non-steady state test, process fluctuation could be detected by monitoring of screw torque and liquid level in the crystallizer, and all failure events are proven to be recovered by appropriate resumed procedures.

  5. Extending operating range of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine via cylinder deactivation

    DOEpatents

    Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.; Duffy, Kevin P.; Liechty, Michael P.

    2008-05-27

    An HCCI engine has the ability to operate over a large load range by utilizing a lower cetane distillate diesel fuel to increase ignition delay. This permits more stable operation at high loads by avoidance of premature combustion before top dead center. During low load conditions, a portion of the engines cylinders are deactivated so that the remaining cylinders can operate at a pseudo higher load while the overall engine exhibits behavior typical of a relatively low load.

  6. The Effect of Acoustic Disturbances on the Operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Fuel Flowmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Szabo, Roland; Dorney, Dan; Zoladz, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) uses a turbine fuel flowmeter (FFM) in its Low Pressure Fuel Duct (LPFD) to measure liquid hydrogen flowrates during engine operation. The flowmeter is required to provide accurate and robust measurements of flow rates ranging from 10000 to 18000 GPM in an environment contaminated by duct vibration and duct internal acoustic disturbances. Errors exceeding 0.5% can have a significant impact on engine operation and mission completion. The accuracy of each sensor is monitored during hot-fire engine tests on the ground. Flow meters which do not meet requirements are not flown. Among other parameters, the device is screened for a specific behavior in which a small shift in the flow rate reading is registered during a period in which the actual fuel flow as measured by a facility meter does not change. Such behavior has been observed over the years for specific builds of the FFM and must be avoided or limited in magnitude in flight. Various analyses of the recorded data have been made prior to this report in an effort to understand the cause of the phenomenon; however, no conclusive cause for the shift in the instrument behavior has been found. The present report proposes an explanation of the phenomenon based on interactions between acoustic pressure disturbances in the duct and the wakes produced by the FFM flow straightener. Physical insight into the effects of acoustic plane wave disturbances was obtained using a simple analytical model. Based on that model, a series of three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the MSFC PHANTOM turbomachinery code. The code was customized to allow the FFM rotor speed to change at every time step according to the instantaneous fluid forces on the rotor, that, in turn, are affected by acoustic plane pressure waves propagating through the device. The results of the simulations show the variation in the rotation rate of the flowmeter

  7. Operational Plan for SI (Metric) Transition in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents guidelines by which all engineering schools under the American Society for Engineering Education umbrella can work together with the American enterprise, through the American National Metric Council, to achieve transition to the International System of Units in a purposeful, cost-effective, and well-coordinated manner. (JN)

  8. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result... drive system associated with critical combinations of power, rotational speed, and control...

  9. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27... limitations of the rotorcraft and of the engine. (b) The turbine engine air inlet system may not, as a result... drive system associated with critical combinations of power, rotational speed, and control...

  10. Providing normal conditions of lubricating of diesel engine during its operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, A. T.; Gafiyatullin, A. A.; Barylnikova, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the experience of operating an internal combustion engine crankshafts and bearings. The influences on failure depressurization in the lubrication system are evaluated. Means of maintaining pressure in operation are proposed and estimated.

  11. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-14

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations.

  12. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. 113.35-7 Section 113.35-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7...

  13. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations. 113.35-7 Section 113.35-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7...

  14. 49 CFR 240.129 - Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... railroad operates with a signal system that must comply with part 236 of this chapter; (ii) Engineer... performance of those it has determined as qualified as a locomotive engineer in either train or locomotive... each engineer shall be monitored each calendar year by a Designated Supervisor of Locomotive...

  15. 49 CFR 240.129 - Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... railroad operates with a signal system that must comply with part 236 of this chapter; (ii) Engineer... performance of those it has determined as qualified as a locomotive engineer in either train or locomotive... each engineer shall be monitored each calendar year by a Designated Supervisor of Locomotive...

  16. 49 CFR 240.129 - Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certified engineers. 240.129 Section 240.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.129 Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers. (a) Each railroad's program shall include criteria...

  17. 49 CFR 240.129 - Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... certified engineers. 240.129 Section 240.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.129 Criteria for monitoring operational performance of certified engineers. (a) Each railroad's program shall include criteria...

  18. Selection of stirling engine parameter and modes of joint operation with the Topaz II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, E. Ya.; Ogloblin, B. G.; Shalaev, A. I.

    1996-03-01

    In addition to a high-temperature thermionic conversion cycle, application of a low-temperature machine cycle, such as the Stirling engine, is being considered. To select the optimum mode for joint operation of the Topaz II system and Stirling engine, output electric parameters are obtained as a function of thermal power released in the TFE fuel cores. The hydraulic diagram used for joint operation of the Topaz II and the Stirling engine is considered. Requirements to hydraulic characteristics of the Stirling engine heat exchanges are formulated. Scope of necessary modifications to mount the Stirling Engine on the Topaz II is estimated.

  19. Selection of stirling engine parameter and modes of joint operation with the Topaz II

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, E.Y.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Shalaev, A.I.

    1996-03-01

    In addition to a high-temperature thermionic conversion cycle, application of a low-temperature machine cycle, such as the Stirling engine, is being considered. To select the optimum mode for joint operation of the Topaz II system and Stirling engine, output electric parameters are obtained as a function of thermal power released in the TFE fuel cores. The hydraulic diagram used for joint operation of the Topaz II and the Stirling engine is considered. Requirements to hydraulic characteristics of the Stirling engine heat exchanges are formulated. Scope of necessary modifications to mount the Stirling Engine on the Topaz II is estimated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engine; (2) The landing gear retracted; (3) The wing flaps in the takeoff position(s); and (4) A climb...; (3) The wing flaps in the takeoff position(s); and (4) A climb speed as specified in §...

  1. Building and Operating Spacelab: Spacelab Design and Systems Engineering Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Axel; Berge, Klaus; Thirkettle, Alan; Craft, Harry G., Jr.; Benson, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This document is the transcription of the Spacelab Design and Systems Engineering Panel's discussion of the Spacelab program. It includes information on Spacelab's origin and development. The panel includes Klaus Berge, Bob Benson, Allan Thirkettle, and Harry Craft.

  2. Operation and maintenance of Fermilab`s satellite refrigerator expansion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.M.

    1996-09-01

    Fermilab`s superconducting Tevatron accelerator is cooled to liquid helium temperatures by 24 satellite refrigerators, each of which uses for normal operations a reciprocating `wet` expansion engine. These expanders are basically Process System (formerly Koch) Model 1400 expanders installed in standalone cryostats designed by Fermilab. This paper will summarize recent experience with operations and maintenance of these expansion engines. Some of the statistics presented will include total engine hours, mean time between major and minor maintenance, and frequent causes of major maintenance.

  3. Equivalence Ratio-EGR Control of HCCI Engine Operation and the Potential for Transition to Spark-Ignited Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Frias, J; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Smith, J R; Dibble, R

    2001-07-31

    This research investigates a control system for HCCI engines, where equivalence ratio, fraction of EGR and intake pressure are adjusted as needed to obtain satisfactory combustion. HCCI engine operation is analyzed with a detailed chemical kinetics code, HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport), that has been extensively modified for application to engines. HCT is linked to an optimizer that determines the operating conditions that result in maximum brake thermal efficiency, while meeting the peak cylinder pressure restriction. The results show the values of the operating conditions that yield optimum efficiency as a function of torque and rpm. The engine has high NO{sub x} emissions for high power operation, so the possibility of switching to stoichiometric operation for high torque conditions is considered. Stoichiometric operation would allow the use of a three-way catalyst to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to acceptable levels. Finally, the paper discusses the possibility of transitioning from HCCI operation to SI operation to achieve high power output.

  4. Operations of the ATS-6 ion engine and plasma bridge neutralizer at geosynchronous altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The ion engine on ATS-6 has been operated in daylight and eclipse. The effect on particle fluxes to the spacecraft was monitored. This data provides information on the potential of the spacecraft with respect to the ambient plasma and the local electric fields caused by the charge distribution on the spacecraft. Operation of the ion engine and/or the neutralizer clamps the spacecraft within a few volts of the ambient plasma potential. Operation of only the neutralizer tends to reduce the differential charge on the satellite, whereas operation of the ion engine reduces it below the sensitivity limit of the detectors.

  5. A new cascade-less engine operated from subsonic to hypersonic conditions: designed by computational fluid dynamics of compressible turbulence with chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitoh, Ken; Nakamura, Kazushi; Emoto, Takehiro

    2010-12-01

    By using our computational fluid dynamic models, a new type of single engine capable of operating over a wide range of Mach numbers from subsonic to hypersonic regimes is proposed for airplanes, whereas traditional piston engines, turbojet engines, and scram engines work only under a narrower range of operating conditions. The new engine has no compressors or turbines such as those used in conventional turbojet engines. An important point is its system of super multijets that collide to compress gas for the transonic regime. Computational fluid dynamics is applied to clarify the potential of this engine. The peak pressure at the combustion center is over 2.5 MPa, while that just before ignition is over 1.0 MPa. The maximum power of this engine will be sufficient for actual use. Under the conditions of higher Mach numbers, the main intake passage located in front of the super multijet nozzles, takes in air more. That results in a ram or scramjet engine for supersonic and hypersonic conditions.

  6. 14 CFR 33.7 - Engine ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...— (i) Rated maximum continuous power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to operation in each supercharger mode as applicable); and (ii) Rated takeoff power (relating to unsupercharged operation or to... continuous power or thrust (augmented); (ii) Rated maximum continuous power or thrust (unaugmented);...

  7. Observations of directional gamma prime coarsening during engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.; Hull, David R.; Dreshfield, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Two alloys with negative mismatch parameters, NASAIR 100 and a modified NASAIR 100 called Alloy 3 were run as turbine blades in an experimental ground based Garret TFE731 engine for up to 200 hr. The directional coarsening of gamma prime (rafting) that developed during engine testing was analyzed and compared to previous research from laboratory tests. The blades were found to be rafted normal to the centrifugal stress axis over much of the span, but near the surfaces, the blades were found to be rafted parallel to the centrifugal stress axis for certain cycles. Representative photomicrographs of the blades and the effects of stress and temperature on raft formation are shown.

  8. Method and apparatus of parallel computing with simultaneously operating stream prefetching and list prefetching engines

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Peter A.; Christ, Norman H.; Gara, Alan; Mawhinney, Robert D.; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2012-12-11

    A prefetch system improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The parallel computing system includes a plurality of computing nodes. A computing node includes at least one processor and at least one memory device. The prefetch system includes at least one stream prefetch engine and at least one list prefetch engine. The prefetch system operates those engines simultaneously. After the at least one processor issues a command, the prefetch system passes the command to a stream prefetch engine and a list prefetch engine. The prefetch system operates the stream prefetch engine and the list prefetch engine to prefetch data to be needed in subsequent clock cycles in the processor in response to the passed command.

  9. Qualitative and temporal reasoning in engine behavior analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, W. E.; Stamps, M. E.; Ali, M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical simulation models, engine experts, and experimental data are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of abnormal engine behavior. Engine parameters monitored during operation are used to generate qualitative and temporal representations of actual engine behavior. Similarities between the representations of failure scenarios and the actual engine behavior are used to diagnose fault conditions which have already occurred, or are about to occur; to increase the surveillance by the monitoring system of relevant engine parameters; and to predict likely future engine behavior.

  10. 14 CFR 23.65 - Climb: All engines operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... than maximum continuous power on each engine; (2) The landing gear retracted; (3) The wing flaps in the...) The wing flaps in the takeoff position(s); and (4) A climb speed as specified in § 23.65(a)(4)....

  11. Using Advanced Search Operators on Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    Studies show that the majority of Web searchers enter extremely simple queries, so a reasonable system design approach would be to build search engines to compensate for this user characteristic. One hundred representative queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service. These 100 queries were then modified using the…

  12. Actual evapotranspiration (water use) assessment of the Colorado River Basin at the Landsat resolution using the operational simplified surface energy balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Russell L, Scott; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating consumptive water use in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is important for assessing and managing limited water resources in the basin. Increasing water demand from various sectors may threaten long-term sustainability of the water supply in the arid southwestern United States. We have developed a first-ever basin-wide actual evapotranspiration (ETa) map of the CRB at the Landsat scale for water use assessment at the field level. We used the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for estimating ETa using 328 cloud-free Landsat images acquired during 2010. Our results show that cropland had the highest ETa among all land cover classes except for water. Validation using eddy covariance measured ETa showed that the SSEBop model nicely captured the variability in annual ETa with an overall R2 of 0.78 and a mean bias error of about 10%. Comparison with water balance-based ETa showed good agreement (R2 = 0.85) at the sub-basin level. Though there was good correlation (R2 = 0.79) between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based ETa (1 km spatial resolution) and Landsat-based ETa (30 m spatial resolution), the spatial distribution of MODIS-based ETa was not suitable for water use assessment at the field level. In contrast, Landsat-based ETa has good potential to be used at the field level for water management. With further validation using multiple years and sites, our methodology can be applied for regular production of ETa maps of larger areas such as the conterminous United States.

  13. Methodology for the systems engineering process. Volume 3: Operational availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description and explanation of the operational availability parameter is presented. The fundamental mathematical basis for operational availability is developed, and its relationship to a system's overall performance effectiveness is illustrated within the context of identifying specific availability requirements. Thus, in attempting to provide a general methodology for treating both hypothetical and existing availability requirements, the concept of an availability state, in conjunction with the more conventional probability-time capability, is investigated. In this respect, emphasis is focused upon a balanced analytical and pragmatic treatment of operational availability within the system design process. For example, several applications of operational availability to typical aerospace systems are presented, encompassing the techniques of Monte Carlo simulation, system performance availability trade-off studies, analytical modeling of specific scenarios, as well as the determination of launch-on-time probabilities. Finally, an extensive bibliography is provided to indicate further levels of depth and detail of the operational availability parameter.

  14. Preliminary Altitude Operational Characteristics of a J57-P1 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallner, Lewis E.; Saari, Martin J.

    1954-01-01

    The operational characteristics of a J57-P1 turbojet engine have been investigated at altitudes between 15,000 and 66,000 feet in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Included in this study is a discussion of fuel nozzle coking, the altitude operating limits with and without the standard engine control, the compressor surge characteristics, and the engine starting and windmilling characteristics. Severe circumferential turbine outlet temperature gradients which occurred at high altitude as a result of fuel nozzle coking were alleviated by the manufacturer's change in the fuel flow divider schedule and in a nozzle gasket material. Compressor air bleed is required to prevent surge of the outboard compressor in the low engine speed region. The maximum altitude at which the engine was operated without the control was about 66,000 feet at 0.8 flight Mach number and at a reduced engine speed to avoid compressor surge; with the engine control in operation, the altitude operating limit is reduced to approximately 59,000 feet. The maximum altitude at which the engine was started was about 40,000 feet.

  15. Observations of directional gamma prime coarsening during engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, S.; Hull, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    1989-01-01

    Two alloys, NASAIR 100 and a modified NASAIR 100 called Alloy 3, were run as turbine blades in an experimental ground-based Garrett TFE731 engine for up to 200 hours. The stress induced directional coarsening of gamma-prime (rafting) that developed during engine testing was analyzed and compared to previous research from laboratory tests. The blades were found to have formed a lamellar structure, the lamellae being normal to the centrifugal stress axis over much of the span. However, near the surfaces, the blades were found to have formed lamellae parallel to the centrifugal stress axis for certain cycles. Representative photomicrographs of the blades and the effects of stress and temperature on lamellae formation are shown.

  16. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  17. Knowledge engineering tool for training power-substation operators

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert-Torres, G. |; Costa, C.I.A.; Alves da Silva, A.P.; Ribeiro, G.M.; Quintana, V.H.

    1997-04-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques have been applied to create systems that can give answers for different situations and assistance during the substation switching operation. These techniques have also been used for training purposes. This paper presents a computational package for training power substation operators in the control and corrective actions using expert system techniques. Illustrative examples are presented using a 138-kV CEMIG substation.

  18. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, Jimmy W

    2015-05-01

    This procedure exists to define the key milestones, necessary steps, and process rules required to commission and operate an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), with a specific focus toward on-time product delivery to the ARM Data Archive. The overall objective is to have the physical infrastructure, networking and communications, and instrument calibration, grooming, and alignment (CG&A) completed with data products available from the ARM Data Archive by the Operational Start Date milestone.

  19. Operational test and evaluation of the meter engineering development model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damore, R. J.; Mah, C. P.

    1982-11-01

    The Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) of the Meaning Etraction Through Estimated Relevance (METER) System was conducted at Hq Military Airlift Command, Scott AFB, ILL. The Two year effort provided for continuing enhancement of the METER system, as well as tailoring it to interface with the operational message processing system. Analyst training and evaluation of METER's potential utility to the intelligence community were covered.

  20. An Expert-System Engine With Operative Probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, N. E.; Palmer, M. T.; Wallace, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Program enables proof-of-concepts tests of expert systems under development. AESOP is rule-based inference engine for expert system, which makes decisions about particular situation given user-supplied hypotheses, rules, and answers to questions drawn from rules. If knowledge base containing hypotheses and rules governing environment is available to AESOP, almost any situation within that environment resolved by answering questions asked by AESOP. Questions answered with YES, NO, MAYBE, DON'T KNOW, DON'T CARE, or with probability factor ranging from 0 to 10. AESOP written in Franz LISP for interactive execution.

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Management Operations Roadmap Document

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, M.

    1992-04-01

    At the direction of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), the DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) is developing roadmaps for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) activities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). DOE-ID has convened a select group of contractor personnel from EG&G Idaho, Inc. to assist DOE-ID personnel with the roadmapping project. This document is a report on the initial stages of the first phase of the INEL`s roadmapping efforts.

  2. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  3. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  4. Air assist fuel nozzle reduces aircraft gas turbine engine emissions at idle operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L. C.

    1972-01-01

    Reduction in unburned hydrocarbons from jet engine by use of air assist fuel nozzle is discussed. Operation of nozzle for improving combustion efficiency by improving fuel atomization is analyzed. Advantages to be achieved by air assist fuel nozzle are analyzed.

  5. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  6. Applying Web-Based Tools for Research, Engineering, and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Personnel in the NASA Glenn Research Center Network and Architectures branch have performed a variety of research related to space-based sensor webs, network centric operations, security and delay tolerant networking (DTN). Quality documentation and communications, real-time monitoring and information dissemination are critical in order to perform quality research while maintaining low cost and utilizing multiple remote systems. This has been accomplished using a variety of Internet technologies often operating simultaneously. This paper describes important features of various technologies and provides a number of real-world examples of how combining Internet technologies can enable a virtual team to act efficiently as one unit to perform advanced research in operational systems. Finally, real and potential abuses of power and manipulation of information and information access is addressed.

  7. Reactor engineering support of operations at Three Mile Island nuclear station

    SciTech Connect

    Tropasso, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to detail the activities in which plant nuclear engineering personnel provide direct support to plant operations. The specific activities include steady-state, transient, and shutdown/refueling operation support as well as special project involvement. The paper is intended to describe the experiences at Three Mile Island (TMI) in which significant benefit to the success of the activity is achieved through the support of the nuclear engineers.

  8. An Evolvable Multi-Agent Approach to Space Operations Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandutianu, Sanda; Stoica, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    A complex system of spacecraft and ground tracking stations, as well as a constellation of satellites or spacecraft, has to be able to reliably withstand sudden environment changes, resource fluctuations, dynamic resource configuration, limited communication bandwidth, etc., while maintaining the consistency of the system as a whole. It is not known in advance when a change in the environment might occur or when a particular exchange will happen. A higher degree of sophistication for the communication mechanisms between different parts of the system is required. The actual behavior has to be determined while the system is performing and the course of action can be decided at the individual level. Under such circumstances, the solution will highly benefit from increased on-board and on the ground adaptability and autonomy. An evolvable architecture based on intelligent agents that communicate and cooperate with each other can offer advantages in this direction. This paper presents an architecture of an evolvable agent-based system (software and software/hardware hybrids) as well as some plans for further implementation.

  9. Sanitary Engineering Unit Operations and Unit Processes Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Professors in Sanitary Engineering.

    This manual contains a compilation of experiments in Physical Operations, Biological and Chemical Processes for various education and equipment levels. The experiments are designed to be flexible so that they can be adapted to fit the needs of a particular program. The main emphasis is on hands-on student experiences to promote understanding.…

  10. 14 CFR 33.7 - Engine ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., ratings and operating limitations are established relating to the following: (1) Horsepower or torque, r.p.... (6) Accessory drive torque and overhang moment. (7) Component life. (8) Turbosupercharger turbine... following: (1) Horsepower, torque, or thrust, r.p.m., gas temperature, and time for— (i) Rated...

  11. 14 CFR 33.7 - Engine ratings and operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., ratings and operating limitations are established relating to the following: (1) Horsepower or torque, r.p.... (6) Accessory drive torque and overhang moment. (7) Component life. (8) Turbosupercharger turbine... following: (1) Horsepower, torque, or thrust, r.p.m., gas temperature, and time for— (i) Rated...

  12. Automated support for system's engineering and operations - The development of new paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hall, Gardiner A.; Jaworski, Allan; Zoch, David

    1992-01-01

    Technological developments in spacecraft ground operations are reviewed. The technological, operations-oriented, managerial, and economic factors driving the evolution of the Mission Operations Control Center (MOCC), and its predecessor the Operational Control Center are examined. The functional components of the various MOCC subsystems are outlined. A brief overview is given of the concepts behind the The Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Environment, the Generic Spacecraft Analysis Assistant, and the Knowledge From Pictures tool.

  13. An X-Band Mixer Engineered for 77 K Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An X-band Si-diode singly balanced mixer developed specifically for cryogenic operation is presented. In order to reduce thermal demands on a mechanical cooler, the mixer was designed to operate with a minimum of local oscillator (LO) power. That is, since the LO had to be cooled to reduce phase noise, it was desirable to minimize the LO drive. Novel embedding circuit strategy was responsible for nearly theoretical performance. The signal-matching circuit simultaneously provided a reactive termination to the image, sum, and first, second, and third LO harmonic frequencies. A conversion loss of 3.2 dB at 77 K with an LO drive of +1 dBm was measured. This loss included IF filter, dc block, and hybrid coupler losses. Mixer conversion loss is shown to be consistent with the theoretical performance limit expected from the intrinsic diode. The relationship among junction capacitance, flat-band potential, and conversion loss is examined.

  14. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  15. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.; Park, Chan Seung

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  16. Systems engineering studies of on-orbit assembly operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1991-01-01

    While the practice of construction has a long history, the underlying theory of construction is relatively young. Very little has been documented as to techniques of logistic support, construction planning, construction scheduling, construction testing, and inspection. The lack of 'systems approaches' to construction processes is certainly one of the most serious roadblocks to the construction of space structures. System engineering research efforts at CSC are aimed at developing concepts and tools which contribute to a systems theory of space construction. The research is also aimed at providing means for trade-offs of design parameters for other research areas in CSC. Systems engineering activity at CSC has divided space construction into the areas of orbital assembly, lunar base construction, interplanetary transport vehicle construction, and Mars base construction. A brief summary of recent results is given. Several models for 'launch-on-time' were developed. Launch-on-time is a critical concept to the assembly of such Earth-orbiting structures as the Space Station Freedom, and to planetary orbiters such as the Mars transfer vehicle. CSC has developed a launch vehicle selection model which uses linear programming to find optimal combinations of launch vehicles of various sizes (Atlas, Titan, Shuttles, HLLV's) to support SEI missions. Recently, the Center developed a cost trade-off model for studying on orbit assembly logistics. With this model it was determined that the most effective size of the HLLV would be in the range of 120 to 200 metric tons to LEO, which is consistent with the choices of General Stafford's Synthesis Group Report. A second-generation Dynamic Construction Activities Model ('DYCAM') process model has been under development, based on our past results in interruptability and our initial DYCAM model. This second-generation model is built on the paradigm of knowledge-based expert systems. It is aimed at providing answers to two questions: (1

  17. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI) was initiated in early 2001 to conduct technology development and to reduce the business and technical risk associated with developing the next-generation reusable launch system. In the field of main propulsion, two LOXLH2 rocket engine systems, the Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet Joint Venture (JV) COBRA and the Rocketdyne RS-83, were funded to develop a safe, economical, and reusable propulsion system. Given that a large-thrust reusable rocket engine program had not been started in the U.S. since 1971, with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), this provided an opportunity to build on the experience developed on the SSME system, while exploiting advances in technology that had occurred in the intervening 30 years. One facet of engine development that was identified as being especially vital in order to produce an optimal system was in the areas of operability and maintainability. In order to achieve the high levels of performance required by the Space Shuttle, the SSME system is highly complex with very tight tolerances and detailed requirements. Over the lifetime of the SSME program, the engine has required a high level of manpower to support the performance of inspections, maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) and operations (prelaunch and post-flight). As a consequence, the labor- intensive needs of the SSME provide a significant impact to the overall cost efficiency of the Space Transportation System (STS). One of the strategic goals of the SLI is to reduce cost by requiring the engine(s) to be easier (Le. less expensive) to operate and maintain. The most effective means of accomplishing this goal is to infuse the operability and maintainability features into the engine design from the start. This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to a reusable LOx/LH2 main engine, and the means by which their impact is mitigated in the design phase.

  18. Full system engineering design and operation of an oxygen plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, James; Schallhorn, Paul; Ramonhalli, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    The production of oxygen from the indigenous resources on Mars is described. After discussing briefly the project's background and the experimental system design, specific experimental results of the electrolytic cell are presented. At the heart of the oxygen production system is a tubular solid zirconia electrolyte cell that will electrochemically separate oxygen from a high-temperature stream of Coleman grade carbon dioxide. Experimental results are discussed and certain system efficiencies are defined. The parameters varied include (1) the cell operating temperature; (2) the carbon dioxide flow rate; and (3) the voltage applied across the cell. The results confirm our theoretical expectations.

  19. 40 CFR 1043.60 - Operating requirements for engines and vessels subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels operate using only fuels meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 80 for distillate fuel, they... operating requirements and restrictions applicable for engines and vessels subject to 40 CFR part 1042 or the requirements and restrictions applicable for fuels subject to 40 CFR part 80. (f) We may...

  20. 40 CFR 1043.60 - Operating requirements for engines and vessels subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... domestically. Where the vessels operate using only fuels meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 80 for... limits the operating requirements and restrictions applicable for engines and vessels subject to 40 CFR part 1042 or the requirements and restrictions applicable for fuels subject to 40 CFR part 80. (f)...

  1. 40 CFR 1043.60 - Operating requirements for engines and vessels subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels operate using only fuels meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 80 for distillate fuel, they... operating requirements and restrictions applicable for engines and vessels subject to 40 CFR part 1042 or the requirements and restrictions applicable for fuels subject to 40 CFR part 80. (f) We may...

  2. 40 CFR 1043.60 - Operating requirements for engines and vessels subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... domestically. Where the vessels operate using only fuels meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 80 for... limits the operating requirements and restrictions applicable for engines and vessels subject to 40 CFR part 1042 or the requirements and restrictions applicable for fuels subject to 40 CFR part 80. (f)...

  3. 40 CFR 1043.60 - Operating requirements for engines and vessels subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... domestically. Where the vessels operate using only fuels meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 80 for... limits the operating requirements and restrictions applicable for engines and vessels subject to 40 CFR part 1042 or the requirements and restrictions applicable for fuels subject to 40 CFR part 80. (f)...

  4. An Engineering Look at Space Shuttle and ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Jose M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation, in Spanish, is an overview of NASA's Space Shuttle operations and preparations for serving the International Space Station. There is information and or views of the shuttle's design, the propulsion system, the external tanks, the foam insulation, the reusable solid rocket motors, the vehicle assembly building (VAB), the mobile launcher platform being moved from the VAB to the launch pad. There is a presentation of some of the current issues with the space shuttle: cracks in the LH2 flow lines, corrosion and pitting, the thermal protection system, and inspection of the thermal protection system while in orbit. The shuttle system has served for more than 20 years, it is still a challenge to re-certify the vehicles for flight. Materials and material science remain as chief concerns for the shuttle,

  5. Identification of the dynamic operating envelope of HCCI engines using class imbalance learning.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Nguyen, XuanLong; Sterniak, Jeff; Assanis, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a futuristic automotive engine technology that can significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. HCCI engine operation is constrained by combustion instabilities, such as knock, ringing, misfires, high-variability combustion, and so on, and it becomes important to identify the operating envelope defined by these constraints for use in engine diagnostics and controller design. HCCI combustion is dominated by complex nonlinear dynamics, and a first-principle-based dynamic modeling of the operating envelope becomes intractable. In this paper, a machine learning approach is presented to identify the stable operating envelope of HCCI combustion, by learning directly from the experimental data. Stability is defined using thresholds on combustion features obtained from engine in-cylinder pressure measurements. This paper considers instabilities arising from engine misfire and high-variability combustion. A gasoline HCCI engine is used for generating stable and unstable data observations. Owing to an imbalance in class proportions in the data set, the models are developed both based on resampling the data set (by undersampling and oversampling) and based on a cost-sensitive learning method (by overweighting the minority class relative to the majority class observations). Support vector machines (SVMs) and recently developed extreme learning machines (ELM) are utilized for developing dynamic classifiers. The results compared against linear classification methods show that cost-sensitive nonlinear ELM and SVM classification algorithms are well suited for the problem. However, the SVM envelope model requires about 80% more parameters for an accuracy improvement of 3% compared with the ELM envelope model indicating that ELM models may be computationally suitable for the engine application. The proposed modeling approach shows that HCCI engine misfires and high-variability combustion can be predicted ahead of time

  6. The Preparation for and Execution of Engineering Operations for the Mars Curiosity Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover mission is the most complex and scientifically packed rover that has ever been operated on the surface of Mars. The preparation leading up to the surface mission involved various tests, contingency planning and integration of plans between various teams and scientists for determining how operation of the spacecraft (s/c) would be facilitated. In addition, a focused set of initial set of health checks needed to be defined and created in order to ensure successful operation of rover subsystems before embarking on a two year science journey. This paper will define the role and responsibilities of the Engineering Operations team, the process involved in preparing the team for rover surface operations, the predefined engineering activities performed during the early portion of the mission, and the evaluation process used for initial and day to day spacecraft operational assessment.

  7. Pilot Eye Scanning under Actual Single Pilot Instrument Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinoie, Kenichi; Sunada, Yasuto

    Operations under single pilot instrument flight rules for general aviation aircraft is known to be one of the most demanding pilot tasks. Scanning numerous instruments plays a key role for perception and decision-making during flight. Flight experiments have been done by a single engine light airplane to investigate the pilot eye scanning technique for IFR flights. Comparisons between the results by an actual flight and those by a PC-based flight simulator are made. The experimental difficulties of pilot eye scanning measurements during the actual IFR flight are discussed.

  8. Engineering a Multimission Approach to Navigation Ground Data System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerasimatos, Dimitrios V.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mission Design and Navigation (MDNAV) Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supports many deep space and earth orbiting missions from formulation to end of mission operations. The requirements of these missions are met with a multimission approach to MDNAV ground data system (GDS) infrastructure capable of being shared and allocated in a seamless and consistent manner across missions. The MDNAV computing infrastructure consists of compute clusters, network attached storage, mission support area facilities, and desktop hardware. The multimission architecture allows these assets, and even personnel, to be leveraged effectively across the project lifecycle and across multiple missions simultaneously. It provides a more robust and capable infrastructure to each mission than might be possible if each constructed its own. It also enables a consistent interface and environment within which teams can conduct all mission analysis and navigation functions including: trajectory design; ephemeris generation; orbit determination; maneuver design; and entry, descent, and landing analysis. The savings of these efficiencies more than offset the costs of increased complexity and other challenges that had to be addressed: configuration management, scheduling conflicts, and competition for resources. This paper examines the benefits of the multimission MDNAV ground data system infrastructure, focusing on the hardware and software architecture. The result is an efficient, robust, scalable MDNAV ground data system capable of supporting more than a dozen active missions at once.

  9. Engineering Task Plan for Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System Operation

    SciTech Connect

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    1999-11-11

    Tanks that are known or suspected to retain and occasionally release flammable gases are equipped with Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) cabinets. These cabinets contain Whittaker{trademark} electrochemical cells and may also have a gas chromatograph (GC) and/or a Bruel and Kjaer infrared photo-acoustic multi-gas monitor (B&K). The GC and B&K will be referred to collectively as ''analytical instruments'' in this document. Using these instruments, a tank can be monitored for hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide. Air from the tank vent header (for actively ventilated tanks) or dome space (for passively ventilated tanks) is drawn continuously through the monitoring instruments via a sample pump. This monitoring is performed to track the gas release behavior of selected waste storage tanks and to help identify any potentially serious gas release behavior. Vapor grab samples may be obtained from the SHMS as well and analyzed with a mass spectrometer to obtain concentration data about hydrogen and other gases. This document describes the requirements for the operation, maintenance, calibration, and data collection for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. Additionally, this document defines who is responsible for the various tasks.

  10. "I Actually Contributed to Their Research": The Influence of an Abbreviated Summer Apprenticeship Program in Science and Engineering for Diverse High-School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Stephen R.; McConnell, William J.; Flowers, Alonzo M., III

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of a research apprenticeship program that we developed for diverse high-school students often underrepresented in similar programs and in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professions. Through the apprenticeship program, students spent 2 weeks in the summer engaged in biofuels-related research…

  11. Altitude Performance of Modified J71 Afterburner with Revised Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W.; Russey, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in an altitude test chamber at the NACA Lewis laboratory to determine the effect of a revision of the rated engine operating conditions and modifications to the afterburner fue1 system, flameholder, and shell cooling on the augmented performance of the J71-A-2 (x-29) turbo jet engine operating at altitude . The afterburner modifications were made by the manufacturer to improve the endurance at sea-level, high-pressure conditions and to reduce the afterburner shell temperatures. The engine operating conditions of rated rotational speed and turbine-outlet gas temperature were increased. Data were obtained at conditions simulating flight at a Mach number of 0.9 and at altitudes from 40,000 to 60,000 feet. The afterburner modifications caused a reduction in afterburner combustion efficiency. The increase in rated engine speed and turbine-outlet temperature coupled with the afterburner modifications resulted in the over-all thrust of the engine and afterburner being unchanged at a given afterburner equivalence ratio, while the specific fuel consumption was increased slightly. A moderate shift in the range of equivalence ratios over which the afterburner would operate was encountered, but the maximum operable altitude remained unaltered. The afterburner-shell temperatures were also slightly reduced because of the modifications to the afterburner.

  12. Effects of Ignition and Injection Perturbation under Lean and Dilute GDI Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, Thomas; Kaul, Brian C; Sevik, James; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Wagner, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are quickly becoming more prominent in light-duty automotive applications because of their potential improvements in efficiency and fuel economy. While EGR dilute and lean operation serve as potential pathways to further improve efficiencies and emissions in GDI engines, they also pose challenges for stable engine operation. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine that is representative of current automotive-style GDI engines. Baseline cases were performed under steady-state operating conditions where combustion phasing and dilution levels were varied to determine the effects on indicated efficiency and combustion stability. Sensitivity studies were then carried out by introducing binary low-high perturbation of spark timing and injection duration on a cycle-by-cycle basis under EGR dilute and lean operation to determine dominant feedback mechanisms. Ignition perturbation was phased early/late of MBT timing, and injection perturbation was set fuel rich/lean of the given air-to-fuel ratio. COVIMEP was used to define acceptable operation limits when comparing different perturbation cases. Overall sensitivity data shows COVIMEP is more sensitive to injection perturbation over ignition perturbation. This is because of the greater effect injection perturbation has on combustion phasing, ignition delay, and combustion duration.

  13. 30 CFR 206.180 - How do I determine an actual processing allowance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When MMS conducts reviews and audits, we will examine whether the contract reflects more than the...-contract situation are subject to monitoring, review, audit, and adjustment. You must submit the actual... processing plant. (i) Allowable operating expenses include operations supervision and engineering,...

  14. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  15. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    DOEpatents

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2006-10-31

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  16. Free piston stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a basic introduction to free piston Stirling engine technology through a review of specialized background material. It also includes information based on actual construction and operation experience with these machines, as well as theoretical and analytical insights into free piston Stirling engine technology.

  17. Real-time gaseous, PM and ultrafine particle emissions from a modern marine engine operating on biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Agrawal, Harshit; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2011-03-15

    Emissions from harbor-craft significantly affect air quality in populated regions near ports and inland waterways. This research measured regulated and unregulated emissions from an in-use EPA Tier 2 marine propulsion engine on a ferry operating in a bay following standard methods. A special effort was made to monitor continuously both the total Particulate Mass (PM) mass emissions and the real-time Particle Size Distribution (PSD). The engine was operated following the loads in ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle for comparison with the certification standards and across biodiesel blends. Real-time measurements were also made during a typical cruise in the bay. Results showed the in-use nitrogen oxide (NOx) and PM(2.5) emission factors were within the not to exceed standard for Tier 2 marine engines. Comparing across fuels we observed the following: a) no statistically significant change in NO(x) emissions with biodiesel blends (B20, B50); b) ∼ 16% and ∼ 25% reduction of PM(2.5) mass emissions with B20 and B50 respectively; c) a larger organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) ratio and organic mass (OM) to OC ratio with B50 compared to B20 and B0; d) a significant number of ultrafine nuclei and a smaller mass mean diameter with increasing blend-levels of biodiesel. The real-time monitoring of gaseous and particulate emissions during a typical cruise in the San Francisco Bay (in-use cycle) revealed important effects of ocean/bay currents on emissions: NO(x) and CO(2) increased 3-fold; PM(2.5) mass increased 6-fold; and ultrafine particles disappeared due to the effect of bay currents. This finding has implications on the use of certification values instead of actual in-use emission values when developing inventories. Emission factors for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported as supplemental data. PMID:21344849

  18. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  19. Altitude Performance and Operational Characteristics of an XT38-A-2 Turboprop Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Essig, R H; Schulze, F W

    1954-01-01

    The overall engine performance and the starting and windmilling characteristics of an XT38-A-2 turboprop engine have been investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. The simulated flight conditions ranged from altitudes of 5000 to 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.30 and from Mach numbers of 0.301 to 0.557 at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The engine, equipped with a standard-area exhaust nozzle, was operated with independent control of fuel flow and propeller pitch; operation was thereby allowed over a wide range of engine conditions. Windmilling characteristics were obtained at altitudes of 15,000 feet and 35,000 feet. Analysis of the performance maps obtained at each flight condition revealed that both altitude and flight Mach number had a major effect on corrected engine variables. The large reductions in corrected shaft horsepower occurring when the altitude was increased were the result of decreases in compressor and turbine efficiencies. Windmilling engine starts were made at altitudes as high as 35,000 feet at an engine speed of 2000 rpm.

  20. An Operations Concept for Integrated Model-Centric Engineering at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Cooney, Lauren A.; Delp, Christopher L.; Dutenhoffer, Chelsea A.; Gostelow, Roli D.; Ingham, Michel D.; Jenkins, J. Steven; Smith, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    As JPL's missions grow more complex, the need for improved systems engineering processes is becoming clear. Of significant promise in this regard is the move toward a more integrated and model-centric approach to mission conception, design, implementation and operations. The Integrated Model-Centric Engineering (IMCE) Initiative, now underway at JPL, seeks to lay the groundwork for these improvements. This paper will report progress on three fronts: articulating JPL's need for IMCE; characterizing the enterprise into which IMCE capabilities will be deployed; and constructing an operations concept for a flight project development in an integrated model-centric environment.

  1. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than

  2. A quiet operating I.C. engine with complete highly efficient expansion cycle. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-02

    A program for the development of a quiet operating internal combustion engine with complete highly efficient expansion cycle was administered by the Department of Energy on June 14, 1988 through December 13, 1989. An extension, modification M001 to the contract allowed up to June 12, 1991 to complete this work. The extension was granted in order for Engine Research Associates, Inc. (ERA) to continue the development of the engine on its own funds to a level of performance required for an independent testing facility to test and report on the engine`s performance. As it turned out, we were not able to complete all of the detailed development work under ERA, Inc. funding necessary to bring the engine up to a sufficient development status to allow an independent test lab to complete the full-up performance testing on the engine. However, we have incorporated enough refinements to be able to complete a somewhat restricted dynamometer test program on the engine using the ERA acquired dynamometer. A discussion of these refinements and how we were able to conduct a refined test is discussed under program accomplishments.

  3. Experimental investigation and modeling of an aircraft Otto engine operating with gasoline and heavier fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldivar Olague, Jose

    A Continental "O-200" aircraft Otto-cycle engine has been modified to burn diesel fuel. Algebraic models of the different processes of the cycle were developed from basic principles applied to a real engine, and utilized in an algorithm for the simulation of engine performance. The simulation provides a means to investigate the performance of the modified version of the Continental engine for a wide range of operating parameters. The main goals of this study are to increase the range of a particular aircraft by reducing the specific fuel consumption of the engine, and to show that such an engine can burn heavier fuels (such as diesel, kerosene, and jet fuel) instead of gasoline. Such heavier fuels are much less flammable during handling operations making them safer than aviation gasoline and very attractive for use in flight operations from naval vessels. The cycle uses an electric spark to ignite the heavier fuel at low to moderate compression ratios, The stratified charge combustion process is utilized in a pre-chamber where the spray injection of the fuel occurs at a moderate pressure of 1200 psi (8.3 MPa). One advantage of fuel injection into the combustion chamber instead of into the intake port, is that the air-to-fuel ratio can be widely varied---in contrast to the narrower limits of the premixed combustion case used in gasoline engines---in order to obtain very lean combustion. Another benefit is that higher compression ratios can be attained in the modified cycle with heavier fuels. The combination of injection into the chamber for lean combustion, and higher compression ratios allow to limit the peak pressure in the cylinder, and to avoid engine damage. Such high-compression ratios are characteristic of Diesel engines and lead to increase in thermal efficiency without pre-ignition problems. In this experimental investigation, operations with diesel fuel have shown that considerable improvements in the fuel efficiency are possible. The results of

  4. Engineering development of a digital replacement protection system at an operating US PWR nuclear power plant: Installation and operational experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.H.

    1995-04-01

    The existing Reactor Protection Systems (RPSs) at most US PWRs are systems which reflect 25 to 30 year-old designs, components and manufacturing techniques. Technological improvements, especially in relation to modern digital systems, offer improvements in functionality, performance, and reliability, as well as reductions in maintenance and operational burden. The Nuclear power industry and the US nuclear regulators are poised to move forward with the issues that have slowed the transition to modern digital replacements for nuclear power plant safety systems. The electric utility industry is now more than ever being driven by cost versus benefit decisions. Properly designed, engineered, and installed digital systems can provide adequate cost-benefit and allow continued nuclear generated electricity. This paper describes various issues and areas related to an ongoing RPS replacement demonstration project which are pertinant for a typical US nuclear plant to consider cost-effective replacement of an aging analog RPS with a modern digital RPS. The following subject areas relative to the Oconee Nuclear Station ISAT{trademark} Demonstrator project are discussed: Operator Interface Development; Equipment Qualification; Validation and Verification of Software; Factory Testing; Field Changes and Verification Testing; Utility Operational, Engineering and Maintenance; Experiences with Demonstration System; and Ability to operate in parallel with the existing Analog RPS.

  5. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  6. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. Orbiter to spacelab electrical power interface. Avionics system engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of the factors which affect the determination of Spacelab (S/L) minimum interface main dc voltage and available power from the orbiter. The dedicated fuel cell mode of powering the S/L is examined along with the minimum S/L interface voltage and available power using the predicted fuel cell power plant performance curves. The values obtained are slightly lower than current estimates and represent a more marginal operating condition than previously estimated.

  7. `I Actually Contributed to Their Research': The influence of an abbreviated summer apprenticeship program in science and engineering for diverse high-school learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgin, Stephen R.; McConnell, William J.; Flowers, Alonzo M., III

    2015-02-01

    This study describes an investigation of a research apprenticeship program that we developed for diverse high-school students often underrepresented in similar programs and in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professions. Through the apprenticeship program, students spent 2 weeks in the summer engaged in biofuels-related research practices within working university chemistry and engineering laboratories. The experience was supplemented by discussions and activities intended to impact nature of science (NOS) and inquiry understandings and to allow for an exploration of STEM careers and issues of self-identity. Participants completed a NOS questionnaire before and after the experience, were interviewed multiple times, and were observed while working in the laboratories. Findings revealed that as a result of the program, participants (1) demonstrated positive changes in their understandings of certain NOS aspects many of which were informed by their laboratory experiences, (2) had an opportunity to explore and strengthen STEM-related future plans, and (3) examined their self-identities. A majority of participants also described a sense of belonging within the laboratory groups and believed that they were making significant contributions to the ongoing work of those laboratories even though their involvement was necessarily limited due to the short duration of the program. For students who were most influenced by the program, the belonging they felt was likely related to issues of identity and career aspirations.

  8. CITY OF SANTA FE V. KOMIS REVISITED: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ACTUAL IMPACTS OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE SANTA FE BYPASS ON THE VALUE OF NEARBY REAL ESTATE

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Dr. E. J., Jr.,; Bentz, C. B.; O'Hora, T. D.; Baepler, Dr. D.

    2003-02-27

    The Santa Fe Bypass for transport of transuranic waste (TRU) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico has been constructed and is operational (as of 2000). This paper presents a review of actual empirical data from the sales of real estate in the Santa Fe City/County area since the filing of the City of Santa Fe v. Komis lawsuit in 1988. The data analyzed covers the time period from 1989 through the last quarter of 2001.

  9. Ethanol Blends and Engine Operating Strategy Effects on Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Engine Particle Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Spark ignition (SI) engines with direct injection (DI) fueling can improve fuel economy and vehicle power beyond that of port fuel injection (PFI). Despite this distinct advantage, DI fueling often increases particle emissions such that SI exhaust may be subject to future particle emissions regulations. Challenges in controlling particle emissions arise as engines encounter varied fuel composition such as intermediate ethanol blends. Furthermore, modern engines are operated using unconventional breathing strategies with advanced cam-based variable valve actuation systems. In this study, we investigate particle emissions from a multi-cylinder DI engine operated with three different breathing strategies, fueling strategies and fuels. The breathing strategies are conventional throttled operation, early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC); the fueling strategies are single injection DI (sDI), multi-injection DI (mDI), and PFI; and the fuels are emissions certification gasoline, E20 and E85. The results indicate the dominant factor influencing particle number concentration emissions for the sDI and mDI strategies is the fuel injection timing. Overly advanced injection timing results in particle formation due to fuel spray impingement on the piston, and overly retarded injection timing results in particle formation due to poor fuel and air mixing. In addition, fuel type has a significant effect on particle emissions for the DI fueling strategies. Gasoline and E20 fuels generate comparable levels of particle emissions, but E85 produces dramatically lower particle number concentration. The particle emissions for E85 are near the detection limit for the FSN instrument, and particle number emissions are one to two orders of magnitude lower for E85 relative to gasoline and E20. We found PFI fueling produces very low levels of particle emissions under all conditions and is much less sensitive to engine breathing strategy and fuel type than the DI

  10. 75 FR 12121 - Extended Operations (ETOPS) of Multi-Engine Airplanes; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...The Federal Aviation Administration is making a minor amendment to a previously published final rule. That final rule applied to air carrier, commuter, and on-demand turbine powered multi-engine airplanes used in passenger-carrying, and some all-cargo, extended- range operations. This technical amendment corrects an incorrect citation...

  11. Dual Enrollment as an Operating Engineer Apprentice and an Associate Degree Candidate. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union of Operating Engineers, Washington, DC.

    The Operating Engineers Dual Enrollment Program combines trade union apprenticeship with college study. Young persons are "dually-enrolled" by meeting both the requirements for indenture as an apprentice and matriculation as an Associate Degree candidate. Apprentices may receive college credit for apprenticeship-related training classes and for…

  12. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  13. A quiet operating I. C. engine with complete highly efficient expansion cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-02

    A program for the development of a quiet operating internal combustion engine with complete highly efficient expansion cycle was administered by the Department of Energy on June 14, 1988 through December 13, 1989. An extension, modification M001 to the contract allowed up to June 12, 1991 to complete this work. The extension was granted in order for Engine Research Associates, Inc. (ERA) to continue the development of the engine on its own funds to a level of performance required for an independent testing facility to test and report on the engine's performance. As it turned out, we were not able to complete all of the detailed development work under ERA, Inc. funding necessary to bring the engine up to a sufficient development status to allow an independent test lab to complete the full-up performance testing on the engine. However, we have incorporated enough refinements to be able to complete a somewhat restricted dynamometer test program on the engine using the ERA acquired dynamometer. A discussion of these refinements and how we were able to conduct a refined test is discussed under program accomplishments.

  14. An investigation of the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition engine operating with biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, D.; Tesfa, B.; Yuan, X.; Wang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation has been carried out on the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine which runs with biodiesel (B50 and B100) and pure diesel. The signals of acoustic, vibration and in-cylinder pressure were measured during the experiment. To correlate the combustion process and the acoustic characteristics, both phenomena have been investigated. The acoustic analysis resulted in the sound level being increased with increasing of engine loads and speeds as well as the sound characteristics being closely correlated to the combustion process. However, acoustic signals are highly sensitive to the ambient conditions and intrusive background noise. Therefore, the spectral subtraction was employed to minimize the effects of background noise in order to enhance the signal to noise ratio. In addition, the acoustic characteristics of CI engine running with different fuels (biodiesel blends and diesel) was analysed for comparison. The results show that the sound energy level of acoustic signals is slightly higher when the engine fuelled by biodiesel and its blends than that of fuelled by normal diesel. Hence, the acoustic characteristics of the CI engine will have useful information for engine condition monitoring and fuel content estimation.

  15. Torsional system parameter identification of internal combustion engines under normal operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östman, Fredrik; Toivonen, Hannu T.

    2011-05-01

    For internal combustion engines, lumped-mass models of the crankshaft system are frequently used for torque estimation in control and diagnostic applications, such as cylinder balancing and misfire detection. Due to inherent model uncertainties and changing system dynamics it may be necessary to adapt the model parameters from time to time in order to preserve the required model accuracy. In this paper a frequency-domain method for on-line identification of the parameters describing the torsional dynamics of internal combustion engines is presented. In the proposed method, the engine is excited by adjusting the cylinder-wise injected fuel amounts, and the measured responses in torsional vibration frequency components are used for parameter estimation. As the fuel-injection adjustments can be determined in such a way that the net indicated torque is unaffected, the identification can be performed on-line without disturbing normal engine operation. The procedure can be applied to estimate the torsional stiffness and damping parameters of the flexible coupling connecting the engine and the load. In addition, the gains which describe how the cylinder-wise fuel injections affect the amplitudes of relevant torsional vibratory frequency components are obtained. The parameter identification method is successfully evaluated in full-scale engine tests on a 6.6 MW six-cylinder medium-speed common-rail diesel engine.

  16. Engine-Operating Load Influences Diesel Exhaust Composition and Cardiopulmonary and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Campen, Matthew J.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Seilkop, Steven K.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The composition of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) varies by engine type and condition, fuel, engine operation, and exhaust after treatment such as particle traps. DEE has been shown to increase inflammation, susceptibility to infection, and cardiovascular responses in experimentally exposed rodents and humans. Engines used in these studies have been operated at idle, at different steady-state loads, or on variable-load cycles, but exposures are often reported only as the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM), and the effects of different engine loads and the resulting differences in DEE composition are unknown. Objectives: We assessed the impacts of load-related differences in DEE composition on models of inflammation, susceptibility to infection, and cardiovascular toxicity. Methods: We assessed inflammation and susceptibility to viral infection in C57BL/6 mice and cardiovascular toxicity in APOE–/– mice after being exposed to DEE generated from a single-cylinder diesel generator operated at partial or full load. Results: At the same PM mass concentration, partial load resulted in higher proportions of particle organic carbon content and a smaller particle size than did high load. Vapor-phase hydrocarbon content was greater at partial load. Compared with high-load DEE, partial-load DEE caused greater responses in heart rate and T-wave morphology, in terms of both magnitude and rapidity of onset of effects, consistent with previous findings that systemic effects may be driven largely by the gas phase of the exposure atmospheres. However, high-load DEE caused more lung inflammation and greater susceptibility to viral infection than did partial load. Conclusions: Differences in engine load, as well as other operating variables, are important determinants of the type and magnitude of responses to inhaled DEE. PM mass concentration alone is not a sufficient basis for comparing or combining results from studies using DEE generated under different

  17. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, Julie; Leclère, Quentin; Parizet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Sound source separation in diesel engines can be implemented using a Wiener filter, or spectrofilter, that can extract the combustion contribution in the overall noise. In this study this filter characterizes the transfer function between a cylinder pressure and a measurement point. An engine is characterized by several filters (one for each cylinder) which are estimated for many operating conditions (engine speed and load). The purpose of this work is to obtain an averaged spectrofilter allowing the synthesis of combustion noise in all operating conditions. This synthesis should be accurate enough to be used in perceptive studies. In order to refine the spectrofilter estimation in the medium frequency band, this paper consists in taking advantage of the multitude of information given by the estimations from different operating conditions. To do this, an experimental model is adopted so modal parameters are extracted from a great number of measured filters. Different procedures such as the ESPRIT method or the LSCE method (modal analysis) are used to decompose the impulse responses on a complex exponential basis. The spectrofilters estimated from different operating conditions are analyzed and compared in this reduced basis, in order to identify the underlying structural parameters. These parameters are compared to the results of an experimental characterization of the stopped engine. The accuracy of the synthesis (number of components of the filter) is an important issue because these filters will be used in perceptive applications, extracting combustion noises. This paper is an extended version of the work initially presented at the conference Surveillance 6 in November 2011 in Compiègne, France [1] (J. Drouet, Quentin Leclere, Etienne Parizet. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine, in: Proceedings of the Surveillance, vol. 6, Compi'egne, France, 2011.).

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  19. Studies of Operating Frequency Effects On Ejector-based Thrust Augmentation in a Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were performed in order to characterize the thrust augmentation potential of an ejector in a Pulse Detonation Engine application. A 49-mm diameter tube of 0.914-m length was constructed with one open end and one closed end. Ethylene, oxygen, and nitrogen were introduced into the tube at the closed end through the implementation of a fast mixing injector. The tube was completely filled with a stoichiometric mixture containing a one to one molar ratio of nitrogen to oxygen. Ethylene was selected as the fuel due to its detonation sensitivity and the molar ratio of the oxidizer was chosen for heat transfer purposes. Detonations were initiated in the tube through the use of a spark ignition system. The PDE was operated in a multi-cycle mode at frequencies ranging from 20-Hz to 50-Hz. Baseline thrust measurements with no ejector present were performed while operating the engine at various frequencies and compared to theoretical estimates. The baseline values were observed to agree with the theoretical model at low operating frequencies and proved to be increasingly lower than the predicted values as the operating frequency was increased. The baseline thrust measurements were observed to agree within 15 percent of the model for all operating frequencies. A straight 152-mm diameter ejector was installed and thrust augmentation percentages were measured. The length of the ejector was varied while the overlap percentage (percent of the ejector length which overlapped the tube) was maintained at 25 percent for all tests. In addition, the effect of ejector inlet geometry was investigated by comparing results with a straight inlet to those of a 38-mm inlet diameter. The thrust augmentation of the straight inlet ejector proved to be independent of engine operating frequency, augmenting thrust by 40 percent for the 0.914-m length ejector. In contrast, the rounded lip ejector of the same length seemed to be highly dependent on the engine operating frequency. An optimum

  20. Evaluation of stereoscopic video cameras synchronized with the movement of an operator's head on the teleoperation of the actual backhoe shovel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamoto, Masahiko; Matsunaga, Katsuya

    1999-05-01

    Operator performance while using a remote controlled backhoe shovel is described for three different stereoscopic viewing conditions: direct view, fixed stereoscopic cameras connected to a helmet mounted display (HMD), and rotating stereo camera connected and slaved to the head orientation of a free moving stereo HMD. Results showed that the head- slaved system provided the best performance.

  1. End-to-End Demonstrator of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 30: Power Conversion and Ion Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrbud, Ivana; VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Goodfellow, Keith; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase 1 Space Fission Systems issues in particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems.

  2. End-to-End demonstrator of the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) 30: Power conversion and ion engine operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbud, Ivana; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Goodfellow, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series addresses Phase 1 Space Fission Systems issues in particular non-nuclear testing and system integration issues leading to the testing and non-nuclear demonstration of a 400-kW fully integrated flight unit. The first part of the SAFE 30 test series demonstrated operation of the simulated nuclear core and heat pipe system. Experimental data acquired in a number of different test scenarios will validate existing computational models, demonstrated system flexibility (fast start-ups, multiple start-ups/shut downs), simulate predictable failure modes and operating environments. The objective of the second part is to demonstrate an integrated propulsion system consisting of a core, conversion system and a thruster where the system converts thermal heat into jet power. This end-to-end system demonstration sets a precedent for ground testing of nuclear electric propulsion systems. The paper describes the SAFE 30 end-to-end system demonstration and its subsystems. .

  3. Space Shuttle Main Engine Off-Nominal Low Power Level Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Michael

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes Rocketdyne's successful analysis and demonstration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) operation at off-nominal power levels during Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) evaluation tests. The nominal power level range for the SSME is from 65% rated power level (RPL) to 109% RPL. Off-nominal power levels incrementally demonstrated were: 17% RPL, 22% RPL, 27% RPL, 40% RPL, 45% RPL, and 50% RPL. Additional achievements during low power operation included: use of a hydrostatic bearing High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP), nominal High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFTP) first rotor critical speed operation, combustion stability at low power levels, and refined definition of nozzle flow separation heat loads.

  4. Mutagenicity of biodiesel or diesel exhaust particles and the effect of engine operating conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kisin, Elena R; Shi, X.C; Keane, Michael J; Bugarski, Aleksandar B; Shvedova, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Background Changing the fuel supply from petroleum based ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a viable option for controlling exposures to particulate material (PM). This is critical in the mining industry where approximately 28,000 underground miners are potentially exposed to relatively high concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This study was conducted to investigate the mutagenic potential of diesel engine emissions (DEE) from neat (B100) and blended (B50) soy-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel in comparison with ULSD PM using different engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatment configurations. Methods The DPM samples were collected for engine equipped with either a standard muffler or a combination of the muffler and diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) that was operated at four different steady-state modes. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on the organic solvent extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. Results The results indicate that mutagenic activity of DPM was strongly affected by fuels, engine operating conditions, and exhaust aftertreatment systems. The mutagenicity was increased with the fraction of biodiesel in the fuel. While the mutagenic activity was observed in B50 and B100 samples collected from both light-and heavy-load operating conditions, the ULSD samples were mutagenic only at light-load conditions. The presence of DOC in the exhaust system resulted in the decreased mutagenicity when engine was fueled with B100 and B50 and operated at light-load conditions. This was not the case when engine was fueled with ULSD. Heavy-load operating condition in the presence of DOC resulted in a decrease of mutagenicity only when engine was fueled with B50, but not B100 or ULSD. Conclusions Therefore, the results indicate that DPM from neat or blended biodiesel has a higher mutagenic potency than that one of ULSD. Further research is needed to

  5. Operating manual for coaxial injection combustion model. [for the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. D.; Schuman, M. D.; Chadwick, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    An operating manual for the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) is presented as the final report for an eleven month effort designed to provide improvement, to verify, and to document the comprehensive computer program for analyzing the performance of thrust chamber operation with gas/liquid coaxial jet injection. The effort culminated in delivery of an operation FORTRAN IV computer program and associated documentation pertaining to the combustion conditions in the space shuttle main engine. The computer program is structured for compatibility with the standardized Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) performance evaluation procedure. Use of the CICM in conjunction with the JANNAF procedure allows the analysis of engine systems using coaxial gas/liquid injection.

  6. Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

    1983-09-01

    This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

  7. RendezVous sensor for automatic guidance of transfer vehicles to ISS concept of the operational modes depending on actual optical and geometrical-dynamical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, Bettina G.; Kolk, Karl-Hermann

    2000-10-01

    Based on an ATV RendezVous Predevelopment Program initiated by ESTEC, an automatically operating Rendez Vous Sensor has been developed. The sensor--a Scanning Tele-Goniometer--shall guide docking and retreat of the European Automatic Transfer Vehicle as well as berthing and retreat of the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle. The sensor performance will be strongly connected with the properties of cooperative targets, consisting of an arrangement of retro reflectors mounted on ISS each.

  8. Using Web 2.0 Techniques in NASA's Ares Engineering Operations Network (AEON) Environment - First Impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for Engineering Support capability for NASA s Ares rocket development and operations. In pursuit of this, MOL is building the Ares Engineering and Operations Network (AEON), a web-based portal to support and simplify two critical activities: Access and analyze Ares manufacturing, test, and flight performance data, with access to Shuttle data for comparison Establish and maintain collaborative communities within the Ares teams/subteams and with other projects, e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS). AEON seeks to provide a seamless interface to a) locally developed engineering applications and b) a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) collaborative environment that includes Web 2.0 capabilities, e.g., blogging, wikis, and social networking. This paper discusses how Web 2.0 might be applied to the typically conservative engineering support arena, based on feedback from Integration, Verification, and Validation (IV&V) testing and on searching for their use in similar environments.

  9. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  10. Thermodynamic feature of a Brownian heat engine operating between two heat baths.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Mesfin

    2014-01-01

    A generalized theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for a Brownian motor operating between two different heat baths is presented. Via a simple paradigmatic model, we not only explore the thermodynamic feature of the engine in the regime of the nonequilibrium steady state but also study the short time behavior of the system for either the isothermal case with load or, in general, the nonisothermal case with or without load. Many elegant thermodynamic theories can be checked via the present model. Furthermore the dependence of the velocity, the efficiency, and the performance of the refrigerator on time t is examined. Our study reveals a current reversal due to time t. In the early system relaxation period, the model works neither as a heat engine nor as a refrigerator and only after a certain period of time does the model start functioning as a heat engine or as a refrigerator. The performance of the engine also improves with time and at steady state the engine manifests a higher efficiency or performance as a refrigerator. Furthermore the effect of energy exchange via the kinetic energy on the performance of the heat engine is explored. PMID:24580208

  11. Thermodynamic feature of a Brownian heat engine operating between two heat baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Mesfin

    2014-01-01

    A generalized theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for a Brownian motor operating between two different heat baths is presented. Via a simple paradigmatic model, we not only explore the thermodynamic feature of the engine in the regime of the nonequilibrium steady state but also study the short time behavior of the system for either the isothermal case with load or, in general, the nonisothermal case with or without load. Many elegant thermodynamic theories can be checked via the present model. Furthermore the dependence of the velocity, the efficiency, and the performance of the refrigerator on time t is examined. Our study reveals a current reversal due to time t. In the early system relaxation period, the model works neither as a heat engine nor as a refrigerator and only after a certain period of time does the model start functioning as a heat engine or as a refrigerator. The performance of the engine also improves with time and at steady state the engine manifests a higher efficiency or performance as a refrigerator. Furthermore the effect of energy exchange via the kinetic energy on the performance of the heat engine is explored.

  12. Experimental study of N{sub 2}O emission from gasoline engines at various operating modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zheshi; Ozaki, Masuo; Danov, Stanislav; Matsunami, Aritaka; Arai, Norio

    1998-07-01

    Systematic investigations on N{sub 2}O emission from automotive internal combustion engines equipped with primary or secondary NO control techniques, are scarce or do not exist at all. In this study, experiments have been carried out to investigate the N{sub 2}O emission from a gasoline 4-stroke automotive engine equipped with a 3-way catalytic converter. The results obtained from laboratory studies on gasoline automotive engines show that the N{sub 2}O emission is strongly influenced by the operating conditions of the engine in terms of the rotating speed and load. Also, the technical status of the engine has significant impact with respect to the N{sub 2}O emission. The analysis show that some catalytic NO converters in the presence of ammonia can be considered as a potential source of N{sub 2}O. It was found that the 3-way catalytic converter produces some ammonia during the NO reduction, and also that N{sub 2}O formation is enhanced by the presence of H{sub 2} or/and CO. The N{sub 2}O production rate increases with an increase of rotating speed, but this increase can be explained by the increase of the air/fuel equivalence ratio, which also increases with the rise of engine rotating speed at constant load.

  13. Influence of ethanol on the operating parameters of an internal-combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assad, M. S.; Kucharchuk, I. G.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Rusetskii, A. M.; Chornyi, A. D.

    2011-11-01

    Distinctive features of the operation of an internal-combustion engine burning ethanol-containing fuels have been studied. It has been shown that the enrichment of gasoline with ethanol tends to diminish the concentrations of CO and NO in combustion products, with the engine's fuel efficiency being inevitably degraded due to the lower volumetric heat of combustion of the blend. The experimentally confirmed technique of blocking the growth in the concentration of NO in the combustion products of hydrogen-containing fuels by enrichment of the blend with ethanol has been proposed; the optimum parameters of the three-fuel composition have been established.

  14. Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne Space Shuttle Main Engine Heritage Commemorative: Powerhead and Ducts, Test and Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry R.; Willis, Martha

    2009-01-01

    The videos (Powerhead and Ducts, Test and Flight Operations) review the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program from Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne. They include highlights from the engine's development and lifecycle through the engine testing to the deployment in the space shuttle.

  15. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered...

  16. Experimental evaluation of a TF30-P-3 turbofan engine in an altitude facility: Afterburner performance and engine-afterburner operating limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, J. E.; Abdelwahab, M.

    1972-01-01

    For distortion free steady state operation at the maximum (full afterburning) throttle position, the afterburner combustion efficiency decreased from 0.91 to 0.68 as engine inlet Reynolds number index was reduced from 0.80 to 0.25. Engine afterburner operational limits were obtained for transient and fixed throttle operation over a range of engine inlet distortions. At limiting conditions, time histories of pressures in the fan compressor during throttle transients between military and maximum showed the development of rotating stall in the fan hub which quickly propagated and produced complete stall in the high pressure compressor.

  17. Lessons Learned from Engineering a Multi-Mission Satellite Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Maureen; Cary, Everett, Jr.; Esposito, Timothy; Parker, Jeffrey; Bradley, David

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Small Explorers (SMEX) satellites have surpassed their designed science-lifetimes and their flight operations teams are now facing the challenge of continuing operations with reduced funding. At present, these missions are being re-engineered into a fleet-oriented ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). When completed, this ground system will provide command and control of four SMEX missions and will demonstrate fleet automation and control concepts. As a path-finder for future mission consolidation efforts, this ground system will also demonstrate new ground-based technologies that show promise of supporting longer mission lifecycles and simplifying component integration. One of the core technologies being demonstrated in the SMEX Mission Operations Center is the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture. The GMSEC architecture uses commercial Message Oriented Middleware with a common messaging standard to realize a higher level of component interoperability, allowing for interchangeable components in ground systems. Moreover, automation technologies utilizing the GMSEC architecture are being evaluated and implemented to provide extended lights-out operations. This mode of operation will provide routine monitoring and control of the heterogeneous spacecraft fleet. The operational concepts being developed will reduce the need for staffed contacts and is seen as a necessity for fleet management. This paper will describe the experiences of the integration team throughout the re-enginering effort of the SMEX ground system. Additionally, lessons learned will be presented based on the team's experiences with integrating multiple missions into a fleet-automated ground system.

  18. Studies on exhaust emissions of mahua oil operated compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Kapilan, N; Reddy, R P

    2009-07-01

    The world is confronted with fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The energy demand and pollution problems lead to research for an alternative renewable energy sources. Vegetable oils and biodiesel present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to study the feasibility of using raw mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as primary fuel and mahua oil was used as pilot fuel. The results show that the performance of the dual fuel engine at the injector opening pressure of 220 bar and the advanced injection timing of 30 degrees bTDC results in performance close to diesel base line (DBL) operation and lower smoke and oxides of nitrogen emission. PMID:21117439

  19. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes leased by a person not a U.S. citizen... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes leased by a person not a U.S. citizen. (a) General. The holder of a current foreign flight engineer...

  20. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics analysis of a membrane Stirling engine: Starting and stable operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formosa, Fabien

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the work devoted to the study of the operation of a miniaturized membrane Stirling engine. Indeed, such an engine relies on the dynamic coupling of the motion of two membranes to achieve a prime mover Stirling thermodynamic cycle. The modelling of the system introduces the large vibration amplitudes of the membrane as well as the nonlinear dissipative effects associated to the fluid flow within the engine. The nonlinearities are expressed as polynomial functions with quadratic and cubic terms. This paper displays the stability analysis to predict the starting of the engine and the instability problem which leads to the steady-state behaviour. The centre manifold-normal form theory is used to obtain the simplest expression for the limit cycle amplitudes. The approach allows the reduction of the number of equations of the original system in order to obtain a simplified system, without loosing the dynamics of the original system as well as the contributions of nonlinear terms. The model intends to be used as a semi-analytical design tool for the optimization of miniaturized Stirling machines from the starting to the steady operation.

  2. Operational life improvement of SSME high-pressure turbopumps. [Space Shuttle Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, J. R.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Phase I engine demonstrated excellent flight performance but showed limited operational life of the high-pressure fuel turbopumps (HPFTP). Design improvements, supporting analyses, and test results of the SSME Phase II development program are presented. The HPFTP improvements include reduction of turbine operating temperature by 110 to 130 R by reconstructing the seals and the flow contours; modifications of the first- and second-stage turbine blades by recontouring the shank, shotpeening the shank surface, and applying a multilayered, plasma-spray coating to the shank on the downstream side to reduce the effect of the disk coolant; and reduction of the tendency for thermal cracks in the turbine by changing weld configuration to avoid the concentration of stresses in local areas. The high-pressure oxidizer turbopump has been also modified to improve bearing life and to eliminate subsynchronous whirl.

  3. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Angela L.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS realtime operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art media wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management

  4. USAF engineering and service roles in space operations - Building the foundation for our future space infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert J.

    The USAF Engineering and Services (E&S) is described in terms of its activities that support ground stations, launch bases, and space-based facilities. E&S is structured according to a master plan for space support and exploitation which includes infrastructure operations and management, infrastructure acquisition, environmental protection, and technology transfer. Also included in the E&S masterplan are personnel education and development, human services, and readiness objectives for the support of space operations and general USAF operations. The USAF E&S operations are expected to support the modernization of space-launch and -range infrastructure, develop training methods and personnel for space support, and improve traditional E&S support technologies and techniques.

  5. Extending the Operational Envelope of a Turbofan Engine Simulation into the Sub-Idle Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Hamley, Andrew J.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    In many non-linear gas turbine simulations, operation in the sub-idle region can lead to model instability. This paper lays out a method for extending the operational envelope of a map based gas turbine simulation to include the sub-idle region. This method develops a multi-simulation solution where the baseline component maps are extrapolated below the idle level and an alternate model is developed to serve as a safety net when the baseline model becomes unstable or unreliable. Sub-idle model development takes place in two distinct operational areas, windmilling/shutdown and purge/cranking/ startup. These models are based on derived steady state operating points with transient values extrapolated between initial (known) and final (assumed) states. Model transitioning logic is developed to predict baseline model sub-idle instability, and transition smoothly and stably to the backup sub-idle model. Results from the simulation show a realistic approximation of sub-idle behavior as compared to generic sub-idle engine performance that allows the engine to operate continuously and stably from shutdown to full power.

  6. Extending the Operational Envelope of a Turbofan Engine Simulation into the Sub-Idle Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Jeffryes Walter; Hamley, Andrew J.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    In many non-linear gas turbine simulations, operation in the sub-idle region can lead to model instability. This paper lays out a method for extending the operational envelope of a map based gas turbine simulation to include the sub-idle region. This method develops a multi-simulation solution where the baseline component maps are extrapolated below the idle level and an alternate model is developed to serve as a safety net when the baseline model becomes unstable or unreliable. Sub-idle model development takes place in two distinct operational areas, windmilling/shutdown and purge/cranking/startup. These models are based on derived steady state operating points with transient values extrapolated between initial (known) and final (assumed) states. Model transitioning logic is developed to predict baseline model sub-idle instability, and transition smoothly and stably to the backup sub-idle model. Results from the simulation show a realistic approximation of sub-idle behavior as compared to generic sub-idle engine performance that allows the engine to operate continuously and stably from shutdown to full power.

  7. The association between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, OiSaeng; Duffy, Sonia A.; Choi, Seung Hee; Chin, Dal Lae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with operating engineers (N=412) from a mid-western state in the United States. The survey included validated questions on cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, demographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. About 35% were current smokers. Those exposed to asphalt fumes, heat stress, concrete dust, and welding fumes were less likely to smoke (OR=.79; 95CI: .64–.98). Other factors associated with smoking included younger age (OR=.97; 95CI:.94–.99), problem drinking (OR=1.07; 95CI:1.03–1.12), lower Body Mass Index (OR=.95; 95CI:.90–.99), and being separated/ widowed/ divorced (OR=2.24; 95CI:1.19–4.20). Further investigation is needed for better understanding about job specific exposure patterns and their impact on cigarette smoking among operating engineers. PMID:24325748

  8. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  9. The association between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Duffy, Sonia A; Choi, Seung Hee; Chin, Dal Lae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and cigarette smoking among operating engineers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with operating engineers (N = 412) from a midwestern state in the United States. The survey included validated questions on cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, demographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. About 35% were current smokers. Those exposed to asphalt fumes, heat stress, concrete dust, and welding fumes were less likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] = .79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .64-.98). Other factors associated with smoking included younger age (OR = .97, 95% CI: .94-.99), problem drinking (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12), lower Body Mass Index (OR = .95, 95% CI: .90-.99), and being separated/widowed/divorced (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.19-4.20). Further investigation is needed for better understanding about job-specific exposure patterns and their impact on cigarette smoking among operating engineers. PMID:24325748

  10. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4204 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year non-emergency stationary CI...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205... Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Owners and Operators § 60.4205 What... internal combustion engine? (a) Owners and operators of pre-2007 model year emergency stationary CI...

  18. Optimal Trajectories for the Helicopter in One-Engine-Inoperative Terminal-Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of a series of recent analytical studies conducted to investigate One-Engine-Inoperative (OEI) optimal control strategies and the associated optimal trajectories for a twin engine helicopter in Category-A terminal-area operations. These studies also examine the associated heliport size requirements and the maximum gross weight capability of the helicopter. Using an eight states, two controls, augmented point-mass model representative of the study helicopter, Continued TakeOff (CTO), Rejected TakeOff (RTO), Balked Landing (BL), and Continued Landing (CL) are investigated for both Vertical-TakeOff-and-Landing (VTOL) and Short-TakeOff-and-Landing (STOL) terminal-area operations. The formulation of the nonlinear optimal control problems with considerations for realistic constraints, solution methods for the two-point boundary-value problem, a new real-time generation method for the optimal OEI trajectories, and the main results of this series of trajectory optimization studies are presented. In particular, a new balanced- weight concept for determining the takeoff decision point for VTOL Category-A operations is proposed, extending the balanced-field length concept used for STOL operations.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Dual-Mode Scramjet Engine Operation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, David; Tacket, Regan; Taylor, Trent; Auslender, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Recent analytical advances in understanding the performance continuum (the thermodynamic spectrum) for air-breathing engines based on fundamental second-law considerations have clarified scramjet and ramjet operation, performance, and characteristics. Second-law based analysis is extended specifically in this work to clarify and describe the performance characteristics for dual-mode scramjet operation in the mid-speed range of flight Mach 4 to 7. This is done by a fundamental investigation of the complex but predictable interplay between heat release and irreversibilities in such an engine; results demonstrate the flow and performance character of the dual mode regime and of dual mode transition behavior. Both analytical and computational (multi-dimensional CFD) studies of sample dual-mode flow-fields are performed in order to demonstrate the second-law capability and performance and operability issues. The impact of the dual-mode regime is found to be characterized by decreasing overall irreversibility with increasing heat release, within the operability limits of the system.

  20. Characterization of particles from a marine engine operating at low loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Fridell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Particle emissions from a marine diesel engine operating at low loads with four different fuels were characterized with respect to particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM), size distribution, volatility and chemical composition. The four different fuels used were Swedish Environmental class 1 (MK1) and class 3 diesel (MK3), heavy fuel oil (HFO, 0.12 wt% S) and marine diesel oil (MDO, 0.52 wt% S). The measurements were performed for a marine diesel engine in a test-bed engine lab and the particle emissions were measured with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer and a Dust Monitor, giving the number concentrations in the size range of 5.6-560 nm and 300 nm to 20 μm, respectively. To quantify the amount of solid particles a thermodenuder was used. Additionally, filter samples were taken for gravimetric, black carbon (BC) and elemental analysis. The particle emissions showed a bimodal size distribution by number and the number concentrations were dominated by nanoparticles (diameter (Dp) < 50 nm). The nanoparticles measured were both primary and secondary particles, depending on fuel and engine load, while the particles with Dp > 50 nm generally were solid primary particles. Combustion of HFO resulted in the highest PN and PM concentrations. Emission factors (EFs) for PM and PN for both the total particle emissions and the fraction of primary, solid particles are presented for different fuels and loads. EFs for nitrogen oxides (NOx), BC and some elements (Ca, Fe, V, Ni, Zn) are presented as well. This study contributes to understanding particle emissions from potential future fuels as well as emissions in ports and coastal areas where lower engine loads are common.

  1. System and method of cylinder deactivation for optimal engine torque-speed map operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sujan, Vivek A; Frazier, Timothy R; Follen, Kenneth; Moon, Suk-Min

    2014-11-11

    This disclosure provides a system and method for determining cylinder deactivation in a vehicle engine to optimize fuel consumption while providing the desired or demanded power. In one aspect, data indicative of terrain variation is utilized in determining a vehicle target operating state. An optimal active cylinder distribution and corresponding fueling is determined from a recommendation from a supervisory agent monitoring the operating state of the vehicle of a subset of the total number of cylinders, and a determination as to which number of cylinders provides the optimal fuel consumption. Once the optimal cylinder number is determined, a transmission gear shift recommendation is provided in view of the determined active cylinder distribution and target operating state.

  2. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of operation process in rotating detonation engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, S. M.; Dubrovskii, A. V.; Ivanov, V. S.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to create an efficient tool for transient threedimensional (3D) numerical simulation of the operation process in a Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) with the particular emphasis to the design issues of the combustion chamber and isolators, thermal management and operation control. The governing equations are unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations coupled with a turbulence model and with the continuity and energy equations for a multicomponent reactive mixture. The algorithm used is the combination of Finite Volume Method and Particle Method recently developed at ICP to treat simultaneously frontal and volumetric combustion. The capabilities of the new numerical tool have been demonstrated for the annular cylindrical RDE operating on homogeneous stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture with a detonation rotation frequency of about 126,000 rpm. The calculations revealed considerable temperature and pressure pulsations at RDE inlet and outlet; however, special design adaptations were shown to allow their reduction.

  3. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  4. Analysis of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine during Rocket Only Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T. D.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Yungster, S.; Keller, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. However, outside of performing experiments or a full three dimensional analysis, there are no first order parametric models to estimate performance. As a result, an axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to analytically determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and statistical regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, percent of injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inject diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Statistical regression analysis was performed based on both full flow and gas generator engine cycles. Results were also found to be dependent upon the entire cycle assumptions. The statistical regression analysis determined that there were five significant linear effects, six interactions, and one second-order effect. Two parametric models were created to provide performance assessments of an RBCC engine in the all rocket mode of operation.

  5. A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

    2004-06-01

    Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President’s Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from different reformulated diesel fuels and engine operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A.; Vázquez, Monica; Zielinska, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study of light-duty diesel engine exhaust emissions is important due to their impact on atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. In this study, both the gas and the particulate phase of fuel exhaust were analyzed to investigate the effects of diesel reformulation and engine operating parameters. The research was focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds on particulate phase due to their high toxicity. These were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methodology. Although PAH profiles changed for diesel fuels with low-sulfur content and different percentages of aromatic hydrocarbons (5-25%), no significant differences for total PAH concentrations were detected. However, rape oil methyl ester biodiesel showed a greater number of PAH compounds, but in lower concentrations (close to 50%) than the reformulated diesel fuels. In addition, four engine operating conditions were evaluated, and the results showed that, during cold start, higher concentrations were observed for high molecular weight PAHs than during idling cycle and that the acceleration cycles provided higher concentrations than the steady-state conditions. Correlations between particulate PAHs and gas phase products were also observed. The emission of PAH compounds from the incomplete combustion of diesel fuel depended greatly on the source of the fuel and the driving patterns.

  7. The Self Actualized Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael; Moylan, Mary Elizabeth

    A study examined the commonalities that "voracious" readers share, and how their experiences can guide parents, teachers, and librarians in assisting children to become self-actualized readers. Subjects, 25 adults ranging in age from 20 to 67 years, completed a questionnaire concerning their reading histories and habits. Respondents varied in…

  8. Engineering geology applied to the design and operation of underground coal mines. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1998-11-01

    The primary goal of this report is to present, in a systematic outline format, information gained from studies and experience of many geologists, engineers, and miners in the US and other countries in order to: (1) Help geologists, engineers, and other mine planners design underground coal mines that are safer, more efficient, and compatible with the environment by incorporating the information presented; (2) Ensure that mine planners are more aware of some of the more important geologic and geotechnical factors that control of affect mining; and (3) Show how geologic, geotechnical, and mining factors, commonly important to proper mine design, may be incorporated into the planning and design phase of the coal mining operations.

  9. Engineering analysis activities in support of susquehanna unit 1 startup testing and cycle 1 operations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.D.; Kukielka, C.A.; Olson, L.M.; Refling, J.G.; Roscioli, A.J.; Somma, S.A.

    1985-07-01

    The engineering analysis group is responsible for all nuclear plant systems analysis and reactor analysis activities, excluding fuel management analysis, at Pennsylvania Power and Light Company. These activities include making pretest and posttest predictions of startup tests; analyzing unplanned or unexpected transient events; providing technical training to plant personnel; assisting in the development of emergency drill scenarios; providing engineering evaluations to support design and technical specification changes, and evaluating, assessing, and resolving a number of license conditions. Many of these activities have required the direct use of RETRAN models. Two RETRAN analyses that were completed to support plant operations - a pretest analysis of the turbine trip startup test, and a posttest analysis of the loss of startup transformer event - are investigated. For each case, RETRAN results are compared with available plant data and comparisons are drawn on the acceptability of the performance of the plant systems.

  10. The Appearance of a Boric Oxide Exhaust Cloud from a Turbojet Engine Operating on Trimethylborate Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Albert M; Kaufman, Warner B

    1956-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the size and density of the boric oxide exhaust cloud from a J47-25 turbojet engine operating on trimethylborate fuel at sea-level static condition. Movies and still photographs were taken from the ground and from a helicopter. Objects could not be perceived through the main body of the cloud at distances up to 800 feet from the engine. Data are included on the amount of fallout from the cloud and the concentration of boric oxide in the cloud. A radiation detection device was set up to determine whether the glowing oxide particles would be more susceptible than hydrocarbon exhaust gases to this type of tracking device. The device showed an increase in radiation by a factor of 3 for trimethylborate over that for JP-4.

  11. Surgical PACS for the digital operating room. Systems engineering and specification of user requirements.

    PubMed

    Korb, Werner; Bohn, Stefan; Burgert, Oliver; Dietz, Andreas; Jacobs, Stephan; Falk, Volkmar; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Strauss, Gero; Trantakis, Christos; Lemke, Heinz U

    2006-01-01

    For better integration of surgical assist systems into the operating room, a common communication and processing plattform that is based on the users needs is needed. The development of such a system, a Surgical Picture Aquisition and Communication System (S-PACS), according the systems engineering cycle is oulined in this paper. The first two steps (concept and specification) for the engineering of the S-PACS are discussed.A method for the systematic integration of the users needs', the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), is presented. The properties of QFD for the underlying problem and first results are discussed. Finally, this leads to a first definition of an S-PACS system. PMID:16404059

  12. Analysis of enclosed internal-combustion-engine operation with water as the working fluid. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, C.R.

    1983-09-01

    It is desirable to develop a totally enclosed system that contains an internal combustion engine and all the accessories required to produce at least 480 hp-hr of work. The system must perform underwater without external support and must release nothing but heat to the water. Most prior development has dealt with systems very similar to air breathing engines. Fuel, oxygen and a diluent gas such as nitrogen are ingested through the same kinds of intake devices used in the atmosphere. The intent is to imitate open air operation as much as possible in order to reduce hardware development. The exhaust gases are cleansed primarily of the water and carbon dioxide products of combustion and perhaps secondarily of other components such as unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and compounds produced by reactions involving the diluent.

  13. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh

    1998-01-01

    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  14. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  15. Using an operator training simulator in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculim

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An operator training simulator (OTS) is to the chemical engineer what a flight simulator is to the aerospace engineer. The basis of an OTS is a high-fidelity dynamic model of a chemical process that allows an engineer to simulate start-up, shut-down, and normal operation. It can also be used to test the skill and ability of an engineer or operator to respond and control some unforeseen situation(s) through the use of programmed malfunctions. West Virginia University (WVU) is a member of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA). Working through the NETL-RUA, the authors have spent the last four years collaborating on the development of a high-fidelity OTS for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture that is the cornerstone of the AVESTARTM (Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research) Center with sister facilities at NETL and WVU in Morgantown, WV. This OTS is capable of real-time dynamic simulation of IGCC plant operation, including start-up, shut-down, and power demand load following. The dynamic simulator and its human machine interfaces (HMIs) are based on the DYNSIM and InTouch software, respectively, from Invensys Operations Management. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the authors’ experiences in using this sophisticated dynamic simulation-based OTS as a hands-on teaching tool in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum. At present, the OTS has been used in two separate courses: a new process simulation course and a traditional process control course. In the process simulation course, concepts of steady-state and dynamic simulations were covered prior to exposing the students to the OTS. Moreover, digital logic and the concept of equipment requiring one or more permissive states to be enabled prior to successful operation were also covered. Students were briefed about start-up procedures and the importance of following a predetermined

  16. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Low Altitude Operation on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a Stirling engine powered airship for the near surface exploration of Venus was evaluated. The heat source for the Stirling engine was limited to 10 general purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. The baseline airship utilized hydrogen as the lifting gas and the electronics and payload were enclosed in a cooled insulated pressure vessel to maintain the internal temperature at 320 K and 1 Bar pressure. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the Venus surface based on the available thermal power. The atmospheric conditions on Venus were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Venus surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the internal temperature of the payload chamber and the flight altitude. In addition other lifting methods were evaluated such as an evacuated chamber, heated atmospheric gas and augmented heated lifting gas. However none of these methods proved viable.

  17. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  18. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  19. Design and evaluation of a sensor fail-operational control system for a digitally controlled turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrach, F. J.; Arpasi, D. J.; Bruton, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    A self-learning, sensor fail-operational, control system for the TF30-P-3 afterburning turbofan engine was designed and evaluated. The sensor fail-operational control system includes a digital computer program designed to operate in conjunction with the standard TF30-P-3 bill-of-materials control. Four engine measurements and two compressor face measurements are tested. If any engine measurements are found to have failed, they are replaced by values synthesized from computer-stored information. The control system was evaluated by using a realtime, nonlinear, hybrid computer engine simulation at sea level static condition, at a typical cruise condition, and at several extreme flight conditions. Results indicate that the addition of such a system can improve the reliability of an engine digital control system.

  20. Power supply circuit for an ion engine sequentially operated power inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardwell, Jr., Gilbert I. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A power supply circuit for an ion engine suitable for a spacecraft has a voltage bus having input line and a return line. The power supply circuit includes a pulse width modulation circuit. A plurality of bridge inverter circuits is coupled to the bus and the pulse width modulation circuit. The pulse width modulation circuit generates operating signals having a variable duty cycle. Each bridge inverter has a primary winding and a secondary winding. Each secondary winding is coupled to a rectifier bridge. Each secondary winding is coupled in series with another of the plurality of rectifier bridges.

  1. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  2. Radiation dose estimates for typical piloted NTR lunar and Mars mission engine operations

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, B.G. ); Borowski, S.K. . Lewis Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    The natural and manmade radiation environments to be encountered during lunar and Mars missions are qualitatively summarized. The computational methods available to characterize the radiation environment produced by an operating nuclear propulsion system are discussed. Mission profiles and vehicle configurations are presented for a typical all-propulsive, fully reusable lunar mission and for a typical all-propulsive Mars mission. Estimates of crew location biological doses are developed for all propulsive maneuvers. Post-shutdown dose rates near the nuclear engine are estimated at selected mission times. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Application of Space Environmental Observations to Spacecraft Pre-Launch Engineering and Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems and applying this knowledge to spacecraft pre-launch engineering and operations. Particle radiation, neutral gas particles, ultraviolet and x-rays, as well as micrometeoroids and orbital debris in the space environment have various effects on spacecraft systems, including degradation of microelectronic and optical components, physical damage, orbital decay, biasing of instrument readings, and system shutdowns. Space climate and weather must be considered during the mission life cycle (mission concept, mission planning, systems design, and launch and operations) to minimize and manage risk to both the spacecraft and its systems. A space environment model for use in the mission life cycle is presented.

  4. Preserving the Near-Earth Space Environment with Green Engineering and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2009-01-01

    Green engineering and operations are essential to preserving the near-Earth space environment for future generations. The U.S. and the international aerospace community have been proactive in addressing the threat of the increasing orbital debris population and the risks to people and property from reentering debris. NASA has led this activity first by devoting resources to thoroughly understand the technical issues and then by developing effective and acceptable policies and guidelines. NASA also worked closely with the international community to ensure that the US aerospace industry was not placed at an economic disadvantage. In the long term, the removal of large orbital debris will be essential to the sustainability of space operations.

  5. Dual-mode Operation of a Rocket-Ramjet Combined Cycle Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Sadatake; Tani, Koichiro; Masumoto, Ryo; Ueda, Shuuichi

    One-dimensional evaluation of Ramjet-mode operation was carried out on a rocket-ramjet combined cycle engine model. For simplicity, instantaneous mixing between the airflow and rocket exhaust, instantaneous heat release, and pressure recovery by a normal-shock wave were assumed. Shock wave location was so decided that the heat release at the injection (heat addition) location was to thermally-choke the combustion gas flow. By changing the injection location, it was shown that a further downstream injection resulted in a further thrust production and a further fuel flow rate requirement for choking, and a lesser specific impulse. Balancing the thrust production and the specific impulse in terms of the launch vehicle acceleration performance should be pursued. The total pressure loss within the engine model was dominated by the shock wave location, not depended on injection location and fuel flow rate, so that having shock wave penetration to further upstream location was beneficial both for thrust production in the engine and at the external nozzle.

  6. Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulopoulos, S. G.; Samaras, D. P.; Philippopoulos, C. J.

    In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on regulated and unregulated emissions is studied. A 4-cylinder OPEL 1.6 L internal combustion engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. For exhaust emissions treatment a typical three-way catalyst was used. Among the various compounds detected in exhaust emissions, the following ones were monitored at engine and catalyst outlet: methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, acetic acid and ethanol. Addition of ethanol in the fuel up to 10% w/w had as a result an increase in the Reid vapour pressure of the fuel, which indicates indirectly increased evaporative emissions, while carbon monoxide tailpipe emissions were decreased. For ethanol-containing fuels, acetaldehyde emissions were appreciably increased (up to 100%), especially for fuel containing 3% w/w ethanol. In contrast, aromatics emissions were decreased by ethanol addition to gasoline. Methane and ethanol were the most resistant compounds to oxidation while ethylene was the most degradable compound over the catalyst. Ethylene, methane and acetaldehyde were the main compounds present at engine exhaust while methane, acetaldehyde and ethanol were the main compounds in tailpipe emissions for ethanol fuels after the catalyst operation.

  7. Investigation of the I-40 Jet-Propulsion Engine in the Cleveland Altitude Wind Tunnel. V - Operational Characteristics. 5; Operational Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golladay, Richard L.; Gendler, Stanley L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of the I-40 jet-propulsion engine over a range of pressure altitudes from 10,000 to 50,000 feet and ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.76. Engine operational data were obtained with the engine in the standard configuration and with various modifications of the fuel system, the electrical system, and the combustion chambers. The effects of altitude and airspeed on operating speed range, starting, windmilli.ng, acceleration, speed regulation, cooling, and vibration of the standard and modified engines were determined, and damage to parts was noted. Maximum engine speed was obtainable at all altitudes and airspeeds wi th each fuel-control system investigated. The minimum idling speed was raised by increases in altitude and airspeed. The lowest minimum stable speeds were obtained with the standard configuration using 40-gallon nozzles with individual metering plugs. The engine was started normally at altitudes as high as 20,000 feet with all of the fuel systems and ignition combinations except one. Ignition at 70,000 feet was difficult and, although successful ignition occurred, acceleration was slow and usually characterized by excessive tail-pipe temperature. During windmilling investigations of the engine equipped with the standard fuel system, the engine could not be started at ram-pressure ratios of 1.1 to 1.7 at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 feet. When equipped with the production barometric and Monarch 40-gallon nozzles, the engine accelerated in 12 seconds from an engine speed of 6000 rpm to 11,000 rpm at 20,000 feet and an average tail-pipe temperature of 11000 F. At the same altitude and temperature, all the engine configurations had approximately the same rate of acceleration. The Woodward governor produced the safest accelerations, inasmuch as it could be adjusted to automatically prevent acceleration blow out. The engine speed was

  8. Experimental study on the effect of varying syngas composition on the emissions of dual fuel CI engine operating at various engine speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahgoub, B. K. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Z. A. A.; Hagos, F. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using syngas as a supplement fuel of diesel in dual fuel mode is a proposed solution in the effort to protect the environment and control the serious threats posed by greenhouse gas emissions from compression ignition engines. The objective of this study was to experimentally examine the effect of syngas composition on the exhaust emission of dual fuel compression ignition (CI) engine at various engine speeds, and to compare the operating ranges of imitated syngas versus pure diesel. The study was conducted using a naturally aspirated, two strokes, single cylinder 3.7 kW diesel engine operated at speeds of 1200, 2000 and 3000 rpm. The engine was tested with three different syngas compositions. Diesel fuel was partially substituted by syngas through the air inlet. The test results disclose the impact of using syngas in CI engines on emission of CO2, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experimental measurements confirmed that all syngas compositions are capable of reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOX compared with diesel fuel. Wide range of diesel replacement ratios (up to 72%) was attained without any penalty. Syngas with composition of 49% N2, 12% CO2, 25% CO, 10% H2, and 4% CH4 reduced the emissions of CO2 and NOx at engine speed of 1200 rpm up to 1% and 108 ppm, respectively. The lowest emission of UHC and NOx was emitted when the engine was operating at speed of 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm, respectively with composition of 38% N2, 8% Co2, 29% CO, 19% H2, and 6% CH4. Therefore, syngas could be a promising technique for controlling NOx emissions in CI engines. However, hydrogen content in syngas is important parameter that needs to be further investigation for its effect.

  9. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-12

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  10. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  11. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  12. System identification of jet engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, N.

    2000-01-01

    System identification plays an important role in advanced control systems for jet engines, in which controls are performed adaptively using data from the actual engine and the identified engine. An identification technique for jet engine using the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) is described. The filter is constructed for a two-spool turbofan engine. The CGEKF filter developed here can recognize parameter change in engine components and estimate unmeasurable variables over whole flight conditions. These capabilities are useful for an advanced Full Authority Digital Electric Control (FADEC). Effects of measurement noise and bias, effects of operating point and unpredicted performance change are discussed. Some experimental results using the actual engine are shown to evaluate the effectiveness of CGEKF filter.

  13. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected

  14. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  15. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - EVOLUTION 180 CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-03, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-25

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated gloveboxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Evolution 180 circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Evolution 180 is a portable, metal cutting circular saw with a 7-inch diameter blade. The blade is contained within the main housing and has a retractable lower blade guard to prevent operator access to the blade during operation and shutdown. The saw is equipped with a chip collector. The maximum cutting thickness for metal is one-quarter inch and can cut steel tubing and pipe 2 inches in diameter. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with the hand guide mounted to the side of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of the cut. The machine's circuitry will automatically shut the saw motor off if excessive overload is detected during operation. The one-half hour demonstration involved vertical and horizontal cuts and blade changes. During this process, operators experienced binding of the saw. This caused the blade to become hot, causing the sawdust collected in the chip collector to smoke. Care should be exercised to use the appropriate blade for the application, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Personal noise sampling indicated that neither worker was over the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 69.1 and 68.8 dBA. The personal noise sample taken during the special demonstration with the

  16. Engineering challenges to the long term operation of the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas; Albert, Thomas; Levin, George M.

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Congress has maintained an intense interest in the ISS program since its inception. In the Appropriations Act of 1997, the Senate of the United States included language directing National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to have the National Research Council (NRC) under take a study that evaluates the engineering challenges posed by extravehicular activity (EVA) requirements, United States and non-United States space launch requirements, the potential need to upgrade or replace equipment and components after Assembly Complete, and the requirement to decommission and disassemble the facility. NASA and the NRC decided the focus should be on the anticipated challenges in the continuous operation and maintenance of the ISS after assembly of the on-orbit facility has been completed. This would encompass the operational years, from late 2004 (if the current schedule holds) to 2020 - 2025. This executive summary overviews the results of this NRC study. it focuses on the U.S. operation of the ISS after assembly Complete, including cooperative efforts by the United States and Russia. The paper summaries the primary findings and recommendations in each of the areas considered during this two-year NRC study.

  17. Spacelab Operations Support Room Space Engineering Support Team in the SL POCC During the IML-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Spacelab Operations Support Room Space Engineering Support team in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  18. FRACTAL Systems & Project suite: engineering tools for improving development and operation of the systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calpena, A.; Mujica-Alvarez, E.; Osinde-Lopez, J.; García-Vargas, M.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the FRACTAL Systems & Projects suite. This suite is composed by several tools (GECO, DOCMA and SUMO) that provide the capabilities that all organizations need to store and manage the system information generated along the project's lifetime, from the design phase to the operation phase. The amount of information that is generated in a project keeps growing in size and complexity along the project's lifetime, to an extent that it becomes impossible to manage it without the aid of specific computer-based tools. The suite described in this paper is the solution developed by FRACTAL to assist the execution of different scientific projects, mainly related with telescopes and instruments, for astronomical research centres. These tools help the system and project engineers to maintain the technical control of the systems and to ensure an optimal use of the resources. GECO eases the control of the system configuration data; DOCMA provides the means to organise and manage the documents generated in the project; SUMO allows managing and scheduling the operation, the maintenance activities and the resources during the operational phase of a system. These tools improve the project communication making the information available to the authorized users (project team, customers, Consortium's members, etc). Finally and depending on the project needs, these three tools can be used integrated or in an independent manner.

  19. A method for the assessment of operational severity for a high pressure turbine blade of an aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, Anthony; Abu, Abdullahi; Laskaridis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    This paper provides a tool for the estimation of the operational severity of a high pressure turbine blade of an aero engine. A multidisciplinary approach using aircraft/ engine performance models which provide inputs to a thermo-mechanical fatigue damage model is presented. In the analysis, account is taken of blade size, blade metal temperature distribution, relevant heat transfer coefficients and mechanical and thermal stresses. The leading edge of the blade is selected as the critical part in the estimation of damage severity for different design and operational parameters. The study also suggests a method for production of operational severity data for the prediction of maintenance intervals.

  20. Operational feasibility of underwater Stirling engine systems using oxygen-seawater extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The exploration of the oceans whether for societal, commercial, scientific or military reasons requires efficient and cost effective underwater vehicles. In turn, these vessels require efficient means of producing on board power for the propulsion and hotel load requirements of long endurance missions. The Stirling engine, because of its inherent closed-cycle operation, has long been an attractive candidate for underwater use and now has proved its reliability and maintainability in the arduous environment of a naval submarine application. More recently the Stirling has been considered for use in small long endurance unmanned underwater vessels (UUVs). However, with these type of vehicles the need to carry an on board oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design problems. The concept of using multi-stage vehicles with disposable energy pods has been explored and appears attractive although a major change in submarine design philosophy will be required if such vehicles are to launched from submarines. Another approach is to use a more space efficient source of oxygen. As seawater contains dissolved oxygen then if this source could be utilized to meet all or at least part of the engine`s need than a major design problem could be overcome. In this paper the findings of an initial study into the use of membranes or artificial gill techniques to provide oxygen for a Stirling powered DARPA type vehicle are presented. It has been found that only in certain sea areas is the concept of oxygen extraction feasible for use with power systems. Even in situations where there are sufficient levels of dissolved oxygen the gill system approach appears to have limited utility for UUV applications and a number of practical problems still need to be addressed.

  1. Microcrystals engineering using assemblies of di-protonated meso-tetraphenylporphine dimers under Zundel cations operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udal'tsov, Alexander V.

    2015-03-01

    New approach based on the usage of self-organized assemblies of di-protonated meso-tetraphenylporphine (TPP) dimers under Zundel cations action is suggested for the microcrystals engineering. Properties of the assemblies consisting of water and the protonated dimers, as produced in aqueous HCl in the presence of a small concentration of water-soluble organic solvent were investigated by UV-Vis and infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in thin films. The self-organized assemblies consisting of water and di-protonated TPP dimers looked like long rods produced green crystals. These crystals were found by light microscopy. The ordered assembled structures crystallized into thin layers at open air at relative humidity of least 60%. Three acts of the microcrystals engineering actions are needed to obtain the green crystals that are (i) self-assembling of protonated TPP dimers under Zundel cations operation; (ii) generation of pure rod precursor in the di-protonated state and (iii) application of gaseous water to initiate the crystallization in order to Zundel cations action in the surface layer could occur. The size of the green crystals produced by the self-organized assemblies varies within 30-35 μm.

  2. Direct Measurement and Chemical Speciation of Top Ring Zone Liquid During Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Burrows, Barry Clay; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript consists of proof of concept experiments involving direct measurements and detailed chemical speciation from the top ring zone of a running engine. The work uses a naturally aspirated single cylinder utility engine that has been modified to allow direct liquid sample acquisition from behind the top ring. Samples were analyzed and spectated using gas chromatographic techniques. Results show that the liquid mixture in the top ring zone is neither neat lubricant nor fuel but a combination of the two with unique chemical properties. At the tested steady state no-load operating condition, the chemical species of the top ring zone liquid were found to be highly dependent on boiling point, where both low reactivity higher boiling point fuel species and lubricant are observed to be the dominant constituents. The results show that at least for the tested condition, approximately 25% of the top ring zone is comprised of gasoline fuel like molecules, which are dominated by high octane number aromatic species, while the remainder of the liquid is comprised of lubricant like species.

  3. The Education of Future Aeronautical Engineers: Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Brodeur, Doris R.; Soderholm, Diane H.

    2008-04-01

    This paper will outline answers to the two central questions regarding improving engineering education: (1) What is the full set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that engineering students should possess as they leave the university, and at what level of proficiency? (2) How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills? The suggested answers lie within an innovative educational framework, the CDIO (conceive-design-implement-operate) Initiative. This initiative will be described along with the needs it meets, its goals, context, vision and pedagogical foundation. The first question is answered by the CDIO Syllabus and the process for reaching stakeholder consensus on the level of proficiency that students should attain in a given program. The second question is addressed through a best practice framework, which discusses curriculum design, design-implement experiences, teaching and learning, student assessment, program evaluation and faculty competence. Examples are provided of the implementation of best practices within the CDIO program in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Study on Operating Performance of Stirling Engine-Driven Vapor Compression Heat Pump System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Stirling engines have many unique advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, preferable exhaust gas characteristics, multi-fuel usage, and low noise and vibration. On the other hand, heat pump systems are very attractive for space heating and cooling, and industrial usage. There are several environmental merits of Stirling driven vapor compression (SDVC) systems. A design method for the SDVC, which is based on mathematical methods for Stirling and Ranking cycles, has been developed. The attractive SDVC performance using conventional and alternative refrigerants was shown. From the calculated Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) and operating costs, it became clear that the SDVC system with the alternative refrigerant has a higher potential as the future air-conditioning system.

  5. A mathematical framework for multiscale science and engineering : the variational multiscale method and interscale transfer operators.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Gregory John; Collis, Samuel Scott; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Parks, Michael L.; Jones, Reese E.; Silling, Stewart Andrew; Scovazzi, Guglielmo; Bochev, Pavel B.

    2007-10-01

    This report is a collection of documents written as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project A Mathematical Framework for Multiscale Science and Engineering: The Variational Multiscale Method and Interscale Transfer Operators. We present developments in two categories of multiscale mathematics and analysis. The first, continuum-to-continuum (CtC) multiscale, includes problems that allow application of the same continuum model at all scales with the primary barrier to simulation being computing resources. The second, atomistic-to-continuum (AtC) multiscale, represents applications where detailed physics at the atomistic or molecular level must be simulated to resolve the small scales, but the effect on and coupling to the continuum level is frequently unclear.

  6. Speciated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on methyl tertiary butyl ether-containing fuels.

    PubMed

    Poulopoulos, S G; Philippopoulos, C J

    2001-07-01

    In the present work, engine and tailpipe (after a three-way catalytic converter) emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on two oxygenated blend fuels [containing 2 and 11% weight/weight (w/w) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)] and on a nonoxygenated base fuel were characterized. The engine (OPEL 1.6 L) was operated under various conditions, in the range of 0-20 HP. Total unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-propanol, benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene, acetic acid, and MTBE were measured at each engine operating condition. As concerns the total HC emissions, the use of MTBE was beneficial from 1.90 to 3.81 HP, which were by far the most polluting conditions. Moreover, CO emissions in tailpipe exhaust were decreased in the whole operation range with increasing MTBE in the fuel. The greatest advantage of MTBE addition to gasoline was the decrease in ethylene, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and acetic acid emissions in engine exhaust, especially when MTBE content in the fuel was increased to 11% w/w. In tailpipe exhaust, the catalyst operation diminished the observed differences. Ethylene, methane, and acetaldehyde were the main compounds present in exhaust gases. Ethylene was easily oxidized over the catalyst, while acetaldehyde and methane were quite resistant to oxidation. PMID:15658218

  7. Initial Closed Operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, Mark

    1995-01-01

    As part of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is being planned for installation on the Space Station. The CTF will be used to provide data on the productivity and efficiency of a variety of CELSS higher plant crops grown sequentially from seed to harvest in the microgravity environment of the Space Station. Stringent environmental control will be maintained while fundamental crop productivity issues, such as carbon dioxide uptake and oxygen production rates, water transpiration rates, and biomass accumulation rates are obtained for comparison with ground-based data. In order to obtain an early realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary to provide the appropriate environmental conditions specified for CTF crop productivity experiments, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The EDU is a ground-based testbed which will be used to characterize the integrated performance of major subsystem technologies, to evaluate hardware candidates and control strategies required for the CTF, and to further define the ability to meet CTF requirements within present Space Station constraints. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU. Measured performance data are compared with the specified functional requirements and results from initial closed testing are presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are discussed.

  8. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs. PMID:15193097

  9. Review and evaluation of Transamerica Delaval, Inc. , diesel engine reliability and operability: Grand Gulf Nuclear Station Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    PNL and its consultants conclude that the TDI diesel engines at the GGNS have the needed operability and reliability to fulfill their intended (auxiliary) emergency power function for the first refueling cycle. This conclusion is reached with a number of understandings regarding limits to the engine requirements, NRC concurrence with MP and L findings/conclusions regarding items to be supplied to NRC, limitations on the engine Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), and MP and L's implementation of the modifications to their proposed surveillance and maintenance program.

  10. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, R.E.; Giammarise, A.W.; Johnson, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  11. Durability testing of medium speed diesel engine components designed for operating on coal/water slurry fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, R. E.; Giammarise, A. W.; Johnson, R. N.

    1994-01-01

    Over 200 operating cylinder hours were run on critical wearing engine parts. The main components tested included cylinder liners, piston rings, and fuel injector nozzles for coal/water slurry fueled operation. The liners had no visible indication of scoring nor major wear steps found on their tungsten carbide coating. While the tungsten carbide coating on the rings showed good wear resistance, some visual evidence suggests adhesive wear mode was present. Tungsten carbide coated rings running against tungsten carbide coated liners in GE 7FDL engines exhibit wear rates which suggest an approximate 500 to 750 hour life. Injector nozzle orifice materials evaluated were diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, and thermally stabilized diamond. Based upon a total of 500 cylinder hours of engine operation (including single-cylinder combustion tests), diamond compact was determined to be the preferred orifice material.

  12. Reinforcement-learning-based dual-control methodology for complex nonlinear discrete-time systems with application to spark engine EGR operation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Peter; Kaul, Brian C; Jagannathan, S; Drallmeier, James A

    2008-08-01

    A novel reinforcement-learning-based dual-control methodology adaptive neural network (NN) controller is developed to deliver a desired tracking performance for a class of complex feedback nonlinear discrete-time systems, which consists of a second-order nonlinear discrete-time system in nonstrict feedback form and an affine nonlinear discrete-time system, in the presence of bounded and unknown disturbances. For example, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operation of a spark ignition (SI) engine is modeled by using such a complex nonlinear discrete-time system. A dual-controller approach is undertaken where primary adaptive critic NN controller is designed for the nonstrict feedback nonlinear discrete-time system whereas the secondary one for the affine nonlinear discrete-time system but the controllers together offer the desired performance. The primary adaptive critic NN controller includes an NN observer for estimating the states and output, an NN critic, and two action NNs for generating virtual control and actual control inputs for the nonstrict feedback nonlinear discrete-time system, whereas an additional critic NN and an action NN are included for the affine nonlinear discrete-time system by assuming the state availability. All NN weights adapt online towards minimization of a certain performance index, utilizing gradient-descent-based rule. Using Lyapunov theory, the uniformly ultimate boundedness (UUB) of the closed-loop tracking error, weight estimates, and observer estimates are shown. The adaptive critic NN controller performance is evaluated on an SI engine operating with high EGR levels where the controller objective is to reduce cyclic dispersion in heat release while minimizing fuel intake. Simulation and experimental results indicate that engine out emissions drop significantly at 20% EGR due to reduction in dispersion in heat release thus verifying the dual-control approach. PMID:18701368

  13. A model to determine the behaviour of a pressure measurement equipment during non-static operations of gasturbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, K.-U.; Hass, J.

    1987-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the behavior of a pressure measurement equipment of gas-turbine engines during nonstatic operations. The model determines the influence of the components of the measuring chain: a pressure measuring transducer, a hose pipe, and a pressure probe. It performs back calculations from the measured pressure signals to the real measuring value. The model was verified by pressure measurements with a calibrating device. The pressure measurements during the transition between different operating points of a gas-turbine engine and the adjustment of these pressure values with the help of the measuring-chain model are described.

  14. Apparatus for sensor failure detection and correction in a gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spang, H. A., III; Wanger, R. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A gas turbine engine control system maintains a selected level of engine performance despite the failure or abnormal operation of one or more engine parameter sensors. The control system employs a continuously updated engine model which simulates engine performance and generates signals representing real time estimates of the engine parameter sensor signals. The estimate signals are transmitted to a control computational unit which utilizes them in lieu of the actual engine parameter sensor signals to control the operation of the engine. The estimate signals are also compared with the corresponding actual engine parameter sensor signals and the resulting difference signals are utilized to update the engine model. If a particular difference signal exceeds specific tolerance limits, the difference signal is inhibited from updating the model and a sensor failure indication is provided to the engine operator.

  15. Engineering for Operation of a Future Belgian Deep Geological Repository for ILW and HLW - 12379

    SciTech Connect

    Haverkamp, B.; Biurrun, E.; Nieder-Westermann, G.H.; Van Humbeeck, H.

    2012-07-01

    In Belgium, an advanced conceptual design is being elaborated for deep geologic disposal of high level waste (HLW) and for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) not amenable for surface disposal. The concept is based on a shielded steel and concrete container for disposal of HLW, i.e., the Super-container. LILW will be disposed of in separately designed concrete caissons. The reference host rock is the Boom Clay, a poorly indurated clay formation in northeastern Belgium. Investigations into the potential host rock are conducted at the HADES underground research laboratory in Mol, Belgium. In 2009 the Belgian Agency for Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) initiated a four year research project aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository. The goal of the program is to demonstrate at a detailed conceptual level that the proposed geologic disposal system can be safely constructed, operated, and progressively closed. Part of the broader research efforts being conducted includes evaluations optimization of the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, ventilation system, and evaluation of backfilling and sealing concepts for the repository design. The potential for implementation of a waste retrieval strategy encompassing the first 100 years after emplacement is also considered. In the framework of a four year research program aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository in poorly indurated clay design studies have been underway to optimize the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, and ventilation system. Additionally backfilling and sealing concepts proposed for the potential repository have been reviewed in conjunction with impacts related to the potential future inclusion of a retrievability requirement in governing regulations. The main engineering challenges in the Belgian repository concept are

  16. Micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine for heating and their real operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čierny, Jaroslav; Patsch, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This article was deal with micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine. We watched problematic of real working Stirling engine. The article also contain hookup of unit constructed at University of Zilina.

  17. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-15

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and Porter-Cable No.2, respectively). During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Porter-Cable saw is a straightforward machine for cutting wood of varying thickness. The blade is fully guarded with a fixed upper and a lower retractable guard. The lower guard retracts as the blade engages the work piece. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with a handgrip mounted near the front of the saw. The saw is equipped with a directional nozzle, which aims sawdust away from the operator and the line of cut. An optional vacuum system, attached to the directional nozzle, is used to remove and collect dust. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.1, personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was under and one was at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.2, however, both workers did exceed the Action Level with TWA's of 89.7 and 90.0 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for Porter-Cable No.1 was 3

  18. Virtual Turbine Engine Test Bench Using MGET Test Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Seonghee; Kong, Changduk; Ki, Jayoung

    2015-05-01

    Test device using virtual engine simulator can help reduce the number of engine tests through tests similar to the actual engine tests and repeat the test under the same condition, and thus reduce the engine maintenance and operating costs [1]. Also, as it is possible to easily implement extreme conditions in which it is hard to conduct actual tests, it can prevent engine damages that may happen during the actual engine test under such conditions. In this study, an upgraded MGET test device was developed that can conduct both real and virtual engine test by applying real-time engine model to the existing MGET test device that was developed and has been sold by the Company. This newly developed multi-purpose MGET test device is expected to be used for various educational and research purposes.

  19. The low temperature differential Stirling engine with working fluid operated on critical condition

    SciTech Connect

    Naso, V.; Dong, W.; Lucentini, M.; Capata, R.

    1998-07-01

    The research and development of low temperature differential Stirling engine has a great potential market since a lot of thermal energy at low temperature can supply it and the cost of this kind of engine is lower than general Stirling engine. The characteristics of low compression ratio and low differential temperature Stirling engine may be satisfied with working fluid compressed on critical conditions. By combining two phase heat transfer with forced convective flow in compression space and through the regenerator in the engine, a new heat transfer coefficient emerges capable of absorbing and releasing high heat fluxes without the corresponding low temperature increase. The current analysis focuses on the study of Stirling engines with working fluid compressed on critical conditions, thus at two-phase heat transfer in compression space and regenerator of the engine under forced convective flow conditions.

  20. Design, fabrication and operation of the mechanical systems for the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.A.; Biagi, L.A.; Fong, M.; Koehler, G.W.; Low, W.; Purgalis, P.; Wells, R.P.

    1983-12-01

    The Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a National Test Facility used to develop long pulse Neutral Beam Sources. The Facility will test sources up to 120 keV, 50 A, with 30 s beam-on times with a 10% duty factor. For this application, an actively cooled beam dump is required and one has been constructed capable of dissipating a wide range of power density profiles. The flexibility of the design is achieved by utilizing a standard modular panel design which is incorporated into a moveable support structure comprised of eight separately controllable manipulator assemblies. A unique neutralizer design has been installed into the NBETF beamline. This is a gun-drilled moveable brazed assembly which provides continuous armoring of the beamline near the source. The unit penetrates the source mounting valve during operation and retracts to permit the valve to close as needed. The beamline is also equpped with many beam scraper plates of differing detail design and dissipation capabilities.

  1. A linear control design structure to maintain loop properties during limit operation in a multi-nozzle turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Ouzts, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of multi-variable control systems on turbofan engines requires the use of limit protection to maintain safe engine operation. Since a turbofan engine typically encounters limits during transient operation, the use of a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop may void the desired 'guarantees' associated with linear multi-variable control design methods, necessitating considerable simulation to validate the control with limited protection. An alternative control design structure is proposed that maintains the desired linear feedback properties when certain safety limits are encountered by moving the limit protection scheme outside the feedback loop. This proposed structure is compared to a structure with a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop properties. The two design structures are compared using both linear and nonlinear simulations. The evaluation emphasizes responses where the fan surge margin limit is encountered.

  2. A linear control design structure to maintain loop properties during limit operation in a multi-nozzle turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Ouzts, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of multi-variable control systems on turbofan engines requires the use of limit protection to maintain safe engine operation. Since a turbofan engine typically encounters limits during transient operation, the use of a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop may void the desired 'guarantees' associated with linear multi-variable control design methods, necessitating considerable simulation to validate the control with limit protection. An alternative control design structure is proposed that maintains the desired linear feedback properties when certain safety limits are encountered by moving the limit protection scheme outside of the feedback loop. This proposed structure is compared to a structure with a limit protection scheme that modifies the feedback loop properties. The two design structures are compared using both linear and nonlinear simulations. The evaluation emphasizes responses where the fan surge margin limit is encountered.

  3. Report on the Application of Workforce Planning Methodology in the Cuyahoga County Sanitary Engineers Operations and Maintenance Sections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordic, Michael G.

    Progress to date is reported for a project initiated in 1979 to apply a workforce planning methodology to the operations and maintenance sections of the Cuyahoga County Sanitary Engineering Department in an effort to document the human resources utilized by the Department during 1979 and to determine its personnel needs for 1980 and 1981. After…

  4. Extending lean operating limit and reducing emissions of methane spark-ignited engines using a microwave-assisted spark plug

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rapp, Vi H.; DeFilippo, Anthony; Saxena, Samveg; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert W.; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Moon, Ahsa; Ikeda, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Amore » microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of λ = 1.46, λ = 1.51, λ = 1.57, λ = 1.68, and λ = 1.75. For each λ, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as compared to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at λ = 1.68. At λ = 1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at λ = 1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (λ = 1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric.« less

  5. Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Szymkowicz, Patrick G.; Northrop, William F

    2012-01-01

    It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that

  6. Data on the noise vibrations of modern traction locomotives. [auditory effects on diesel engine operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paslaru, V.; Popescu, A.; Vrasti, R.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is presented of data on noise and vibration sources in modern locomotives and their influence on engine drivers. An attempt is made hierarchize noise and vibration sources in terms of importance and to correlate the noise level with the influence of noise on the engine drivers' organ of hearing. Some possible recommendations are outlined for reducing the level of these noxae in order to improve the acoustic comfort of engine drivers.

  7. Operating Characteristics of a 15-cm dia. Ion Engine for Small Planetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.; Pless, L. C.; Mueller, J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-01-01

    A 15-cm diameter, scaled-down version of the NASA light-weight 30-cm ion engine has been developed for potential application to very small planetary spacecraft. Integration of the 15-cm ion source into 4x15-cm segmented engine configuration results in a 30-cm equivalent engine which can be throttled over a 7-to-1 input power variation with a constant beam current in each of the four segments. Throttling the segmented engine by turning off individual segments can result in a significant decrease in the required service life (and qualification requirements) of the ion source components.

  8. Altitude-Test-Chamber Investigation of a Solar Afterburner on the 24C Engine I - Operational Characteristics and Altitude Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1948-01-01

    An altitude-test-chamber investigation was conducted to determine the operational characteristics and altitude blow-out limits of a Solar afterburner in a 24C engine. At rated engine speed and maximum permissible turbine-discharge temperature, the altitude limit as determined by combustion blow-out occurred as a band of unstable operation of about 8000 feet altitude in width with maximum altitude limits from 32,000 feet at a Mach number of 0.3 to about 42,000 feet at a Mach number of 1.0. The maximum fuel-air ratio of the afterburner, as limited by maximum permissible turbine-discharge gas temperatures at rated engine speed, varied between 0.0295 and 0.0380 over a range of flight Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.0 and at altitudes of 20,000 and 30,000 feet. Over this range of operating conditions, the fuel-air ratio at which lean blow-out occurred was from 10 to 19 percent below these maximum fuel-air ratios. Combustion was very smooth and uniform during operation; however, ignition of the burner was very difficult throughout the investigation. A failure of the flame holder after 12 hours and 15 minutes of afterburner operation resulted in termination of the investigation.

  9. Optical effects of the operation of the onboard engine of the Progress M-17M spacecraft at thermospheric heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, A. V.; Khakhinov, V. V.; Beletskii, A. B.; Lebedev, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of optical observations in the active space experiment "Radar-Progress" on April 17, 2013, after switching on the approach-correction engine of the Progress M-17M cargo spacecraft at thermospheric heights (412 km), are presented in this paper. During engine operation, a region of enhanced emission intensity has been recorded. It was presumably related to the scatter of twilight solar emission at the engine exhausts in the cargo spacecraft orbit and, probably to the occurrence of an additional emission in the atomic oxygen line [OI] 630 nm. The maximum observed dimensions of the emission region were ~350 and ~250 km along the orbit and across it, respectively. The velocity of the expansion of the emission region at the first moments after the initiation of engine operation was ~7 and ~3.5 km/s along the orbit and across it, respectively. The maximum intensity of the disturbed region is estimated to be a value equivalent to ~40-60 R within the spectral band of 2 nm. No optical manifestation, which would exceed the natural variations in brightness of the night airglow and which would be related to possible large-scale modification of the ionosphere, was detected in the natural emission lines [O] 557.7 and 630.0 nm in a zone remote from the place of injection of engine exhausts.

  10. Putting ROSE to Work: A Proposed Application of a Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine for Space Station Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Muery, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Scheduling engines are found at the core of software systems that plan and schedule activities and resources. A Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) is one that processes a single request (adding a task to a timeline) and then waits for another request. For the International Space Station, a robust ROSE-based system would support multiple, simultaneous users, each formulating requests (defining scheduling requirements), submitting these requests via the internet to a single scheduling engine operating on a single timeline, and immediately viewing the resulting timeline. ROSE is significantly different from the engine currently used to schedule Space Station operations. The current engine supports essentially one person at a time, with a pre-defined set of requirements from many payloads, working in either a "batch" scheduling mode or an interactive/manual scheduling mode. A planning and scheduling process that takes advantage of the features of ROSE could produce greater customer satisfaction at reduced cost and reduced flow time. This paper describes a possible ROSE-based scheduling process and identifies the additional software component required to support it. Resulting changes to the management and control of the process are also discussed.

  11. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  12. A new systems engineering approach to streamlined science and mission operations for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Sonneborn, George; Perkins, Dorothy C.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD, Code 500), the Space Sciences Directorate (Code 600), and the Flight Projects Directorate (Code 400) have developed a new approach to combine the science and mission operations for the FUSE mission. FUSE, the last of the Delta-class Explorer missions, will obtain high resolution far ultraviolet spectra (910 - 1220 A) of stellar and extragalactic sources to study the evolution of galaxies and conditions in the early universe. FUSE will be launched in 2000 into a 24-hour highly eccentric orbit. Science operations will be conducted in real time for 16-18 hours per day, in a manner similar to the operations performed today for the International Ultraviolet Explorer. In a radical departure from previous missions, the operations concept combines spacecraft and science operations and data processing functions in a single facility to be housed in the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics (Code 680). A small missions operations team will provide the spacecraft control, telescope operations and data handling functions in a facility designated as the Science and Mission Operations Center (SMOC). This approach will utilize the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) architecture for both spacecraft and instrument commanding. Other concepts of integrated operations being developed by the Code 500 Renaissance Project will also be employed for the FUSE SMOC. The primary objective of this approach is to reduce development and mission operations costs. The operations concept, integration of mission and science operations, and extensive use of existing hardware and software tools will decrease both development and operations costs extensively. This paper describes the FUSE operations concept, discusses the systems engineering approach used for its development, and the software, hardware and management tools that will make its implementation feasible.

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  14. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  15. New Challenging Approaches to Engineering Education: Enhancing University-Industry Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen-Yrjanheikki, Kati; Tukiainen, Taina; Takala, Minna

    2007-01-01

    Globalization, accelerated time-based competition, qualitative dynamics, rapid development of technology and especially Information and Communications Technology (ICT) developments challenge engineering education and capability development of each engineer. The success and the competitiveness of companies are increasingly based on their employees.…

  16. The Education of Future Aeronautical Engineers: Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Edward F.; Brodeur, Doris R.; Soderholm, Diane H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will outline answers to the two central questions regarding improving engineering education: (1) What is the full set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that engineering students should possess as they leave the university, and at what level of proficiency?; and (2) How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills? The…

  17. 14 CFR 33.5 - Instruction manual for installing and operating the engine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... related structure. (2) The location and description of engine connections to be attached to accessories... not part of the engine type design, the interface conditions and reliability requirements for those... in § 33.75(d) with respect to the reliability of safety devices, instrumentation, early...

  18. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    DOEpatents

    Ross, John; Escher, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction.

  19. Work output and efficiency at maximum power of linear irreversible heat engines operating with a finite-sized heat source.

    PubMed

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2014-05-01

    We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart. PMID:24856684

  20. Work Output and Efficiency at Maximum Power of Linear Irreversible Heat Engines Operating with a Finite-Sized Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2014-05-01

    We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.

  1. Research requirements for emergency power to permit hover-one-engine-inoperative helicopter operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The research and technology demonstration requirements to achieve emergency-power capability for a civil helicopter are documented. The goal for emergency power is the ability to hover with one engine inoperative, transition to minimum-power forward flight, and continue to a safe landing where emergency power may or may not be required. The best method to obtain emergency power is to augment the basic engine power by increasing the engine's speed and turbine-inlet temperature, combined with water-alcohol injection at the engine inlet. Other methods, including turbine boost power and flywheel energy, offer potential for obtaining emergency power for minimum time durations. Costs and schedules are estimated for a research and development program to bring emergency power through a hardware-demonstration test. Interaction of engine emergency-power capability with other helicopter systems is examined.

  2. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  3. Comparative reaction engineering studies for succinic acid production from sucrose by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli in fed-batch-operated stirred tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hoefel, Torben; Faust, Georg; Reinecke, Liv; Rudinger, Nicolas; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a comparative reaction engineering analysis of metabolically engineered sucrose-utilizing Escherichia coli derived from E. coli K12 MG1655 for the anaerobic production of succinic acid. Production capacities of 16 different recombinant strains were evaluated in 48 parallel fed-batch-operated milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors (10 mL) with continuous CO₂ sparging. The effects of recombinant sucrose-utilization systems (csc-operon or scr-operon), enhancements of anaplerotic reactions (pck, ppc, maeA, maeB or heterologous pyc) and gene deletions (ldhA, adhE, ack-pta and ptsG) were studied with respect to the overall process performances of the respective recombinant strains. Both sucrose-utilization systems enabled the production of succinic acid from sucrose in E. coli K12 MG1655. Maximum succinate production was observed by overexpressing the pyruvate carboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum resulting in a succinate concentration of 26.8 g L⁻¹ after 48 h and a cell-specific productivity of 0.14 g g⁻¹ h⁻¹. Further experiments in a fed-batch-operated laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor (2 L) showed that micro-aerobic conditions preceding the anaerobic phase enhance succinic acid production of E. coli K12 MG1655-derived strains. The work demonstrates the importance of parallel approaches within the scope of applied metabolic engineering studies. PMID:22588847

  4. [Construction and operation of Internet Search Engine specialized in information on asthma. A Search Engine-based investigation to identify asthma-related information needed by Internet users].

    PubMed

    Saito, Naruo

    2003-12-01

    To support asthmatic patients in collecting information through the Internet, we have constructed and operated a search engine specialized in asthma-related information making use of the search engine software available free of charge and other programs. A questionnaire was attached to the bottom of the Web page presenting the search results, asking the users to respond to several questions. During the three-year period since its start of operation on June 1, 2000, there was 66689 visits to this site and 786 responses to the questionnaire were collected. Of all respondents, 19.3% were medical professionals, 63.7% were patients or their family members, and 11.3% belonged to the other categories (5.3% did not specify their position). In each of these three user groups, only about half of the users were able to find a route to the information they needed. This seems to reflect the absence of adequate asthma-related information sources on the Internet in Japanese language. However, more than 70% of all users in each group answered that this search engine site was useful. PMID:14739773

  5. Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in an HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G; Farrell, John T

    2006-01-01

    The effects of fuel properties on gasoline HCCI operation have been investigated in a single cylinder, 500 cc, 11.3 CR port fuel injected research engine, operated at lambda=1 and equipped with hydraulic valve actuation. HCCI is promoted by early exhaust valve closing to retain hot exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. Test fuels were formulated with pure components to have the same RON, MON, and octane sensitivity as an indolene reference fuel, but with a wide range of fuel composition differences. Experiments have been carried out to determine if fuel composition plays a role in HCCI combustion properties, independent of octane numbers. Fuel economy, emissions, and combustion parameters have been measured at several fixed speed/load conditions over a range of exhaust valve closing angles. When the data are compared at constant combustion phasing, fuel effects on emissions and other combustion properties are small. However, when compared at constant exhaust valve closing angle, fuel composition effects are more pronounced, specifically regarding ignition. Operability range differences are also related to fuel composition. An all-paraffinic (normal, iso, and cycloparaffins) fuel exhibited distinctly earlier combustion phasing, increased rate of cylinder pressure rise, and increased rate of maximum heat release compared to the indolene reference fuel. Conversely, olefin-containing fuels exhibited retarded combustion phasing. The fuels with the most advanced ignition showed a wider operating range in terms of engine speed and load, irrespective of exhaust closing angle. These ignition differences reflect contributions from both fuel and EGR kinetics, the effects of which are discussed. The fuel composition variables are somewhat inter-correlated, which makes the experimental separation their effects imprecise with this small set of fuels, though clear trends are evident. The overall effects of fuel composition on engine performance

  6. J-2 Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Smokeless flame juts from the diffuser of a unique vacuum chamber in which the upper stage rocket engine, the hydrogen fueled J-2, was tested at a simulated space altitude in excess of 60,000 feet. The smoke you see is actually steam. In operation, vacuum is established by injecting steam into the chamber and is maintained by the thrust of the engine firing through the diffuser. The engine was tested in this environment for start, stop, coast, restart, and full-duration operations. The chamber was located at Rocketdyne's Propulsion Field Laboratory, in the Santa Susana Mountains, near Canoga Park, California. The J-2 engine was developed by Rocketdyne for the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. Method and device for optimizing the air-fuel mixture burn rate of internal combustion engines during low speed, light and heavy load operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method for optimizing low speed light load and low speed heavy load operating conditions in an internal combustion engine. The engine has a camshaft, a crankshaft, at least one intake valve and at least one piston, and is capable of providing for small valve events, and the engine providing for earlier than normal intake valve closings the method comprises: sensing the load demand on the engine, regulating the phasing of the operation of the camshaft of the engine with the operation of the crankshaft of the engine in response to the sensed load demand by advancing the operation of camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when a heavy load demand is sensed and by retarding the operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when alight load demand is sensed, and sensing detonation in the engine and regulating the phasing operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft by advancing the operation of the camshaft relative to the crankshaft when detonation is sensed.

  8. Impacts of fuel formulation and engine operating parameters on the nanostructure and reactivity of diesel soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehliu, Kuen

    This study focuses on the impacts of fuel formulations on the reactivity and nanostructure of diesel soot. A 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine was used in generating soot samples. The impacts of engine operating modes and the start of combustion on soot reactivity were investigated first. Based on preliminary investigations, a test condition of 2400 rpm and 64 Nm, with single and split injection strategies, was chosen for studying the impacts of fuel formulation on the characteristics of diesel soot. Three test fuels were used: an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (BP15), a pure soybean methyl-ester (B100), and a synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT) produced in a gas-to-liquid process. The start of injection (SOI) and fuel rail pressures were adjusted such that the three test fuels have similar combustion phasing, thereby facilitating comparisons between soots from the different fuels. Soot reactivity was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to TGA, B100 soot exhibits the fastest oxidation on a mass basis followed by BP15 and FT derived soots in order of apparent rate constant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates no relation between the surface oxygen content and the soot reactivity. Crystalline information for the soot samples was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The basal plane diameter obtained from XRD was inversely related to the apparent rate constants for soot oxidation. For comparison, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) provided images of the graphene layers. Quantitative image analysis proceeded by a custom algorithm. B100 derived soot possessed the shortest mean fringe length and greatest mean fringe tortuosity. This suggests soot (nano)structural disorder correlates with a faster oxidation rate. Such results are in agreement with the X-ray analysis, as the observed fringe length is a measure of basal plane diameter. Moreover the relation

  9. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  10. Dynamic estimator for determining operating conditions in an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob

    2016-01-05

    Methods and systems are provided for estimating engine performance information for a combustion cycle of an internal combustion engine. Estimated performance information for a previous combustion cycle is retrieved from memory. The estimated performance information includes an estimated value of at least one engine performance variable. Actuator settings applied to engine actuators are also received. The performance information for the current combustion cycle is then estimated based, at least in part, on the estimated performance information for the previous combustion cycle and the actuator settings applied during the previous combustion cycle. The estimated performance information for the current combustion cycle is then stored to the memory to be used in estimating performance information for a subsequent combustion cycle.

  11. 33 CFR 209.140 - Operations of the Corps of Engineers under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission, see 18 CFR chapter I. ... flood control, the Chief of Engineers will be notified whereupon the matter will be brought to the... having a definite bearing on the interests of navigation and flood control and the general effect...

  12. 33 CFR 209.140 - Operations of the Corps of Engineers under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Commission, see 18 CFR chapter I. ... flood control, the Chief of Engineers will be notified whereupon the matter will be brought to the... having a definite bearing on the interests of navigation and flood control and the general effect...

  13. 33 CFR 209.140 - Operations of the Corps of Engineers under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Commission, see 18 CFR chapter I. ... flood control, the Chief of Engineers will be notified whereupon the matter will be brought to the... having a definite bearing on the interests of navigation and flood control and the general effect...

  14. 33 CFR 209.140 - Operations of the Corps of Engineers under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Commission, see 18 CFR chapter I. ... flood control, the Chief of Engineers will be notified whereupon the matter will be brought to the... having a definite bearing on the interests of navigation and flood control and the general effect...

  15. 33 CFR 209.140 - Operations of the Corps of Engineers under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Commission, see 18 CFR chapter I. ... flood control, the Chief of Engineers will be notified whereupon the matter will be brought to the... having a definite bearing on the interests of navigation and flood control and the general effect...

  16. Operational physical conditions for a solid-state-engine (SSE) applying shape memory (SM) alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kajamaa, J.

    1987-03-01

    The physical conditions for a solid-state-engine (SSE) applying shape memory (SM) alloy is treated based on both experimental results and theoretical considerations. First, the mechanical efficiency is derived. It is compared to that of the fuel engine. Then, the energy transformation diagram is drawn. By means of this the overall efficiency of the system is defined. Also it is concluded that this system can store a part of the accepted kinetic energy as a potential energy in a reversible manner.

  17. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann; DeLancey, James Peter; Primus, Roy James; Pintgen, Florian Peter

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  18. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  19. Detection of the Impact of Ice Crystal Accretion in an Aircraft Engine Compression System During Dynamic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Simon, Donald L.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    The accretion of ice in the compression system of commercial gas turbine engines operating in high ice water content conditions is a safety issue being studied by the aviation community. While most of the research focuses on the underlying physics of ice accretion and the meteorological conditions in which accretion can occur, a systems-level perspective on the topic lends itself to potential near-term operational improvements. Here a detection algorithm is developed which has the capability to detect the impact of ice accretion in the Low Pressure Compressor of an aircraft engine during steady flight as well as during changes in altitude. Unfortunately, the algorithm as implemented was not able to distinguish throttle changes from ice accretion and thus more work remains to be done.

  20. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  1. Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T.; Janes, J.

    1997-06-01

    This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems.

  2. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  3. Investigation of Ignition and Combustion Processes of Diesel Engines Operating with Turbulence and Air-storage Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Hans

    1938-01-01

    The flame photographs obtained with combustion-chamber models of engines operating respectively, with turbulence chamber and air-storage chambers or cells, provide an insight into the air and fuel movements that take place before and during combustion in the combustion chamber. The relation between air velocity, start of injection, and time of combustion was determined for the combustion process employing a turbulence chamber.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented by Hydrogen Rich Gas from a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Green, Jr.; N. Domingo; J. M. E. Storey; R.M. Wagner; J.S. Armfield; L. Bromberg; D. R. Cohn; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev

    2000-06-19

    It is well known that hydrogen addition to spark-ignited (SI) engines can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. Micro plasmatron fuel converters can be used for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas by partial oxidation of a wide range of fuels. These plasma-boosted microreformers are compact, rugged, and provide rapid response. With hydrogen supplement to the main fuel, SI engines can run very lean resulting in a large reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions relative to stoichiometric combustion without a catalytic converter. This paper presents experimental results from a microplasmatron fuel converter operating under variable oxygen to carbon ratios. Tests have also been carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of a microplasmatron fuel converter generated gas in a 1995 2.3-L four-cylinder SI production engine. The tests were performed with and without hydrogen-rich gas produced by the plasma boosted fuel converter with gasoline. A one hundred fold reduction in NO x due to very lean operation was obtained under certain conditions. An advantage of onboard plasma-boosted generation of hydrogen-rich gas is that it is used only when required and can be readily turned on and off. Substantial NO x reduction should also be obtainable by heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) facilitated by use of hydrogen-rich gas with stoichiometric operation.

  5. Design and Operation of a Fast, Thin-Film Thermocouple Probe on a Turbine Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Roger D.; Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Greer, Lawrence C., III; Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2014-01-01

    As a demonstration of technology maturation, a thin-film temperature sensor probe was fabricated and installed on a F117 turbofan engine via a borescope access port to monitor the temperature experienced in the bleed air passage of the compressor area during an engine checkout test run. To withstand the harsh conditions experienced in this environment, the sensor probe was built from high temperature materials. The thin-film thermocouple sensing elements were deposited by physical vapor deposition using pure metal elements, thus avoiding the inconsistencies of sputter-depositing particular percentages of materials to form standardized alloys commonly found in thermocouples. The sensor probe and assembly were subjected to a strict protocol of multi-axis vibrational testing as well as elevated temperature pressure testing to be qualified for this application. The thin-film thermocouple probe demonstrated a faster response than a traditional embedded thermocouple during the engine checkout run.

  6. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  7. Preliminary Transient Performance Data for Afterburner Operation of Westinghouse Electronic Power Regulator on XJ34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine in Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasu, George; Schwent, Glennon V.; Ketchum, James R.

    1951-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, an investigation of the Westinghouse XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine is being conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine the steady-state and transient operating characteristics of the controlled and uncontrolled engine at various altitudes and ram pressure ratios. As part of this program, transient performance data that illustrate the operation of the engine is obtained in the form of oscillographic traces. Similar data for engine operation i n the afterburning range, covering a range of throttle settings from the minimum value giving rated speed (throttle position, 72 degrees) to full afterburning (throttle position, ll0 degrees), is presented herein. These data thus serve to indicate the transient characteristics of the engine when the throttle is advance into, withdrawn from, and moved within the afterburning range in a stepwise manner, as well as the steady-state stability of the engine during afterburning .

  8. Protection of gas engine or turbine from damage by changes in operating characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Bolin, W.D.; Roper, R.L.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing electrical power which comprises: combustion means for burning gaseous fuel; engine means powered by combustion products from the combustion means; throttle means for adjusting the relative amounts of gaseous fuel and oxygen-containing gas admitted to the combustion means; generator means powered by the engine means; and means for maintaining substantially constant current output from the generator. The means for maintaining comprise means for adjusting the throttle means to decrease the amount of fuel admitted to the combustion means when the current output from the generator increases, and to increase the amount of fuel admitted when the current output decreases.

  9. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  10. EMISSIONS FROM TWO OUTBOARD ENGINES OPERATING ON REFORMULATED GASOLINE CONTAINING MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air and water pollutant emissions were measured from two 9.9 HP outboard engines: a two-stroke Evinrude and its four-stroke Honda counterpart. In addition to the measurement of regulated air pollutants, speciated organic pollutants and particulate matter emissions were determi...

  11. Intelligent Engine Systems Work Element 1.2: Malfunction and Operator Error Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Jet engines, although highly reliable and safe, do experience malfunctions that cause flight delays, passenger stress, and in some cases, in conjunction with inappropriate crew response, contribute to airplane accidents. On rare occasions, the anomalous engine behavior is not recognized until it is too late for the pilots to do anything to prevent or mitigate the resulting engine malfunction causing in-flight shutdowns (IFSDs), aborted takeoffs (ATOs), or loss of thrust control (LOTC). In some cases, the crew response to a myriad of external stimuli and existing training procedures is the source of the problem mentioned above. The problem is the reduction of jet engine malfunctions (IFSDs, ATOs, and LOTC) and inappropriate crew response (PSM+ICR) through the use of evolving and advanced technologies. The solution is to develop the overall system health maintenance architecture, detection and accommodation technologies, processes, and enhanced crew interfaces that would enable a significant reduction in IFSDs, ATOs, and LOTC. This program defines requirements and proposes a preliminary design concept of an architecture that enables the realization of the solution.

  12. Plasma technology for increase of operating high pressure fuel pump diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovev, R. Y.; Sharifullin, S. N.; Adigamov, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a change in the service life of high pressure fuel pumps of diesel engines on the working surface of the plunger which a wear resistant dielectric plasma coatings based on silicon oxycarbonitride. Such coatings possess high wear resistance, chemical inertness and low friction.

  13. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: SLI initiated under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 8-30. Strategic Objectives. Make spaceflight safer (1 in 10000 mission LOV). Make spaceflight cheaper ($1000/lb payload). Two prototype LOX/LH2 engine systems funded under Cycle-1 of NRA8-30. COBRA (Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet). RS-83 (Rocketdyne).

  14. Operator role definition: An initial step in the human factors engineering design of the advanced neutron source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.; Houser, M.M.; Hill, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy that is proposed for construction. It will provide neutron beams for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The facility will provide a useful neutron beam flux that is at least five times more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. It will also provide world-class facilities for isotopes production, materials irradiation testing, materials analysis, and the production of positrons. ANS will be unique in the United States in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles will be included in its design and construction. Initial HFE accomplishments include the development of a functional analysis, an operating philosophy, and a program plan. In fiscal year 1994, HFE activities are focusing on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO should function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

  15. Ceramic valve development for heavy-duty low heat rejection diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, K. E.; Micu, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic valves can be successfully operated in a heavy-duty diesel engine, even under extreme low heat rejection operating conditions. This paper describes the development of a silicon nitride valve from the initial design stage to actual engine testing. Supplier involvement, finite element analysis, and preliminary proof of concept demonstration testing played a significant role in this project's success.

  16. Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.B.

    1984-02-28

    An internal combustion engine has a piston rack depending from each piston. This rack is connected to a power output shaft through a mechanical rectifier so that the power output shaft rotates in only one direction. A connecting rod is pivotally connected at one end to the rack and at the other end to the crank of a reduced function crankshaft so that the crankshaft rotates at the same angular velocity as the power output shaft and at the same frequency as the pistons. The crankshaft has a size, weight and shape sufficient to return the pistons back into the cylinders in position for the next power stroke.

  17. Transferring jet engine diagnostic and control technology to liquid propellant rocket engines

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, J.F.; Hagar, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for developing a diagnostic and control system for a current, operational jet engine. A description is given of each development stage, the system components and the technologies which could be transferred to liquid propellant rocket engines. Finally, the operational impact is described in terms of cost and maintenance based on actual jet engine experience. Efforts are continuing to develop new diagnostic techniques under IR D for application on the advanced technical fighter. Already improved techniques and application methods are becoming available. This technology is being evaluated and may also be transferred to rocket engine diagnostic and control system development.

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOEpatents

    McMillian, Michael H.

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  19. Optimum operation of irreversible Carnot heat engines of finite size at maximum power output

    SciTech Connect

    Oezkaynak, S.

    1996-04-01

    In this article the author considers the optimum performance at the maximum power output of internally and externally irreversible heat engines of finite size in which heat transfer is proportional to the difference of temperature to an n-power. For the case n = 1, where heat transfer is Newtonian heat conduction, the hot-end/cold-end heat-exchanger size ratio is less than unity. For the case n = 4, which corresponds to radiative heat transfer, the values of design parameters are obtained from the numerical solution of two coupled nonlinear equations. For a radiative heat engine of finite size, the upper limit to the optimum efficiency at maximum power output is found to be 0.339.

  20. Extended Operation and Modification of 20 mN Class Xenon Ion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Osuga, Hiroyuki; Nagano, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Yukio; Kajiwara, Kenichi

    To extend the application of the 20 mN class xenon ion engine which was used for north-south station keeping of a geosynchronous satellite--the engineering test satellite-VIII-, the ion thruster's thrust throttling performance was evaluated. The candidate target application is aerodynamic drag compensation of a super-low-altitude earth observation spacecraft. Performance test results show that the thruster, which passed through 12,000 h life test, exhibited a thrust throttling performance from 6 mN to 28 mN, although the thruster showed performance degradation from its initial performance before the life test. A power processing control unit is under development to meet the thrust throttling performance.

  1. Towards Rocket Engine Components with Increased Strength and Robust Operating Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Hadid, Ali; Lin, Pei; Balcazar, Daniel; Rai, Man Mohan; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    High-energy rotating machines, powering liquid propellant rocket engines, are subject to various sources of high and low cycle fatigue generated by unsteady flow phenomena. Given the tremendous need for reliability in a sustainable space exploration program, a fundamental change in the design methodology for engine components is required for both launch and space based systems. A design optimization system based on neural-networks has been applied and demonstrated in the redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo Pump (LPOTP) turbine nozzle. One objective of the redesign effort was to increase airfoil thickness and thus increase its strength while at the same time detuning the vane natural frequency modes from the vortex shedding frequency. The second objective was to reduce the vortex shedding amplitude. The third objective was to maintain this low shedding amplitude even in the presence of large manufacturing tolerances. All of these objectives were achieved without generating any detrimental effects on the downstream flow through the turbine, and without introducing any penalty in performance. The airfoil redesign and preliminary assessment was performed in the Exploration Technology Directorate at NASA ARC. Boeing/Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC independently performed final CFD assessments of the design. Four different CFD codes were used in this process. They include WIL DCA T/CORSAIR (NASA), FLUENT (commercial), TIDAL (Boeing Rocketdyne) and, a new family (AardvarWPhantom) of CFD analysis codes developed at NASA MSFC employing LOX fluid properties and a Generalized Equation Set formulation. Extensive aerodynamic performance analysis and stress analysis carried out at Boeing Rocketdyne and NASA MSFC indicate that the redesign objectives have been fully met. The paper presents the results of the assessment analysis and discusses the future potential of robust optimal design for rocket engine components.

  2. A Methodology to Assess the Capability of Engine Designs to Meet Closed-Loop Performance and Operability Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Csank, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Designing a closed-loop controller for an engine requires balancing trade-offs between performance and operability of the system. One such trade-off is the relationship between the 95 percent response time and minimum high-pressure compressor (HPC) surge margin (SM) attained during acceleration from idle to takeoff power. Assuming a controller has been designed to meet some specification on response time and minimum HPC SM for a mid-life (nominal) engine, there is no guarantee that these limits will not be violated as the engine ages, particularly as it reaches the end of its life. A characterization for the uncertainty in this closed-loop system due to aging is proposed that defines elliptical boundaries to estimate worst-case performance levels for a given control design point. The results of this characterization can be used to identify limiting design points that bound the possible controller designs yielding transient results that do not exceed specified limits in response time or minimum HPC SM. This characterization involves performing Monte Carlo simulation of the closed-loop system with controller constructed for a set of trial design points and developing curve fits to describe the size and orientation of each ellipse; a binary search procedure is then employed that uses these fits to identify the limiting design point. The method is demonstrated through application to a generic turbofan engine model in closed-loop with a simplified controller; it is found that the limit for which each controller was designed was exceeded by less than 4.76 percent. Extension of the characterization to another trade-off, that between the maximum high-pressure turbine (HPT) entrance temperature and minimum HPC SM, showed even better results: the maximum HPT temperature was estimated within 0.76 percent. Because of the accuracy in this estimation, this suggests another limit that may be taken into consideration during design and analysis. It also demonstrates the extension

  3. A Methodology to Assess the Capability of Engine Designs to Meet Closed-loop Performance and Operability Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a closed-loop controller for an engine requires balancing trade-offs between performance and operability of the system. One such trade-off is the relationship between the 95% response time and minimum high-pressure compressor (HPC) surge margin (SM) attained during acceleration from idle to takeoff power. Assuming a controller has been designed to meet some specification on response time and minimum HPC SM for a mid-life (nominal) engine, there is no guarantee that these limits will not be violated as the engine ages, particularly as it reaches the end of its life. A characterization for the uncertainty in this closed-loop system due to aging is proposed that defines elliptical boundaries to estimate worst-case performance levels for a given control design point. The results of this characterization can be used to identify limiting design points that bound the possible con- troller designs yielding transient results that do not exceed specified limits in response time or minimum HPC SM. This characterization involves performing Monte Carlo simulation of the closed-loop system with controller constructed for a set of trial design points and developing curve fits to describe the size and orientation of each ellipse; a binary search procedure is then employed that uses these fits to identify the limiting design point. The method is demonstrated through application to a generic turbofan engine model in closed- loop with a simplified controller; it is found that the limit for which each controller was designed was exceeded by less than 4.76%. Extension of the characterization to another trade-off, that between the maximum high-pressure turbine (HPT) entrance temperature and minimum HPC SM, showed even better results: the maximum HPT temperature was estimated within 0.76%. Because of the accuracy in this estimation, this suggests another limit that may be taken into consideration during design and analysis. It also demonstrates the extension of the

  4. [Evaluating influence of Captopril therapy on occupational activity of engine operators with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Serikov, V V; Kolyagin, V Ya; Bogdanova, V E

    2016-01-01

    The article covers results of study concerning influence of Captopril (25 mg) therapy on occupational activity of locomotive crew workers in real night travels model on training complex "EP1M locomotive operator cabin". Findings are that single use of Captopril (25 mg) in modelled railway activity enabled to increase reliability of occupational activity, that manifested in lower number of errors in locomotive operators' actions at night, and in psychophysiologic regulation of various psychic acts. PMID:27396147

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Image of Hyper-X Research Vehicle at Mach 7 with Engine Operating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) image shows the Hyper-X vehicle at a Mach 7 test condition with the engine operating. The solution includes both internal (scramjet engine) and external flow fields, including the interaction between the engine exhaust and vehicle aerodynamics. The image illustrates surface heat transfer on the vehicle surface (red is highest heating) and flowfield contours at local Mach number. The last contour illustrates the engine exhaust plume shape. This solution approach is one method of predicting the vehicle performance, and the best method for determination of vehicle structural, pressure and thermal design loads. The Hyper-X program is an ambitious series of experimental flights to expand the boundaries of high-speed aeronautics and develop new technologies for space access. When the first of three aircraft flies, it will be the first time a non-rocket engine has powered a vehicle in flight at hypersonic speeds--speeds above Mach 5, equivalent to about one mile per second or approximately 3,600 miles per hour at sea level. Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly

  6. Effect of afterburner lights and inlet unstarts on a mixed compression inlet turbofan engine operating at Mach 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.; Batterton, P. G.; Daniele, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented to show the response of an uncontrolled inlet to afterburner lightoff disturbances when a mixed-compression inlet is coupled to a turbofan engine. The results show a significant upstream shock excursion when the afterburner lights which is a result of the direct communication between the afterburner region and the inlet by means of the fan duct and fan stages. In addition results of a waveform analysis on the inlet pressure response to the afterburner light is presented. Inlet unstarts and their effect on operation of the propulsion system is also discussed.

  7. Experimental and Analytical Determination of the Motion of Hydraulically Operated Valve Stems in Oil Engine Injection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.

  8. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  9. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central element in a metaphysical…

  10. Operation of the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The ICASE research program is described in detail; it consists of four major categories: (1) efficient use of vector and parallel computers, with particular emphasis on the CDC STAR-100; (2) numerical analysis, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (3) analysis and planning of large-scale software systems; and (4) computational research in engineering and the natural sciences, with particular emphasis on fluid dynamics. The work in each of these areas is described in detail; other activities are discussed, a prognosis of future activities are included.

  11. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  12. 40 CFR 60.4204 - What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What emission standards must I meet for non-emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4204 Section 60.4204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4205 - What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What emission standards must I meet for emergency engines if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4205 Section 60.4205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR...

  14. Development of thermoacoustic engine operating by waste heat from cooking stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B. M.; Abakr, Y. A.; Riley, P. H.; Hann, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    There are about 1.5 billion people worldwide use biomass as their primary form of energy in household cooking[1]. They do not have access to electricity, and are too remote to benefit from grid electrical supply. In many rural communities, stoves are made without technical advancements, mostly using open fires cooking stoves which have been proven to be extremely low efficiency, and about 93% of the energy generated is lost during cooking. The cooking is done inside a dwelling and creates significant health hazard to the family members and pollution to environment. SCORE (www.score.uk.com) is an international collaboration research project to design and build a low-cost, high efficiency woodstove that uses about half amount of the wood of an open wood fire, and uses the waste heat of the stove to power a thermoacoustic engine (TAE) to produce electricity for applications such as LED lighting, charging mobile phones or charging a 12V battery. This paper reviews on the development of two types of the thermoacoustic engine powered by waste heat from cooking stove which is either using Propane gas or burning of wood as a cooking energy to produce an acceptable amount of electricity for the use of rural communities.

  15. A mathematical framework for multiscale science and engineering : the variational multiscale method and interscale transfer operators.

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Christon, Mark Allen; Slepoy, Alexander; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Collis, Samuel Scott; Wagner, Gregory John

    2004-05-01

    Existing approaches in multiscale science and engineering have evolved from a range of ideas and solutions that are reflective of their original problem domains. As a result, research in multiscale science has followed widely diverse and disjoint paths, which presents a barrier to cross pollination of ideas and application of methods outside their application domains. The status of the research environment calls for an abstract mathematical framework that can provide a common language to formulate and analyze multiscale problems across a range of scientific and engineering disciplines. In such a framework, critical common issues arising in multiscale problems can be identified, explored and characterized in an abstract setting. This type of overarching approach would allow categorization and clarification of existing models and approximations in a landscape of seemingly disjoint, mutually exclusive and ad hoc methods. More importantly, such an approach can provide context for both the development of new techniques and their critical examination. As with any new mathematical framework, it is necessary to demonstrate its viability on problems of practical importance. At Sandia, lab-centric, prototype application problems in fluid mechanics, reacting flows, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), shock hydrodynamics and materials science span an important subset of DOE Office of Science applications and form an ideal proving ground for new approaches in multiscale science.

  16. Theoretical investigation of operation modes of MHD generators for energy-bypass engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingfeng; Li, Nan; Yu, Daren

    2014-12-01

    A MHD generator with different arrangements of electromagnetic fields will lead the generator working in three modes. A quasi-one-dimensional approximation is used for the model of the MHD generator to analyze the inner mechanism of operation modes. For the MHD generator with a uniform constant magnetic field, a specific critical electric field E cr is required to decelerate a supersonic entrance flow into a subsonic exit flow. Otherwise, the generator works in a steady mode with a larger electric field than E cr in which a steady supersonic flow is provided at the exit, or the generator works in a choked mode with a smaller electric field than E cr in which the supersonic entrance flow is choked in the channel. The detailed flow field characteristics in different operation modes are discussed, demonstrating the relationship of operation modes with electromagnetic fields.

  17. Re-Engineering of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to Reduce Operational Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvis, Michael; Dougherty, Andrew; Whittier, Wallace

    1996-01-01

    Satellite telemetry processing onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is carried out using dedicated software and hardware. The current ground system is expensive to operate and maintain. The mandate to reduce satellite ground system operations and maintenance costs by the year 2000 led NASA to upgrade the command and control systems in order to improve the data processing capabilities, reduce operator experience levels and increase system standardization. As a result, a command and control system product development team was formed to redesign and develop the HST ground system. The command and control system ground system development consists of six elements. The results of the prototyping phase carried out for the following of these elements are presented: the front end processor; middleware, and the graphical user interface.

  18. A review of engineering control technology for exposures generated during abrasive blasting operations.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2004-10-01

    This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry. The exposures of concern include respirable crystalline silica, lead, chromates, and other toxic metals. Unfortunately, silica sand continues to be widely used in the United States as an abrasive blasting medium, resulting in high exposures to operators and surrounding personnel. Recently, several alternative abrasives have emerged as potential substitutes for sand, but they seem to be underused Some of these abrasives may pose additional metal exposure hazards. In addition, several new and improved technologies offer promise for reducing or eliminating exposures; these include wet abrasive blasting, high-pressure water jetting, vacuum blasting, and automated/robotic systems. More research, particularly field studies, is needed to evaluate control interventions in this important and hazardous operation. PMID:15631059

  19. Ground noise measurements during landing, take-off, and flyby operations of a four-engine turbopropeller STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Henderson, H. R.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    Noise measurements were obtained for a four-engine turbopropeller STOL airplane during a Federal Aviation Administration flight evaluation program at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center. These noise measurements involved landing-approach, takeoff-climbout, and flyby operations of the airplane. A total of 13 measuring positions were used to define the noise characteristics around a simulated STOL port. The results are presented in the form of both physical and subjective measurements. An appendix is included to present tabulated values of various subjective reaction units which may be significant for the planning and operation of STOL ports. The main source of noise produced by this vehicle was found to be the propeller, and noise levels decrease generally in accordance with the inverse-distance law for distances up to about 457 meters. For similar slant ranges, somewhat lower noise levels were experienced during flyby than during takeoff or landing.

  20. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions. PMID:25318418

  1. DOE Backup Power Working Group Best Practices Handbook for Maintenance and Operation of Engine Generators, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R.E.

    1998-10-30

    The lubricating oil system provides a means to introduce a lubricant in the form of a film to reduce friction and wear between surfaces that bear against each other as they move.1 The oil film which is established also cools the parts by carrying generated heat away from hot surfaces, cleans and carries dirt or metal wear particles to the filter media, and helps seal the piston to the cylinder during combustion. Most systems are pressure lubricated and distribute oil under pressure to bearings, gears, and power assemblies. Lubricating oil usually reaches main, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings through drilled passages in the cylinder block and crankshaft or through piping and common manifolds.Many parts rely on oil for cooling, so if the lube oil system fails to perform its function the engine will overheat. Metal to metal surfaces not separated by a thin film of oil rapidly build up frictional heat. As the metals reach their melting point, they tend to weld together in spots or streaks. Lube oil system failures can cause significant damage to an engine in a short period of time. Proper maintenance and operation of the lubricating oil system is essential if your engine is to accomplish its mission.

  2. National Ignition Facility start-up/operations engineering and special equipment construction health and safety plan

    SciTech Connect

    Huddleston, P C

    1998-05-08

    This document sets forth the responsibilities, interfaces, guidelines, rules, policy, and regulations for all workers involved in the S/O and SE construction, installation, and acceptance testing. This document is enforced from the first day that S/O and SE workers set foot on the NIF construction site until the end of the Project at Critical Decision 4. This document is applicable only to site activities, which are defined as those that occur within the perimeter of the fenced-off NIF construction zone and the Target Chamber Assembly Area (Helipad). The associated Special Equipment laydown and construction support areas listed in Appendix B are not under this plan; their safety provisions are discussed in the Appendix. Prototype and other support activities, such as the Amplifier Laboratory and Frame Assembly Unit assembly area, are not included in this plan. After completion of the Operational Readiness Review, the Facility Safety Procedure, Operational Safety Requirements, and Operational Safety Procedures are the governing safety documents for the operating facility. The S/O and SE project elements are required to implement measures that create a universal awareness of and promote safe job practices at the site. This includes all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester, supplement labor organization, and subcontractor employees; visitors; and guests serving the S/O and SE effort.

  3. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  4. Engine Lathe Operator. Instructor's Guide. Part of Single-Tool Skills Program Series. Machine Industries Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Expected to help meet the need for trained operators in metalworking and suitable for use in the adult education programs of school districts, in manpower development and training programs, and in secondary schools, this guide consists of four sections: Introduction, General Job Content, Shop Projects, and Drawings for the Projects. General Job…

  5. The design and operating characteristics of an advanced 30-kW ammonia arcjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, William D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Brophy, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of a contoured nozzle and modified cathode shape on ammonia arcjet engine performance. The contoured nozzle performance data were compared to the performance data of an arcjet which had a 38-deg included-angle, conical nozzle. Thrust improvements of up to 10 percent were demonstrated which corresponded to 3 percent improvements in specific impulse and 10 percent improvements in thrust efficiency. Performance characterizations for the modified cathode tip were conducted with the contoured nozzle arcjet. A uniform 15 percent decrease in arc voltage was demonstrated over a mass flow range of 0.175 to 0.350 g/s. A 4 percent improvement in thrust efficiency was noted at 22.0 kW.

  6. An investigation of dual-mode operation of a nuclear-thermal rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, W.L.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Moore, S.W.; McFarland, R.D.; Merrigan, M.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Cappiello, M.W.; Hanson, D.L.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and mass competitiveness of a dual-mode nuclear propulsion and power system based on Rover-type reactors has been completed. Earlier studies have indicated that dual-mode systems appear attractive for electrical power levels of a few kilowatts. However, at the megawatt electrical power level considered in this study, it appears that extensive modifications to the nuclear-thermal engines would be required, the feasibility of which is unclear. Mass competitiveness at high electrical power levels is also uncertain. Further study of reactor and shield design in conjuction with mission and vehicle studies is necessary in order to determine a useful dual-mode power range. 9 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Human Engineering Operations and Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Janis H.; Arch, M.; Elfezouaty, Eileen Schultz; Novak, Jennifer Blume; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes (which are defining/app lying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems) are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as Bio-Plex. A unique aspect of the Bio-Plex Facility is the integral issue of Habitability which includes qualities of the environment that allow humans to work and live. HE is a process by which Habitability and system performance can be assessed.

  8. Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi

    2012-03-01

    We study the efficiency at maximum power, η(m), of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures T(h) and T(c), respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), η(m) becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h). For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency η(m) at maximum power output is bounded from above by η(C)/(2-η(C)) and from below by η(C)/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η(CA)=1-√(T(c)/T(h)) is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation. PMID:22587076

  9. Self-teaching digital-computer program for fail-operational control of a turbojet engine in a sea-level test stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallhagen, R. E.; Arpasi, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The design and evaluation are described of a digital turbojet engine control which is capable of sensing catastrophic failures in either the engine rotor speed or the compressor discharge static-pressure signal and is capable of switching control modes to maintain near normal operation. The control program was developed for and tested on a turbojet engine located in a sea-level test stand. The control program is also capable of acquiring all the data that are necessary for the fail-operational control to function.

  10. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Task 6, Operation of the Component Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the component development and laboratory binder test work at Wilsonville during Task 6. This Task included the construction and startup of the Component Development Test Facility (CDTF), coal procurement, evaluation of unit operation and dewatering performance, laboratory binder tests for diesel and heptane, production characterization, and vendor tests. Data evaluation, interpretation, and analysis are not included in this report, but will be discussed in the Task 7 report.

  11. W-026 integrated engineering cold run operational test report for balance of plant (BOP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-24

    This Cold Run test is designed to demonstrate the functionality of systems necessary to move waste drums throughout the plant using approved procedures, and the compatibility of these systems to function as an integrated process. This test excludes all internal functions of the gloveboxes. In the interest of efficiency and support of the facility schedule, the initial revision of the test (rev 0) was limited to the following: Receipt and storage of eight overpacked drums, four LLW and four TRU; Receipt, routing, and staging of eleven empty drums to the process area where they will be used later in this test; Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 9); Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 1). The above listed operations were tested using the rev 0 test document, through Section 5.4.25. The document was later revised to include movement of all staged drums to and from the LLW and TRU process and RWM gloveboxes. This testing was performed using Sections 5.5 though 5.11 of the rev 1 test document. The primary focus of this test is to prove the functionality of automatic operations for all mechanical and control processes listed. When necessary, the test demonstrates manual mode operations as well. Though the gloveboxes are listed, only waste and empty drum movement to, from, and between the gloveboxes was tested.

  12. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-02, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-05

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it

  13. Operation of marine diesel engines on biogenic fuels: modification of emissions and resulting climate effects.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Andreas; Lauer, Peter; Fritsche, Uwe; Hasselbach, Jan; Lichtenstern, Michael; Schlager, Hans; Fleischer, Fritz

    2011-12-15

    The modification of emissions of climate-sensitive exhaust compounds such as CO(2), NO(x), hydrocarbons, and particulate matter from medium-speed marine diesel engines was studied for a set of fossil and biogenic fuels. Applied fossil fuels were the reference heavy fuel oil (HFO) and the low-sulfur marine gas oil (MGO); biogenic fuels were palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and animal fat. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production of biogenic fuels were treated by means of a fuel life cycle analysis which included land use changes associated with the growth of energy plants. Emissions of CO(2) and NO(x) per kWh were found to be similar for fossil fuels and biogenic fuels. PM mass emission was reduced to 10-15% of HFO emissions for all low-sulfur fuels including MGO as a fossil fuel. Black carbon emissions were reduced significantly to 13-30% of HFO. Changes in emissions were predominantly related to particulate sulfate, while differences between low-sulfur fossil fuels and low-sulfur biogenic fuels were of minor significance. GHG emissions from the biogenic fuel life cycle (FLC) depend crucially on energy plant production conditions and have the potential of shifting the overall GHG budget from positive to negative compared to fossil fuels. PMID:22044020

  14. Economic and engineering analysis of a selected full-scale trommel screen operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hennon, G.J.; Fiscus, D.E.; Glaub, J.C.; Savage, G.M.

    1983-10-01

    The trommel screen located at the Baltimore County municipal solid waste processing plant operated by Teledyne National was evaluated for a 1-year period. This trommel is used to remove noncombustibles from refuse derived fuel (RDF) and thereby reduce ash content and increase heating value of the RDF. The trommel is 8 m in length, 3.7 m in diameter, has 32-mm holes, and can be operated at 6 to 12 rpm. Economic operating and maintenance data were collected for the period November 1980 through October 1981. Trommel performance was measured during October 1980 and January, May, and August 1981 in order to determine performance during the four seasons of the year. Test runs were conducted to evaluate screening performance as a function of feedrate and rotational speed. Physically the trommel can convey infeed rates as high as 46 Mg/h, but screening efficiency decreases with increased feedrates. An infeed range of 7 to 13 Mg/h is practical as this insures the greatest probability of meeting fuel specifications and achieving optimum economic contribution. While high screening efficiencies can be achieved at low feedrates, the value of the heating value increase may not always offset the trommel cost below a feedrate of 5 mg/h. Seasonal variations occurred in the feed to the trommel, for example as a consequence of the higher percentage of lawn and garden waste present in spring and summer. Seasonal variations were manifested in varying particle size, ash content, moisture content, organic content, and heating value. However, no obvious trend of trommel performance versus season of the year was observed.

  15. Performance and Operational Characteristics of a Python Turbine-propeller Engine at Simulated Altitude Conditions / Carl L. Meyer and Lavern A. Johnson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Carl L; Johnson, Lavern A

    1952-01-01

    The performance and operational characteristics of a Python turbine-propeller engine were investigated at simulated altitude conditions in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. In the performance phase, data were obtained over a range of engine speeds and exhaust nozzle areas at altitudes from 10,000 to 40,000 feet at a single cowl-inlet ram pressure ratio; independent control of engine speed and fuel flow was used to obtain a range of powers at each engine speed. Engine performance data obtained at a given altitude could not be used to predict performance accurately at other altitudes by use of the standard air pressure and temperature generalizing factors. At a given engine speed and turbine-inlet total temperature, a greater portion of the total available energy was converted to propulsive power as the altitude increased.

  16. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briault, Pauline; Rieu, Mathilde; Laucournet, Richard; Morel, Bertrand; Viricelle, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-01

    This project deals with the development and the electrochemical characterization of anode supported single chamber SOFC in a simulated environment of thermal engine exhaust gas. In the present work, a gas mixture representative of exhaust conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water. Only oxygen content is varied leading to different gas mixtures characterized by three ratios R = HC/O2. Concerning the cell components, a cermet made of nickel and an electrolyte material, Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) is used as anode and two cathode materials, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) and Pr2NiO4+δ (PNO), are evaluated. The prepared cells are investigated in the various gas mixtures for temperatures ranging from 450 °C to 600 °C. Ni-CGO/CGO/LSCF-CGO cell has delivered a maximum power density of 15 mW cm-2 at 500 °C with R = HC/O2 = 0.21, while lower power densities are obtained for the other ratios, R = 0.44 and R = 0.67. Afterwards, LSCF and PNO cathode materials are compared and LSCF is found to deliver the highest power densities. Finally, by improving the electrolyte microstructure, some cells presenting a maximum power density of 25 mW cm-2 at 550 °C are produced. Moreover, up to 17% of initial HC are eliminated in the gas mixture.

  17. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided.

  18. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - HANDSS-55 TRANSURANIC WASTE REPACKAGING MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-31

    The Transuranic waste generated at the Savannah River Site from nuclear weapons research, development, and production is currently estimated to be over 10,000 cubic meters. Over half of this amount is stored in 55-gallon drums. The waste in drums is primarily job control waste and equipment generated as the result of routine maintenance performed on the plutonium processing operations. Over the years that the drums have been accumulating, the regulatory definitions of materials approved for disposal have changed. Consequently, many of the drums now contain items that are not approved for disposal at DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The HANDSS-55 technology is being developed to allow remote sorting of the items in these drums and then repackaging of the compliant items for disposal at WIPP.

  19. Project Ares: A systems engineering and operations architecture for the exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglioranzi, Michael J.; Berger, Jeff M.; Blaufuss, David J.; Boltz, Richard W.; Dunn, Michael T.

    1992-03-01

    The authors, a group of 18 veteran space operations officers, explored the concept of placing a permanently manned station on Mars - Project Ares. Using a five phase plan involving an early moon base and three scientific missions to Mars followed by cargo missions and eventually manned trips to the planet, the authors analyzed, designed, and documented their approach. The report focuses on the second phase of the project - scientific expansion of our knowledge of Mars and proof of a reliable transportation system. Among the subjects discussed in the report are management, mission profile and environment, and mission systems. The latter subject contains a variety of systems proposed by various authorities in the space industry and selected to fulfill the unique requirements of the project. Because this phase is an integral part of the project, emphasis was on reusability and versatility.

  20. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-05, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades

  1. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  2. Motor-operator gearbox efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-06-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, we compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators we tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  3. Calibration of catalyst temperature in automotive engines over coldstart operation in the presence of different random noises and uncertainty: Implementation of generalized Gaussian process regression machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Nasser L.; Mozaffari, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    The main scope of the current study is to develop a systematic stochastic model to capture the undesired uncertainty and random noises on the key parameters affecting the catalyst temperature over the coldstart operation of automotive engine systems. In the recent years, a number of articles have been published which aim at the modeling and analysis of automotive engines' behavior during coldstart operations by using regression modeling methods. Regarding highly nonlinear and uncertain nature of the coldstart operation, calibration of the engine system's variables, for instance the catalyst temperature, is deemed to be an intricate task, and it is unlikely to develop an exact physics-based nonlinear model. This encourages automotive engineers to take advantage of knowledge-based modeling tools and regression approaches. However, there exist rare reports which propose an efficient tool for coping with the uncertainty associated with the collected database. Here, the authors introduce a random noise to experimentally derived data and simulate an uncertain database as a representative of the engine system's behavior over coldstart operations. Then, by using a Gaussian process regression machine (GPRM), a reliable model is used for the sake of analysis of the engine's behavior. The simulation results attest the efficacy of GPRM for the considered case study. The research outcomes confirm that it is possible to develop a practical calibration tool which can be reliably used for modeling the catalyst temperature.

  4. Engineering considerations for the economic design, installation and operation of ozonation equipment for cooling water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    Once it has been decided to install ozone for the treatment of cooling water, the next step is to assure that the equipment is sized and designed for the most reliable and economical operation. Design principles are presented which have proved to be effective for ozonation systems which have been treating municipal water and wastewaters so as to maximize the reliability of equipment performance, constancy of ozone output in a fail-safe mode, minimizing power expenditures, while providing for preventive maintenance. For example, rather than purchase a single ozone generator with a second for standby, the purchaser of ozone equipment might install three ozone generators, each of which is capable of producing 50% of the required quantity of ozone. Two of these are on-line continuously, with the third off-line, allowing for planned maintenance downtime. For periods of unusually high ozone demand, on-site liquid oxygen can be made available to double the output of ozone over that available from dried air. Advantages of generating ozone from oxygen will be discussed, and finally, a novel Japanese method of generating ozone from high purity oxygen, adsorption of ozone onto silica gel or molecular sieves, recycling of the oxygen, and intermittent application of the adsorbed ozone to flowing cooling water will be described.

  5. Engineering and operating approaches for controlling asbestos fibers in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, G S

    1983-01-01

    Techniques are available to minimize the concentration of asbestos fibers in drinking water. Filtration research conducted at locations on Lake Superior and in the Cascade Mountains in Washington has shown that amphibole and chrysotile fibers can be removed by granular media filtration. Removal percentages can exceed 99% when the raw water is coagulated properly and the filtered water turbidity is 0.10 ntu (nephelometric turbidity units) or lower. Filtered water fiber counts below detectable limits of 0.1 to 0.01 X 10(6) fibers/L can be attained. A study by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California showed that when raw water chrysotile counts ranged from 200 X 10(6) fibers/L to 2000 X 10(6) fibers/L, filtered water fiber counts frequently exceeded 1 X 10(6) fibers/L. Even so, striving to attain a filtered water turbidity of 0.1 ntu resulted in improved fiber removal. Pilot scale and distribution system research projects have shown that asbestos cement (AC) pipes can be protected from dissolution and leaching effects that can result in release of asbestos fibers into drinking water. Suggested techniques include modifying low pH, low alkalinity waters so they are not aggressive; coating the pipe wall with a chemical precipitate; and applying a cement mortar lining to the pipe wall. Operation and maintenance practices related to the distribution system, when AC water mains are in service, can influence the fiber count in tapwater. Main flushing can stir up sediment that accumulates in low-flow and dead-end areas, raising the fiber count. If mains are tapped and the cuttings are not flushed away through the tapping machine, but are instead permitted to fall into the water main, the fiber count can be raised. PMID:6559130

  6. Research of some operating parameters and the emissions level variation in a spark ignited engine through on-board investigation methods in different loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iosif, Ferenti; Baldean, Doru Laurean

    2014-06-01

    The present paper shows research made on a spark ignited engine with port fuel injection in different operation conditions in order to improve the comprehension about the cold start sequence, acceleration when changing the gear ratios, quality of combustion process and also any measures to be taken for pollutant reduction in such cases. The engineering endeavor encompasses the pollutants investigation during the operation time of gasoline supplied engine with four inline cylinders in different conditions. The temperature and any other parameters were measured with specific sensors installed on the engine or in the exhaust pipes. All the data collected has been evaluated using electronic investigation systems and highly developed equipment. In this manner it has enabled the outline of the idea of how pollutants of engine vary in different operating conditions. Air quality in the everyday environment is very important for the human health, and thus the ambient air quality has a well-known importance in the European pollution standards and legislation. The high level of attention directed to the pollution problem in the European lifestyle is a driving force for all kinds of studies in the field of the reduction of engine emission.

  7. Biofiltration of volatile pollutants: Engineering mechanisms for improved design, long-term operation, prediction, and implementation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Klasson, K.T.; Barton, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    'Biofiltration systems can be used to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs); however, the systems are poorly understood and are currently operated as black boxes. Common operational problems associated with biofilters include fouling, deactivation, and overgrowth, all of which make biofilters ineffective for continuous, long-term use. The objective of this investigation is to develop generic methods for long-term stable operation, in particular by using selective limitation of supplemental nutrients while maintaining high activity and the ability to regenerate biofilter activity. As part of this effort, the authors will provide a deeper fundamental understanding of the important biological and transport mechanisms in biodestruction of sparingly soluble VOCs and will extend this engineering approach and developed mathematical models to two additional systems of high-priority environmental management (EM) relevance-direct degradation and cometabolic degradation of priority pollutants such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) and TCE (trichioroethylene), respectively. Preliminary results indicate that the author can control overgrowth of the biofilm while sustaining high degradation rates and develop basic predictive models that elucidate mass transfer and kinetic limitations in this system for alkanes. The alkanes are degraded into CO, and waterwith minimal biomass (due to the methodology proposed). This system will be used to test and model additional supplemental nutrient feeding strategies as well as methods to increase the fundamental driving forces by modification of the system. Models will be extended to non-steady-state, long-term operation. The author will examine the nature of the mixed microbial community in the VOC-degrading biofilm and test for new degradative activities. He will use cosolvents with surfactant properties to enhance hydrocarbon solubility in the biofilm and evaluate their impact on mass transfer and reaction rate in an

  8. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accurately indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these findings are

  9. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accuratelymore » indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these

  10. Analysis of the flow field generated near an aircraft engine operating in reverse thrust. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledwith, W. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computer solution is developed to the exhaust gas reingestion problem for aircraft operating in the reverse thrust mode on a crosswind-free runway. The computer program determines the location of the inlet flow pattern, whether the exhaust efflux lies within the inlet flow pattern or not, and if so, the approximate time before the reversed flow reaches the engine inlet. The program is written so that the user is free to select discrete runway speeds or to study the entire aircraft deceleration process for both the far field and cross-ingestion problems. While developed with STOL applications in mind, the solution is equally applicable to conventional designs. The inlet and reversed jet flow fields involved in the problem are assumed to be noninteracting. The nacelle model used in determining the inlet flow field is generated using an iterative solution to the Neuman problem from potential flow theory while the reversed jet flow field is adapted using an empirical correlation from the literature. Sample results obtained using the program are included.

  11. Performance of an Axisymmetric Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine During Rocket Only Operation Using Linear Regression Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye; Keller, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is shown to be a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. An axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and multiple linear regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inlet diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis, using both the Spalart-Allmaras and k-omega turbulence models, was performed with the NPARC code to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both the full flow and gas generator configurations increasing mixer-ejector area ratio and rocket area ratio increase performance, while increasing mixer-ejector inlet area ratio and mixer-ejector length-to-diameter ratio decrease performance. Increasing injected secondary flow increased performance for the gas generator analysis, but was not statistically significant for the full flow analysis. Chamber pressure was found to be not statistically significant.

  12. Comparison and Validation of Operational Cost in Smart Houses with the Introduction of a Heat Pump or a Gas Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoji, Tsubasa; Tahara, Hayato; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-02-01

    Due to the concerns of global warming and the depletion of energy resources, renewable energies such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are gaining attention in distribution systems. Efficient electric equipment such as heat pumps (HP) not only contribute low levels of carbon to society, but are also beneficial for consumers. In addition, gas instruments such as the gas engine (GE) and fuel cells (FC) are expected to reduce electricity cost by exhaust heat. Thus, it is important to clarify which systems (HP or GE) are more beneficial for consumers throughout the year. This paper compares the operational cost for the smart house between using the HP and the GE. Current electricity and gas prices are used to calculate the cost of the smart house. The system considered in this research comprises a PV, battery, solar collector (SC), uncontrolled load and either an HP or a GE. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used for simulations.

  13. Example of International Co-Operation in the Frame of the Project Phare (TEMPUS) in Innovations in Teaching of Environmental Hydrogeology in Engineering Education in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grmela, Arnost; Rapantova, Nadia

    The international TEMPUS (Trans-European Co-operating and Mobility Scheme for Higher Education between Central/Eastern Europe and European Union) project lasted from 1995-1997. In the framework of TEMPUS, a material and knowledge background was developed in order to ensure the education of the branch Geological Engineering with specialization in…

  14. Working Charts for the Selection of Aluminum Alloy Propellers of a Standard Form to Operate with Various Aircraft Engines and Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weick, Fred E

    1931-01-01

    Working charts are given for the convenient selection of aluminum alloy propellers of a standard form, to operate in connection with six different engine-fuselage combinations. The charts have been prepared from full-scale test data obtained in the 20-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. An example is also given showing the use of the charts.

  15. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.

    1980-01-01

    Stirling engines exist in a bewildering array of mechanical arrangements. This book attempts to describe and classify the systems in a rational way, to explain the intricacies of the cycle, and to present a large amount of detailed information related to Stirling engines such as design, heat exchangers, working fluids, operation and performance, control equipment, recently developed engines, and current and proposed uses. (LCL)

  16. Method and system for monitoring and displaying engine performance parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S. (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a method and system for monitoring and directly displaying the actual thrust produced by a jet aircraft engine under determined operating conditions and the available thrust and predicted (commanded) thrust of a functional model of an ideal engine under the same determined operating conditions. A first set of actual value output signals representative of a plurality of actual performance parameters of the engine under the determined operating conditions is generated and compared with a second set of predicted value output signals representative of the predicted value of corresponding performance parameters of a functional model of the engine under the determined operating conditions to produce a third set of difference value output signals within a range of normal, caution, or warning limit values. A thrust indicator displays when any one of the actual value output signals is in the warning range while shaping function means shape each of the respective difference output signals as each approaches the limit of the respective normal, caution, and warning range limits.

  17. Temperature in a J47-25 Turbojet-engine Combustor and Turbine Sections During Steady-state and Transient Operation in a Sea-level Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, C R; Johnston, J R

    1955-01-01

    In order to determine the conditions of engine operation causing the most severe thermal stresses in the hot parts of a turbojet engine, a J47-25 engine was instrumented with thermocouples and operated to obtain engine material temperatures under steady-state and transient conditions. Temperatures measured during rated take-off conditions of nozzle guide vanes downstream of a single combustor differed on the order of 400 degrees F depending on the relation of the blades position to the highest temperature zone of the burner. Under the same operation conditions, measured midspan temperatures in a nozzle guide vane in the highest temperature zone of a combustor wake ranged from approximately 1670 degrees F at leading and trailing edges to 1340 degrees F at midchord on the convex side of the blade. The maximum measured nozzle-guide-vane temperature of 1920degrees at the trailing edge occurred during a rapid acceleration from idle to rated take-off speed following which the tail-pipe gas temperature exceeded maximum allowable temperature by 125 degrees F.

  18. Actualities and Perspectives in Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Iencean, SM; Brehar, FM

    2008-01-01

    In the field of neurosurgery, like in other surgical specialties, the last decades have brought major achievements. The series of revolutionary discoveries has started during the last century in the fifties, with stereotactic radiosurgery, then continued with the implementation of operative microscope (during the seventies), the endovascular embolisation in the nineties and finally with the major improvement in robotic neurosurgery and molecular neurosurgery at the beginning of this century. The major innovation has been brought not only in the field of therapeutical measures but also in the field of neuro– imaging. Thus, the modern MRI with more than 3 Tesla, can reveal to the neurosurgeon the most intimate structures of the nervous system. Several important areas in neurosurgery like: vascular neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery and brain tumors pathology, benefit from the modern technology and from the latest discoveries from genetic and molecular biology. In conclusion, summarizing the discoveries of the last decade, we emphasize that the related areas like genetics, molecular biology, computer technology become more and more important in the future progress of the neurosurgery. PMID:20108475

  19. Preliminary Performance Data on General Electric Integrated Electronic Control Operating on J47 RX1-3 Turbojet Engine in NACA Altitude Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blivas, Darnold; Taylor, Burt L., III

    1950-01-01

    Performance data obtained with recording oscillographs are presented to show the transient response of the General Electric Integrated Electronic Control operating on the J47 RXl-3 turbo-Jet engine over a range of altitudes from 10,000 to 45,000 feet and at ram pressure ratios of 1.03 and 1.4. These data represent the performance of the final control configuration developed after an investigation of the engine transient behavior in the NACA altitude wind tunnel. Oscillograph traces of controlled accelerations (throttle bursts),oontrolled decelerations (throttle chops), and controlled altitude starts are presented.

  20. Engineering, construction, and operations in space - III: Space '92; Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference, Denver, CO, May 31-June 4, 1992. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Willy Z. (Editor); Sture, Stein (Editor); Miller, Russell J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on engineering, construction, and operations in space discusses surface structures on the moon and Mars, surface equipment, construction, and transportation on the moon and Mars, in situ materials use and processing, and space energy. Attention is given to such orbital structures as LEO and the space station, space mining and excavation, space materials, space automation and robotics, and space life support systems. Topics addressed include lunar-based astronomy, space systems integration, terrestrial support for space functions, and space education. Also discussed are space plans, policy, and history, space science and engineering, geoengineering and space exploration, and the construction and development of a human habitat on Mars.

  1. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  2. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  3. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  4. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1952-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made by means of a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and the outer-race bearing operating temperatures are computed for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. A method is given that enables the designer to predict the inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures from single curves, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter, or any combination of these parameters.

  5. Process Description and Operating History for the CPP-601/-640/-627 Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    E. P. Wagner

    1999-06-01

    The Fuel Reprocessing Complex (FRC) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from the early 1950's until 1992. The reprocessing facilities are now scheduled to be deactivated. As part of the deactivation process, three Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units located in the complex must be closed. This document gathers the historical information necessary to provide a rational basis for the preparation of a comprehensive closure plan. Included are descriptions of process operations and the operating history of the FRC. A set of detailed tables record the service history and present status of the process vessels and transfer lines.

  6. 40 CFR 63.5335 - How do I determine the actual HAP loss?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Leather Finishing Operations... information and procedures you must use to determine the actual HAP loss from your leather finishing operation. By the fifteenth of each month, you must determine the actual HAP loss in pounds from your...

  7. Solar thermal rocket engine (STRE) thrust characteristics at the change of engine operation mode and of the flight vehicle attitude in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, O. I.

    1993-10-01

    Relationships are presented which describe changes in the thrust and specific impulse of a solar thermal rocket engine due to a change in the flow rate of the working fluid (hydrogen). Expressions are also presented which describe the variation of the STRE thrust and specific impulse with the distance between the flight vehicle and the sun. Results of calculations are presented for an STRE with afterburning of the working fluid (hydrogen + oxygen) using hydrogen heating by solar energy to a temperature of 2360 K.

  8. Analysis of an industrial cogeneration unit driven by a gas engine. Part 1: Experimental testing under full and part-load operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes and analyzes an industrial cogeneration plant driven by a gas fueled reciprocating engine installed in a textile factory. It presents the results of experimental testing conducted under full and part-load operating conditions, as well as first-law energy considerations. The experimental tests conducted on the cogeneration unit proved the validity of the plant design and also enabled evaluation of part-load performance, which is the most common operating mode in cogeneration plants in the small-size industries which typical of central Italy.

  9. Moral Reasoning in Hypothetical and Actual Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumprer, Gerard F.; Butter, Eliot J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of this investigation suggest that moral reasoning of college students, when assessed using the DIT format, is the same whether the dilemmas involve hypothetical or actual situations. Subjects, when presented with hypothetical situations, become deeply immersed in them and respond as if they were actual participants. (Author/BEF)

  10. Factors Related to Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    1978-01-01

    Provides data to further support the notions that females score higher in self-actualization measures and that self-actualization scores correlate inversely to the degree of undesirability individuals assign to their heights and weights. Finds that, contrary to predictions, greater androgyny was related to lower, not higher, self-actualization…

  11. Control Performance of General Electric Fuel and Torque Regulator Operating on T31-3 Turbine-Propeller Engine in Sea-Level Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheimer, Frank L.; Lazar, James

    1951-01-01

    A .General Electric fuel and torque regulator was tested in conjunction with a T31-3 turbine-propeller engine in the sea-level static test stand at the NACA Lewis laboratory. The engine and control were operated over the entire speed range: 11,000 rpm, nominal flight idle, to 13,000 rpm, full power. Steady-state and transient data were recorded and are presented with a description of the four control loops being used in the system. Results of this investigation indicated that single-lever control operation was satisfactory under conditions of test. Transient data presented showed that turbine-outlet temperature did overshoot maximum operating value on acceleration but that the time duration of overshoot did not exceed approximately 1 second. This temperature limiting resulted from a control on fuel flow as a function of engine speed. Speed and torque first reached their desired values 0.4 second from the time of change in power-setting lever position. Maximum speed overshoot was 3 percent.

  12. Fusion - From science to engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenton, J.

    1981-12-01

    The principles and state of advancement in fusion energy devices are explored, along with the transition from theoretical problems to engineering difficulties. Tokamaks are noted to be the closest to actual break-even, the point where the energy extracted from the reactor is equal to the energy necessary to initiate the process, although linear, mirror fusion machines also show promise. Attention is also given to poloidal diverter systems and the ELMO bumpy torus, which has demonstrated continuous operation for the first time. The prospects for a U.S. fusion engineering facility are uncertain in the light of current budget cuts, with most funding being concentrated on military applications. Laser inertial fusion devices are reviewed, as well as particle and ion accelerators for fuel pellet implosions. Finally, the most complex engineering problem is asserted to be the development of the reactor blanket system.

  13. Design and operation of a medium speed 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine: Phase 2 improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, G.L.; Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Gal, E.; Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Mengel, M.

    1994-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, General Electric has been pioneering the development of a coal fired diesel engine to power a locomotive. The feasibility of using a coal water slurry (CWS) mixture as a fuel in a medium speed diesel engine has been demonstrated with the first successful locomotive systems test in 1991 on the GE Transportation Systems test track in Erie, PA. Phase II of the development process incorporates the results of the programs research in durable engine parts, improved combustion efficiency, and emissions reduction. A GE 7FDL12 engine has been built using diamond insert injector nozzles, tungsten carbide coated piston rings and tungsten carbide coated liners to overcome power assembly wear. Electronic controlled fuel injection for both diesel pilot and main CWS injector were incorporated to control injection timing. An envelop filter and copper oxide sorbent system were used to cleanup engine emissions. The system is capable of removing over 99% of the particulates, 90% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of NO{sub x}.

  14. Design and operation of a medium speed 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine. Phase 2: Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confer, G. L.; Hsu, B. D.; McDowell, R. E.; Gal, E.; Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Mengel, M.

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, General Electric has been pioneering the development of a coal fired diesel engine to power a locomotive. The feasibility of using a coal water slurry (CWS) mixture as a fuel in a medium speed diesel engine has been demonstrated with the first successful locomotive systems test in 1991 on the GE Transportation Systems test track in Erie, PA. Phase 2 of the development process incorporates the results of the programs research in durable engine parts, improved combustion efficiency, and emissions reduction. A GE 7FDL12 engine has been built using diamond insert injector nozzles, tungsten carbide coated piston rings, and tungsten carbide coated liners to overcome power assembly wear. Electronic controlled fuel injection for both diesel pilot and main CWS injector were incorporated to control injection timing. An envelop filter and copper oxide sorbent system were used to cleanup engine emissions. The system is capable of removing over 99% of the particulates, 90% of the SO2, and 85% of NO(x).

  15. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  16. Engine Development Design Margins Briefing Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    New engines experience durability problems after entering service. The most prevalent and costly is the hot section, particularly the high-pressure turbine. The origin of durability problems can be traced back to: 1) the basic aero-mechanical design systems, assumptions, and design margins used by the engine designers, 2) the available materials systems, and 3) to a large extent, aggressive marketing in a highly competitive environment that pushes engine components beyond the demonstrated capability of the basic technology available for the hardware designs. Unfortunately the user must operate the engine in the service environment in order to learn the actual thrust loading and the time at max effort take-off conditions used in service are needed to determine the hot section life. Several hundred thousand hours of operational service will be required before the demonstrated reliability of a fleet of engines or the design deficiencies of the engine hot section parts can be determined. Also, it may take three to four engine shop visits for heavy maintenance on the gas path hardware to establish cost effective build standards. Spare parts drive the oerator's engine maintenance costs but spare parts also makes lots of money for the engine manufacturer during the service life of an engine. Unless competition prevails for follow-on engine buys, there is really no motivation for an OEM to spend internal money to improve parts durability and reduce earnings derived from a lucrative spare parts business. If the hot section life is below design goals or promised values, the OEM migh argue that the engine is being operated beyond its basic design intent. On the other hand, the airframer and the operator will continue to remind the OEM that his engine was selected based on a lot of promises to deliver spec thrust with little impact on engine service life if higher thrust is used intermittently. In the end, a standoff prevails and nothing gets fixed. This briefing will propose

  17. Analysis of Acceleration, Airspeed, and Gust-Velocity Data From a Four-Engine Transport Airplane Operating Over a Northwestern United States Alaska Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Jerome N.; Copp, Martin R.

    1959-01-01

    Acceleration, airspeed, and altitude data obtained with an NACA VGH recorder from a four-engine commercial transport airplane operating over a northwestern United States-Alaska route were evaluated to determine the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of gust and maneuver accelerations., operating airspeeds, and gust velocities. The results obtained were then compared with the results previously reported in NACA Technical Note 3475 for two similar airplanes operating over transcontinental routes in the United States. No large variations in the gust experience for the three operations were noted. The results indicate that the gust-load experience of the present operation closely approximated that of the central transcontinental route in the United States with which it is compared and showed differences of about 4 to 1 when compared with that of the southern transcontinental route in the United States. In general, accelerations due to gusts occurred much more frequently than those due to operational maneuvers. At a measured normal-acceleration increment of 0.5g, accelerations due to gusts occurred roughly 35 times more frequently than those due to operational maneuvers.

  18. Evaluation of improved materials for stationary diesel engines operating on residual and coal based fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results to date from an on-going research program on improved materials for stationary diesel engines using residual or coal-based fuels are presented with little discussion of conclusions about these results. Information is included on ring and liner wear, fuel oil qualities, ceramic materials, coatings, test procedures and equipment, and tribology test results. (LCL)

  19. Effectiveness of Prepared Instruction Units in Teaching the Principles of Internal Combustion Engine Operation and Maintenance. Technical Bulletin No. 192.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Clinton O.

    The report is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 instructional units developed around the use of the Briggs-Stratton Model 80302, 3HP, 8 cu. in. displacement engine having a fuel induction system similar in construction to farm tractor types. The evaluation procedure used was the "one-group Pre-test and Post-test" research method. The…

  20. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  1. Decision support for operations and maintenance (DSOM) system

    DOEpatents

    Jarrell, Donald B.; Meador, Richard J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Brown, Daryl R.; Keibel, Gary R.; Gowri, Krishnan; Reyes-Spindola, Jorge F.; Adams, Kevin J.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Eschbach, Elizabeth J.; Stratton, Rex C.

    2006-03-21

    A method for minimizing the life cycle cost of processes such as heating a building. The method utilizes sensors to monitor various pieces of equipment used in the process, for example, boilers, turbines, and the like. The method then performs the steps of identifying a set optimal operating conditions for the process, identifying and measuring parameters necessary to characterize the actual operating condition of the process, validating data generated by measuring those parameters, characterizing the actual condition of the process, identifying an optimal condition corresponding to the actual condition, comparing said optimal condition with the actual condition and identifying variances between the two, and drawing from a set of pre-defined algorithms created using best engineering practices, an explanation of at least one likely source and at least one recommended remedial action for selected variances, and providing said explanation as an output to at least one user.

  2. Comparison of High-Speed Operating Characteristics of Size 215 Cylindrical-Roller Bearings as Determined in Turbojet Engine and in Laboratory Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E Fred; Nemeth, Zolton N

    1951-01-01

    A comparison of the operating characteristics of 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical-roller one-piece inner-race-riding cage-type bearings was made using a laboratory test rig and a turbojet engine. Cooling correlation parameters were determined by means of dimensional analysis, and the generalized results for both the inner- and outer-race bearing operating temperatures are compared for the laboratory test rig and the turbojet engine. Inner- and outer-race cooling-correlation curves were obtained for the turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing with the same inner- and outer-race correlation parameters and exponents as those determined for the laboratory test-rig bearing. The inner- and outer-race turbine roller-bearing temperatures may be predicted from a single curve, regardless of variations in speed, load, oil flow, oil inlet temperature, oil inlet viscosity, oil-jet diameter or any combination of these parameters. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing inner-race temperatures were 30 to 60 F greater than the outer-race-maximum temperatures, the exact values depending on the operating condition and oil viscosity; these results are in contrast to the laboratory test-rig results where the inner-race temperatures were less than the outer-race-maximum temperatures. The turbojet-engine turbine-roller bearing, maximum outer-race circumferential temperature variation was approximately 30 F for each of the oils used. The effect of oil viscosity on inner- and outer-race turbojet-engine turbine-roller-bearing temperatures was found to be significant. With the lower viscosity oil (6x10(exp -7) reyns (4.9 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 83), the inner-race temperature was approximately 30 to 35 F less than with the higher viscosity oil (53x10(exp -7) reyns (42.8 centistokes) at 100 F; viscosity index, 150); whereas the outer-race-maximum temperatures were 12 to 28 F lower with the lower viscosity oil over the DN range investigated.

  3. Effect of Fuel Composition, Engine Operating Variables, and Spark-Plug Type and Condition on Preignition-Limited Performance of an R-2800 Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfender, John F.

    1946-01-01

    The preignition characteristics of the R-2800 cylinder, as effected by fuel consumption, engine operating variables, and spark plug type and condition, were evaluated. The effects on preignition-limited performance of various percentages of aromatics (benzene, toluene, cumene, xylene) in a base fuel of triptane were investigated. Two paraffins (triptane and S + 6.0 ml TEL/gal) and two refinery blends (28-R and 33-R) were preignition rated. The effect of changes in the following engine operating variables on preignition limit was determined: inlet-air temperature, rear spark plug gasket temperature, engine speed, spark advance, tappet clearance, and oil consumption. Preignition limits of the R-2800 cylinder using Champion C34S and C35S and AC-LS86, LS87, and LS88 spark plugs were established and the effect of spark plug deterioration was investigated. No definite trends in preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure were indicated for aromatics as a class when increased percentages of different aromatics were added to a base fuel of triptane. Three types of fuel (aromatics, paraffins, and refinery blends) showed a preignition range for this cylinder from 65 to 104 percent when based on the performance of S plus 6.0 ml TEL per gallon as 100 percent. The R-2800 cylinder is therefore relatively insensitive to fuel composition when compared to a CFR F-4 engine, which had a pre-ignition range from 72 to 100 percent for the same fuels. Six engine operating variables were investigated with the following results: preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure decreased, with increases in engine speed, rear spark plug gasket temperature, inlet-air temperature, and spark advance beyond 20 F B.T.C. and was unaffected by rate of oil consumption or by tappet clearance. Spark plugs were rated over a range of preignition-limited indicated mean effective pressure from 200 to 390 pounds per square inch at a fuel-air ratio of 0.07 in the following order of increased

  4. Data engineering systems: Computerized modeling and data bank capabilities for engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, H.; Trettau, R.; Zolotar, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Data Engineering System (DES) is a computer-based system that organizes technical data and provides automated mechanisms for storage, retrieval, and engineering analysis. The DES combines the benefits of a structured data base system with automated links to large-scale analysis codes. While the DES provides the user with many of the capabilities of a computer-aided design (CAD) system, the systems are actually quite different in several respects. A typical CAD system emphasizes interactive graphics capabilities and organizes data in a manner that optimizes these graphics. On the other hand, the DES is a computer-aided engineering system intended for the engineer who must operationally understand an existing or planned design or who desires to carry out additional technical analysis based on a particular design. The DES emphasizes data retrieval in a form that not only provides the engineer access to search and display the data but also links the data automatically with the computer analysis codes.

  5. Chemical ionization mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 emissions from jet engines in flight and test chamber operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunton, D. E.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Borghetti, J. F.; Federico, G. S.; Miller, T. M.; Thorn, W. F.; Viggiano, A. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Cofer, W. R.; McDougal, D. S.; Wey, C. C.

    2000-11-01

    We report the results of two measurements of the concentrations and emission indices of gas-phase sulfur dioxide (EI(SO2)) in the exhaust of an F100-200E turbofan engine. The broad goals of both experiments were to obtain exhaust sulfur speciation and aerosol properties as a function of fuel sulfur content. In the first campaign, an instrumented NASA T-39 Sabreliner aircraft flew in close formation behind several F-16 fighter aircraft to obtain near-field plume composition and aerosol properties. In the second, an F-100 engine of the same type was installed in an altitude test chamber at NASA Glenn Research Center where gas composition and nonvolatile aerosol concentrations and size distributions were obtained at the exit plane of the engine. In both experiments, SO2 concentrations were measured with the Air Force Research Laboratory chemical ionization mass spectrometer as a function of altitude, engine power, and fuel sulfur content. A significant aspect of the program was the use of the same fuels, the same engine type, and many of the same diagnostics in both campaigns. Several different fuels were purchased specifically for these experiments, including high-sulfur Jet A (˜1150 ppmm S), low-sulfur Jet A (˜10 ppmm S), medium-sulfur mixtures of these two fuels, and military JP-8+100 (˜170 and ˜300 ppmm S). The agreement between the flight and test cell measurements of SO2 concentrations was excellent, showing an overall precision of better than ±10% and an estimated absolute accuracy of ±20%. The EI(SO2) varied from 2.49 g SO2/kg fuel for the high-sulfur fuel in the test chamber to less than 0.01 g/kg for the lowest-sulfur fuel. No dependence of emission index on engine power, altitude or simulated altitude, separation distance or plume age, or the presence of contrails was observed. In all experiments the measured EI(SO2) was consistent with essentially all of the fuel sulfur appearing as gas-phase SO2 in the exhaust. However, accurate determination of S

  6. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  7. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  8. Combustion and heat transfer in a high speed diesel engine operating with rape seed oil methyl ester fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, R.

    The properties of RME (rape seed oil methyl ester) as a fuel for a diesel engine have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were made with a turbocharged high-speed DI engine. During experiments the specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions, heat release rate, flame temperature and the temperatures of the combustion chamber walls were measured. A test was also made using the measured flame temperature as an initial value for a two-zone combustion model. The theoretical investigations show that it is possible to achieve with RME approximately the same power as with ordinary diesel fuel from the same cylinder volume. The fuels give very similar theoretical (ideal) working cycles and also the efficiencies of the cycles are very near to each other.

  9. Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

  10. Performance assessment and optimization of an irreversible nano-scale Stirling engine cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad-Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah

    2015-09-01

    Developing new technologies like nano-technology improves the performance of the energy industries. Consequently, emerging new groups of thermal cycles in nano-scale can revolutionize the energy systems' future. This paper presents a thermo-dynamical study of a nano-scale irreversible Stirling engine cycle with the aim of optimizing the performance of the Stirling engine cycle. In the Stirling engine cycle the working fluid is an Ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Moreover, two different strategies are proposed for a multi-objective optimization issue, and the outcomes of each strategy are evaluated separately. The first strategy is proposed to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F . Furthermore, the second strategy is suggested to maximize the thermal efficiency ( η), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F). All the strategies in the present work are executed via a multi-objective evolutionary algorithms based on NSGA∥ method. Finally, to achieve the final answer in each strategy, three well-known decision makers are executed. Lastly, deviations of the outcomes gained in each strategy and each decision maker are evaluated separately.

  11. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  12. Electrochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

  13. Preliminary Tests of Blowers of Three Designs Operating in Conjunction with a Wing-Duct Cooling System for Radial Engines, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Valentine, E. Floyd

    1939-01-01

    This paper is one of several dealing with methods intended to reduce the drag of present-day radial engine installations and improve the cooling at zero and low air speeds, The present paper describes model wind-tunnel tests of blowers of three designs tested in conjunction with a wing-nacelle combination. The principle of operation involved consists of drawing cooling air into ducts located in the wing root at the point of maximum slipstream velocity, passing the air through the engine baffles from rear to front, and exhausting the air through an annular slot located between the propeller and the engine with the aid of a blower mounted on the spinner. The test apparatus consisted essentially of a stub wing having a 5-foot chord and a 15-foot span, an engine nacelle of 20 inches diameter enclosing a 25-horsepower electric motor, and three blowers mounted on propeller spinners. Two of the blowers utilize centrifugal force while the other uses the lift from airfoils to force the air out radially through the exit slot. Maximum efficiencies of over 70 percent were obtained for the system as a whole. Pressures were measured over the entire flight range which were in excess of those necessary to cool present-day engines, The results indicated that blowers mounted on propeller spinners could be built sufficiently powerful and efficient to warrant their use as the only, or chief, means of forcing air through the cooling system, so that cooling would be independent of the speed of the airplane.

  14. An economic and engineering analysis of the full-scale trommel screen operations at Baltimore County, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennon, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    A trommel screen installed at the Baltimore County municipal solid waste processing facility operated by Teledyne National is evaluated. The objectives of the program are to ascertain the physical performance of the trommel and the economics of operation. The purpose of the trommel and the economics of operation. The purpose of the trommel is to improve air classified refuse derived fuel by removing fine material that is primarily composed of noncombustible small pieces of glass, metal, stones, dirt, and sand. A series of tests have been performed as a function of trommel feed rate and rotational speed in each of the four seasons to determine screening efficiency, energy requirements, costs, cost benefit ratio, and comparison to theory and models. Recommendations will be made for design and operational parameters.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their genotoxicity in exhaust emissions from a diesel engine during extended low-load operation on diesel and biodiesel fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Pechout, Martin; Dittrich, Luboš; Beránek, Vít; Kotek, Martin; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Milcová, Alena; Rossnerová, Andrea; Ambrož, Antonín; Topinka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the effects of emissions including carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAH) of a conventional diesel engine without a particle filter. Experiments were carried on during extended idle and during a loaded operation immediately following the extended idle. Extended low-load operation of diesel engines due to idling and creep at border crossings, loading areas and in severe congestion has been known to deteriorate the combustion and catalytic device performance and to increase the emissions of particulate matter (PM). A conventional diesel engine was coupled to a dynamometer and operated on diesel fuel and neat biodiesel alternately at idle speed and 2% of rated power and at 30% and 100% load at intermediate speed. Exhaust was sampled on fiber filters, from which the content of elemental and organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including cPAH and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been determined. The emissions of cPAH and B[a]P have increased 4-6 times on diesel fuel and by 4-21% on biodiesel during extended idling relative to a short idle and 8-12 times on diesel fuel and 2-20 times on biodiesel during subsequent operation at full load relative to stabilized operation at full load. The total "excess" cPAH emissions after the transition to full load were on the same order of magnitude as the total "excess" cPAH during extended idling. The absolute levels of PAH, cPAH and B[a]P emissions under all operating conditions were lower on biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. Genotoxicity of organic extracts of particles was analysed by acellular assay with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and was consistently higher for diesel than for biodiesel. The exhaust generated during extended idle and subsequent full load exhibited the highest genotoxicity for both fuels. These two regimes are characterized by significant formation of cPAH as well as other DNA reactive compounds substantially contributing to the total genotoxicity. Oxidative

  16. Prediction of the effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes with flaps retracted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Joseph; Sleeman, William C , Jr

    1949-01-01

    The effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes are analyzed, and a simple method is presented for computing power-on pitching-moment curves for flap-retracted flight conditions. The methods evolved are based on the results of powered-model wind-tunnel investigations of 28 model configurations. Correlation curves are presented from which the effects of power on the downwash over the tail and the stabilizer effectiveness can be rapidly predicted. The procedures developed enable prediction of power-on longitudinal stability characteristics that are generally in very good agreement with experiment.

  17. Turbojet-engine Starting and Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Cafferty, R. J.; Straight, D. M.

    1956-01-01

    From considerations of safety and reliability in performance of gas-turbine aircraft, it is clear that engine starting and acceleration are of utmost importance. For this reason extensive efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the factors involved in the starting and acceleration of engines. In chapter III it is shown that certain basic combustion requirements must be met before ignition can occur; consequently, the design and operation of an engine must be tailored to provide these basic requirements in the combustion zone of the engine, particularly in the vicinity of the ignition source. It is pointed out in chapter III that ignition by electrical discharges is aided by high pressure, high temperature, low gas velocity and turbulence, gaseous fuel-air mixture, proper mixture strength, and-an optimum spark. duration. The simultaneous achievement of all these requirements in an actual turbojet-engine combustor is obviously impossible, yet any attempt to satisfy as many requirements as possible will result in lower ignition energies, lower-weight ignition systems, and greater reliability. These factors together with size and cost considerations determine the acceptability of the final ignition system. It is further shown in chapter III that the problem of wall quenching affects engine starting. For example, the dimensions of the volume to be burned must be larger than the quenching distance at the lowest pressure and the most adverse fuel-air ratio encountered. This fact affects the design of cross-fire tubes between adjacent combustion chambers in a tubular-combustor turbojet engine. Only two chambers in these engines contain spark plugs; therefore, the flame must propagate through small connecting tubes between the chambers. The quenching studies indicate that if the cross-fire tubes are too narrow the flame will not propagate from one chamber to another. In order to better understand the role of the basic factors in actual engine operation, many

  18. Ion accelerator system mounting design and operating characteristics for a 5 kW 30-cm xenon ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Brophy, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a series of experiments to determine the effect of accelerator grid mount geometry on the performance of the J-series ion optics assembly are described. Three mounting schemes, two flexible and one rigid, are compared for their relative ion extraction capability over a range of total accelerating voltages. The largest ion beam current, for the maximum total voltage investigated, is shown to occur using one of the flexible grid mounting geometries. However, at lower total voltages and reduced engine input power levels, the original rigid J-series ion optics accelerator grid mounts result in marginally better grid system performance at the same cold interelectrode gap.

  19. Dynamics of a turbojet engine considered as a quasi-static system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, Edward W; Taylor, Burt L, III

    1951-01-01

    A determination of the dynamic characteristics of a typical turbojet engine with a centrifugal compressor, a sonic-flow turbine-nozzle diaphragm, and fixed area exhaust nozzle is presented. A generalized equation for transient behavior of the engine was developed; this equation was then verified by calculations using compressor and turbine performance charts extrapolated from equilibrium operating data and by experimental data obtained from an engine operated under transients in fuel flow. The results indicate that a linear differential equation for engine acceleration as a function of fuel flow and engine speed for operation near a steady-state operating condition can be written. The coefficients of this equation can be obtained either from actual transient data or, with a fair degree of accuracy, from the steady-state performance maps of the compressor and turbine, and can be corrected for altitude in the same manner that steady-state performance data are corrected.

  20. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.